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ISE 482L Lab VII

Design of Experiments Lab


Paper Planes Experiment

Purpose:

The purpose of the lab is to design an optimal paper airplane using a


2-factor factorial experiment (2k) approach. In week one, students will
perform a 1/8 fractional factorial experiment on a paper airplane
design that contains 6 design parameters, each design parameter
containing two possible factors. In week two, using the interaction
effects from the fractional factorial experiment, students will select the
best combination of design parameters to create the optimal paper
airplane. Experiments will be performed to assess the performance of
this optimal design.

Time Frame:

Week 1- Assembling and testing initial airplane designs; results will be


concluded out of class using Minitab, Excel, etc.

Week 2- Develop and test the new airplane design using results of DOE
from week 1.

Materials and Equipment:

Paper of varying thickness


Scissors
Flat working surface
Ruler

Student Setup:

The students will work in groups of two.

Design parameters / factors:

Paper Type
Length of Wing
Width of Body
Length of Body
Wing Type (Angled or Non-Angled)
ISE 482L : Lab VII

Paper Clip

Procedure:

Week 1: Creation of Initial Airplane


In this lab, 8 paper airplane designs will be created as defined below. The
designs will vary based on the 6 design parameters. Trials will then be
performed to assess the performance of each design. The performance
measure of interest is the average distance traveled by the airplane in four
trials.

Determine the Number of Trials Required:

Knowing that the experiment is a 2k fractional factorial design; and that 1/8
of the number of trials is acceptable; and that there are 6 factors and 2
responses; what is the number of required airplanes which need to be
created?

(Answer):

2(6-3) =8;

Plane Design:

As stated before, this experiment is a 2-factor factorial experiment. The only


factors for this experiment are high and low level values/characteristics.
Therefore, the first two designs will be a completely high level and
completely low level airplane.

Partner 1 will make their paper airplane the low level factor airplane,
meaning they will be required to use the following materials:

Low Level Paper Airplane Design


Materials Low Level
Paper Type Standard Copy Paper
Length of Wing User Defined
Width of Body User Defined
Length of Body User Defined
Wing Type (Angled or Non-
Non-Angled
Angled)
Paper Clip User Defined
ISE 482L : Lab VII

The rows that state, User Defined, simply means that the airplane creator
can determine these lengths or number of paper clips, there are no
predetermined values.

Partner 2 will make their paper airplane the high level factor airplane
meaning they will be required to use the following materials:

High Level Paper Airplane Design


Parameter High Level
Paper Type Bonded
Length of Wing User Defined, greater than Partner 1
Width of Body User Defined, greater than Partner 1
Length of Body User Defined, greater than Partner 1
Wing Type (Angled or Non-Angled) Angled
Paper Clip User Defined, greater than Partner 1

The columns that state, User Defined, greater than Partner 1, simply
means that the airplane creator can determine these lengths or number of
paper clips on their own, but needs to make sure that their values are
greater than Partner 1s values.

In addition to the High and Low level designs, 6 Intermediate designs must
be completed in order to carry out the fractional factorial experiment.
Design parameters for each intermediate design are listed in the tables
below. Make sure you mark your designs so airplanes designs can readily be
identified.

Intermediate Design 1
Parameter Level Parameter Specs.
Paper Type 1
Length of Wing -1
Width of Body -1
Length of Body -1
Wing Type (Angled or Non-
-1
Angled)
Paper Clip 1

Intermediate Design 2
Parameter Level Parameter Specs
Paper Type -1
ISE 482L : Lab VII

Length of Wing 1
Width of Body -1
Length of Body -1
Wing Type (Angled or Non-
1
Angled)
Paper Clip -1

Intermediate Design 3
Parameter Level Parameter Specs
Paper Type 1
Length of Wing 1
Width of Body -1
Length of Body 1
Wing Type (Angled or Non-
-1
Angled)
Paper Clip -1

Intermediate Design 4
Parameter Level Parameter Specs
Paper Type -1
Length of Wing 1-
Width of Body 1
Length of Body 1
Wing Type (Angled or Non-
-1
Angled)
Paper Clip -1

Intermediate Design 5
Parameter Level Parameter Specs
Paper Type 1
Length of Wing -1
Width of Body 1
Length of Body -1
Wing Type (Angled or Non-
1
Angled)
Paper Clip -1

Intermediate Design 6
Parameter Level Parameter Specs
ISE 482L : Lab VII

Paper Type -1
Length of Wing 1
Width of Body 1
Length of Body -1
Wing Type (Angled or Non-
-1
Angled)
Paper Clip 1

Recording Distances:

Knowing that 4 trials is acceptable, complete 4 runs with the each airplane,
then find the average distance covered by the airplane.

Low Level Airplane Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average

High Level Airplane Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average
ISE 482L : Lab VII

Intermediate Design 1 Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average

Intermediate Design 2 Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average

Intermediate Design 3 Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average

Intermediate Design 4 Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)


ISE 482L : Lab VII

Average

Intermediate Design 5 Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average

Intermediate Design 6 Distance:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average

Determining Effects of Control Parameters:

Input the main effects into Minitab, also include the interaction effects. This
is done by performing a Factorial Design, graphs like the figures below are
typical output from Minitab.
ISE 482L : Lab VII

Main Effects Plot for Response


Data Means
A B C
27

24

21

18

15
Mean

-1 1 -1 1 -1 1
D E F
27

24

21

18

15
-1 1 -1 1 -1 1
ISE 482L : Lab VII

Interaction Plot for Response


Data Means
-1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1
32
A
24 -1
A 1
16
32
B
24 -1
B 1
16
32
C
24 -1
C 1
16
32
D
24 -1
D 1
16
32
E
24 -1
E 1
16

Interaction Examples:

No Interaction Present between Wing Type and Paper Type


ISE 482L : Lab VII

Interaction occurs between Body Length and Paper Clip

After evaluating the Minitab output results, the interactions with the
intersecting lines indicates that there is an interaction with the two
parameters, likewise if there is no intersection, then the two parameters do
not have an interaction.

Which control parameter or parameters had the greatest effect? And why?
(Hint: Pareto Chart, but say why you chose it if used)

Lab Design Problem

There is a known problem with this lab. When you find the problem, suggest
changes to this lab by modifying this document.

Week 1 Deliverables:

1. Modified lab
2. Minitab Analysis including Main Effect Plot and Interaction Plot
ISE 482L : Lab VII

3. Lab report, including how and why lab was modified, and identification
of parameters that have the greatest effect and how these were
chosen.

Week 2: Creation of Improved Airplane Design


Based on the most influential variables and the interaction effects, create the
ultimate paper airplane. Re-run the experiment 4 times and note the
distances. Conclude in the lab write-up the change you made to the
airplane, and whether your resultant design effected the distance of your
airplane.

Fill out the following table of the changes you made.

Materials New Design

Paper Type

Length of Wing

Width of Body

Length of Body

Wing Type (Angled or Non-Angled)

Paper Clip

Airplane Distance for New Design:

Runs Distance (inches)

Average
ISE 482L : Lab VII

Were the distances longer? Were the results what you expected?

Conclude the experiment by completing the written report, the format can be
seen on the following page.

Report: The written report should include the following:

1. Purpose

2. Procedure:
a. A summary of your experimental design, describe who was
involved and how you made your initial airplane, materials used,
testing protocol used.
b. Describe what computer or book aides were used

3. Results:
a. Provide all required and any supplemental tables and graphs in
the body of the report. At the minimum there should be a graph
for all significant interaction effects, and a Minitab factorial
design test determining the interaction effects.
b. Clearly state the expected relationship between the initial
designs of high and low performance planes, to the final design.
c. Explain how you determined what factors were significant.
d. Conclude how you interpreted the results from Minitab.

4. Conclusions:
a. Discuss how well the results matched the expectations.
b. Explain the discrepancies between expected and actual results.
c. Explain whether Minitab helped or hindered your understanding
of the experiment
d. Make suggestions to make this experiment better.
e. Conclude where human error may have played a role in this
experiment. If so how can the human error be eliminated.

5. Appendix- Include all data and calculations in an appendix.