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control

Contents

Feedback control system

Sampled data systems

Need for sampling

Types of sampled data systems

Digital Control

Feedback control

Closed loop Control system

Input to a controlled system/plant is determined as a

function of the system/plant output

Some mechanism to sense the plant output

Controller to computer the desired input to the

system so as to achieve a desired goal

Disturbance rejection

Steady state error

Transient performance

Sensitivity to parameter variation

Actuator drives the plant taking input from controller

Feedback control

Parts of a feedback control system

using digital computer

Feedback control

Plant can be

Linear or nonlinear

Time variant or time invariant

Signals can be (response, sensor, desired)

Continuous in space and time

Discrete in space continuous in time

Continuous in space but discrete in time

Discrete in space and discrete in time

Steps in digital feedback realization

Step 1- Analysis of closed loop system

Modeling of the physical system

Determining the control goals

Determining required control efforts

Step 2- design of digital controller

Determine the required sensors and actuators

Design the controller based on models

Step 3- realization of digital controller

Simulate the controller on model of the system

Implement the controller using digital computer or other hard

ware

Test the system performance

Loop back

Examples

Model of a servomechanism

DC motor control of robot arm- derive the transfer

function from output angle L(s) to input Ea(s)

Examples

Antenna positioning system- derive the TF

from (s) to input voltage Vi(s)

Examples

Model of a satellite- determine the model of

the system, i.e. determine the TF from (s) to

the (s)

Examples

Model of a Temperature control system

Exercise

1. Solve problem 1.7 of Reference book on

page 21 using MATLAB

2. Solve problem 1.17 of reference book on

page 26

Sampled data systems

Digital control system always involves sampled

data systems

Sampling is the process of converting a

continuous analog signal to a discrete signal

Sampled data systems

Sampled signals

Easier to transmit

Easily regenerated

Easy for coding

Can be easily multiplexed

Sampled control

Multiple use of expensive equipment

Usually in controlled system data are

available/modified in certain instants only

Radar control, chemical analysis, SCR

Naturally discrete

Stepping motor, encoders

Sampled data systems

Sampler is introduced to improve dynamic

behavior of control loop

Better reliability

Better sensitivity behavior

No drift

Noise reduction

Less weight

Less hardware cost

Less software/ maintenance cost

Sampled data systems

Types of sampling

PAM

PWM

PFM

PAM preserves linearity of system and is used

in control

There are three basic types of sampled data

systems

Types of sampled data systems

Sampled data system used with continuous

controller and continuous plant

Types of sampled data systems

Sampler used with digital controller but

continuous plant

Types of sampled data systems

Sampler used with digital controller and

continuous plant

Sampled data systems- Analysis

Ideal sampler- have infinite switching

frequency

The output of the ideal sampler x*(t) is a

series of impulse signals whose amplitude is

equal to the original signal x(t)

X*(t) is then given as

x *(t) x(t) (t) x(t T ) (t T ) ...

In the Laplace transform,

X(s) X*(s)

Sampled data systems

The Laplace transform of the sampled signal

x*(t) is defined as

X * (s)

k 0

x(kT)ekTs (1.1)

x(t)=u(t) and x(t) et

It may be difficult to find closed form of X*(s)

from the equation given in (1.1)

1

X * ( s) residuesof X( ) -T (s- )

at polesof X ( ) 1 - e

Sampled data systems

Example: Find X*(s) when X(s) is given by

1

X ( s)

(s 1)(s 2)

Another closed form expression for X*(s) is

1 k

x(0)

X * (s) X (s jks )

T k 2

Properties of X*(s)

1. X*(s) is period in s with period jws

2. If X(s) has a pole at s=s1, then X*(s) will have

poles at s=s1+jnws

Sampled data systems

The frequency spectrum of x*(t) is obtained

by using Fourier transform

X*(jw) is obtained by replacing s=jw in the

Laplace transform since x(t)=0 for t<0.

Hence X*(jw) is given by

X * ( j) X ( j) e j ( j)

Effect of sampling on frequency spectrum is to

repeat or replicate the frequency spectrum

centered at ks with k=1,2,3

Sampled data systems

The sampling theorem- sampling should be

performed at frequency at least twice the

maximum frequency of the original signal x(t)

maximum frequency of signal

When sampling frequency is less than Nyquest

frequency, aliasing occurs.

For reconstruction of sampled data signals,

filter is required- low pass filter

Sampled data systems- reconstruction

Data hold

in all sampled data systems, data hold systems are

used

It approximates an ideal low pass filter

It converts the sampled signal into a continuous

time signal

There are three types of data hold circuits

Zero order, first order and second order data hold

Data reconstruction

If the input of a sampler is given by e(t) and

en(t) is used to denote the reconstructed

signal, then

e(nT) is second derivative

Order of the data hold is determined by the

number of terms used to approximate en(t)

First term only zero order hold

Two terms only- first order hold

Three terms only second order hold

Data reconstruction

Taking numerical approximation of e(t) and

e(t)

en(t)=e(nT)

1 eTs

E0 (s)

s s

E0 (s) 1 e Ts

Gh0 (s)

E ( s) s

Data reconstruction contd

In the frequency domain, the ZOH is given as

sin(T / 2) jT / 2

Gh0 ( jw) T e

T / 2

Data reconstruction contd

First order hold

Contains the first two terms of Taylor series

expansion of en(t)

en(t)=e(nT)+e(nT)(t-nT) nT<t<(n+1)T

Where the derivative e(nT) is given by

e(nT) e[(n 1)T ]

e' (nT)

T

Hence the transfer function of FOH is given by

2 2

1 Ts 1 eTs 1 jwT 1 e jwT

Gh1 (s) Gh1 (s)

T s T jw

Data converters

vice versa is a critical part in digital control

Analog to digital converter

Interface sensors to digital controller

Digital to analog converter

Interfaces digital controller to actuator/plant

DAC is a practical hold circuit

Reference voltage( full scale voltage)

Resolution

Data converters

ADC converts analog signal to digital

No of bits of the ADC

Conversion time

Various types of converters are used

Select converter based on the cost/conversion time

Exercise

1) If the input of an ideal sampler is

e(t)=2cos(1t) where 1 <s/2 , draw the

Fourier transform of the output E*(jw).

Discuss also the effect of varying 1

2) Draw the frequency response

characteristics of a FOH.

3) List at least 3 commercially available ADC

and DAC and compare their performances

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