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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics

Volume 85 No. 4 2013, 729-744


ISSN: 1311-8080 (printed version); ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version)
url: http://www.ijpam.eu
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12732/ijpam.v85i4.9
AP
ijpam.eu

ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS


S.K.Q. Al-Omari
Department of Applied Sciences
Faculty of Engineering Technology
Al-Balqa Applied University
Amman, 11134, JORDAN

Abstract: In many papers, integral transforms have been introduced and


found their application in solving certain boundary value problems. Indeed, as
reference [1] shows, the natural transform is closely connected with Laplace and
Sumudu transforms. In this paper we employ this transform to solving initial
value problems of constant coefficients. Further, we discuss this transform on
spaces of generalized functions. The distributional face of the natural transform
is obtained as an analytic distribution. Whereas, the natural transform of a
Boehmian is introduced by its limit in the distributional sense. More results
are also established.

AMS Subject Classification: 54C40, 14E20, 46E25, 20C20


Key Words: natural transforms, differential equations, Sumudu transforms,
Laplace transforms

1. Introduction

In Reference [1], a new integral transform, namely the natural transform, de-
fined for functions of exponential order, is proclaimed.
Over the set A of functions, defined by
(
f (t) |M, 1 , and /or 2 > 0, such that
A= |t| (1)
|f (t)| < Me j , if t (1)j [0, ) , j = 1, 2
the natural transform is defined by
c 2013 Academic Publications, Ltd.

Received: February 8, 2013 url: www.acadpubl.eu
730 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

Z
N+
f (u, ) = f (ut) exp (t) dt, Re > 0, u (1 , 2 ) . (2)
0

where the variables u and are the natural transform variables which indeed
strictly converge to the Sumudu transform [3, 18]

R

f (ut) exp (t) dt, 0 u < 2 ,
M+
f (u) = 0
R (3)


f (ut) exp (t) dt, 1 < u 0,
0

when 1 and, to the Laplace transform [10]


Z
L+
f () = f (t) exp (t) dt, Re > 0. (4)
0

when u 1.
In notation, this is expressed to mean

N+ + + +
f (u, 1) = Mf (u) and Nf (1, ) = Lf () .

The natural-Laplace duality and the natural-Sumudu duality are given in [4, (5)
(8)] as
Z    
1 t 1 + 
N+
f (u, ) = u f (t) exp dt i.e. N+
f (u, ) = Lf (5)
u u u
0

and
Z    
1 ut 1 + u
N+
f (u, ) = f +
exp (t) dt i.e. Nf (u, ) = Mf , (6)

0

respectively.
With above results it is so natural to announce linearity of the natural
transform by that given to Sumudu and Laplace transforms.
The application of N transform to fluid flow prblems is found in [1] and,
the solution of maxwell equations by the natural transform with its relation
with Bessel functions are given in [2] . In some notations, if it happens, we
sometimes be more convinient to express N+ f (u, ) as N+ +
f (u, ) or Nf in next
investigations.
ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 731

Some facts that the natural transform enjoys are:


(1) Change of scals of non-zero integer :
1 +  
N+
f (at) (u, ) = N u, , a non-zero integer. (7)
a f a
(2) The natural transform of constant a :
1
N+
a (u, ) = . (8)

(3) The natural transform of delta functions :
1
N+
(u, ) = . (9)
u

1, t > 0
(4) The natural transform of step function u (t) = :
0, t 0
( 1
1 : L+ +
f () = Nu (1, ) , (u = 1) .
N+
u (u, ) := = (10)
1 : M+ +
u (u) = Nu (u, 1) , ( = 1)

(5) The natural transform of f (t) = eat , a constant, is :



1
 1 : L+ +
f () = Nu (1, ) , (u = 1) ,
+ at
N e (u, ) = = a . (11)
au 1
: M+ (u) = N +
(u, 1) , ( = 1)
1 au u u

(6) The scalling property of the natural transform can be written in two ways:
1 + 1 +  
N+
f (kt) (u, )
+
= Nf (t) (ku, ) and Nf (kt) (u, ) = Nf (t) u, .
k k k
The inverse Natural transform is related with Bromwich contour integral as [2]
r+iy
Z  
1 1 t
N + (t) := f (t) := lim N+
f (u, ) exp d. (12)
y 2i u
riy

We describe the Parseval-Type theorem of the natural transform of an inte-


grable function f in two ways :
R R +
(i) f () N+g (, u) d = Nf (t, u) g (t) dt
0 0
732 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

R R
(ii) f (u) N+
g (, u) du = N+
f (, t) g (t) dt
0 0
Since the natural transforms N+ +
f (t, u) and Ng (, u) are indeed bounded and
continuous for all u and , the integrals in (i) are uniformly bounded. Therefore
Fubinitz theorem implies

Z Z Z 
1 t
f () N+
g (, u) ds = f () g (t) exp ddt
u u
0 0 0

Z Z  
= f () 1 exp t dg (t) dt
u u
0 0
Z
= N+
f (t, u) g (t) dt.
0

This justifies (i). Establishing (ii) can similarly be followed.

2. Natural Transform for Ordinary Differential Equations

By the application of [1, Theorem 2.5, Theorem 2.6] the natural transform of
first and second derivatives is given as
  + f (0)
N+
f (u, ) = N +
f (u, ) = N f (u, ) . (13)
u u
and
  2 +

f (0)
N+
f
+
(u, ) = N f (u, ) = 2 Nf (u, ) 2 f (0) (14)
u u u
from which, (13) and (14) are extended to nth derivatives to mean [2]

  n +
n1
X n(k+1)
N+ (u, ) = N +
f (n)
(u, ) = N (u, ) f (k) (0) . (15)
f (n) un f unk
k=0

Let us make idea more precise. For, we present solutions of some initial value
problems by the natural transform. A prior step of solving differential equations
by the new transform is by considering the following table [1, Appendix] which
is needful in the next investigation:
ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 733

S.No. f (t) N+
f (u, ) S.No. f (t) N+
f (u, )
bt
1 e sinh at u
1 1
14 a (bu)2 a2 u2
u t sin at u2
2 t 2
15 2a (2 +u2 a2 )2
1 u( 2 a2 u2 )
3 eat 16 t cos at
au (2 +a2 u2 )2
1 u sin at+at cos at 2 u
4 sin at 2 +a2 u2
17
a 2a (2 +a2 u2 )2
3
5 cos at
18 cos at 21 at sin at
2 +a2 u2 (2 +a2 u2 )2
sin atat cos at u3
6 cosh t 2 u2
19 2a2 (2 +a2 u2 )2
tn1 u3
7 ,n = 1, 2 u(n1) (n1) 20 at cos atsinh t
2a3
(n1)! (2 a2 u2 )2
tn1 u2
8 ,n >0 u(n1) (n1) 21 t sinh at
(n) 2a (2 a2 u2 )2
sinh at+at cosh at 2 u
9 cos t 2 +u2
22 2a (2 a2 u2 )2
3
10 sin t u
23 cosh at + 12 at sinh at
2 +u2 (2 a2 u2 )2
au u( 2 +a2 u2 )
11 sinh at 2 a2 u2
24 t cosh at
(2 +a2 u2 )2
(3a2 t2 ) sin at3at cos at u5
12 cosh at 2 a2 u2
25 8a5 (2 +a2 u2 )3
(3a2 t2 ) sin at+5at cos at 4 u
13 ebt cosh at bu
(bu)2 a2 u2
26 8a (2 +a2 u2 )3

Example 1. Given the initial value problem



y y 2y = 0 (16)

with the initial conditions y (0) = 1, y (0) = 0.
Solution. When applying the natural transform to both sides of (16) then
using linearity of N+
f yields

N+
y
(u, ) N+
y
(u, ) 2N+
y (u, ) = 0. (17)

Applying (13) and (14) to (17) and invoking the initial conditions, after sim-
plification, we get
u
N+y (u, ) = 2 . (18)
u 2u2
Factoring the denominator of (18) gives
u
N+
y (u, ) = . (19)
( + u) ( 2u)
Epression (19) can be written as
(6 12u) + (3 + 3u)
N+
y (u, ) = . (20)
(3 ( + u)) (3 ( 2u))
734 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

An equivalent formula to (20) is that


2 1
N+
y (u, ) = + . (21)
3 ( + u) 3 ( 2u)
Allowing the inverse natural transform to act on (21) leads to
   
2 1 1 1 1 1
y (t) = N + N . (22)
3 +u 3 2u
So, by Entry 3 of Table 1, (22) is equal to
2 1
y (t) = et + e2t
3 3
which is our desired solution of the ordinary differential equation.
Following example establishes a solution of initial value problem of fourth
order.
Example 2. Consider the initial value problem
y (4) y = 0. (23)

with the initial conditions y (0) = 0, y (0) = 1, y (0) = 0 and y (0) = 0.
Solution. The natural transform when applied to (23) with the presumed
initial conditions and using of (15), after computations, yield
4 + + 2
N N = .
u4 f f u3
Thus, we write
u 2
N+
y (u, ) = . (24)
4 u4
Once again, as above, factoring denominator of (24) gives
u 2 u 2 u3 + u 2 + u3
N+
y (u, ) = = . (25)
( 2 u2 ) ( 2 u2 ) 2 ( 2 u2 ) ( 2 u2 )
Simplifications yield
1 u 1 u
N+
y (u, ) = 2 2
+ . (26)
2 +u 2 u2
2

Therefore, employing the inverse transform for (26) then checking of Entry 4
and Entry 11 of Table 1 implies
1 1
y (t) = sin t + sinh t.
2 2
which is indeed our desired solution.
ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 735

3. Distributions and Boehmians

In mathematical analysis, distributions or generalized functions are objects that


generalize functions. Distributions make it possible to differentiate functions
whose derivatives do not exist in the classical sense. In particular, any locally
integrable function has a distributional derivative. Distributions are widely
used to formulate generlaized solutions of partical differential equations, where
the classical solution may not exists. Further, distributions are also important
in physics and engineering where many problems naturally lead to differntial
equation whose solution or initial conditions are distributions, see [16, 10, 6] .
Later, in 1983, Boehmians are objects obtained by an abstract algebraic
construction to generalized distributions [17]. The original construction was
motivated by regular operators [5] . Boehmians are subclass of Mikusinski op-
erators, that are defined as equivalence classes of convolution quotients of func-
tions. Since Boehmians were introduced, the framework of Boehmian has be
used to define a variety of spaces of generalized functions and generalized inte-
gral transforms on those spaces.
One of the most youngest generalization of functions, and more particularly
of distributions, is the theory of Boehmians. The name Boehmian space is
given to all objects defined by an abstract construction similar to that of field
of quotients. The construction applied to function spaces yields various spaces
of generalized functions.
For linear space Y and a subspace X of Y, assume, to all pair (f, ) , (g, ) of
elements, f, g Y, , X, is assigned the products f , g such that the
following conditions are satisfied:
(1) X and = .
(2) (f ) = f ( ) .
(3) (f + g) = f + g
(4) k (f ) = (kf ) = f (k) , k R.
Let be a family of sequences from X such that for f, g Y then:
(5)If (n ) and f n = g n ,n = 1, 2, ..., then f = g.
(6) (n ) , (n ) (n n ) .
Elements of are called delta sequences.
Consider the class A of pairs of sequences defined by

A = ((fn ) , (n )) : (fn ) YN , (n ) ,
736 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

for each n N.
fn
The pair ((fn ) , (n )) A is said to be quotient of sequences, denoted by ,
n
if
fn m = fm n , n, m N.
fn gn fn gn
Two quotients of sequences and are said to be equivalent, , if
n n n n

fn m = gm n , n, m N.

The relation is an equivalent relation on A and hence, splits


 A into
 equivalence
fn fn
classes. The equivalence class containing is denoted by . These equiv-
n n
alence classes are called Boehmians and the space of all Boehmians is denoted
by B (Y, X,, ) .
The sum and multiplication by a scalar of two Boehmians can be defined
in a natural way      
fn gn fn n + gn n
+ =
n n n n
and    
fn afn
a = , a being complex number.
n n
     
fn gn fn gn
The operation and differentiation are defined by = and
    n n n n
fn D fn
D = . Many a time, Y is equipped with a notion of convergence.
n n
The intrinsic relationship between the notion of convergence and the product
are given by:
(1) If fn f as n in Y and, X is any fixed element, then

fn f in Y as n .

(2) If fn f as n in Y and (n ) , then fn n f in Y as


n .
The operation
  is extended to B (Y, X,, ) X by :  
fn fn fn
If B (Y, X,, ) and X, then = .
n n n
In B (Y, X,, ) , two types of convergence, and convergence, are defined
as follows:
ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 737

A sequence of Boehmians (n ) in B (Y, X,, ) is said to be convergent



to a Boehmian in B (Y, X,, ) , denoted by n , if there exists a delta
sequence (n ) such that (n n ) , ( n ) Y, k, n N,and
(n k ) ( k ) as n , in Y, for every k N.
The following is equivalent for the statement of convergence

The sequence n (n ) in  B (Y,
 X,, )
 if and only if there is
fn,k fk
fn,k , fk Y and k such that n = , = and for each k N,
k k
fn,k fk as n in Y.
A sequence of Boehmians (n ) in B (Y, X,, ) is said to be convergent

to a Boehmian in B (Y, X,, ) , denoted by n , if there exists a (n )
such that (n ) n Y, n N, and (n ) n 0 as n in Y.
see [5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17] for more analysis.

4. Natural Transform to Boehmians



Denote by E (R) the space of smooth functions on R [12] and E (R) its dual
(congugate) space of distributions of compact support then, we can easily check
that the natural transform kernel function
 
1 t
exp E (R) ,
u u
by which we define the distributional natural transform through the inner prod-
uct   
b + 1 t
Nf (u, ) = f (t) , exp , (27)
u u

f E (R) .
Analogous to the classical results that assigned to the classical transform
we easily establish the distributional ones.
N+
Theorem 3. bf is linear.

N+
Theorem 4. bf is one to one.

Theorem 5. The distributional transform bN+


f is analytic and
   
+ 1 t
b
Du Nf (u, ) = f (t) , Du exp
u u
738 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

and    
1 t
N+
D bf (u, ) = f (t) , D exp .
u u
Proofs of Theorem 3,4 and 5 are avoided because of their similarities with that
in the literature of usual transforms.
The natural transform of the convolution product
Z
(f g) (t) = f (x) g (t x) dx
0

is given by aid of the Fubnitz theorem,


Z   
1 t
N+
f g (u, ) = (f g) (t) exp dt
u u
0
Z Z   
1 t
= f (x) g (t x) dx exp dt
u u
0 0
Z Z   
1 t
= f (x) g (t x) exp dtdx. (28)
u u
0 0

When the substitution t x = y is used, (28) yields


Z Z   
1 (x + y)
N+
f g (u, ) = f (x) g (y) exp dydx. (29)
u u
0 0

But since g can not take negative values we get

N+ + +
f g (u, ) = uNf (u, ) Ng (u, ) . (30)

The result in (30) can be extended to distributions by the generalized convolu-


tion [16]
(f g) (t) = hf (t) , hg (x) , (x + t)ii , (31)
where E (R) to give

N+
b b+ b+
f g (u, ) = uNf (u, ) Ng (u, ) , (32)

where f, g E (R) .
ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 739

The formula (32) is sometimes written as

N+
b b+ b+
f g = uNf Ng . (33)

Let us consider a space of Boehmians B (E, D, , ) with a group E (R) , D (R),


the Schwartz space of test functions, as a subgroup of E (R)( D (R) infact dense
in E (R)) and, as an operation for E (R) and D (R) and, as the set of delta

sequence defined by [4, (3.3) , (3.5) . (3.6)] . Also we denote by D (R) the strong
dual of D (R) of Schwartz distributions.
 
fn
Theorem 6. Let B (E, D, , ) then the sequence N+ fn converges in
  n  
fn gn
D (R) . Moreover, if = in the sense of B (E, D, , ) then N+
fn and
n n
N+
gn converge to the same limit.

Proof. For delta sequence (n ) it is needed to know that

N+ +
n (u, ) N (u, ) as n .

Hence, (9) gives


1
N+
n (u, ) as n . (34)
u
Let D (R) be given such that N+
k > 0 on the support of , k N(The set of
fn
natural numbers ). The hypothesis that is quotient of sequences implies
n

fn m = fm n

which then gives


N+ + + +
fn Nm = Nfm Nn , n, m N. (35)
Therefore we see that
!
N+
k
N+ +
fn () = Nfn
N+
k
!
N+
k
= N+
fn
N+
k
!
 
= N+ N +
.
fn k
N+
k
740 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

By (35) we obtain
! !
  N+
n
N+ () = N+ N +
= N+ .
fn fk n
N+
k
fk
N+
k
!
N+
n
The fact that + + in D (R) , the sequence N+ fn converges in D (R) .
N uN
 k   k
fn gn
Next, let = in B (E, D, , ) and define
n n
(
fn+1 n+1
hn = 2 2 , n is odd
g n2 n2 , n is even

and (
n+1 n+1 , n is odd
In = 2 2
n2 n2 , n is even
     
hn fn gn
then you get = = .
In n n

Therefore, N+
hn converges in D (R) by the first part.
Moreover,
lim N+ +
h2n1 () = lim Nfn () .
n n
  
Therefore N+
hn n=1
and N+
fn converge to the same limit.
 
Similarly, N+
hn n=1 and N+
gn converge to the same limit.
The proof is therefore completed.
This theorem can be expressed to mean that N+ maps B (E, D, , ) into

D (R) .
By
 aid  of Theorem 6 we define the natural transform of the Boehmian
fn
= B (E, D, , ) by
n

N+
e +
= lim Nfn . (36)
n

N+
Theorem 7. The natural transform efn is linear.

Proof is straightforward.
N+
Theorem 8. The natural transform e is infinitely smooth.
ON THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL TRANSFORMS 741

 
fn
Proof. Let = B (E, D, , ) and K be an open bounded set on R
n
then there is m N such that

N+
m > 0 on K.

Hence, by (34) ,

N+
e = lim N+
n fn
N+f N
+
= lim n+ m
n N
m

1 N+
f
= lim n+ m
u n Nm
1 N+
f
= lim n+ n
u n Nm
N+f N
+
= lim m+ n
n N
m
+
N fm
= lim N+
N+m
n n

N+fm
=   on K
u N+
m

but since N+ + + e+
fm , Nm E (R) and Nm > 0 on K it follows that N is infinitely
smooth function.
This completes the proof.
 
fn
Theorem 9. If = B (E, D, , ) then
n

N+
fm
N+
e +
Nm = for m N.
u
Proof. Let D (R) then invoking (34) suggests
 
N+
e N
m
+
() = e
N +
N +
m
 
= lim N+ fn N +
m
n
742 S.K.Q. Al-Omari

 
= lim N+ +
fn m ()
N
n
1  
= lim N+ f ()
u n m

1  
= lim N+ fm n ()
u n  
= lim N+ +
fm n ()
N
n
 
= N+ lim
fm n n N +


= N+fm u
!
N+fm
= () .
u

N+
m
N+
Hence e N
m
+
= .
u
This complete the proof of
 the  theorem.
 
fn gn
Theorem 10. Let 1 = , 2 = B (E, D, , ) then
n n

N+
e e+ e+
1 2 = uN1 N2 .

Proof. of this theorem follows from (9) and (36) and, routine technique
similar to that of Theorem 9. Details thus avoided.
The theorem is completely proved.

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