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ChE 453

Transport Phenomena

Instructor:
Dr. Md. Easir Arafat Khan
Assistant Professor
Department of Chemical Engineering, BUET,
Dhaka-1000

February 2015
Chapter-1: Viscosity and Mechanism of
Momentum Transport

Newtons law of viscosity


Calculation of momentum flux
Pressure and Temperature Dependency of
Viscosity
Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid
Bingham model
Power law
Ellis Model
Newtons Law of Viscosity:

At steady state, F is
required to maintain
velocity V, then the force
can be expressed as,

F V

A Y

Fig.1.1-1: The buildup to the steady, laminar velocity profile for a fluid contained
between two plates.
Newtons Law of Viscosity

F V
The force should be proportional to the area and the velocity
and inversely proportional to distance between the plates
A Y
Where is the proportionality constant, defined to be the viscosity

F
yx Force in the x direction on a unite area perpendicular to
A y direction

The relationship becomes,


vx
yx
y
The shearing force per unite area is proportional to the negative of the
velocity gradient, is often called Newtons law of viscosity.

yx Flux of x-momentum in y direction

vx
Velocity gradient is the driving force for momentum transport
y
Unit of momentum flux:

In SI system,
N
yx 2 Pa
m
1
dvx
yx
y

Pa (m / s ).m 1 1
Pa.s

In fps,
vx
yx
g c y
V 1 ft / s
Y 0.001 ft

6.719 104 lbm ft 1s 1


0.7cp 0.7 4.7 104 lbm ft 1s 1
1cp

In fps, vx 4.7 10 4 1
yx
g c y 32.174 0.001
2
1.46 10 lb f / ft 2
Note that,
At room temperature, viscosity of water 1 cp
viscosity of air 0.02 cp
Fig. 1.5. Reduced pressure as
function of reduced temperature
and pressure

Find viscosity from reduced


temperature and pressure

Using data set,

Tc
Pc
c
Find viscosity from
reduced temperature and
pressure
Non Newtonian Fluids:

Newtonian fluid:
vx
yx True for all gases and homogeneous
y nonpolymeric liquids

True for all gases and homogeneous nonpolymeric liquids

For non Newtonian fluid,


vx
yx
y
dvx
If , as (increasing rate of shear) Psedoplastic
dy
dvx
If, as Dialatant
dy dv x
If is independent of Newtonian fluid
dy
Types of N-N fluids:

a) Time independent
b) Time dependent
c) Viscoilastic

Time independent fluids:


Fluid with yield shear stress
Fluid without yield shear stress
v x
Relationship between yx and can be expressed by two parameter or
three parameter models:
y
Two parameter model:

Bignham model:
vx
yx 0 0 if yx 0
y
vx
0 if yx 0
y

If yield stress 0 is not reached, matter remain rigid. If yield stress is applied,

flows quite like Newtonian. The positive sign is used when yx is positive and
the negative sign is used when yx is negative. A substance that follows this
two parameter model is called Bingham Plastic.
This model is applicable for fine suspension and paste.
Oswald-de Waele Model:

n 1
dvx dvx
yx m
dy dy
This two parameter equation is also know as power law.

n 1, dialatant
for n 1, psedoplastic
n 1 newtonian
The deviation from unity indicates the degree of deviation from Newtonian
behavior.
Three parameter model:

Ellis Model:


dvx
dy

0 1 yx
1
yx

This model contains three adjustable parameters, 0 , 1 and . If 1,


the model approaches Newtonians law for small yx , on the other hand,
if 1 Newtons law is approached for large yx .

This model is very flexible and as special cases


for 1 0, Newtons Law
for 0 0, Power law
Three parameter model:

The Reiner-Philippoff model:


dv x 1
yx
dy 0
1 ( / ) 2
yx s
It contains three adjustable parameters, , 0 and s . The Newtonian
behavior has often been observed at very low and very high shear rates.

Zero shear viscosity:


yx
0 lim
yx 0 dv / dy
x