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ISSN: 1311-8080 (printed version); ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version)

url: http://www.ijpam.eu

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12732/ijpam.v85i4.9

AP

ijpam.eu

S.K.Q. Al-Omari

Department of Applied Sciences

Faculty of Engineering Technology

Al-Balqa Applied University

Amman, 11134, JORDAN

found their application in solving certain boundary value problems. Indeed, as

reference [1] shows, the natural transform is closely connected with Laplace and

Sumudu transforms. In this paper we employ this transform to solving initial

value problems of constant coefficients. Further, we discuss this transform on

spaces of generalized functions. The distributional face of the natural transform

is obtained as an analytic distribution. Whereas, the natural transform of a

Boehmian is introduced by its limit in the distributional sense. More results

are also established.

Key Words: natural transforms, differential equations, Sumudu transforms,

Laplace transforms

1. Introduction

In Reference [1], a new integral transform, namely the natural transform, de-

fined for functions of exponential order, is proclaimed.

Over the set A of functions, defined by

(

f (t) |M, 1 , and /or 2 > 0, such that

A= |t| (1)

|f (t)| < Me j , if t (1)j [0, ) , j = 1, 2

the natural transform is defined by

c 2013 Academic Publications, Ltd.

Received: February 8, 2013 url: www.acadpubl.eu

730 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

Z

N+

f (u, ) = f (ut) exp (t) dt, Re > 0, u (1 , 2 ) . (2)

0

where the variables u and are the natural transform variables which indeed

strictly converge to the Sumudu transform [3, 18]

R

f (ut) exp (t) dt, 0 u < 2 ,

M+

f (u) = 0

R (3)

f (ut) exp (t) dt, 1 < u 0,

0

Z

L+

f () = f (t) exp (t) dt, Re > 0. (4)

0

when u 1.

In notation, this is expressed to mean

N+ + + +

f (u, 1) = Mf (u) and Nf (1, ) = Lf () .

The natural-Laplace duality and the natural-Sumudu duality are given in [4, (5)

(8)] as

Z

1 t 1 +

N+

f (u, ) = u f (t) exp dt i.e. N+

f (u, ) = Lf (5)

u u u

0

and

Z

1 ut 1 + u

N+

f (u, ) = f +

exp (t) dt i.e. Nf (u, ) = Mf , (6)

0

respectively.

With above results it is so natural to announce linearity of the natural

transform by that given to Sumudu and Laplace transforms.

The application of N transform to fluid flow prblems is found in [1] and,

the solution of maxwell equations by the natural transform with its relation

with Bessel functions are given in [2] . In some notations, if it happens, we

sometimes be more convinient to express N+ f (u, ) as N+ +

f (u, ) or Nf in next

investigations.

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 731

(1) Change of scals of non-zero integer :

1 +

N+

f (at) (u, ) = N u, , a non-zero integer. (7)

a f a

(2) The natural transform of constant a :

1

N+

a (u, ) = . (8)

(3) The natural transform of delta functions :

1

N+

(u, ) = . (9)

u

1, t > 0

(4) The natural transform of step function u (t) = :

0, t 0

( 1

1 : L+ +

f () = Nu (1, ) , (u = 1) .

N+

u (u, ) := = (10)

1 : M+ +

u (u) = Nu (u, 1) , ( = 1)

1

1 : L+ +

f () = Nu (1, ) , (u = 1) ,

+ at

N e (u, ) = = a . (11)

au 1

: M+ (u) = N +

(u, 1) , ( = 1)

1 au u u

(6) The scalling property of the natural transform can be written in two ways:

1 + 1 +

N+

f (kt) (u, )

+

= Nf (t) (ku, ) and Nf (kt) (u, ) = Nf (t) u, .

k k k

The inverse Natural transform is related with Bromwich contour integral as [2]

r+iy

Z

1 1 t

N + (t) := f (t) := lim N+

f (u, ) exp d. (12)

y 2i u

riy

grable function f in two ways :

R R +

(i) f () N+g (, u) d = Nf (t, u) g (t) dt

0 0

732 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

R R

(ii) f (u) N+

g (, u) du = N+

f (, t) g (t) dt

0 0

Since the natural transforms N+ +

f (t, u) and Ng (, u) are indeed bounded and

continuous for all u and , the integrals in (i) are uniformly bounded. Therefore

Fubinitz theorem implies

Z Z Z

1 t

f () N+

g (, u) ds = f () g (t) exp ddt

u u

0 0 0

Z Z

= f () 1 exp t dg (t) dt

u u

0 0

Z

= N+

f (t, u) g (t) dt.

0

By the application of [1, Theorem 2.5, Theorem 2.6] the natural transform of

first and second derivatives is given as

+ f (0)

N+

f (u, ) = N +

f (u, ) = N f (u, ) . (13)

u u

and

2 +

f (0)

N+

f

+

(u, ) = N f (u, ) = 2 Nf (u, ) 2 f (0) (14)

u u u

from which, (13) and (14) are extended to nth derivatives to mean [2]

n +

n1

X n(k+1)

N+ (u, ) = N +

f (n)

(u, ) = N (u, ) f (k) (0) . (15)

f (n) un f unk

k=0

Let us make idea more precise. For, we present solutions of some initial value

problems by the natural transform. A prior step of solving differential equations

by the new transform is by considering the following table [1, Appendix] which

is needful in the next investigation:

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 733

S.No. f (t) N+

f (u, ) S.No. f (t) N+

f (u, )

bt

1 e sinh at u

1 1

14 a (bu)2 a2 u2

u t sin at u2

2 t 2

15 2a (2 +u2 a2 )2

1 u( 2 a2 u2 )

3 eat 16 t cos at

au (2 +a2 u2 )2

1 u sin at+at cos at 2 u

4 sin at 2 +a2 u2

17

a 2a (2 +a2 u2 )2

3

5 cos at

18 cos at 21 at sin at

2 +a2 u2 (2 +a2 u2 )2

sin atat cos at u3

6 cosh t 2 u2

19 2a2 (2 +a2 u2 )2

tn1 u3

7 ,n = 1, 2 u(n1) (n1) 20 at cos atsinh t

2a3

(n1)! (2 a2 u2 )2

tn1 u2

8 ,n >0 u(n1) (n1) 21 t sinh at

(n) 2a (2 a2 u2 )2

sinh at+at cosh at 2 u

9 cos t 2 +u2

22 2a (2 a2 u2 )2

3

10 sin t u

23 cosh at + 12 at sinh at

2 +u2 (2 a2 u2 )2

au u( 2 +a2 u2 )

11 sinh at 2 a2 u2

24 t cosh at

(2 +a2 u2 )2

(3a2 t2 ) sin at3at cos at u5

12 cosh at 2 a2 u2

25 8a5 (2 +a2 u2 )3

(3a2 t2 ) sin at+5at cos at 4 u

13 ebt cosh at bu

(bu)2 a2 u2

26 8a (2 +a2 u2 )3

y y 2y = 0 (16)

with the initial conditions y (0) = 1, y (0) = 0.

Solution. When applying the natural transform to both sides of (16) then

using linearity of N+

f yields

N+

y

(u, ) N+

y

(u, ) 2N+

y (u, ) = 0. (17)

Applying (13) and (14) to (17) and invoking the initial conditions, after sim-

plification, we get

u

N+y (u, ) = 2 . (18)

u 2u2

Factoring the denominator of (18) gives

u

N+

y (u, ) = . (19)

( + u) ( 2u)

Epression (19) can be written as

(6 12u) + (3 + 3u)

N+

y (u, ) = . (20)

(3 ( + u)) (3 ( 2u))

734 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

2 1

N+

y (u, ) = + . (21)

3 ( + u) 3 ( 2u)

Allowing the inverse natural transform to act on (21) leads to

2 1 1 1 1 1

y (t) = N + N . (22)

3 +u 3 2u

So, by Entry 3 of Table 1, (22) is equal to

2 1

y (t) = et + e2t

3 3

which is our desired solution of the ordinary differential equation.

Following example establishes a solution of initial value problem of fourth

order.

Example 2. Consider the initial value problem

y (4) y = 0. (23)

with the initial conditions y (0) = 0, y (0) = 1, y (0) = 0 and y (0) = 0.

Solution. The natural transform when applied to (23) with the presumed

initial conditions and using of (15), after computations, yield

4 + + 2

N N = .

u4 f f u3

Thus, we write

u 2

N+

y (u, ) = . (24)

4 u4

Once again, as above, factoring denominator of (24) gives

u 2 u 2 u3 + u 2 + u3

N+

y (u, ) = = . (25)

( 2 u2 ) ( 2 u2 ) 2 ( 2 u2 ) ( 2 u2 )

Simplifications yield

1 u 1 u

N+

y (u, ) = 2 2

+ . (26)

2 +u 2 u2

2

Therefore, employing the inverse transform for (26) then checking of Entry 4

and Entry 11 of Table 1 implies

1 1

y (t) = sin t + sinh t.

2 2

which is indeed our desired solution.

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 735

generalize functions. Distributions make it possible to differentiate functions

whose derivatives do not exist in the classical sense. In particular, any locally

integrable function has a distributional derivative. Distributions are widely

used to formulate generlaized solutions of partical differential equations, where

the classical solution may not exists. Further, distributions are also important

in physics and engineering where many problems naturally lead to differntial

equation whose solution or initial conditions are distributions, see [16, 10, 6] .

Later, in 1983, Boehmians are objects obtained by an abstract algebraic

construction to generalized distributions [17]. The original construction was

motivated by regular operators [5] . Boehmians are subclass of Mikusinski op-

erators, that are defined as equivalence classes of convolution quotients of func-

tions. Since Boehmians were introduced, the framework of Boehmian has be

used to define a variety of spaces of generalized functions and generalized inte-

gral transforms on those spaces.

One of the most youngest generalization of functions, and more particularly

of distributions, is the theory of Boehmians. The name Boehmian space is

given to all objects defined by an abstract construction similar to that of field

of quotients. The construction applied to function spaces yields various spaces

of generalized functions.

For linear space Y and a subspace X of Y, assume, to all pair (f, ) , (g, ) of

elements, f, g Y, , X, is assigned the products f , g such that the

following conditions are satisfied:

(1) X and = .

(2) (f ) = f ( ) .

(3) (f + g) = f + g

(4) k (f ) = (kf ) = f (k) , k R.

Let be a family of sequences from X such that for f, g Y then:

(5)If (n ) and f n = g n ,n = 1, 2, ..., then f = g.

(6) (n ) , (n ) (n n ) .

Elements of are called delta sequences.

Consider the class A of pairs of sequences defined by

A = ((fn ) , (n )) : (fn ) YN , (n ) ,

736 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

for each n N.

fn

The pair ((fn ) , (n )) A is said to be quotient of sequences, denoted by ,

n

if

fn m = fm n , n, m N.

fn gn fn gn

Two quotients of sequences and are said to be equivalent, , if

n n n n

fn m = gm n , n, m N.

A into

equivalence

fn fn

classes. The equivalence class containing is denoted by . These equiv-

n n

alence classes are called Boehmians and the space of all Boehmians is denoted

by B (Y, X,, ) .

The sum and multiplication by a scalar of two Boehmians can be defined

in a natural way

fn gn fn n + gn n

+ =

n n n n

and

fn afn

a = , a being complex number.

n n

fn gn fn gn

The operation and differentiation are defined by = and

n n n n

fn D fn

D = . Many a time, Y is equipped with a notion of convergence.

n n

The intrinsic relationship between the notion of convergence and the product

are given by:

(1) If fn f as n in Y and, X is any fixed element, then

fn f in Y as n .

n .

The operation

is extended to B (Y, X,, ) X by :

fn fn fn

If B (Y, X,, ) and X, then = .

n n n

In B (Y, X,, ) , two types of convergence, and convergence, are defined

as follows:

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 737

to a Boehmian in B (Y, X,, ) , denoted by n , if there exists a delta

sequence (n ) such that (n n ) , ( n ) Y, k, n N,and

(n k ) ( k ) as n , in Y, for every k N.

The following is equivalent for the statement of convergence

The sequence n (n ) in B (Y,

X,, )

if and only if there is

fn,k fk

fn,k , fk Y and k such that n = , = and for each k N,

k k

fn,k fk as n in Y.

A sequence of Boehmians (n ) in B (Y, X,, ) is said to be convergent

to a Boehmian in B (Y, X,, ) , denoted by n , if there exists a (n )

such that (n ) n Y, n N, and (n ) n 0 as n in Y.

see [5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17] for more analysis.

Denote by E (R) the space of smooth functions on R [12] and E (R) its dual

(congugate) space of distributions of compact support then, we can easily check

that the natural transform kernel function

1 t

exp E (R) ,

u u

by which we define the distributional natural transform through the inner prod-

uct

b + 1 t

Nf (u, ) = f (t) , exp , (27)

u u

f E (R) .

Analogous to the classical results that assigned to the classical transform

we easily establish the distributional ones.

N+

Theorem 3. bf is linear.

N+

Theorem 4. bf is one to one.

f is analytic and

+ 1 t

b

Du Nf (u, ) = f (t) , Du exp

u u

738 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

and

1 t

N+

D bf (u, ) = f (t) , D exp .

u u

Proofs of Theorem 3,4 and 5 are avoided because of their similarities with that

in the literature of usual transforms.

The natural transform of the convolution product

Z

(f g) (t) = f (x) g (t x) dx

0

Z

1 t

N+

f g (u, ) = (f g) (t) exp dt

u u

0

Z Z

1 t

= f (x) g (t x) dx exp dt

u u

0 0

Z Z

1 t

= f (x) g (t x) exp dtdx. (28)

u u

0 0

Z Z

1 (x + y)

N+

f g (u, ) = f (x) g (y) exp dydx. (29)

u u

0 0

N+ + +

f g (u, ) = uNf (u, ) Ng (u, ) . (30)

tion [16]

(f g) (t) = hf (t) , hg (x) , (x + t)ii , (31)

where E (R) to give

N+

b b+ b+

f g (u, ) = uNf (u, ) Ng (u, ) , (32)

where f, g E (R) .

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 739

N+

b b+ b+

f g = uNf Ng . (33)

the Schwartz space of test functions, as a subgroup of E (R)( D (R) infact dense

in E (R)) and, as an operation for E (R) and D (R) and, as the set of delta

sequence defined by [4, (3.3) , (3.5) . (3.6)] . Also we denote by D (R) the strong

dual of D (R) of Schwartz distributions.

fn

Theorem 6. Let B (E, D, , ) then the sequence N+ fn converges in

n

fn gn

D (R) . Moreover, if = in the sense of B (E, D, , ) then N+

fn and

n n

N+

gn converge to the same limit.

N+ +

n (u, ) N (u, ) as n .

1

N+

n (u, ) as n . (34)

u

Let D (R) be given such that N+

k > 0 on the support of , k N(The set of

fn

natural numbers ). The hypothesis that is quotient of sequences implies

n

fn m = fm n

N+ + + +

fn Nm = Nfm Nn , n, m N. (35)

Therefore we see that

!

N+

k

N+ +

fn () = Nfn

N+

k

!

N+

k

= N+

fn

N+

k

!

= N+ N +

.

fn k

N+

k

740 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

By (35) we obtain

! !

N+

n

N+ () = N+ N +

= N+ .

fn fk n

N+

k

fk

N+

k

!

N+

n

The fact that + + in D (R) , the sequence N+ fn converges in D (R) .

N uN

k k

fn gn

Next, let = in B (E, D, , ) and define

n n

(

fn+1 n+1

hn = 2 2 , n is odd

g n2 n2 , n is even

and (

n+1 n+1 , n is odd

In = 2 2

n2 n2 , n is even

hn fn gn

then you get = = .

In n n

Therefore, N+

hn converges in D (R) by the first part.

Moreover,

lim N+ +

h2n1 () = lim Nfn () .

n n

Therefore N+

hn n=1

and N+

fn converge to the same limit.

Similarly, N+

hn n=1 and N+

gn converge to the same limit.

The proof is therefore completed.

This theorem can be expressed to mean that N+ maps B (E, D, , ) into

D (R) .

By

aid of Theorem 6 we define the natural transform of the Boehmian

fn

= B (E, D, , ) by

n

N+

e +

= lim Nfn . (36)

n

N+

Theorem 7. The natural transform efn is linear.

Proof is straightforward.

N+

Theorem 8. The natural transform e is infinitely smooth.

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 741

fn

Proof. Let = B (E, D, , ) and K be an open bounded set on R

n

then there is m N such that

N+

m > 0 on K.

Hence, by (34) ,

N+

e = lim N+

n fn

N+f N

+

= lim n+ m

n N

m

1 N+

f

= lim n+ m

u n Nm

1 N+

f

= lim n+ n

u n Nm

N+f N

+

= lim m+ n

n N

m

+

N fm

= lim N+

N+m

n n

N+fm

= on K

u N+

m

but since N+ + + e+

fm , Nm E (R) and Nm > 0 on K it follows that N is infinitely

smooth function.

This completes the proof.

fn

Theorem 9. If = B (E, D, , ) then

n

N+

fm

N+

e +

Nm = for m N.

u

Proof. Let D (R) then invoking (34) suggests

N+

e N

m

+

() = e

N +

N +

m

= lim N+ fn N +

m

n

742 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

= lim N+ +

fn m ()

N

n

1

= lim N+ f ()

u n m

1

= lim N+ fm n ()

u n

= lim N+ +

fm n ()

N

n

= N+ lim

fm n n N +

= N+fm u

!

N+fm

= () .

u

N+

m

N+

Hence e N

m

+

= .

u

This complete the proof of

the theorem.

fn gn

Theorem 10. Let 1 = , 2 = B (E, D, , ) then

n n

N+

e e+ e+

1 2 = uN1 N2 .

Proof. of this theorem follows from (9) and (36) and, routine technique

similar to that of Theorem 9. Details thus avoided.

The theorem is completely proved.

References

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form to Maxwells Equations, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Sym-

posium Proceedings, Suzhou, China, Sept. 12, 16( 2011)

[3] Adem Kilicman, Hassan Eltayeb, and Ravi P. Agarwal, On Sumudu Trans-

form and System of Differential Equations, Abstr. Appl. Anal. Vol. 2010,

Article ID 598702.

form, AIP Conf. Proc. 1493, 106 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4765477.

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 743

Soc., 176,(1973), 319-334.

Fourier Sine(Cosine)Transform, Integ. Trans. Spl. Funct.

tain Journal of Mathematics, 17, 3(1987), 577582.

Math. Soc. 123, 3 (1995), 813-817.

[9] Al-Omari, S.K.Q., Loonker D., Banerji P.K. and Kalla, S.L. . Fourier

Sine(Cosine) Transform for Ultradistributions and their Extensions to

Tempered and UltraBoehmian spaces, Integ. Trans. Spl. Funct. 19,

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York(1987).

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[12] S.K.Q.Al-Omari and Kilicman, A.. Note on Boehmians for Class of Optical

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Fourier-Hilbert Transforms, Advances in Difference Equations, Vol. 2012,

2012:232 doi:10.1186/1687-1847-2012-232.

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Boehmians, Abstract and Applied Analysis, Vol. 2011, Article ID 712746.

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