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ENGINEERING STANDARDS

SECTION 2 HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

2.2 GENERAL SUPPLY & EXTRACT............................................................................................ 31

2.2.1. GENERAL................................................................................................................ 31

2.2.2. DESIGN CRITERIA................................................................................................. 31


2.2.2.1 Duct Design Criteria.........................................................................................................31

2.2.3. SPECIFICATION & APPLICATION GUIDE......................................................... 31


2.2.3.1. Air Handling Units ...........................................................................................................31
2.2.3.2. Fan Assisted Variable Air Volume Units .........................................................................32
2.2.3.3. Variable and Constant Volume Boxes ...............................................................................33
2.2.3.4. Packaged Self Contained Air Condition Units .................................................................34
2.2.3.5. Reverse Cycle Water Source Heat Pumps........................................................................35
2.2.3.6. Split Cooling Systems/Variable Refrigerant Volume.......................................................36
2.2.3.7. Centrifugal Fans ...............................................................................................................37
2.2.3.8. Axial Fans ........................................................................................................................38
2.2.3.9. Bifurcated Fans ................................................................................................................38
2.2.3.10 Toilet Extract Fan Sets .....................................................................................................39
2.2.3.11 Systems ............................................................................................................................39
2.2.3.12 Life Safety Systems..........................................................................................................40
2.2.3.13 Ductwork..........................................................................................................................42
2.2.3.14 Access Doors....................................................................................................................42
2.2.3.15 Dampers ...........................................................................................................................42
2.2.3.16 Flexible Connections........................................................................................................42
2.2.3.17 Grilles, Registers and Diffusers........................................................................................43
2.2.3.18 Acoustic Treatment ..........................................................................................................43
2.2.3.19 Hangers/Supports .............................................................................................................43

2.2.4 ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY CONSERVATION ................................................ 43

2.2.5 COMMISSIONING & TESTING ............................................................................ 43

2.2.6 OPERATING & MAINTENANCE.......................................................................... 44

2.2.7 SPARE PARTS......................................................................................................... 44

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2.2 GENERAL SUPPLY & EXTRACT

2.2.1. GENERAL
The following systems are to be provided for the hotel complex. All public areas fully air-conditioned.
Service areas fully ventilated and heating and/or cooling as per tables 2.1.1.7 & 2.1.1.8 shall be
provided depending on climate zone. Toilet extract, general kitchen and kitchen hood extract, locker
room extract and boiler room/machinery room supply and extract. Other systems shall be provided as
stated elsewhere in the text or as required for the specific hotel. Minimum air change rates shall be as
stated in the design criteria in tables 2.1.1.7 & 2.1.1.8.

2.2.2. DESIGN CRITERIA

2.2.2.1 Duct Design Criteria


The following maximum duct design velocities are to be used in the design of ductwork systems.
Where a range is indicated, it is intended to represent velocities over a range of flow volume.
Metres/Second
Low Pressure Systems
Main Duct 7.5
Primary Branch 5.0
Secondary Branch 2.0-3.5
Guest Room Risers 5.0
Medium Pressure Systems 13.0
Kitchen Grease Exhaust 8.0-9.0
Laundry Exhaust 8.0-9.0
Cooling Coils 2.5
Heating Coil 4.0
Filters 1

The following maximum friction losses are to be used in conjunction with the velocities noted above.
Pascals/metre
Low pressure systems 1.0
Medium pressure systems 3.3

2.2.3. SPECIFICATION & APPLICATION GUIDE

2.2.3.1. Air Handling Units


General:
Each of the units should be constructed as a double skinned unit comprising of 25mm thick foam filled
panels of extruded aluminium in a pentapost framework arrangement with the corners connected with
glass reinforced nylon mouldings or similar.

Each unit should include all required components such as filter section, pre heat coil, coiling coil, re-
heat coil, supply fan, silencers and initiate/discharge plenums. These individual components much
comply with tier particular specifications.

The double skin panels should consist of an approved expanded polyurethane foam insulation
sandwiched between two galvanised sheet steel panels. The insulation should not be less than 25 mm
thick and have a mean density of 50 kg/m. The two steel skins should be 0.6 mm thick.

The panels should be fixed to the frame with stainless steel screws using a nylon bush to bridge the
panel sandwich. Each panel to framework joint should be sealed with low density PVC foam gasket.
The panel/gasket/framework assembly should give an air tight seal. The air leakage from the unit
should not be greater than that specified for the distribution ductwork.

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The unit should be complete with a base frame fabricated from 3 mm galvanised steel section with cast
aluminium corners. The base frame corners should incorporate a flange and hold to provide the unit with a
bolt down position in each corner. The base frame is to be fitted with additional anti-vibration mountings.

2.2.3.2. Fan Assisted Variable Air Volume Units


Unit casing to be constructed from galvanised sheet steel, suitably braced to meet acoustic performance
and prevent drumming. Twin return air inlets should be located either side of centrally positioned
primary air spigot to ensure efficient mixing of the primary and return air streams, to give a temperature
variation in the mixed air stream of less than 10% of the initial temperature differential.

The unit casing should have an insulated access panel with keyhole slots retained by 6 MB fixings. The
access opening should allow removal of the fan without disturbing the duct connections.

Provide temporary filter media on the twin induction ports mounted in a suitable frame fitted to the unit
casing.

The unit is to be lined with 50mm thick high-density insulation.

Fan:
Fans should be forward curved double inlet centrifugal type having a dynamically balanced impeller
with a direct drive motor suitable for speed control.

Each unit casing should contain a single fan scroll, which should be flange mounted. Multiple fans in
single units are not acceptable.

Fan motors should be resiliently mounted to the fan scroll. Fan scroll should be manufactured from
galvanised sheet steel. Fan motors should be suitable for 230 Volt 50 Hertz single-phase electric supply
and have an automatic reset and thermal overload protection device. The motor should be of the
permanent split capacitor type and have lubricated for life bearings.

Electrical connection to the fan should be by a single quick release plug having shrouded pins.

A speed controller should be provided to enable the fan speed to be adjusted between maximum and
minimum limits in a stepless manner by a control signal from the BMS controller.

The speed controller should be matched to the fan motor to ensure stable operation. A minimum
voltage stop should be provided to ensure the motor cannot be set in a stall mode. The speed controller
should incorporate a soft start feature to enable the fan to run at full speed for a short period on start
up to ensure correct fan rotation.

A 24 volt ac relay should be provided to enable the BMS to switch the fan on and off.

A lockable electric supply isolator should be provided mounted on the unit electric enclosure. The
isolator should be sized to the full electrical demand including any reheat load and meet current IEE
Regulations.

Damper and Damper Actuator:


A primary air control damper and actuator should be provided to vary the air quantity in response to a
control signal from the BMS giving pressure independent control. The damper will be a single blade,
centrally pivoted in plastic bearings, to minimise maintenance requirements.

The single blade control damper should have an edge seal suitable for temperatures up to 50C. Damper
leakage at shut off should not exceed 0.5% of rated flow at an inlet pressure of 500 Pa.

The damper should be located inside the unit and drive shaft extended to the actuator mounted inside
the electrical enclosure.

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The actuator should be of the rotary type designed to be indefinitely stalled against end stops and
suitable for 24V ac. The actuator should incorporate a manual override facility and have a maximum
running time of 120 seconds from damper open to damper closed position.

Primary Air flow and Induction Port Sensor:


A multi-point flow sensor should be provided in the primary air inlet. The sensor should average the
readings and generate a differential pressure output proportional to the mean velocity in the inlet spigot.

Each sensor should be constructed from aluminium tubes. The sensor to be connected to the flow
transducer by plastic pressure tubing having a UL94 VO rating.

The primary air inlet spigot and sensor should be sized for a maximum inlet velocity of 10m/s.

Electric Heater:
Where called for electric heater should be fitted as an integral part of the terminal box.

Heater elements should consist of 80/20 nickel chrome resistance wire fitted in 8.5mm diameter 304
grade stainless steel tubes filled with granular magnesium oxide. The elements should be mounted on a
galvanised sheet steel plate for ease of replacement.

An automatic reset high temperature cut out set at 50C and brass earth stud should be mounted on the
element mounting plate.

The surface temperature of the elements should not exceed 400C under the specified air flow
conditions.

Electric connection to the elements should be via threaded terminals, washers and nuts. Heaters should
be fully wired and tested by the terminal box manufacturer to meet IEE Regulations.

Heaters should not be energised until the minimum heating air volume has been established by the DDC
controller via a total volume velocity sensor located downstream of the terminal box mounted in the
airway of the secondary silencer.

Heaters should be fully wired and complete with safety circuits including hard-wired pressure switch
interlock on fan operation and safety fuses.

2.2.3.3. Variable and Constant Volume Boxes


Provide low terminal pressure units. Unit casings should be galvanised steel complying with acceptable
construction standards with sandwiched thermal and sound attenuating rigid insulation. Thermal and
acoustic insulation material should be rated for low flammability.

Leakage through the unit casing should be less than 3% of design volume at 1000 Pa inlet pressure.

Terminal units should be pressure independent and should be capable of reset of air volume within
5% of required air flow (as determined by the space thermostat) regardless of changes in system air
pressure. A "flow cross" averaging volume sensor, scanning not less than four quadrants of the air inlet
should be incorporated within the unit and should provide control pressure for the lps reset actuator.
Separate differential pressure taps should also be provided for airflow measurement. Each terminal unit
should be provided with a flow chart attached. Maximum and minimum lps setting should be factory set
but should be capable of easy readjustment at the site. Terminal units should be capable of operating as
described above at inlet static pressures between 12.5 Pa and 750 Pa. Units should be selected to
operate at a static pressure loss through the unit between 12.5 Pa and 125 Pa (maximum).

The terminal unit manufacturer should provide actuator and accessories to adjust airflow valve within
maximum and minimum limits as determined by the space thermostat.

The VAV or CV units manufacturer should submit guaranteed sound power level ratings by octave
bands. These ratings should list the unit sound power generation with the VAV or CV unit installed
within the test chamber. The sound power generation should be listed for an upstream pressure of 750

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Pa, 500 Pa, 250 Pa and minimum water gauge with a downstream pressure of 0.0 Pa water gauge.
Neither the manufacturer nor the specific unit selection will be approved until such data has been
submitted.

Sound power shall be measured in accordance with ADC (Air Diffusion Council) Standard 1062-R.3, or
the equivalent International Standards Organisation (ISO).

2.2.3.4. Packaged Self Contained Air Condition Units


Packaged self-contained air conditioning systems should have the following built-in components:

Fan Section: The fans should be of the centrifugal design, double width, double inlet and should be
dynamically and statically balanced. The complete balanced assembly should provide a maximum
vibration level of 2mm in any plane. The shaft should be heavy-duty steel with self-aligning ball
bearings. The drive package should consist of belts and pulley to achieve variable speed adjustment
within the acceptable limits of the motor horsepower. The fans should be located to draw air over the
coil to ensure even air distribution and maximum coil performance. All fans to be independently
isolated from the unit enclosure.

Chilled Water Coil: The chilled water coil should be constructed of copper tubes with mechanically bonded
aluminium fins to provide efficient heat transfer. The water circuit should be designed to distribute water
into the entire coil face area. The entire coil assembly should be mounted in a stainless steel condensate
drain pan.

Condensate Drain: The condensate drain pan is to be mounted at an angle within the unit to aid complete
drainage. Condensate pans are to be provided with factory assembled and wired condensate pump with all
the necessary controls. The condensate pump to be constructed of a material that will not rust during the
life of the unit.

Filters: The filter chambers should be an integral part of the system. The filters should be serviceable
without shutting down the system and be fully accessible from the front of unit without the use of ladders or
special riggings. They should be the deep pleated filters with an efficiency rating of not less than 35% EU4
(based on Eurovent 4-5) and manufactured from fully fire retardant synthetic fibre.

Disconnect Switch: Disconnect switch should be provided for each unit and should be built-in as an
integral part of the unit. The disconnect switch should be completely operable from the outside of the unit
and have exterior stainless steel trim for appearance.

Cabinet and Frame Construction: The unit is to be made of tubular steel construction. The steel panels are
to be provided with insulation of sufficient density to project the system and reduce
noise transmission. Access panels are to be provided with key operated quarter turn fasteners for routine
serving. The unit panels are fitted with seals to prevent air loss and to keep noise levels to a minimum.

Controller: The units are to be provided with a microprocessor based controller with plug-in modules.
The controller should control and monitor temperature, humidity, and airflow and air cleanliness. The
sensing elements for dry bulb temperature and relative humidity should be located in the return air
stream. The controller and electronic control system should be serviceable by the front of the unit. The
control panel should be isolated from the conditioned air stream. Each component circuit should be
individually fused.

The monitoring system should allow for monitoring and programming as a minimum the following
space conditions:

Temperature (C)
Temperature Setpoint
Relative Humidity (%)
Humidity Setpoint (%)

Provision for password protected adjustment of the setpoint conditions are to be provided for security
reasons.

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The control system should monitor the unit operation and activate an audible and visual alarm by LEDs,
in the event that any of the following factory preset alarm conditions occur:

High Temperature
Low Temperature
Loss of Supply Air
Dirty Filters

All alarm features should be wired to volt-free contacts to allow for remote units monitoring/shutdown.

Flow Switch: A flow switch is provided and will activate the alarm system and/or shutdown the unit
should the chilled water supply be interrupted. The switch is to be factory wired and mounted in the
chilled water valve compartment.

All chilled water valves and piping within the units are to be fully insulated to ensure full system
capacity and prevent condensation.

If the conditions dictate a heating requirement in the associated area, a hot water coil or electric heating
coil should be sized accordingly.

2.2.3.5. Reverse Cycle Water Source Heat Pumps


General:
Each unit should comprise a thermal and acoustic lined, zinc coated sheet steel chassis enclosing the
following items:

Twin double (vertical units) or single double (horizontal units) inlet centrifugal type recirculating air
fans/fan, directly coupled to a 3 speed electric motor of the permanent split capacitor type with sealed
for life bearings.

Air to refrigerant heat exchanger (air coil) constructed from copper tube with mechanically bonded
aluminium fins and expansion through capillary.

Copper (tube-in-tube) coaxial or multi plate water to refrigerant heat exchanger.

Rotary type refrigerant compressor supported on anti-vibration mountings and suitable for permanent
split capacitor operation contained in a sealed, sheet steel enclosure to isolate it from the air path.

Washable recirculation air filter accessible for removal.

Each unit should have in built protection controls including HP cut out and low limit water thermostat,
automatic reset defrost thermostat and thermal current overload switches on compressor and fan motor.
Where a condensate pump is fitted a high condensate level sensor should be included.

Horizontal units should be suitable for fitting in the void above a suspended ceiling. Each unit should
be supplied complete with factory fitted support angles and rubber spring anti-vibration mountings.

Connections:
Each unit should be supplied complete with flexible water connection hoses, terminating with
compression fittings. There shall be provided suitable isolating valves on the water inlet and outlet and
a flow setting/regulating device on the return pipe.

The unit should be supplied with a flexible condensate drain tube for the Contractor to connect to a
suitable drain line fitted below the level of each unit.

Control:
Each unit should be capable of operating independently or in a master/slave group scheme of up to 10
units in conjunction with a Temperature Limited Series IV Controller. Each controller should
incorporate on-off switch, fan speed selector and temperature control adjustment, unit available and
fault LED indicators, a fault reset and liquid crystal display (LCD) showing the operational state of the

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unit. It should also include a comprehensive diagnostic facility which can be accessed to determine the
status of the unit and be fitted with a thermostat sensor designed to maintain the temperature selected by
automatically controlling the compressor and reversing valve to operate in either cooling or heating
modes as required.

Horizontal unit will have a controller, complete with remote location mounting, suitable for surface or
semi-recessed installation and an extension cable.

These units should only be utilised when given permission by IHG.

2.2.3.6. Split Cooling Systems/Variable Refrigerant Volume


Factory assembled packaged self-contained DX air conditioning units, with discharge airflow pattern to
suit application, should be provided.

Each room unit is to be complete with a remotely mounted condenser unit.

The fins on the condenser coils are to be coated with an epoxy vinyl finish for protection.

The packaged self-contained DX air conditioning system should have the following built-in
components:

Refrigerant Circuit:
Refrigerant circuit, should be complete with solenoid valves, liquid line filter dryers, suction line filters,
moisture indicators, expansion valves, hermetic compressors with line service valves, gauge
connections, and full operating refrigerant charge.

Evaporator Coil/Casing:
Evaporator coil/casing should be a circuited 6-row aluminium fin, copper tube, coil with stainless steel
drain pan.

Refrigerant lines should be run between the room mounted and the remote mounted condensing unit.
All insulation to comply with relevant statutory requirements.

The centrifugal fan should be dynamically and statically balanced and supported by self-aligning ball
bearings. They should be arranged for pull-through operation and be driven by an open drip-proof
motor, with an adjustable motor base. The drive package should be two-belt, variable pitch, sized for
200% above the fan motor horsepower.

Filter chambers should be an integral part of the system. Filters should be to Eurovent 4 standards and
should be serviceable from either end of the unit.

A condensate pan should be provided with factory assembled and wired condensate pump of a non-
ferrous construction with all necessary controls. The pan should be stainless steel construction with
non-ferrous connections and fully insulated.

A solid state electronic control system should be of plug-in modules and should contain no moving
parts. The system should be provided in a factory wired electric control centre. The temperature
controls should have only one adjusting and sensing point for the room conditions. The sensing
elements for dry bulb and humidity should be located in the return air stream. The electric control
centre and electronic control system should be serviceable by raising a hinged door on the front of the
unit. This panel should be isolated from the conditioned air stream. Each component circuit should be
individually fused. The system should have the facility to be operated remotely via the BMS, if
required.

A disconnect switch should be provided for each unit and should be built-in as an integral part of the
unit.

The system should have pilot indicator lights to indicate need to change filters.

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The system should monitor by means of factory installed and calibrated equipment (audible alarm,
indicator lights, and silencer switch) the following control conditions:

Return Air Temperature


High Temperature
Loss of Supply Air
Dirty Filters
Return Air Humidity

Each system should also include one set of contacts for BMS interface, which should indicate if any of
the above safeties are in alarm for auxiliary alarm connections. Sensing devices for these alarm
conditions should be field adjustable to meet the required design conditions of the installation.

All four sides of the unit should have insulated panels.

The unit should be designed so that the control system and electrical circuitry can be serviced and/or
checked while the system is in operation without disturbing air flow and performance.

If the refrigerant system has a number of internal evaporator units, consideration shall be given to the
benefits of utilising a Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) system. The design engineer shall submit an
analysis.

The VRV system shall be equipped with a compressor with inverter control, capable of changing the
rotating speed to follow variation in cooling load.

If refrigerant system is installed into a false ceiling a full leak detection system shall be required.

If any refrigerant system has a heating requirement, heat pump models shall be utilised.

IHG must give their consent to any refrigerant-based cooling/heating system.

2.2.3.7. Centrifugal Fans


All fans should be of the non-overloading centrifugal fan type. Impellers should have backward curved
blades.

The capacities of the fans should be in accordance with the fan schedule, as illustrated by the design
engineer. Fans should have direction of rotation, discharge direction, and arrangement to suit space
conditions.

Fan housing should be rigidly built and braced. Where fan scroll is 475mm or more or where required
by the design engineer, an access door with frame and gasket should be provided. All access doors
should be so fabricated that the inner surface is flush with the inside of the scroll.

All fans should be guaranteed to fulfil the requirements as specified by the design engineer. The fan
manufacturer should furnish for approval for each fan, certified sound power ratings with an octave
band analysis and also the volume-pressure kilowatt characteristic curves from shut-off to free air
delivery.

Impellers should have ample strength. They should be statically and dynamically balanced to avoid
vibration and should have blades to secure quiet efficient operation.

All fans should be factory-coated with one coat of primer and one coat of machine enamel. The interior
of all fans and all fan wheels should be painted as per manufacturers standards. All fans should be
provided with galvanised steel inlet guard screens. Inlet guard screens should be of such design that
they will not reduce the inlet area of fan beyond the maximum reduction permitted by the fan
manufacturer to guarantee the fan performance.

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2.2.3.8. Axial Fans


The fan casing and fan plates should be manufactured from mild steel.

The fan casing and flanges should have a minimum thickness of 3.0mm for fans up to and including
1000mm diameter, with thickness of 5mm for larger diameters. Flanges should be integral with casing
and should be provided with boltholes for connection. The casing assembly, complete with flanges,
should be hot dip galvanised after manufacture.

An external terminal box should be provided, as standard, on long case fans. Short case fans will have a
terminal box on the motor only.

The fan blades should be aerofoil section, high-pressure die cast from aluminium alloy. Al blades will
be examined by x-ray before machining. The fan impeller hub and clamp-plate should be cast in
aluminium alloy and should be examined by x-ray before machining to ensure sound casting.

The pitch angle of the fan should be individually adjustable. The fan should be of the variable pitch
angle or controllable pitch angle design. The supplier should be able to provide evidence that the
impeller has been adequately stressed for running at the highest speed.

The impeller should be balanced to G3.6 or better as defined in ISO 1940/1:1986 (6.3 mm/s peak to
peak or 4.5mm/s rms).

The aerodynamic design of the fan should be such that the maximum power required by the fan occurs
within the normal working ranges, ie, it has a non-overloading characteristic.

The fan should be suitable for frequent starting applications and for continuous operation in ambient
temperatures ranging from -43C up to +63C.

Fan motors should be at the totally enclosed, squirrel cage induction, continuous duty, and variable
torque type.

Flexible connectors should be provided where indicted by design engineer and should be fabricated
from neoprene coated fibreglass type NCA/S.

2.2.3.9. Bifurcated Fans


The fan casing should be manufactured from mild steel. The fan casing should have a minimum
thickness of 3.0mm on fan sizes up to 600mm and a minimum of 5.0mm for larger fans. Flanges should
be integral with, or welded to, the casing and should be provided with bolt holes for duct connection.
The casing assembly, complete with flanges, should be hot dip galvanised after manufacture. An
external terminal box should be provided, as standard, on all fans.

The fan impeller hub should be cast aluminium alloy with a cast iron insert or adapter and should be
examined by x-ray before machining to ensure sound casting.

The pitch angle of the fan blades should be individually adjustable. Fans operating between the
temperatures of 205C to 232C should have their impeller drilled and pinned. Tips of the fan blades
are to be machined to ensure close tip clearance inside the casing.

The supplier should be able to provide laboratory evidence that the impeller has been adequately
stressed for running at the highest speed supplied.

The impellers should be balanced to G6.3 or better as defined in ISO 1940/1:1986 (6.3mm/s peak to
peak or 4.5mm/s rms).

Fan motors should be of the totally enclosed, squirrel cage induction, continuous duty, variable torque
type.
The aerodynamic design of the fan should be such that the maximum power required by the fan occurs
within the normal working range, ie, it has non-overloading characteristics.

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The motor should be isolated from the main air stream in a tunnel, which extends to one side of the
casing. The motor is cooled by ambient air drawn into the tunnel and passed over the motor carcass by
a fan mounted on a shaft extension at the tail of the motor. The motor is sealed from the air stream by
the use of a shaft seal.

Inlet and outlet wire guards should be provided where indicated by design engineer.

2.2.3.10 Toilet Extract Fan Sets Public Areas


These should consist of two statically and dynamically balanced double inlet, double width, forward
curved fans, rigidly mounted on heavy gauge steel plate with vibration isolation mounts.

Duplicate set (run and standby) with H/O/a switches, run and trip lights and auto changeover located in
local MCC.

Casings should be manufactured from galvanised sheet steel or aluminium alloy and should be suitable
for a ducted inlet and outlet application. Each unit should be supplied with non-return dampers. The
casings should be internally lined with sound-absorbing insulation.

2.2.3.11 Systems

2.2.3.11.1 Guest Room Bath Extract


The design engineer should take great care in the design of the guest room exhaust system to
preclude any transmission of sound from bathroom to bathroom, via the ductwork. It may be
necessary to install cross-talk attenuation or acoustic lining. Required air quantity per room
module: 85m/hr. Extract fans to be centralised and located at rooftop.

2.2.3.11.2 Guestroom Toilet Extract


The design system should take great care in the design of the toilet extract system, to preclude any
transmission of sound from toilet to adjacent toilets. It may be necessary to install cross-talk
attenuation or acoustic lining. Toilet extract fans to be located at rooftop, not individual units in
bathroom.

2.2.3.11.3 Laundry Extract and Supply


The system should be capable of removing lint, heat, odour and vapour at the source. Extract
grilles should be located within the ceiling adjacent to each heat-emitting item. The discharge
should be at the top of the building. Consideration should be taken when locating this discharge, in
particular, it should be in the direction of prevailing wind. The laundry extract should be insulated.
Necessary precautions should be made in the design of the system to protect the ductwork from
moisture build up, ie, the duct should be pitched back to a drain adjacent to the source of the
moisture generation. A ducted system of filtered air supply is required in all cases.

2.2.3.11.4 Valet Extract and Supply


The requirements of the valet system are as for the laundry system stated above. However, the
exhaust system should operate at a higher air change rate in order to dissipate the extra heat
produced.

2.2.3.11.5 Kitchen Extract and Supply


Kitchen range hood extract should be built of 2mm black iron or 2mm stainless steel. All joints in
such ducts should be welded and water tight. All 90 turns should be made with 5-piece minimum
mitred elbows and all 45 turns with 3 piece minimum mitred elbows.

Ductwork exposed to air of high moisture content should be stainless steel. The duct should be
pitched back to drain adjacent to the source of the moisture generation.

Access panels (with cliplock fasteners) for cleaning must be provided at distances not exceeding 3
meters. The use of volume control dampers and turning vanes should be eliminated.

Any ductwork passing through waterproof wall or roof construction should be provided with
counter-flashing.

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Fire dampers must not be used in extract systems.

Kitchen ventilation systems should be designed so that the kitchen will operate at a negative
pressure level relative to adjacent areas.

All horizontal ductwork should be of pan construction (no seems on bottom) with all transverse
joints welded on bottom and sides.

Range hoods may require a direct connected, make-up air supply. Supply is to be 100% outdoor
air, filtered and not less than 18C. A fire damper should be installed at points of connection.

Location and size of kitchen hoods shall be detailed and specified by the food service consultants,
and incorporated in the construction documents by the architects/engineers.

All food service areas are to be maintained at an operating temperature of 28C year round, except
for the following areas, which require special temperatures:

Food preparation area 21C


Chefs office 22C
Room service office 22C
Stewards office 22C
Finishing area 21C
Chocolate room 21C

Exhaust hoods over cooking equipment are to be of the engineered induction type. Hoods are to be
provided with exhaust and make-up air connections. Make-up air shall be supplied via adjustable
nozzles around the hoods perimeter to a minimum of 10% up to 30% in tropical & subtropical
locations. Supply air temperature shall not fall below 18oC.

2.2.3.11.6 Car Park Extract and Supply


The ventilation for car parks should be as local codes require. However, a minimum of six air
changes per hour should be provided or cycled according to CO. Variable speed drives should be
considered.

2.2.3.12 Life Safety Systems


The following protective systems are to be included (the quantities stated for each life safety system
as per NFPA codes. Actual quantities should be as local codes dictate). See also separate section 7
on Life Safety Systems later in this guide.

2.2.3.12.1 Atrium Smoke Exhaust


Whenever building design includes an atrium, smoke exhaust fans shall be provided in order to
remove the smoke from the atrium to the atmosphere.

Smoke exhaust fans shall remove air from the top of the atrium. Atria with a volume of less than
17,000m are to have a smoke exhaust at the ceiling capable of exhausting 6 air changes/hr. If
volume exceeds 17,000m, 4 air changes/hr shall be required. The volume of the atrium shall
include the atrium volume proper as well as that of the adjacent spaces, which are open to the
atrium.

Fifty percent of the exhaust air volume shall be supplied at the lowest floor of the atrium.

Activation of the smoke exhaust fans shall be by smoke detectors within the atrium and adjacent
spaces, suppression system activation or by manual fire alarm station.

Starters for atrium exhaust fans shall be hand-off-automatic type with spring return.

2.2.3.12.2 Stair Pressurisation (IHG AP does not generally require stairwell pressurization for buildings under
10 storeys unless required by local authorities.)

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Where required stair pressurisation system should be designed to maintain .10 kPA static pressure
(or as local regulations dictate) in the stairwell with all doors closed. With the three (3) doors
furthest from the point where the pressurisation air is introduced into the stair enclosure open, the
system should be capable of maintaining .013kPA static pressure (or as local regulations dictate).
If unable to maintain static pressure with the doors open, the minimum velocity through the door
openings should be 2.03m/sec.

In order to achieve these conditions, the system should be designed as follows:

In stairwells serving buildings twelve (12) floors or less in height, the pressurisation air should be
introduced at a single point at the top or the bottom of the stairwell. When the stairwell is thirteen
(13) floors or greater in height, the air should be introduced at two locations, one at the top of the
stairwell and the other located at the bottom or two-thirds of the way down from the top. The fan
type best suited for this type of service is a manually adjustable pitch vane axial fan.

The fan or fans should be sized to deliver a minimum of 11,325 l/sec plus an additional 141.5l/sec
per door to account for leakage.

Relief vents must be provided form the stair enclosure into the building to maintain the desired
static pressure when the doors are closed. Each relief vent should be provided with a barometric
backdraft damper and fire damper or fire dampers in accordance with local code requirements. The
total area required for the relief vent assembly can be determined using the following formula:

Total Area = Total Pressurisation Supply Air - Total Leakage Air


3.8m/sec x 1000

In addition to the relief vent openings, the stair enclosure should be provided with an automatically
controlled emergency relief vent with a louvre and automatic damper directly to the outdoors. The
emergency relief or reliefs in the case of two fans should be located at the furthest point or points
form the input of the pressurisation supply air. The size of this opening should be 5.1 sqcm per
cubic meter of stairwell volume. The damper shall be normally closed and open automatically when
subjected to a temperature of 57C or to a rise at the rate of 10C per minute.

In lieu of providing the emergency relief, a stair pressurisation fan capable of reversing its direction
may be installed. The control for the fan in the exhaust mode (reversing switch) shall be located at
the Fire Command Centre

Note: it should be noted that the successful operation of any stair pressurisation system is
dependant on the proper construction of the stair enclosure. Stair enclosures must be relatively
airtight, the space between the bottom of the doors and the sill plate must not exceed .95cm.

A smoke detector is to be installed in the intake of each fan. Action shall be to shut off the fan
when smoke is sensed. Smoke detectors are to be provided under electrical.

Activation of the stair pressurisation fan shall be by smoke detectors in corridors, suppression
system activation or by manual fire alarm station.

Starters for stair pressurisation fans shall be hand off automatic type with spring return.

2.2.3.12.3 Guest Corridor Smoke Exhaust


In countries that require this, a vent riser shall be located as centrally as possible within each zone
of the guest corridor. Mechanical exhaust fan(s) shall be located on the roof. Fire dampers shall be
positioned behind exhaust grille(s) on each floor.

The required air changes are six times the volume of the largest corridor. The system can be
combined with the general exhaust. Automatic actuators open the dampers of the affected corridor
and close all others. Supply air must be shut off.

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Activation of the system shall be by smoke detectors within any corridor, which shall start the
fan(s), starters for guest corridor exhaust fans shall be hand off automatic type with spring return.

2.2.3.12.4 Air Handling Systems Life Safety Requirements


A photoelectric type smoke detector (supplied under the electrical section and installed by this
section) shall be located in the suction side of each:
- supply fan
- return fan
- exhaust fan (except kitchen grease hood exhaust and laundry exhaust, where high temperature
heat detectors are required).

When an alarm condition is sensed, the detector shall shut the system off and indicate an alarm
condition at the smoke detector panel. System keyed override shall be located in fire control room.

2.2.3.12.5 Life Safety Alarm Panel Interface


The BMS shall interface with the lift safety alarm panel described in the electrical section. The
interface shall be provided and installed by this section. See section 7 for life safety interfaces.

2.2.3.13 Ductwork
All ductwork, except where otherwise specified, should be in conformance with acceptable international
standards.

A 25mm diameter test hole with removable seal should be provided on the entering and leaving side of
each heating coil, in the discharge duct of each fan and in each main branch duct.

Access doors as specified in article access doors should be provided in the ducts for access to fusible
link dampers, acoustic louvre dampers or other controls.

Al hanger inserts should be of the type as approved and described in article Hangers/Supports.

2.2.3.14 Access Doors


Provide raised access doors and frames to permit inspection, operation and maintenance of all valves,
controls, fire dampers, automatic controls dampers, filters, bearing, traps or other apparatus concealed
within the ductwork systems. All such doors in insulated ducts should be double panel insulated of not
less than 2-mm, galvanised steel. All access doors should have sponge rubber gaskets around their
entire perimeter and be held in place with cliplock fasteners.

Access doors into ducts should in general be 450mm x 450mm or larger, except where duct sizes
prohibit. Access doors should be located every 3 metres, this is to facilitate cleaning of ductwork.

2.2.3.15 Dampers
Volume control dampers should be at the quadrant type of heavy construction, pivoted to turn easily and
provided with approved operating and locking devices, mounted an the outside of the duct in an
accessible place. Multi-blade volume control dampers should be provided in all ducts above 1000mm x
300mm or equivalent.

Fire dampers should be installed in all 2-hr rated ducts (except kitchen extract system) piercing the fire
rated shaft walls or floors. Fire dampers must comply with service department requirements.

2.2.3.16 Flexible Connections


Fan connections, both at inlet and discharge, should be made with flexible material so as to prohibit the
transfer vibration from fans to ductwork connecting thereto. Flexible connections should be made with
flame retardant, vinyl coated, woven fibreglass fabric.

The flexible connections should be approximately 150mm long and held in place with heavy metal
bands or double hemlock security attached so to prevent any leakage.

Temperature rating of flexible connectors should be suitable for rating of fan.

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2.2.3.17 Grilles, Registers and Diffusers


All grilles, registers and diffusers should be furnished with matt enamel finish. Colour should be as
selected and approved by IHG. All volume controls exposed to view should be painted black.
A schedule should be prepared and samples submitted of all grilles, registers and diffusers before they
are ordered for installation. The schedule should clearly indicate all sizes, model numbers, volume
throws and other physical characteristics as appropriate.

All side wall outlets should have individually adjustable horizontal face bars and vertical rear bars.
Except for guest rooms, all air supply outlets should be fitted with opposed blade dampers or as
approved.

All return and exhaust grilles and registers should be of the fixed horizontal bar type to match supply
grilles and should be provided with integral opposed blade dampers.

2.2.3.18 Acoustic Treatment


Where required to produce acceptable sound levels, conventional supply ductwork and return ductwork
should be installed with acoustic linings or attenuation.

Required length of acoustic treatment should be reviewed and established by a qualified acoustic
consultant.

2.2.3.19 Hangers/Supports
All hangers and supports for ductwork, except where otherwise specified, should be in conformance
with acceptable international standards.

2.2.4 ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY CONSERVATION


Fans should not be selected on the basis of manufacturers nominal ratings. Each such piece of
equipment must be examined from the standpoint of noise production and maximum efficiency at the
selected operating level. For this purpose, the operating curves of the equipment must be made
available to the design engineer.

Centrifugal fans should be of the non-overloading type fan wheels should have backwardly curved or
air-foil blades.

Where appropriate variable speed drives should be installed.

2.2.5 COMMISSIONING & TESTING


General
The ease with which systems may be commissioned is often dependent on the level of planning that
occurs at the design stage and the standards to which the works are executed.

Particular attention should be paid to the following:-


The selection of ductwork components, configuration and layout which ensure that the system is as
inherently stable and self balancing as possible
The selection of fans with duty points on a stable part of the fan curve and capable of producing
between 110 and 115% of the design flow against the estimated index branch resistance
Good ductwork design and installation
Having the correct type of damper in the necessary positions. Grille and diffuser dampers should not be
used for any purpose other than fine adjustment of terminal volume flow rates
Adequate space for access to all plant and equipment
Careful consideration of the siting of test holes in ductwork and the provision of ductwork configuration
that facilitates accurate flow rate measurement.

DOCUMENTATION
The Commissioning Specialist should make a written report, including certification, where applicable, at
each and every stage of the commissioning procedure with the assistance from the specialist manufactures
commissioning staff.

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These should include the following:-


System design commissioning report
Post installation report
System Cleanliness report
System commissioning report
Pre-commissioning check lists
Electrical inspection report
Electrical motor and controls performance records
Setting to work check lists
Plant performance test sheets
Distribution System balance test sheets
Environmental condition records

The commissioning specialist should submit to the Designer, for approval, sample documentation,
indicating style and content with the method statement.

Commissioning Report
Once commissioning has been completed the Designer should present a final commissioning report to the
Client.

2.2.6 OPERATING & MAINTENANCE


Three sets of operating and maintenance instruction manuals covering completely equipment starting
sequences, operation, maintenance, automatic controls and listing of all spare parts shall be furnished to
IHG. In additional, one set of operating and maintenance instructions for each mechanical equipment
and fan room shall be neatly laminated in permanently translucent plastic and hung where directed.
Three sets of lubricating charts and manuals for each item of equipment shall be furnished to IHG.

2.2.7 SPARE PARTS


The engineer shall specify a requirement for spare parts to be furnished by the HVAC contractor. The
number and type of spare parts shall relate to the type of equipment specified and to the availability of a
supply. The following list represents a minimum standard. The engineer shall enlarge upon this list as
required by local conditions.

Equipment Local Manufacturer Imported

HVAC Units 1 set belts for each unit, 10% 1 set belts for each unit, 1 adjustable
filter replacement each size shelf for each unit, 20% filter
replacement each size.

HVAC Control 5% thermostat replacement 10% thermostat replacement

All HVAC starters 1 set contacts each type 2 set contacts each type

Contractors and relays 1 magnetic coil each type, 1% 2 magnetic coils each type, 2 heater
heater replacement replacement, 2% pilot light
replacement

Insulation 2% replacement each type 5% replacement each type and size

Central control panels None 10% replacement pilot light and


switches.

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