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ChE 453 Lecture 2

ChE 453 Lecture 2

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Transport Phenomena

Instructor:

Dr. Md. Easir Arafat Khan

Assistant Professor

Department of Chemical Engineering, BUET,

Dhaka-1000

February 2015

Chapter-1: Viscosity and Mechanism of

Momentum Transport

Calculation of momentum flux

Pressure and Temperature Dependency of

Viscosity

Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid

Bingham model

Power law

Ellis Model

Newtons Law of Viscosity:

At steady state, F is

required to maintain

velocity V, then the force

can be expressed as,

F V

A Y

Fig.1.1-1: The buildup to the steady, laminar velocity profile for a fluid contained

between two plates.

Newtons Law of Viscosity

F V

The force should be proportional to the area and the velocity

and inversely proportional to distance between the plates

A Y

Where is the proportionality constant, defined to be the viscosity

F

yx Force in the x direction on a unite area perpendicular to

A y direction

vx

yx

y

The shearing force per unite area is proportional to the negative of the

velocity gradient, is often called Newtons law of viscosity.

vx

Velocity gradient is the driving force for momentum transport

y

Unit of momentum flux:

In SI system,

N

yx 2 Pa

m

1

dvx

yx

y

Pa (m / s ).m 1 1

Pa.s

In fps,

vx

yx

g c y

V 1 ft / s

Y 0.001 ft

0.7cp 0.7 4.7 104 lbm ft 1s 1

1cp

In fps, vx 4.7 10 4 1

yx

g c y 32.174 0.001

2

1.46 10 lb f / ft 2

Note that,

At room temperature, viscosity of water 1 cp

viscosity of air 0.02 cp

Fig. 1.5. Reduced pressure as

function of reduced temperature

and pressure

temperature and pressure

Tc

Pc

c

Find viscosity from

reduced temperature and

pressure

Non Newtonian Fluids:

Newtonian fluid:

vx

yx True for all gases and homogeneous

y nonpolymeric liquids

vx

yx

y

dvx

If , as (increasing rate of shear) Psedoplastic

dy

dvx

If, as Dialatant

dy dv x

If is independent of Newtonian fluid

dy

Types of N-N fluids:

a) Time independent

b) Time dependent

c) Viscoilastic

Fluid with yield shear stress

Fluid without yield shear stress

v x

Relationship between yx and can be expressed by two parameter or

three parameter models:

y

Two parameter model:

Bignham model:

vx

yx 0 0 if yx 0

y

vx

0 if yx 0

y

If yield stress 0 is not reached, matter remain rigid. If yield stress is applied,

flows quite like Newtonian. The positive sign is used when yx is positive and

the negative sign is used when yx is negative. A substance that follows this

two parameter model is called Bingham Plastic.

This model is applicable for fine suspension and paste.

Oswald-de Waele Model:

n 1

dvx dvx

yx m

dy dy

This two parameter equation is also know as power law.

n 1, dialatant

for n 1, psedoplastic

n 1 newtonian

The deviation from unity indicates the degree of deviation from Newtonian

behavior.

Three parameter model:

Ellis Model:

dvx

dy

0 1 yx

1

yx

the model approaches Newtonians law for small yx , on the other hand,

if 1 Newtons law is approached for large yx .

for 1 0, Newtons Law

for 0 0, Power law

Three parameter model:

dv x 1

yx

dy 0

1 ( / ) 2

yx s

It contains three adjustable parameters, , 0 and s . The Newtonian

behavior has often been observed at very low and very high shear rates.

yx

0 lim

yx 0 dv / dy

x

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