mmnf

B 3

UC-NRLF
--

TEi

3Qc^

ENRY Blackburn.

4HIIUU

L1RRA.RV

University of California.
(

;i

Ki-

OK

Received Accession No. ^(^'^y^V-^
.

.

iqa

.

Class No.

/

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.

XB'

UHIVERSITT
CALlFOS

" Nir TKlMll.] IK."
(Ora-,v; hi ,Wn

(SII;

JOHN

CILIIERT, K.A.)

ami

ink,

from hh
by

/•kliirc in llua^\

Royal Academy,

i83j.)

[Size ofdr.-uving. 5J

in.

Plioto-zinc process.]

The Art

of

Illvistration,

HENRY BLACKBURN,
Editor of " Academy
A'otes,^'

Can/or Lecturer on

Il/iisf ration,

{^c.

N N ET Y- F V E
I
I

I

LL U ST R AT O N S.
I

SECOND EDITION.

W.

H.
13,

ALLEN &
1896.

CO.,

Limited,
S.W.

WATERLOO PLACE,

^

c^^

TRINTED
\V

1!Y

Y.MAN

AMI

SON'S,

LIMITED,

LONDON, W.C.

DEDICATKI.) TO

SIR

JOHN GILBERT,
ONE OF THE
PRlN'CTPAr.

R.A.

PIONEERS
I

OF POOK AND NEWSPAPEi;

[, I.

UST K AI

1

()

N

.

S ;>()!.5

DKAWING FKOM

HIS PICTLKE,

I;Y

M
]

[Photo-zinc process

PREFACE.
HE
object of this

book

is

to explain the

modern systems of Book and News[)a[)er

IHustration,

and especially the
for

methods of drawing

what

is

comartists

monly
are

called "process,"

on which so many

now engaged.
is

There

almost a revolution

in

illustration at the

present time, and both old antl young
scholars

— teachers and
for reference
illustrator
[jiacc;

— arc
is

in

want of

a

handbook

when turning
of to-day of the

to the

new methods.
upon suddenly
in

The

called

to take the

wood engraver

interpreting tone into line,

X

PREFACE.
this

and requires practical information which
is

book

intended

to supply.

The most
of
is

important branch of illustration treated
it

line draxcing, as
b_\-

is

practically out of reach of
is,

competition

the photographer, and
easily
;

moreo\-er,

the kind of drawing' most
printed
at

reproduced and

the

typ(t

press

but

wash
the

drawing,

drawing upon

grained

papers,

and
all

modern

appliances for re|)roduction, are
The; best instructors
after
all,

treated of
ior process are,

in

drawing

the painters of pictiires

who know
There

so well

how

to

express themselves in black and white, and to
1

whom

owe many
between

obligations.

is

a wide

distinction

their treatment of "illustration"
artist.

and the so-called "pen-and-ink"

The "genius" who
ot

strikes out a wonderful path

his

own, whose scratches and splashes appear

in

so

many

books and

newspapers,

is

of

the

"butterlly" order of being

-a creation, so to speak,

of the

processes,

and
is

is

not

to

be emulated

or
in

imitated.

There

no reason but custom why,

drawing

for process, a

man's coat should be made

to look like straw, or the

background

(if

there be

a background)

have the appearance of fireworks.
illustrator will

No

ability

on the part of the

make
is

these thinys tolerable in the near future.

There

PREFACE.
a reaction already, and signs of a bclicr and

xi

more

sober treatment
a
better

ot

ilhistr:ui(in,

which

onl)- recjuires

understaudiiig

of the

reijuireiuculs

and
to

Ihnitatmis of the proeesses, to

make

it

equal

some

of the best

work of the
illustrator

past.

The modern
than

has

much
for

to learn

— more
— or
the

he imagines

— in

drawing

the processes.
line

A

study of examples by masters of
INIenzell,

drawing

such as Holbein,
of the best

Fortuny or Sandys
etchers, will

work of the

not

tell

student of to-day exactl)' what he
for the)- are nearly all

reejtiires to

know;

misleading as to the principles
is

upon which modern process work
In painting

based.

we
it

learn everything from the past
is

everything that
also,

l)est
tlie

to

know.
the
ii:

In engraving

we

learn

from
into
is

past

best

wa)for

to

interpret colour

line,

but

drawing

the
;

processes there
at

practically no "past " to refer to

the .same time the advance of the photographer
the

into

domain of
artists

illustration
to
it

renders

it

oi

\ ital

importance to

put forth their best work in

black and white, and

throws great responsibility

upon

art teachers to
tlie

give a good groundwork of
of the
future.
will

education to
this,

illustrator

In

all

education- -geiiei'di ediiiiition

take a wider

part.

xii

PREFACE.
selected to
in

The Illustrations have been
the
possibiHties of "process"

show

work
any

educated,
dc force

capable
in

hands,

ratlier

than

toitrs

drawing, or exploits of genius.

They

are

all

of

modern work, and are printed on the same sheets
as the letterpress.

All

the

Illustrations

in

this

book

have

been

reproduced by mechanical processes, excepting nine

(marked on the

list),

which are engraved on wood.
are due to the Council of the

Acknowledgments

Society of Arts for permission to reprint a portion
of the Cantor Lectures on " Illustration" from their

Journal

;

to the

Editors of the A'ational Review
Century,
fur

and

the

Nineteenth

permission

to
;

reprint several pages from articles in those reviews
to

the

Editors

and

Publishers
all,

who
the

have

lent

illustrations;

and above

to

artists

whose

works adorn these pages.

H.

B.

123,

Victoria .Street, Westminster.
.Vr;i',
I

894.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
I.— Introductorv
II.
i

CHAPrER

Elementary Illusikviion
Illustrated

.

.

15

Diagrams
::

— Daily

Newspapers-

i'lctorial

Verbal Description.
III.

CHAl'Tl'^R

— Artistic
the

Ii,i.ustr.\tions

...
Drawing
lor

40

Education
Process

of

Illustrator
fruin

— Line

— Sketching

Life

— Examples of Line
.
. .

Drawing.

CHAPTER IV.— Thk
"

Processes

.

102

Photo zinco

— Gelatine Process — Grained Papers — Mechanical Dots — " Half-tone Process — Wash Drawing — Illustrations from Photographs-"

"

5(v/c//,

Grapliii\ &c.

— Daniel

Vierge.

CHAPTER v.— Wood
CHAPTER VL—TuE
CHAP I'ER

E.sgr.wing

....
P.uie
.

182
197

DiuoK.vnvE

VII. --Author,

Ii.i.u.str.vior,

cS:

Puui.isher

2

1

Students' Drawings

223

Appendix

233

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
[T/ii copyyi^ht of all pictures

skeUhed in

this book is s'.viclly ycsei-vea.'\

"The
Swans.
"

Trumpeter.''

Sir

John

Gilbert,

R.A

{Process)

\\

Charles Collins

"Ashes of Roses." G. H. Boughton, A.R Badminton in the Studio." R. W. Macbeth, A.R "A Son of Pan." William Padgett " Home by the P'crry.'' Edward Stott Man in Chain Armour. Lancelot Speed "Greeting." The Hon. iNIrs. Boyle Diagrams (5) View above Blankcnbuig
.
.

'4
15

.

...
.

(

19-32 ll'ood) ^i
,.

The Curvature
Frustrated."

of the World's Surface
"

30
(

Tiresome Dog.

E.

K. Johnson

Process')

43

Walter Hunt
Ellen Montalba
]\L
S.

On

the Riviera."

44 46
47

Landscape with Trees."

R. Corbet

An Odd Volume."

H.

Marks, R.A.
S.

49

A

Select Committee."

H.
St.

Marks,

R
56

The Rose Queen."
Finding of the Infant

G. D. Leslie, R.A.

George."
.

C. Vi. Gere

A

Ploughboy."

G. Clausen

59.^1
.

Blowing Bubbles."
Cathedral, from

C. E. Wilson

65

0\ Body
Ways.''
.

Lane."
^V.

H. Railtun

69
7o> 71 73> 75

By Unfrequented
Adversity."

H. Gore

Fred. Hall

A

Willowy Stream."

Maud

Naftel

76 79

Twins."

Stanley Berkeley

ILLUSTRATIOSS.
"The Dark
Island." T.

Alfred East
.

.

.

.

{Pn
,

ess)

80 S3
87

"A
Sir

Portrait."

C. Gotch

.

.

.

The
'

John Tenniel. Edwin Ward Edwin Ward Rt. Hon. John Morley. "Nothing venture, nothing have." E. P. Sanguinctti
.
.

.

,

90
9-. 93
.

On

the Terrace."
the Squire."

E. A.
Sir

Rowe

.

.

.

94 97

John Millais, Bart., R..\. "The Stopped Key." H. S. Marks, R.A. Nymph and Cupid. Henry Holiday L. Speed Illustration to ''The Blue Poetry Book."

"For

A

Portrait.

T. Blake Wirgman.

.

.

.

.

i°3
•°5 107

" Forget

Me

Not."

Henry Ryland
E.

.

.

.

.

" Baby's

Own."

G. Hillyard Swinstead

"A

Silent Pool."

W. Waite
E.

.

.

.

.

to8

"The Miller's "The End of
" In the

Daughter."

K. Johnson

the Chapter."
J.

W. Rainey
P.

.

Pas de Calais."

Beadle

"Clolden Days."

F. Stuart

Richardson
.

"Twilight." Hume Nisbet " Le Dent du Geant." E.

.

.

.

,

M. Lindstroni Volendam. C. J. Watson "Old Woman and Grandchild." Hugh Cameron
Landscape.
A.

"An
"The

Arrest."

Melton Prior

.... ..... ....
'i'.

Compion

.

.

,

116,1

,

19

,

,

[27

"Sunrise in the Severn Valley."

Illustrations

Adjutant's Love Story." from " T/ie Blue Poetry Book.'' L. Speed
.

M. R. Corbet H. R. Millar

129
,

'3'
'34, 5-7

"Seine Boats."
"

Louis Grier Fairy Tales."
three's none."

.

.

.

. .

S

There
''

is

the Priory."
s

W. H. Wolien
J.

139
141, •43

From

Andersen

R. Weguclni

"Two's company,
l\\vi%Ua.\.\on

II. J.

Walker

.

'47 '49

Uom" Black and

IVliite."

C. G.

Manton

"

A

Sunny Land."

Decorative Design. Sketch in wash (part of picture) from "Sketek".

George Wetherbee The late Randolph Caldecott
157

"The Brook."

.\rnold Helcke

.

.

.

.

.

ILL US TRA TIONS.
From
From
a Photograph

from

Life.

By Mr. H.
. .

S.

Mendelssohn {'^Sketch") a Photograph from Life. By Cameron & Smith ("Studio")

{Proicss)

i6i

Messrs.
. .

165

From a Photograph from Life {'^Graphic") "Proud Maisie." Lancelot Speed Yrom PaUo de Segovia." Daniel Vierge Drinking Horn from ".£'w^;'/^/;/^j'M." L. Speed
.
.

.

{Wood) 169
(Process)

.

173
177 181
1S2

'^

.

.


Heading from ''Grimm s Household Stories." W. Crane ( Wood) Photograph from Life. "'The Century Magazine" "Driving Home the Pigs." John Pedder (/'fceess) (Wood) Joan of Arc's House at Rouen. Samuel Prout.
,,
.

1S7

193
195
197

¥{edid\nghom"Grimm''s Household Sto>-ics." W.Crane
Decorative Page.
A.
J.

,,

Gaskin

.

.

.

(Process)

199 205

Decorative Page from
Title

"Ty/iT &'.v &<:'(7//.f."

W.Crane (Hood) 201
,,

Page of

'•'

The Hobby Horse."
j5;'4'-/;/

Selwyn Image

Viking Ship from " Z';vV
" Scarlet Poppies."

^_)'«."

W.
B.

J.

Muckley
.

...
. . .

L.

Speed (Process) 208 209 „

"Take
Spanish

Care."

W.

Baird

Woman.

Ina Bidder

.

Children Reading.

Estelle d'Avigdor

.

,,

227

Sketch from Life.

G. C. JiLirks
Furze.

.

.,

229

Bou"h of Common

William French

CHAPTER
jHERE

I.

INTRODUCTORY.
are,

broadly speaking, two kinds
in
i,

of engraving for illustration

books,

which are widely
2,

distinct
first

intaglio;
all

relievo.

The

comprises

engravings, etchings, and photogravures in which
the lines are cut or indented by acid or other means,
into a steel or

copper plate

—a

system em[)loyed,

with

many

variations of method, from the time of

IMantegna, Albert Diirer, Holbein and Rembrandt,
to the

French and English etchers of the present

day.

Engravings thus produced are
illustration, as

little

used

in

modern book
easily

they cannot be printed
;

on the .same

page; as the letterpress

these

planches a part, as the French term them, are costly
to print

and are suitable only

for limited editions.

In the second,

or ordinary form of illustration,
lie

the linrs or [licturcs to

jirinted arc

left

in

relief;

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
the

design being generally

made on wood

with a

pencil,

and the parts not drawn upon cut away.

This was the rudimentary and almost universal
form of book-illustration, as practised
century,
as
in the fifteenth

revived

in

England by

Bewick

in

the eighteenth, and continued to the present day.

The
as

blocks thus prepared can be

printed rapidly

on ordinary printing-presses, and on the same page
flic text.

During the past few years so many processes
have been put forward
relief, for

for

producing drawings
it

in

printing witli the type, that

has become

a business in itself to test

and understand them.

The
least

best
it

known

process

is still

wood

engraving, at

is

the best for the fac-simile reproduction

of drawings, as at present understood in England,

whether they be drawn direct upon the wood or
transmitted by photography.
in relief

There
certainty,

is

no process

which has the same

which gives

the

same colour and

brightness,

and

by which

gradation of tone can be more truly rendered.

As

to

the relative value of the different photo-

graphic relief processes, that can only be decided by
experts.

Speaking generally,

I

may

say that there
is,
I

are six or seven

now

in

use,
all

each of which

am

informed,

the

best,

and

of which are adapted

INTRODUCTORY.
for printing in the

same manner

as a wood-block.*

Improvements

in these

processes are being

made
be
is

so rapidly that what
the
still

was best yesterday
it

will not

best to-morrow, and
little

is

a subject which

understood.
present

In

the

book

it

is

proposed

to

speak

principally of the
(relievo)
in all
;

more popular form of

illustration

but the changes which are taking place
it

forms of engraving and illustration render
first

necessary to say a few words

upon

intaglio.

We

have heard much

of the

"painter-etchers,"
to recognition as

and of the claims of the etchers
original artists
;

and

at the

annual exhibition of the

Society of Painter-Etchers in London,

we have seen
in

examples

in

which the

effects

produced

black

and white seemed more
than to the engraver's.

allied to

the painter's art

But we are considering

engraving as a means of interpreting the work of
others, rather than as an original art.

The

influence of photography
illustration.

is

felt

in

nearly

every department of

The new
riv'//^^;///

photo-

mechanical methods of engraving,

the aid

of

* All the illustrations in this book are produced by mechanical
processes excepting those

marked

in

the List of Illustrations

and

all

are printed

simultaneously with the letterpress.

For

description of processes, see Appendix.

(

4

)

No.
''Ashes of Roses^' by G.

II.

H. Boughton, A.R.A.

This careful drawing, from the painting by Mr.

Boughton,

in the

Royal Academy, reproduced by the
is

Dawson
is

process,

interesting for variety of treat-

ment and indication of
like the picture, but
it

textures in

pen and

ink.

It

has also the individuality of
line

the

draughtsman,

as

in

engraving.

Size of drawing about b\ x 3^ in.

No.

II.

A.DMINTON IN THE STIDM.'

(fKOM THE PAINTrNC DV
1891.)

K.

\V.

MACI!

A.K..^.)

{Royal Academy.

INTRODUCTORY.
tlw engraver,

have rendered drawing

for fac-simile

reproduction of more importance than ever;
the

and
in
oil

wonderful

invention
is

called

photogravure,

which an engraving
painting,
is

made

direct

from an

almost superseding handwork.*
of

The

art

line-engraving

is

disappearing

in

England, giving way to the

" painter-etchers," the

"dry-point" etchers and the "mezzotint engravers,"
and, finally, to phoiogravure, a

method of engraving
little

which

is

so extraordinary, and so
it

understood

(although

has been in constant use for more than
it

ten years), that

may be worth
method

while to explain, in

a few words, the

as practised

by Messrs.

Boussod, Valadon
Paris.

&

Co., successors to Goupil, of

In the Royal

Academy

Exhibition of 1SS2, Sir

Frederick Leighton's picture called "

Wedded

" will

be remembered by

many

visitors.

This picture was
to

purchased

for Australia,

and had

be sent from

England within
the exhibition.

a

few weeks of the closing of
to

There was no time

make an

*

One

of the

last

and best examples of pure line-engraving
J.

was by M. Joubert, from a painting by E.
" Atalanta's

Poynter, R.A., called

Race," exhibited

in the

Royal Academy, 1876.
in

The

engraving of this picture was nearly three years

M. Joubert's

hands

— a tardy process

in these days.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
engraving, or even an etching satisfactorily, and so
the picture was sent to Messrs. Goupil,

who
it

in

a

few weel<s produced

\}i\^

photogravure, as

is

called,

which we see
day.

in

the printsellers'
is

windows
:

to

this

The

operation
is

roughly as follows


;

First,

a photograph

taken direct from the picture
is

then

a carbon print
glass,

taken from

the

negative

upon

which rests upon the surface
this print a cast is
in

in delicate relief
in

From

taken in reverse

copper,

by placing the glass

a galvanic bath, the deposit

of copper upon the glass taking the impression of the
picture as certainly as

snow takes

the jjattern of the

ground upon which
and certain
seen

it falls.

Thus

" secrets "

of the process

— omitting — may
it

details,

be
of

how modern
produce
in

science has superseded

much

the engraver's work, and

how

a mechanical process

can

a

few days that which formerly

took years.

What
is

the

permanent

art

-

estimate

of

"

photo-

engraving" may

be, as a substitute for

handwork,

a question for the collectors of engravings and
In

etchings.

the

meantime,

it

is

well

that
is,

the

public should
tinct
cal

know what

a photogravure

as dis-

from an engraving.
engraving,
in

The system
but

of mechaniis

the reproduction of pictures,
;

spreading rapidly over the world

it

should be

/XTRODCCTORV.

9

observed that these reproductions are not uniformlv
successful.
itself

One

pahiter's niethutl of handhnjj;- lends

more

readily than that of antJther to mechanical

engraving.

Thus

the

work of

the President of

llu-

Royal Academy would reproduce better than that
of Mr. G. F. Watts or Mr. Orchartlson.
actual

That the

marks of the brush, the very texture of the
and
steel,

painting, can be transferred to copper

and
is

multiplied

ad

infuiititiii

by

this beautiful [process,
artists

a fact to which
alive.

many English
its

are keenly

The

process has
at

limits,

of course, and
to

photogravure has

present

to

be assisted

a

considerable extent by the engraver.

But enough

has been done

in

the

last

tew years to i)rove that
take up the painter's

photography

will

henceforth
ii,

handiwork as he leaves

and thus the importance

of thoroughness and completeness on the part of
the painter has to be

more than ever
engravings."

insisted

upon

by the publishers of

''

A

word may be

useful here to explain that the

coloured " photogravures," reproducing the
of colour
in

washes

a painting or w;iter-colour drawing, of
in Paris,

which we see so many

are not coloured by

hand
plete,

in

the ordinary way, but are produced com-

at

one impression,

from the [)rinting-press.

The

colours are laid upon the plate, one by one, by

(

10

)

No. III.
".4

Son of

Pan"

by William Padgett.

Example of
brush.
If this

outline drawing, put in solidly with a

had been done with pencil or auto-

graphic chalk,

much

of the feeling and expression
lost.

of the original would have been

The drawing
where
(as in

has suffered

slightly in reproduction,

the shadows on the neck and hands) the lines were
pale in the original.
Size of drawing
1

1^ x 6^

in.

Zinc process.

No. HI.

IXTKOfWCTORV.
the printer, by a system of stencilling
;

13

and thus an
be
re-

almost perfect fac-similc of a picture can

produced

in

pure colour,

if

the original

is

simple

and broad

in treatment.

One

other point of interest and
of engravings

importance to

collectors

and etchings should be
last

mentioned.

Within the

few years, an inven-

tion for coating the surface of

engraved plates with

a film of

ste(;l

(which can
the

b(;

renewed as often as
practically

necessary)
structible;

renders

surface

inde-

and

it is

now

possible to print a thousand
injur)-

impressions from a copper plate without
loss of quality.
secrets,

or

These modern inventions are no
in

they

have been described repeatedly

technical journals

and

in lectures,

notably

in

those

delivered during the past few years at the Society of
Arts,

and

published

in

the Journal.

But

the

majority of the public, and even
prints

many

collectors of

and etchings, are ignorant of the number of

copies which can
tion
It

now be taken
art

without deteriora-

from one
is

plate.
the;

necessary to

amateur that he should
if

know something

of these things,

only to explain

why
come

it

is

that scratching
into

on a copper plate has
in

so

much

vogue

England

lately,

and

why

there has been such a remarkable revival of

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
the art of Dtirer at the end of this century.

The

reason for the

movement

will

be better understood

when
to,
is

it

is

explained that by the process just referred
it

of "steeling" the surface of plates, the "burr," as
called,

and the most delicate

lines of the

engraver
of

are preserved intact for a

much

larger

number

impressions than formerly.

The
fact

taste for etchings
arts is
still

and the higher forms of the reproductive
spreading rapidly, but the
ings

remains that etch-

and

chiitions dc

luxe do not reach one person in
It
is

a thousand in any civilised community.

only

by means of wood engra\'ings, and the cheaper and
simpler forms of process illustration, that the public
is

appealed to pictorially through the press.

GREETING."

(bV

THE HON. MKS.

liOVLE.)

CHAPTER
HE

II.

ELEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION.
first

o bject of an
is

illustration,

the

practical part,

obviously, to illustrate

and^lttcidate the text
lost
artistic,

—a matter often
is

sight

of

The second
of
the

to

be

and

includes works

imagination,

decoration,
shall

ornament,
first,

style.

In this chapter

we

consider the

the practical part.
at a

Nearly twenty years ago,
Society of Arts
in

meeting of the

London, the general question
in

was discussed, whether

the matter of illustrating
really

books and newspapers we are

keeping pace

t6

THE ART OF 1 LLUSI RATiOX.
;

with the times
is

whether those whose business
illustrations

it

to

provide

the

which

are

tossed

from steam presses at the rate of several thousand
copies an hour, are doing the best
In illustrated newspapers,
it

work they

can.

was argued, "there
fact

should be a clearer distinction between
fiction,

and
exact

between news and

pictures."

The

words may be thought worth repeating now.*
" In the production of illustrations
jjroficiency,

we have arrived

at

great

and from London are issued the best
in the world.

illustrated

newspapers
temptation,
pictures

But our

artistic skill

has led us into
of making

and

by degrees engendered
to

a

habit

when we ought

be recording

facts.

We

have thus,

through our cleverness, created a fashion and a demand from the
public for something which
is

often elaborately untrue.
to ask those

Would

it,

then, be too

much

who

cater for (and

really create) the public taste, that they

should give us one of two
the real

things, or rather /fee things^ in our illustrated papers,

and the
ist.

ideal


records of events in the simplest and truest
;

Pictorial

manner
2nd.

possible

Pictures of the highest class that can be printed in a
?

new^spaper

Here

are two

methods of
its

illustration

which only require
in

to

be

kept distinct, each in

proper place, and our interest
ask
first

them

would be doubled.
for a picture

We
;

for a record of

news and then
phrase,

gallery

and

to kiiow, to use a

common

which

is 2vhich."

*

The

quotations are from a paper by the present writer, read

before the Society of .\rts in March, 1S75.

ELEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION.
At the time
block
referred
to,

drawing on the woodalmost
universal
its

and

engraving

were

instantaneous

photography
that
is

was
to

in

infancy,

"process
engraving,

blocks,"

say,

mechanical
(for

was very seldom employed, and

popular purposes) American engraving and printing

was considered the

best.

The system

of producing illustrations in direct fac-

simile of an artist's drawing, suitable for printing at

a type press without the aid of the
is

wood

engraver,

ot

such

value

for

cheap and simple forms of
in

illustration,

and

is,

moreover,

such constant use,
it

that

it

seems wonderful

at first sight that
in

should

not

be better understood
is

England.

But the

cause

not far to seek.

We

have not yet acquired

the art of pictorial expression in black and white,

nor do

many

of our artists excel in " illustration

"

in

the true sense of the word.

U

has often been pointed out that thruLigh the

pictorial

system the mind receives impressions with

the least effort and in the quickest way, and that the graphic method
is

the true

way

of imparting

knowledge.

Are we

then, in the matter of giving

information or in imparting knowledge through the

medium

of

illustrations,
?
I

adopting the truest and

simplest methods

venture to say that in the

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
majority of cases

we
in

are doing nothing of the kind.

We
eye,

have pictures which
are
in

abundance which delight the

artistically

drawn

and

skilfully

engraved, but
there
is

which,

in

nine cases out of ten,
to effect

more thought given
text.

as a picture

than to illustrating the
It

has
is,

often
after

been suggested that the
all,

art

of

printing

but a questionable blessing on
evil

account of the error and the
it.

disseminated by
I

Without going

into that question,

think that

we may

find that the art of printing with

movable

type has led to some neglect of the art of expressing
ourselves pictorially,

and that the apparently
of

in-

exorable

necessity

running every word and
has cramped and limited

thought into uniform

lines,

our powers of expression,
ideas to each other.

and of communicating

Let us begin
ladder,

at the lowest

step of the artistic
illustration

and consider some forms of
the

which

are

within

reach
the

of

nearly every writer for
at

the press.

With

means now

command
to

for

reproducing any lines drawn or written,
fac-simile,

in perfect

mounted on square blocks
and giving
little

range with
to

the

type,

or

no trouble

the

printer, there is

no question that we should more

frequently see the hand

work of the

writer as

well

ELEMENTARY
as

ILL USTRA TION.
the
paL;^.

of

the
:

artist

appearing on
in

For
fictit)n,
it

example
or in
is

it

happens sometimes

a

work of

tile

record of

some

accident or event, that

important to the clear understanding of the

text,

to

know

the exact position of a house, say

at

a

street corner,

and also

(as in the case of a late trial

for arson)

which way the wind blew on a particular

evening.
position

Words

are

powerless

to

explain the

beyond the
;

possibility

of doubt

or mis-

construction

and yet words

are,

and have been,
years,

used

for

such purposes for hundreds of
"

because

it is

the custom."
fail

But

if it

were made plain that where words

to express a

meaning

easily,

a few lines, such

as

those above, drawn in ink on ordinary paper,

may

be substituted (and,
manuscript,
will

if

sent to the printer with the
in fac-simile
I

appear

on the proof
light

with the printed page),

think a

new

may
~

dawn on many minds, and new melhods sion come into vogue.

of expres-

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
This
of
illustration
is

(which was written on the sheet

MS.)

one example, out of a hundred that might

be given, where a diagram should come to the aid
of the verbal description,
of lines for the press
is

now

that the reproduction
costly,

no longer
if

and the

blocks

can be

printed,

necessary,

on rapidly
can

revolving

cylinders,

which

(by

duplicating)

produce
paper.

in

a

night

100,000 copies

of

a

news-

Before exploring
illustration,
it

some

of

the

possibilities

of

may be
in

interesting to glance at what

has been done

this direction since the invention

of producing blocks rapidly to

print at

the

type

press and the improvements in machinery.
In
started

the
a

spring
daily

of

1873

a

Canadian

company
in

illustrated

evening newspaper

New

York, called
all

The Daily Graphic, which was

to eclipse

previous publications by the rapidity
its illustrations.

and excellence of

It

started with
its

an attempt to give a daily record of news, and
conductors

made every

effort

to

bring

about a
in
line.

system of rapid sketching and drawing

But the public of

New York
in

in

1873

(as

of
for

London,

apparently,

1893)

cared

more

" pictures,"

and so by degrees the paper degenerated
(without
leave)

into

a

picture-sheet, reproducing

ELEMENTAR Y

ILL US TRA TION.

2

1

engravings from the Illustrated London, Ncivs, the Graphic, and other papers, as they arrived from

England. The paper was Hthographed, and survived
until 1889.

The
first

report of the
illustrated

first

year's

working of the
in

daily

newspaper

the

world

is

worth

recording.

The

proprit^tors

stated

that

although the paper was started "in a year of great
financial depression, they have abundant reason to be satisfied with their success," and further, that

they attribute
news."(!)

it

to

"an absence of

all

sensational

The

report ended

with the following intcrestino-

paragraph
" Pictorial
misery,

records

of crime,

executions,

scenes
social

involving
life,

and the more unwholesome phases of

are a

positive detriment to a daily illustrated newspaper.

In
to,

fact,

the

higher the tone and the better the taste appealed

the larger

we have found our

circulation to be."

The
out

great

art,

it

would seem, of conductinois

a

daily illustrated

newspaper
fact,

to

know
no

xvhat to leave
at

— when,

in

to

have

illustrations

all!

In England the
tration in a daily
litde

first

systematic attempt at

illus-

newspaper was the

insertion of a

map

or weather chart in the Tivics in

1875,

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
and the Pall Mall Gazelle followed
suit

with a dial

showing the direction of the wind, and afterwards
with other explanatory diagrams and sketches.
But, in June, 1875, the

Times and

all

other news-

papers

in

England were

far distanced

by the Ncio
shooting

York Tribune
match
in

in reporting the result of a

Dublin between an American Rifle Corps

and some of our volunteers.

On

the morning after

the contest there were long verbal reports in the

English papers, describing the shooting and the
results
;

but in the pages of the

New

York Tribuiic

there appeared a series of targets with the shots

of the successful competitors marked

upon them,
in

communicated
paper
in

by

telegraph

and

printed

the

America on the following morning.*
this

After
slowly,

period

we seem
very

to

have

moved

only

some

important

geographical

discovery, or event, e.xtorting from the daily news-

papers an explanatory plan or diagram.

But during

the "Transit of Venus," on the 6th of December,
1882, a

gleam

of

light

was vouchsafed

to

the

readers of the Daily

Telegraph (and

possibly to

other papers), and that exciting astronomical event

from

which

"

mankind
of

was
rifle

to

obtain
is

a

clearer

* This system

reporting

contests

now almost

universal in England.

ELEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION.
knowledge of the
scale

23

of

the

universe,"

was

understood and remembered better, by three or four
lines in the

form of a diagram (showing, roughly,

the track of

Venus and

its

comparative size and

distance from the sun) printed in the newspaper on

the day of the event.

Maps and
in
all

plans have appeared from time to time

the daily newspapers, but not systematically,
usefulness would have been

or their interest and

much

greater.

IMany instances might be given of
;

the use of diagrams in newspapers

a
is
is

little

dial

showing the direction of the wind,
better than words

obviously
only lately

and

figures, but

it

that printing difficulties

have been overcome, and

that the system can be widely extended.
It

remains to be seen

how

far the

Daily Graphic,

with experience and capital at command, will aid in

a system of illustration which
general.

is

one day

to

become

Thus

far

it

would seem that the production

of a large
is

number

of pictures (more or less a-propos)

the popular thing to do.

We

may be excused
of a

if

we

are disappointed in the result from a practical
of

point

view
txxq.

;

for as

the

functions

daily

newspaper
that
if

prima, facie to record
to

facts, it follows

words

fail

communicate the

right meaning,

pictorial expression should

come

to the aid of the

24

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
no matter how crude or
inartistic the result

verbal,

might appear.
Let

me

give one or two examples, out of
to

many

which come
I.

mind.

The

transmission of form by telegraph.

To

realise the

importance of this system

in

conveying

news,

we have only
what
Russell's

to consider (going

back nearly

forty years)

interest
letters
if it

would have been added
from the Crimea
in

to

Dr.

the

Times newspaper,
then,
to

had been considered

possible,

have

inserted,

here and there, with the

type, a line or

two

pictorially giving {e.g.) the out-

line of a hillside,
it.

and the position of troops ujaon
to

It

icas possible

do

this

in

1855, but

it

is

much more
and

feasible
is

now.

The

transmission of form

by telegraph
nalists

of the utmost importance to jour-

scientific

men, and, as our electricians
it

have not yet determined the best methods,

may
well

be interesting to point out the simplest and most
rudimentary means
at hand.
is

The method

is

known
to avail

in the

army and

used

for field purposes,

but hitherto newspapers have been strangely slow

themselves

of

it.

The diagram on
is

the

opposite page will explain a system which
of

capable
the aid

much development

with and without

of photography

ELEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION.
If the

25

reader will imagine this series of squares

to represent a portable piece of

open

trellis-work,

which might be
field,

set

up

at a

window

or in the

open
of

between the spectator and

any

object

interest at a distance

— each
hill

square representing a
a cock; in universal use

number corresponding with

it

will

be obvious, that by noticing the squares

which the outline of a

would cover, and

telc-

p-aphing the nJimbcis of the squares, something
the way of form and outline

in

may be

quickly com-

municated from the other side of the world.

CODE FOR TRANSMITTING FORM BY TELEGRAPH.

This

is

for

rough-and-ready use
of
in

in
is

time of war,
of
the
first

when

rapidity
;

communication

importance

but

time of peace a correspondent's

letter continually requires elucidation.

26

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
Next
is
I

an example, which,

for

want of better

words,

will call

''the shorthand of pictorial art."
is

A

newspaper correspondent
Italian lakes,

in

a boat on
to

one

of the

and wishes
day.

describe the
is

scene on a calm

summer

This

how he

proceeds
"

We

are shut in

by mountains," he

says, " but

the blue lake seems as wide as the sea.

On

a rocky

promontory on the
to the water's

left

hand the

trees

grow down

edge and the banks are precipitous,

indicating the great depth of this part of the lake.

The water
is

is

as

smooth as glass
heavily-laden

;

on

its

surface

one

vessel,
sails,

a

market boat with
"

drooping

floating slowly

down

(and so on)

there

is

no need to repeat

it

all

;

but

when

half a

column of word-painting had been written (and
well-written) the correspondent failed to present the

picture clearly to the eye without these fotir expla-

ELEMENTAR Y

ILL USTRA TION.

natory lines (no more) which should of course have

been sent with his

letter.

This

method

of
;

description

requires

certain

aptitude and training

but not much, not more than

many
little
is

a journalist could acquire for himself with a
practice.
to

The

director of the

Daily Graphic
ideal
is

reported

have said that

" the

corre-

spondent,
born."
artistic

who

can sketch as well as write,

not yet
of the

He

takes perhaps a higher view

functions

of a

daily

newspaper than we
;

should be disposed to grant him

by "we"
in

I

mean,

of course, "the public," expecting news

the most

graphic

manner.

There

are,

and

will

be,

many
and
it

moments when we want
solely,

information, simply
in

and care

little

how, or

what shape,

comes.

This kind of information, given
pretension to be
artistic,

pictorially,

has no
" in

but

it is

" illustration

the

true sense of the word,

and

its

value

when

rightly

applied

is

great.

When

the ;ilterations at

Hyde

Park Corner (one of the most important of the

London improvements
in

of our day) were

first
if

debated

Parliament, a daily newspaper, as

moved by
ground-

some sudden
plan
te.\t
;

flash of intelligence, printed a

of the

proposed alterations with descriptive

and once or twice only, during Stanley's long

28

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
in

absence

Africa,

did

we have

sketches or plans

printed with the letters to elucidate the text, such as

a sketch of the floating islands with their weird
habitants, at Stanley's Station on the

in-

Congo

river,

which appeared

in

a daily newspaper

— instances

of

news presented
words.

to

the reader in a better form than

"The

very thing that was wanted!" was
if

the general exclamation, as

there were

some new

discovery of the powers of description.

As

the war correspondent's occupation does not
in

appear likely to cease

our time,
is

it

would seem
equipped.

worth while

to

make
of

sure that he
writing

fully

The method
spondents on the

employed

by

corre-

field
;

of battle seems unnecessarily

clumsy and prolix
under
fire,

we

hear of letters written actually
in the saddle,

on a drum-head, or
it

and on

opening the packet as
find, if

arrives

by the post
it,

we may
that the

we

take the trouble to measure

point

of the pen

or pencil, has travelled over a
!

distance of a hundred feet

This

is

the actual asall

certained measurement, taking into account

the

ups and downs, crosses and dashes, as
abroad.

it

arrives from
in

No wonder

the typewriter

is

resorted to

journalism wherever possible.

A

newspaper correspondent
or
is

is

sent suddenly to
in

the seat of war,

stationed

some remote

ELEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION.
country to give the

29

readers of a newspaper the

benefit of his observations.

What

is

he doing

in

1894

?

In the imperfect, clumsy language which he

possesses in

common
hundred

with every minister of state
to describe

and public schoolboy, he proceeds
he sees
strokes
in a
lines,

what

when with two

or three
his

of the

pen he might have expressed
pictorially.
I

meaning better
before,

have used these words

but they apply with redoubled force at the

present time.
at

The
for

fact

is,

that with the

means now

command

reproducing any lines drawn or
is

written, the correspondent
if

not thoroughly equipped

he cannot send them as suggested, by telegraph
letter.
It is all

or by

a matter of education, and the of the
future
is

newspaper

reporter

will

not

be

considered complete unless he

able to express

himself to some extent, pictorially as well as verbally.

Then, and not

till

then, will our complicated language

be rescued from many obscurities, by the aid of
lines other than verbal.*

In nearly

every

city,

town, or place

there

is

*
at

It

seems strange

that enterprising newspapers, with capital

command, such as the Nno York Herald, Daily Telegraph, and Pall Mall Gazette, should not have developed so obvious a method of transmitting information. The Pall Mall Gazette has been the most active in this direction, but might do much more.

30

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
feature,

some

architectural
it,

or

natural,

which
to the

gives character to
interest of letters

and

it

would add greatly
if

from abroad

they were headed
indication

with a

little

outline

sketch, or
is

of the

principal objects.

This

seldom done, because the

art of looking at things,

and the power of putting
a

them down simply
cultivated and
is

in

few

lines,

has not been

not given to many.

Two
this

things are principally necessary to attain

end

A STUDY

m

PERSTECTIVE.

(hUME NISDET.)

A. Standpoint.

B. Point of Sight.

C. Horizontal

line.

D. Vaniihing

line;

E. Point of distance.

F. Vanishing lines of dist.ince.

G. Line of sight.

I.

The

education of hand and eye and a knowperspective,
to

ledge of
schoolbo)',

be

imparted

to

every

no matter what

his profession or occu-

pation

is

likely to be.

ELEMENTA RY
2.

ILL US TRA TION.

The

education of the public to read aright
to

this

new language (new
pictorial art."

most people), the "short-

hand of

The
lishers

popular theory amongst editors and
is

pub-

that the public
to

would not care
in
it

for informa-

tion

presented

them

this

way — that

they
it."

"would not understand

and would not buy

Sketches of the kind indicated have never been
fairly tried in

England
day,

;

but the)' are increasing in
is

number every

and the time

not far distant

when we

shall look

back upon the present system

with considerable amusement and on a book or a

newspaper which
production.

is

not illustrated as an incomplete
of illustrations produced the
printing
press
is

The number
daily
in

and

consumed
;

enormous

but they are too

much

of one pattern,

and, as a rule, too elaborate.
In the illustration of books of
all

kinds there

should be a more general
plans to elucidate the
te.xt.

use

of diagrams

and

No new
if

building of

importance should be described anywhere without

an indication of the elevation,

not also of the

ground plan

;

and, as a rule, no picture should be

described without a sketch to indicate the composition.

In history words so often
it

fail

to

give the

correct locale that

seems wonderful we have no

32

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
method
will
in

better

common

use.

The

following

rough plan
of

illustrate

one of the simplest ways

making a

description clear to the reader.
first
:

Take

the verbal one

"The young

Bretonne stood under the doorway

of the house, sheltered from the rain which

came

with the soft west wind.

on the
village,
it

'

Place

'

From she commanded

her point of vantage
a view of the whole
streets of

and could see down the four

which

was

principally composed."

In this instance a writer was at

some pains

to

describe (and failed to describe in three pages) the

exact position of the streets

near where the

girl

stood

;

and

it

was a

situation in

which photography

could hardly help him.
It

may seem

strange

at

first

sight to occupy

the pages of a book on

art
it

with

diagrams and

elementary oudines, but
that plans

must be remembered
at the basis of a

and diagrams are

system

of illustration which will one day

become
out,

general.

The

reason,

as already

pointed

for

drawing

ELEMENTARY ILLUSTKATIOA.
attention to the subject now,
is

33

that

it is

only lately

that systems have been perfected
lines

for

reproducing
rapidly

on the printed page almost

as

as

setting up the type.

Thus

a

new

era, so to speak, in

the art of expressing ourselves pictorially as well as
verbally has

commenced
;

:

the

means of reproduction
if

are to hand
in less

the blocks can be made,

necessary,

than three hours, and copies can be printed
at the rate of 10,000

on revolving cylinders

an hour.

The advance

in scientific

discovery by means of

subtle instruments brings the surgeon sometimes to

the knowledge of facts which, in the interests of
science,

he requires
it

to

demonstrate

graphically,

objects which

would often be impossible to have

photogra[)hed.

With

a rudimentary knowledge of the

drawing and

perspective,

surgeon

and

the

astronomer would both be better ec^uipped.
University of Pennsylvania,
in

At the
where

Philadelphia,

the majority of students are intended for the medical
profession, this subject
is

considered of high im-

portance, and the student in

America

is

learning to

express himself
stood.

in

a language that can be under-

In architecture

it

is

often necessary, in order to

understand the description of a building, to indicate
in

a few lines not only the general plan and elevation,

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
but also
street.
its

position in perspective in a landscape or
architects can
in
it

Few And

do

this

if

called

upon

at

a

moment's notice
yet

a
is

Parliamentary committee
a

room.

necessary

part of

the

language of an architect.*

These remarks apply with great
travel, in the

force to

books of

where an author should be able
drawing of
his illustrations, at

to take part
least to

the

extent of being able to explain his meaning and

ensure topographical accuracy.

A

curious experiment was
in

made
to

lately with

some
fallacy

-students

an

Art school,

prove the

of the accepted system
buildings,

of describing landscapes,

and the

like in words.

A

page or two

from one of the VVaverley novels
castle

(a description of a

and the heights of mountainous
winding
in

land, with a

river

the valley towards the sea, and

clusters of houses

and trees on the right hand) was
repeated
belore a

read

slowly

and

number of

students, three of

whom, standing

apart from each

other by pre-arrangement, proceeded to indicate on

blackboards before an audience the leading lines of
the i)icture as the words had presented
it

to their

minds.

It is

needless to say that the results, highly
if

* It has been well said that
in words,
it is

a building can be described
all

not worth describing at

ELEMENTAR Y
skilful in

ILL USTRA TION.
different,

one

case,

were

all

and all

tunvijr,

and that

in particular the

horizon line of the sea (so

easy to indicate with any clue, and so important to
the composition) was hopelessly out of place.

Thus

we
the

describe day by day, and the pictures formed in

mind
is

are erroneous, for the imagination of the
at

reader

work

at

once, and
I

recjuires

simple
say,

guidance.

The

exhibition was,

need hardly

highly stimulating and suggestive.

Many arguments might
tion of pictorial for verbal

be used

for the substitu-

methods of

e.xpression,

which apply to books as well as periodicals.

Two

may
I.

be mentioned of a purely topical kind.
In June,

1893,

when

the

strife

of political
like

parties ran high in

England, and anything

a

rapprochement between their leaders
possible,
in

seemed im-

Mr. Gladstone and Mr. Balfour were seen
friendly
in

apparently
chair

conversation

behind

the

Speaker's

the

House

of

Commons.

A

newspaper reporter

in t)ne

of the galleries, observing

the interesting situation, does not say in so

many
1).,"

words, that

"Mr. G. was seen

talking to Mr.

but makes, or has
caricature)

made
two

for him, a sketch (without

of

the

figures
it,

standing
" .linenilies

talking

together,

and writes under

behind

the Speaker s chair."

Here

it

will

be seen that the

36

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
is

subject

approached

with

more

delicacy,

and

the position indicated with greater force through the pictorial method.
2.

The second modern
in

instance of the i^ower

the eloquence, so to speak, of the pictorial

method

—appeared
of the
visit

the pages of the

Punch on
sailors

the occasion
to

of

Russian

Paris

in

October,

1893.

^

rollicking,

dancing

Russian

bear, with the

words

" Vive la Repiibliquc"

wound

round

his head, hit the situation as

no words could
for sale in the

have done, especially when exposed
kiosques
required
of

the

Paris

boulevards.
into

The

picture

no

translation

the

languages

of

Europe.
It

may be

said that there
is

is

nothing new here

that the political cartoon

everywhere
in
it,

— that
Athens
it

it

has

existed always,

that

it

Hourished

and

Rome,

that

all

history teems with
soil

that

comes

down

to us

on English

through Gillray, Row-

landson,

Hogarth, Blake, and many distinguished
I

names.
the town
sheets.

draw
is

attention

to

these things because

laden with newspapers and illustrated
of the time seems to be to

The tendency
less,

read less and

and

to

depend more upon

pictorial for

records of events.
this

There arc underlying reasons
;

on which we must not dwell

the point of im-

ELEMENTARY
portance to illustrators
insatiable
is

IIJ.USTRATIOX.
the fact that there
"jjictures"
is

37

an
us

demand

for

which
in

tell

something- quickly and accurately,

a

language

which every nation can understand.
,c

{C Anotlier example
Mountains
finds

of

the
'

use of

pictorial

ex-

pression to aid the verbat

A

traveller in the

Harz
near

himself on the Zeigenkop,

Blankenberg, on a clear summer's day, and thus
describes
it

in

words

:

"We

are

now on

the heights above Blankenberg, a promontory

1,360 feet abos'e the plains, with an almost uninterrupted view of
distant country looking northward

and eastward.

The

plateau of

mountains on which we have been travelling here ends abruptly.
It is

the end of the upper world, but the plains seem illimitable.
is

There
to

nothing between us and our homes in Berlin— nothing
it

impede the view which

is

almost impossible to describe in

words.

The

setting sun has pierced the veil of mist,

and a map

of Northern

Germany seems
one by one.

unrolled before us, distant cities
First,

coming
spires,

into view

we

see Halberstadt with

its

then Magdeburg, then another

city,

and another.

"

We

have been so occupied with the distant prospect, and
it,

with the objects of interest which give character to

that

we

had almost overlooked the charming composition and suggestive
lines of this

wonderful view.

There
at

is

an ancient__caslle on the
feet,
;

heights, the

town of Blankenberg

our

a strange wall ot

perpendicular rocks in the middle distance

there are the curves

of the valleys,

flat

pastures, undulating woods,
plains.
its

and roads winding
is

away across the
church
spire

The
cluster
its

central point of interest

the

with

of

houses spreading
terraces

upwards
with

towards the
trees, &c.,

chateau, with

massive

fringed

itc."

38

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
This was
all

very well

in

word-painting, but what

a veil

is

lifted

from the reader's eyes by some such

sketch as the one below.

NKENCERG, HARZ MOUN:

It

should be mentioned that three photographic

prints joined together
picture,

would hardly have given the

owing

to the vast extent of this inland view,
effects.
is

and the varying atmospheric

The
is

last instance

I

can give here

an engraving

from CassclTs Popnlar Edticator, where a picture used to demonstrate the curvature of the world's

surface; thus imprinting, for once,

and

for always,

on

ELEMEiXTA RY J LLC 'S TRA TION.
the

39

young

reader's

mind a

fact

which words

fail

to

describe adequately.

THE CL'KVATURE OF THE WORLDS

:

This

is

"The

Art of Illustration"

in

the

true

sense of the word.

CHArXER
N
referring
tions,

III.

ARTISTIC ILLUSTRATIONS.

now

to

more

artistic illustra-

we should

notice

first,

some of the

changes which have taken place (since
the
chapter), and,

meeting referred

to

in

the

last

bridging over a distance of nearly
illustrator,

twenty years, consider the work of the
the photographer, and the
as

maker

of process blocks,
in

presented

in

books and newspapers
of
toj^ical

1894;

speaking

principally

illustrations,

on

which so many thousand people are now engaged.
It

may seem
" in

strange

at

first

sight

to include

"

newspapers
is

a chapter on art illustrations, but

the fact

that the

weekly newspapers, with

their

new
with

appliances for printing, and in consequence of
are

the cheapness of good paper,

now competing
of
to
is

books and magazines

in

the production

illustrations

which a few years ago were only

be

found

in

books.

The

illustrated

newspaper

one

of the great employers of labour in this field and
distributor of the
white,

work of the

artist

in

black and

and

in

this

connection must by no means be

L1\E DRAWING.
ignored.

41

The

Post-office carries a

volume of 164

pages (each 22 by 16 inches), weighing from two
to three

pounds, for a half-penny.
it

It

is

called a

"weekly newspaper," but
100
illustrations,

contains,

sometimes,

and competes seriously with the

production of illustrated books.

Further on we shall see

how

the illustrations of

one number

of a weekly newspaper are produced
original artist has in
it,

what part the

what part the

engraver and the photographer.
with which
all

These are things

students should be acquainted.
little
is

The
(as

first

stage of illustration, where

more
at

than a plan or elevation of a building

aimed

suggested

in

the last chapter), and where an

author, with

little artistic
is

knowledge,

is

yet enabled
;

to explain himself,

comparatively easy

it

is

when

we approach
As

the hazardous

domain of

art that the

real difficulties begin.

matters stand at present,

it is

scarcely too

much

to say that

the majority of art students
in this

and the

younger school of draughtsmen
"
all

country are

abroad

"

in the

matter of drawing for the press,
not
in

lacking,

not

industry,

capacity,

but
is

method.

That they do good work
but
it

abundance

not denied,

is

not e.\actly the kind of

work required

in

short, they are not taught at the outset the value

of

(

42

)

No. IV.
" Tiresome

Dog," by E. K. Johnson.

This example of reproduced by the

pen-and-ink
gelatine

work

has

been

rehef

process.

The

drawing, which has been greatly reduced in reproduction, was

made by Mr. Johnson
a member.

for

an Illustrated

Catalogue of the Royal Water-Colour Society, of

which he
It
is

is

instructive as

showing the
process-work
is all

possibilities

and

limitations

of

relief

in

good hands.
by

The

gradation of tone

obtained in pure black,
effect

or dotted lines.

Mr. Dawson has aided the

" rouletting
parts
;

"

on the block on the more delicate

but most of the examples in this book are

untouched by the engraver.
{Sec Appendix.)

.^ -:.s>^-v ^^iW""-x-:^ ^l£^^a^..

No. IV.

i^Ro)al Ac(uh'»iy, 1891.)

LINE DRAWING.
a
line.

45

That greater

skill

and certainty of drawing
is

can be attained by our younger draughtsmen
unquestionable, and, bearing
every book
in

mind

that

nearly

and

nciuspapei-

in

tJie

future will be
in this direction

illustrated, the
is

importance of study

much

greater than

may appear

at first sight.

Referring to the evident want of training amongst

our younger draughtsmen, the question was put very
bluntly in the

Athcmcuni some years ago, thus
The

:

Why
seems

is

not drawing in line with pen and ink taught in our

own Government

schools of art

?

present system in schools
little

to render the art of drawing of as

use to the student

as possible, for he has

no sooner mastered the preliminary stage
flat

of drawing in outline from the

with a lead pencil, than he has
will

chalk put into his hand, a material which he

seldom or never

use in turning his knowledge of drawing to practical account.

The
is

readier

method of pen and ink would be of

great service as

a preparatory stage to wood drawing, but unfortunately drawing
taught in most cases as though the student intended only to
a painter.

become

Since these lines were written, efforts have been

made
for

in

some schools
and

of art to give special training
instruction
is

illustrators,

also

given

in

wood engraving, which every draughtsman should
learn
;

but up to the present time there has been
in

no systematic teaching
the

drawing applicable
the

to

various

processes,

for

reason

that

the

majority of art masters do not understand them.

46

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
The
art of

expression

in line,

or of expressing the
in a
little

effect of a picture or a

landscape from Nature
is

few leading lines (not necessarily outline)
understood
in

this

country

;

and
is

if

such study, as

the Atlicnccuvi

pointed

out,

important for the

a^^rlWwood draughtsman, how much more
for

so in drawing

reproduction by photo-mechanical
artists

means

?

A

few

have the

gift

of expressing themselves

in line,

but the majority are strangely ignorant of

LINE DRAWING.

47

the principles of this art and of the simple fac-simile

processes by which drawing can

now be

reproduced.

In the course of twenty years of editing the
Notes,

Academy

some strange

facts

have come

to the writer's

<fe.

\

"^

Av

"a

IJGHT of laughing flowers along the grass

is

SI'READ.*' (m.

RIDLEY CORItET.)

notice as to the powerlessness of

some

painters to
;

express the motif of a picture
as to

in

a few lines

also

how

far

we

are behind our continental neigh-

bours

in this respect.

(

48

)

No. V.

H.

S.

Marks.
drawing and
" the
art

An

example of

line

of

leaving out," by the well-known Royal Academician.

Mr. Marks and Sir John Gilbert
were the
first

(see frontispiece)

painters to explain the composition

and

leading lines of their pictures in the Acadetny Notes in
1876.

Mr. Marks suggests

light

and shade and the
Sir

character of his picture in a few skilful lines.

John
force
well

Gilbert's pen-and-ink

drawing

is

also

full

of

and

individuality.

These drawings reproduce

by any of the processes.

Nu. V.

SELECT COMMITTEE."

{kkOM THE PAINTING BY
1891.)

H. S.

MARKS,

K.A.)

{Royal Acadevty^

LINE DRAWING.
It is

interesting to note here the firmness of

hne

and clearness
process block
than
;

of

reproduction

by

the

common

the result being

more

satisfactory
illustrators.

many drawings by
reason
is

professional
;

The

not far to seek

the painter
it

knows

his

picture

and how

to give the effect of
;

in

black and

white, in a few lines

and, in the case of Mr. Corbet

and Miss

IVIontalba,

they have

made themselves

acquainted with the best
Press.

way

of drawing for the

and-ink

There are many other methods than penwhich draughtsmen use,— pencil, chalk,
paper,
//
is

wash,

grained

&c.,
t/ic

but

first

as

to

line

drawing, because

only means
aiul
it

by ichick
the

certain results can be obtained,

is

one

which, for practical reasons, should be

first

mastered.

Line drawings are now reproduced on zinc blocks
fitted for

the type press at a cost of less than six;

pence the square inch for large blocks

the pro-

cesses of reproduction will be explained further on.
It

cannot be sufficiently borne

in

mind— I am
not
intimate

speaking now to students
with
black
the
lines

who
to

are

subject

— that

produce
effect
(jf

with

pure
in

the
is

quality

and

lines

which there

some gradation of

tone,

is

no easy

matter, especially to those accustomed to the

wood
John

engraver as the interpreter of their work.

Sir

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
Tenniel,
to

M. du Maurier, and Mr. Sambourne, not
staff,

mention others on the Punch
to

have been

accustomed
probably

draw

for

wood engraving, and would
method
to

still

prefer this

any

other.

'™

'*!?i"'Va.t

HE ROSE QUEEN."

(C.

D. LESLIE, R.A.)

{From

^*

Academy

Notes,'* 1S93.)

But the young
methods, and

illustrator

has to learn the newer

how

to get his effects

through direct

photo-engraving.

What may

be done by process

LINE DRAWING.
is

53

demonstrated

in the line

drawings interspersed

through these pages, also
are appearing every day
zines,

in the illustrations
in

which

our newspapers, magathose which are well

and books

— especially

printed and on

good paper.

Mr. George Leslie's

pretty line drawing from his picture, on the opposite

page,

is full

of suggestion for illustrative purposes.
first

But

let

us glance

at the ordinary
it is

hand-book

teaching,

and see how

far

useful to the illustra-

tor of to-day.

The

rules laid

down

as to the

methods

of line work, the direction of lines for the expression

of certain

te.xtures,
closel}',

" cross-hatching,"

&c., are,

if

followed too

apt to lead to hardness and
artist,

mannerism
difficulty

in

the

young

which he

will

with

shake off

On
:

these points, Mr. Robertson,

the well-known

painter and etcher, writing seven

years ago, says well
"

The mental

properties of everj' line
.
.

drawn
.

witli

pen and ink
is

should be original and personal
sure to be attained unconsciously,

this
artist's

strong point

if

an

work

is

simple

and

sincere,

and twt

the imitation

of another man's

sty/e." *

When
of

the question arises as to what e.xamples a

beginner should copy

who wishes

to practise the art
will

pen-and-ink drawing, the

dilliculty

be

to

select

from the great and varied stores of material
one
artist


to

No

can teach drawing

in line

without a tendency

mannerism, especially

in art classes.

54

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
everywhere
to his hand.

that are

All

steel

and
in

copper-plate engravings that have been executed
line,

and

all

wood engravings,

are within the possible
I

range of pen-and-ink drawing.
that

hold,

however,

much time should

not be occupied in the imita:

tative

copying of prints

only, indeed, so

much

as

enables the student to learn with what arrangement
of lines the different textures and qualities of objects

may be
effect

best rendered.
are,

There

roughly,

two methods of obtaining
lines, laid slowly,

with a pen

— one by few
lines,

and
If

the other by the intention

many
is

drawn with
effect

rapidity.

to see

what

may be

obtained

with comparatively few lines deliberately drawn,

we

may

refer to the

woodcuts

after

Albert Dtirer and

Holbein, and the line engraving of Marc Antonio.

The engraved
his

plates

by Dtirer

furnish

excellent

examples of work, with more and
woodcuts [but many of the
his hand]. "

finer lines

than

latter

were not done

by

Some
in

of the etchings of

Rembrandt
in

are examples of what

pen and

ink,

but

may be fairly reproduced them we find the effect
lines in all directions.

to

depend upon innumerable

In

the matter of landscape the etched plates by Claude

and Ruysdael are good examples
animal
life

for study,

and

in

the work of Paul Potter and Dujardin."

IJXE DRAWING.
Thus,
for style, for
line,

mastery of

effect

and manage;

ment of
to

we must go back
in

to the old masters

work produced generally

a reposeful

life,

to

which the younger generation are strangers.
the

But
little

mere copying of other men's

lines

is

of

avail without mastering the principles of the art of
line

drawing.

The

skilful copies, the fac-similes

of

engravings and etchings drawn

in

pen and

ink,

which are the admiration
friends, are of little

of

the
in

young

artist's

or no

value

deciding the

aptitude of the student.

The

following words are
:

worth placing on the walls of every art school
Proficiency
far in

copying engravings

in

fic-simile,
in

from suggesting promise of distinction
of
art,

the

profession

plainly

vtarks

a

tendency to

niecJianical pursuits,

and

is

not

likcl\- to

be acquired
for

by anyone with much
arts of design."
in this

instinctive
is

feeling
truth

the

There

much

and insight

remark.

In line work, as

now understood, we
to the point

are going

back,
missal

in

a measure,

of view of the

writer
o(

and the

illuminator,

who,

with

no
pro-

thought

the

possibilities

of reproduction,

duced many of
of line alone

his decorative
refer to the

pages by management
parts of his

(I

work

in

which

the

effect

was

produced

by

black

and

LINE DRAWING.
white).

57

No amount
was
he
spared

of
for
if

patience,
this

thought,

and

labour

one
that

copy.
in

What
centuries
in its

would
to

have said
line

told

come

this

work would be revived
possibility

integrity, with the
lines

of the

artist's

own

being reproduced

100,000 times, at the rate

of several

thousand an hour.
if

And what would

he have thought

told that, out of thousands of

students in centuries to come, a few, a very few
only,

could produce a decorative page
to realise that a

;

and that

few could be brought

work which

was

to

be repeated, say a thousand times,
his ancestors

was
gave

worthy of as much attention as
to a single

copy

!

On

the principle that "everything worth doing
well,"

is

worth doing

and on the assumption that
use

the processes in

common

[I

purposely omit

mention here of the older systems of drawing on
transfer paper,

and drawing on waxed

plates,

without

the aid of photography, which have been dealt with
in

previous books]

— are

worth

all

the

care

and

artistic

knowledge which can be bestowed ujjon
press,

them,

we would

upon young

artists especially,
in

the importance of study and experiment
direction.

this

As

there

is

no

question that " the

hand-

work of the

artist "

can be seen more clearly through

S8

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.

mechanical engraving than through wood engraving,
it

behoves him to do his

best.

And

as

we

are
in

substituting process blocks for

wood engraving

every direction, so we should take over some of the
patience

and care which were formerly given

to

book

illustrations.

We

cannot

live, easily, in

the

"cloistered silence
the deliberate and

of the past," but

we can emulate

thoughtful work of Mantegna, of Holbein, of Albert
Diirer,

and the great men of the

past,

who,

if

they

were alive to-day, would undoubtedly have preferred drawing
for process to the
;

labour of etching and
to

engraving

and,

if

their

work were

be reproduced
it

by

others, they

would have perceived, what
insight in
is

does

not require

much

us to realise, that the
better preserved,

individuality of the artist

by

making

his

own

lines.

To do
must give

this successfully

in

these days, the artist

his best

and most deliberate (instead of
to the processes
it
;

his hurried

and careless) drawings
style, to

founding his

a limited extent

may

be,

on

old work, but preserving his

own

individuality.

But we must not
old
masters,

sla\'ishly

copy sketches by the
intended for re-

which were

never

production.

We

may

learn from the study of

them

the power of line to express character, action, and

LINE DRAWING.
effect,

we may
to

learn composition som.ctimes, but not

often from a sketch.

As

copying the work of hving

artists,

it

shouUl

be remembered that the manner and the method of
a line drawing
is

each

artist's

property,

and the

X

,,

n

Mnn^

(

cimm

s

)

repetition of

it

by others

is

injurious to him.
if

It

would be an easy nK!thod indeed

the

young

artist,

fresh from the schools, could, in a few weeks, imitate

the mannerism, say of Sir John Gilbert, whose style
is

founded upon the labour of 50 years.
sucli royal road.

There

is

no

(

6o

)

No. VI.

"A

Ploughbfly" by

George Clausen.
in line.

An

excellent

example of sketching
in.
I

The

original

drawing was i\ x 5I
artistic

have reproduced

Mr. Clausen's
sizes in

sketch of his picture in two

order to compare results.
(printed
in

The

small block

on page 59
drawing.

Grosvenor Notes,

1888)
this

appears to be the most suitable reduction for

The

results

are

worth

comparing
first

by

anyone studying process work.

The

block was

made by

the gelatine process

;

the one opposite by

the ordinary zinc process.

{See Appendix?)

No. VI.

Liu

LINE DRAWING.

63

To
the

return

to
in

illustration.

The

education

of

illustrator

these

days

means much more
of editors

than

mere

art training-.

The tendency
is

of magazines and newspapers

to

employ those

who can

write as well as draw.

This may not be

a very hopeful sign from an art point of view, but
it

is

a condition of things which
as

we have
good

to face.

Much

we may
rare

desire to see a
in
;

artist

and a
will
it

good raconteur
always be

one man, the combination
those
editors

who seek

for

are often tempted to accept inferior art for the sake of the story.
I

mention

this as

one of the intluences

affecting the quality of illustrations of an

ephemeral

or topical kind, which should not be overlooked.
In sketches of society the education

and standing
his success.

of

the

artist

has

much
in
I

to

do with

M. du Maurier's work
an example of what
art with

Punch may be taken

as

mean, combining excellent

knowledge of

society.

His clever followers
which
cannot

and imitators lack
learned
It

something

be

in

an art school.
be

should

understood

that,

in

drawing

for

reproduction by any of the
(either in

mechanical processes
latter),

wash or

in line,

but especially the
artist

there

is

more

strain

on the

than

when

his

work was engraved on wood, and

the

knowledge of

(

64

)

No. VII.
^''

Blcnvmg Bubbles," by C. E. Wilson.
an excellent example of drawing

This

is

— and

of

treatment of textures and surfaces
production.

for process re-

The few pen touches on
fidelity,

the drapery

have come out with great

the double lines

marking the paving stones being the only part giving any trouble
to the

maker of the

gelatine relief block.
parts in light

The

skilful

management of the

shows

again " the art of leaving out."

c?X^

No. VII.

66

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATIOA.
drawing
for process principally in

this has left

the

hands of the younger men.

They

will

be older by

the end of the century, but not as old then as of our best and experienced illustrators

some
to

who keep

wood engraving.
I

am

touching

now upon

a difficult and delicate
to

part of the subject,
niv

and must endeavour

make

meaning

clear.

The

illustrations in Piiiic/ihave,

until lately, all

been engraved on wood (the elder
taking kindly to the processes),
line

artists

on the

staff not

and
is

the. style

and manner of

we

see

in its

pages

due

in great

measure

to the influence ot the

wood

engraver.*

This
as

refers to fac-simile

work,

Init

the engraver,
clean lines,

we know,

also interprets

wash

into

helps out the tiniid and often unsteady draughtsman,

and

in little

matters puts his drawing right.

The wood
and
after long

engraver was apprenticed to his

art,

and laborious teaching, mastered the
If

mechanical

difficulties.

he had the

artistic

sense
illus-

he soon developed into a master-engraver and
trator,

and from crude and often weak and

inartistic

*

One

of the most accomplished of English painters told

me

the other day that

when he

first

drew

for illustration, the

wood

engraver dictated the angle and style of cross-hatching, &c., so as
to
fit

the engraver's tools.

LINE DRAWING.
drawinq^s produced illustrations
full

67

of tone, quality,

and beauty.

From very

slight material

handed

to

him by the publisher, the wood engraver would
evolve (from his inner consciousness, so to speak)

an

elaborate

and

graceful

series

of

illustrations,
in

drawn on the wood block by
employ,

artists

his

own

who had

special training,

and knew exactly

how

to

produce the

effects required.

The system
if

often involved

much

care and research for details of
like,

costume, architecture, and the

and,

not very

high

art,

was

at least well paid for,
I

and appreciated
illus-

by the

public.

am

speaking of the average

trated book, say of twenty years ago,

when
or

it

was not
the

an uncommon thing to spend
engravings.

^500

^600 on

Let us hope that the highest kind of
will

wood engraving

alwa\s

ilnd a

home
will

in Englantl.

Nobody knows
much
past.
"

— nobody
evil,"

ever

know

— how
but
I

the engraver has done for the artist in years

For good or


it

it

may be

said

;

am

thinking

now only

of the

good, of occasions

when
come

the engraver has had to interpret the artist's

meaning, and sometimes,
to the rescue
artist

must be confessed,
imperiect work.

to

and

[)erfect

The

who draws

for reproduction
is

by chemical
his own reMake these

and mechanical means
sources.

thrown upon

He

cannot say to the acid, "

(

68

)

No. VIII.
Illustration
to

"

Dream/and
:

in History,"

by Dr.

Gloucester.

(London

Isbister

&

C^o.)

Drawn by

Herbert Railton.
Example of
in line

brilliancy

and

simplicity of treatment

drawing

for process.

There

is

no

illustration

in this

book which shows better the scope and
process work.

variety

of
his

common
process,

Mr. Railton has studied
to
it

and brought

a

knowledge

of

architecture
illustration
is

and sense of the

jiicturesque.

This

reduced considerably from the original

drawing

No. VI II.

^o

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
Give a

lines a little sharper," or to the sun's rays, "
little

more

light

"

;

and so

—as we cannot often have
it

good wood engraving,
enough or rapid enough

as
for

is

not always

cheap

our needs

— we draw on

r

;',-^<Sfc,

ICEQUENTED WA-\S."

{\V.

H. GORE.)

])apcr

what we want reproduced, and

resort to

one

of the photographic processes described in this book.
I

do not think the modern

illustrator realises

how

niucli

depends upon him

in

taking the place, so to

speak, of the

wood engraver.

The

interpretation

LINE DRAWING.
of
to

tone

into

line

fitted

for

the

type

press,

which the wood engraver gave a

hfetinie, will

devolve more and more upon him.

We
in

cannot
spite of

keep
the
(as

this too

continually in
in

mind, for

limitations

mechanically-produced
in

blocks

compared with wood engraving)

obtaining

delicate effects of tone in line,
in

much can be done

which the engraver has no

part.

^.

LOWING HERD

I

purposely place these two pen-and-ink drawings
side, to

by Mr. Gore side by
of line and tone

.show what delicacy
relief

may be

obtained on a

block
to

by proper treatment.

One

could hardly point

better examples of pure line.

They were drawn
in.)

on ordinary cardboard (the one above, 4;[X9j
and reproduced by
All this,
it

the;

gelatine relief process.
to a

will

be observed, points

more

73

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATIOX.
and
intelligent

delicate

use of the process block
to something,
in

than very

is

generally allowed,
to

short

different

the

thin

sketchy
the

outlines

and

scribbles
for the

which are considered
artist."

proper style

"pen-and-ink
" the

But
this

values" are scarcely ever considered
iNIr.

in

connection.
his

Hamerton makes a
Aiis,
in

curious

error in

Grap/iic

where

he

advocates

the use of the " black blot
that as

pen drawing," arguing

we use
black

liberally

white paper to express air_
so

and various degrees of
of
solid
to

light,

we may use masses
gradations
of

represent

many

darkness.
that this
is

A

little

reflection will
all.

convince anyone

no argument at
in his

Mr. Ruskin's advice
as
to

Elements of Drawing,

how

to

lay

tkit

tints

by means of pure

black lines (although written

many

years ago, and

before mechanical processes of reproduction were
in

vogue)

is

singularly applicable and useful to the
especially

student of to-day;

where he reminds
pure

him
black

that,
lines,

"if you cannot gradate well with

you

will

never do so with pale ones."
'

To

"

gradate well with pure black lines

is,

so to

speak, the whole art and mystery of drawing for the

photo-zinc process, of which one
turns out

London

firm alone

more than a thousand blocks a week.

Lh\r.

DRAWIXG.
th;it

As
bear

to the
in

amount of reduction
it

a drawini; will

reproduction,
in spite

cannot be sutliciently widely

known, that
rule

of rules laid

down, there

is

no

about

it.

'

ADVERSITY."

(FRED. HALL.)

It

is

interesting

to

compare

this
is

reproduction

with the larger one overleaf.

There

no

limit to

the e.xperiments which ma\- be
if

made

in

reduction,

pursued on

scientific principles.

{

74

)

No. IX.
'^Adversity,"

by I'red. Hall.
in [len

This

fine

drawing was made
llie

and ink by Mr.

Hall, from his picture in

Royal Academy, 18S9.
in.

Size

of

original

14,'.

xii^

Reproduced

by

gelatine blocks.

but

The feeling in line is conspicuous in both many painters might prefer the smaller.

blocks,

No. IX.

(from the I'AINTINC BY MAUD NAFTEL.
(.Vew Gallcrv, 1SS9.)

USE
Mr.
Boutall,

DRAWING.
of the firm of

Emery Walker, who has had
ol

Walker and

great experience in the re-

production

illustrations

and designs from

old

books and manuscripts,
there
is

will tell

you that very often
;

no reduction of the original
in

and he

will

show reproductions

photo-relief of (Migravings
size as the originals, the

and drawings of the same

character of the paper, and the colour of the printing
also,

so

closely

imitatetl

that experts can

hardlv

distinguish one from the other.

On

the other hand,

the value ot reduction, for certain styles of drawing
especially, can hardly

be over-estimated.

The

last

drawing was reduced
the original, and
yet attained by
is,
I

to less than half the length of think,

one of the best
relief process.

results

thc^

Dawson
there
is

Again,

I

say,

"

no rule about

it."

In

the course of years, and in the reduction to various
scales of thousands of drawings
to print at

by

different artists,
is is

the type press,
its

my
to

experience
zv/nch
it

th;it

every

draiving has

scale,

best

reduced.
In these pages will be found cxanniles of drawings

reduced

to

one-sixtieth

the

area

of the original,
all.

whilst others have not been reduced at

There
painters,

is

much

instruction in these drawings by

instruction of a kind, not to be obtained

7S

)

No. X.
" Tioiiis,"

by Stanley Berkley.
ink. (size
S];

Sketch

in

pen and

x

5!- in.)

from Mr.

Berkley's picture in the Grosvenor Gallery in 1S84.

A
line,

good example of breadth and expression
the values being well indicated.
life well,

in

Mr. Berkley,
his picture,
is

knowing animal

and knowing

able to give expression to almost every touch.
the

Here

common

zinc process answers well.

"-'''-Ml

:'^ Im.'^.^i

'
f'
.

J[''^
(.

^•-^
;/'';'

'-^

y^

No. X.

ISLAND."

(kROM the FAINTIKC
Ac(uiej/:y, 1S85.)

{Royal

LINE DRAWING.
elsewhere.
" sketch "

The

broad

distinction

between
tiiade

a

from Nature and a drawing

in a

sketchy

manner cannot be too

often pointed out,

and
59),

such drawings as those by
Fred. Hall
([).

I\Ir.

G. Clausen
(p.

(p.

^A
and

Stanlc)others,
all

Berkley
help

79),

T. C.
the

Gotch

(p.

S3),

to

ex[)lain

difference.

These are

reproduced easily on

process blocks.*

As

to

sketching-

in

line

from
it

life,

reacl\-

for

reproduction on a process block, say a few wortls here.

is

necessary to
is,
1

The

s)-stem

know,

followed by a lew illustrators for ncwsjaapcrs (and

by a few geniuses
Hill,

like

Mr. Joseph Pennell, Raven
their

and

Phil.

May, who have

own methods),

and who, by incessant
ficient.

practice,

have become pro-

They have

special ability for this kind of
is

work, and their manner and st)le

their capital

and

attraction.

But to attempt

to teach rapid sketching in
at the

pen
fital

and ink
to

is

beginning
;

wrong

end, and

is

good

art

it

is

like

teaching the principles of

* Special interest attaches to the cx.Tmi)les
the fact that they have nearly
paper, and
seen,
TivV//

in this

book from
of

all

been draivn on

dijfcrcnt kinds
all,

different materials ;

and

yet nearly

as will

be

have come out successfullv, and give the

spirit

of the

original.

(

82

)

No. XI.

A
picture in the

Portrait,

by T. C. GoTCH.
(size

Pen-and-ink drawing

7-^x6i

in.),

from his
Art

Exhibition of the

New EngHsh
his

Club, 18S9.

Mr.

Gotch
;

is

well

known

for

painting
for

of
line

children

but

he has also the

instinct

drawing, and a touch which reproduces well without

any help from the maker of the zinc block.

The absence
gested

of outline, and the modelling suglines,

by

vertical

also

the

treatment

of

background, should be noticed.
lights

This background

up when opposed

to white

and

vice-versa.

No. XI.

LIXE DRAWING.
pyrotechnics
yet
l)e

S5

wliilsc
of

fireworks are goini;

dIT.

.And

we hear
the

prizes given lor ra[)id sketches to

reproduced by the processes.
is

Indeed,

I

Ijeheve

this
in

wrong road

;

the baneful result of hving
It
is

high-pressure times.
artist of the past

cHfhcult to imagine

any

consenting to such a system

of education.

Sketching from
student (especially

life is,

of course, neces.sary to the

when making illustrations by wash
I

drawings, of which
line

shall

speak presently), but for

work

it

should
is

be

done

first

in

pencil,

or

whatever medium
lines

easiest at the

moment.

The
about,
the

for

reproduction

require

thinking"
to

thinking what to leave out,

how

interpret

grey of a pencil, or the
in

tints

of a

brush sketch
onl)-,

the

fewest

lines.

Thus,

and thus

the

student learns "the art of leaving out," "the value
of a line."

The tendency
somebody
where the
;

of

modern

illustrators

is

to imitate

and

in line

drawing

for the processes,
to
is

artist,

and not the engraver, has

make

the lines, imitation of
inevitable.

some man's method

almost

Let

me

(juute

an instance.
is

The

style of the late

Charles Keene
nal
at

imitated
time,

in

more than one jourcatching
his

the

present

the artists

(

86

No. XII. " Sir Ji'kn Tcniiicl" by Edwin Ward.

Example of another

style

of line drawing.

Mr.

Ward

is

a master of

line, as

well as a skilful portrait

painter.

He

has lost nothing

of the force
it

and

character of the original here, by treating

in line.

Mr. Ward has painted a

series of small portraits
is

of public men, of which there
Size 01

an example on
in.,

p. 90.

pen-and-ink drawing 8^x5,',

repro-

duced by

common

process.

^3.^;^ ti<^^.

'J^^
I'-'iir
ill

W^

No. XII.

OF CAj^f2>^

LIXE DRAWIXG.

89

method of
of his art,

line

more

easily than the hicjher qualities

his chiaroscuro, his sense of values
effect.
I

and

atmospheric

say nothing of his pictorial

sense and humour, for they are beyond imitation.
It is

the husk only

we have

jiresented to us.

As

a matter of education

and outlook

for

the

younger generation of

illustrators, this

imitation of

other men's lines deserves our special consideration.

Nothing

is

easier in line

work than
is

to

copy from
to

the daily press.

Nothing

more

prejudicial

good

art,

or

more
it

fatal to progress.

And
hold

yet

is

the habit of

some
the

instructors
tricks)

to

up

the

methods

(and

of one
I

draughtsman
in

to the admiration of students.

read

an

art periodical the other day, a suggestion for

the better understanding of the
illustrations
in

way
viz.
:

to

draw

topical

pen and

ink,

that e.\ami)les

of the
Hill,

work of Daniel Vierge,

Rico, Abbey,

Raven

and other noted pen draughtsmen, should be
"

"set as an exercise to students;
explanation by a lecturer
is

of course with

or

teacher.

But

this

a dangerous road

for

the

average student

to

travel.

Of all

branches of art none leads so quickly
line

to

mannerism as

work, and a particular manner
to

when thus acquired

is ilithcult

shake

oft.

Think of the consequences

— \'ierge with his garish

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATIOX.
lights,

his

trick

of

black

spots,

his

mechanical
all

shadows and neglect of chiaroscuro
and tolerated
in a genius for

redeemed

the dash and spirit

HE RT. HON. JOHN MOR

and beauty of

his lines

lines,

be

it

observed, that

reproduce with

difficulty

on

relief blocks

— imitated

by countless students;
refined,

Mr.

E.

A. Abbey, the

and delicate American draughtsman, imitated

•aNL*/t

HSITY

LINE DRAWISG.
for
liis

9'

method

— the

style

and

chic of

it

being his

own, and inimitable.

Think of the crowd coming
Rico
!

on

— imitators of the imitators of
Keene
It

— imitators of
^

the imitators of Charles

may be
as

said generally, that in order to obtain
illustrator

work

an

— the

practical

point

— there
There

must be
must
be

originality of thought
originality,

and design.

as well as care and
for the Press.

thought

bestowed on every drawing

The drawing
line

of portraits in
to

line

from photoas

graphs gives employment
blocks will print in

some

illustrators,

newspapers much better
for

than photographs.

But

newspaper printing

they must be done with something of the precision
of this portrait, in which the whites are cut deep

and where there arc few broken
It
is

lines.

the

exception
present

to

get

good

printing

in

England, under

conditions

of haste

and

cheapening of production, and therefore the best
drawings for
require
rapid
least

reproduction

are

those
of

that

the

touching on

the

part
is

the

engraver, as a touched-up process block
to

troublesome

the printer ;

but

it

is

difficult to

impress this on

the artistic mind.

should not attempt them.

Some people cannot draw firm clean Few allow

lines at

all,

and

sufficiently for

92

)

No. XIII.
''Nofhiiigvatimr, no/hi/ig /laiT," by E-P.Sanguinltti.

Pen-and-ink drawing from the picture by E.
Sanguinetti,

V.

exhibited

at

the

Nineteenth Century

Art Society's Gallery, 1888.

The
paper,

large block

is

suitable for printing

on common
block
is

and by

fast

machines.

The

little

best

adapted

for

bookwork, and

is

interesting
It

as
is

showing the quality obtained by reduction.
an excellent example of drawing
for process,

showing

much

ingenuity of line.

The

tone and shadows on
(Size

the ground equal the best fac-simile engraving.

of original drawing, from

which both blocks were

made, 15 x 10

in.)

No. XIU.

(

94

)

<

LINE DRAWING.

95

the result of reduction, and the necessary thickeningof

some

lines.

The
work

results are often a matter of

touch and temperament.
unfitted for line
to
is
;

Some

artists are naturally

the rules which would apply

one are almost useless to another.
great inequality in the
blocks,
;

Again, there

making of these cheap
the

zinc

however

well

drawings may be

made

they require more care and experience in
is

developing than

generally supposed.
is

As
for

line

drawing
I

the basis of the best drawing

the press,

have interspersed

through these
;

pages examples and achievements

in this direction

examples which
of

in

nearly every case are the result

knowledge and consideration of the requirements

of process, as an antidote to the sketchy, careless

methods so much

in

vogue.

Here we may

see

as has probably never been seen before in one

volume

—what
this

harmonies and discords may be played on

instrument with one string.
if

" messing about,"

the phrase

One string no may be excused
to a zinc plate, the

pure black lines on Bristol board (or paper of the

same

surface),

photographed on

white parts etched away and the drawing
stand in
a book
;

made

to

relief,

ready to print with the letterpress of

every line and touch coming out a black

one, or rejected altogether by the process.

No. XIV.
" I'or Vie
S(/!iin\"

by Sir John

Mii.i.ais,

B.\RT., R..\.

This

is

an example of drawing

for

process
picture

for

rapid printing.
e.Kpressed firmly

The
and

accents

of

the

are

in the fewest lines, to give the
in the simplest

effect of the picture

way.
in

Sir

John

Millais' picture,

which was exhibited

the Grosvenor

Gallery in 1883,

was engraved

in

mezzotint, and

published by Messrs. Thos.

Agnew
in.)

&

Sons.
It
is

(Size

of pen-and-ink drawing, 7] x 5!
for

suitable

much

CTeater reduction.

No. XIV,

LINE DRAWING.
Drawinos thus made, upon
Bristol board or

99

paper

of similar surface, with lamp black, Indian ink, or

any of the numerous inks now
with a
well.

in

use,

which

dr)'

dull, not shiny, surface, will

always reproduce

brush
clear

The pen should be of medium point, or a may be used as a pen. The lines should be
and sharp, and are capable of much variation and treatment, as we see
not dwell
in

in style

these pages.

I

purposely do
surfaces
effects

here

upon some

special

and papers by which

different tones

and
;

there
artist
I

is

may be produced by the line too much tendency already
be
interested
in

processes

with

the
side.

to

the

mechanical

have not recommended the use of ''clay board,"
for
the-

for instance,
is

line

draughtsman, although
a
crisp
line to

it

much

tised

for giving

jjrocess

work, and has a useful surface for scraping out
lights,

&c.

The
looking.*

results

are

nearly

always

mechanical

On
to the

the next page are two simple, straightforward
it

drawings, which,

will

be observed, are well suited
for the type press.
I

method of reproduction
is

The

t^rst

by Mr.

11.

S.

Marks, R.A. (which

* For description
])Dge
1
1

of the various

grained papers, &c., see

3,

also Appendix.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
take from the pages of

Academy

Notes), skilfully
in.

drawn upon

Bristol board, about
line tells,

7X5

Here every

and none are superfluous;

the figure of the monk, the texture of his dress,
the
old

stone

doorway, the creeper growing on

"the

STOrPF.D KEY."

(ll

the wall, and the basket of provisions,
picture,

all

form a
with

the

lines

of which

harmonise well

the type of a book.
In
this

deliberate,

careful
far

drawing,
principal

in

which
the

white paper plays

by

the

part,

LINE DRAWING.
background and lighting of the picture are considered,

also the general

balance of a decorative

page.*

*

The young "pen-and-ink
or

artist" of to-day generally avoids

backgrounds,
scratches
;

by a series of unmeaning he does not consider enough the true " lighting of a
renders

them

picture," as

we

shall

see further on.
is

The tendency

of

much

modern black-and-white teaching

to ignore backgrounds.

BAS-BKl.IEF.

(h.

HOLIDAY.)

Academy Notes. ")

CH\PTER
THOTO - ZINC
TROCESS.*

IV.

In order to turn any
blocks
to
for
it

of these

drawings

into
is

the

type

press,
to
it

the
the

first

process

have

photographed
a
print
print,

size

required,

and
zinc

to transfer
plate.

of

on

to

a sensitized

This

or

photographic
the
zinc

image
is

of of

the

drawing

lying

upon

plate,

greasy substance

(bichromate

of

potash

and
;

gelatine),

and
is

is

afterwards inked up with a roller
in

the plate

then immersed

a bath of nitric acid

and
*

ether,

which cuts away the parts which were
to this chapter was

The heading

drawn

in line

and reproduced

by photo-zinc process.

(See page 134)

T.INE r/WCESS.
left \vliit(;

103

upon the paper, and leaves the
This "biting
in,"

lines of the
it

drawing
requires

in relief

as

is

called,

considerable

experience

and

attention,

according to the nature of the drawing.
lines are turned into metal in a

Thus, the

few hours, and the

plate

when mounted on wood

to the height of typeif

letters, is

ready to be printed from,

necessary, at

the rate of several thousands an hour.

MT.

(T. l.l.AkK VMKijM.,:
**

{From

Academy

Notes.'*)

[This portrait was exhibited in the Royal
in 1880.
I

Academy
for the

reproduce Mr. Wirgman's sketch
line.]

sake of his [lowerful treatment of

(

104

)

No.
" Forget-Me-Not,'"

XV.
by

Henry Ryland.

(From

the

"English Illustrated Magazine.'')
line,

An

unusually fine example of reproduction in

by zinc process, from a large pen-and-ink drawing.
serves to
if

It

show how

clearly writing can be reproduced

done by a trained hand.
" colour "

Students should notice
line,

the variety of the
brightness

and delicacy of

also

and evenness of the process block

throughout.

This

illustration suggests possibilities in

producing
aid

decorative pages in

modern books without the
is

of printers' type, which
schools.
figure
It

worth consideration

in art

requires,

of course, knowledge of th2
for process.

and of design, and a trained hand
preparation for such work,
is

One obvious

an examina-

tion of decorative pages in the

Manuscript Department

of the British
It

Museum,

(^i?

Appendix)

would be

difficult, I think, to

show more

clearly

the scope and variety of line work by process than
in the contrast
illustrations.

between

this
is

and the two preceding
an expert
in

Each

artist

black and

white in his

own way.

JpTQeCTlOC vet the tried tnt&nt e^ Qf^ujoh. aCnun txsJhave meant

vriyareai tTazxxU cocSiadtY ~5bent ^^ 3'o'r6ec -not -let

^oT^et -not ^et

(johen fi.-rsC be^CL-n, She. (jc>ea-rfX.iJe j-e /^houx since uJieru

the.£reat assays ahecrueL u}T~cng (rie.'Se.oi^nfuL iXiavs
t/OT^ei >7ct'(et

Sfhe pOJ-nfuL patxenae. u-n dLeioi(S

€foTget not!

ytc&t

ahe'TntrioL
5firtfe^ noC then, thxne. ou^n appro\je.ci <fne uyuch. Jo txirig hoUh. thee xso CouecC XlIIxox ^CeadfasC faUh.i{et -neuernicoed
'

QJbrgeC not (Acs (ongagb hxuh been. arui. ls &iaX neue-r inecxnc amisi ^orgec "noC wee

J^

forget

njot wet

No.

XW

l.IXE PROCESS.

A

wonderful

and

startling

invention

is

here,

worthy of a land of enchantment, which, without
labour, with
transfixes
little

more than
touch,

a

wave
and

of

the hand,
it

the
Ijy

artist's

turns

into

concrete

;

which the most delicate and hasty

{From ^'Aindvnty Notes,"

iSoo.)

strokes

of the

pen

are

not

merely recorded

in

fac-simile for the

eye to decipher, but are brought
if

out in sharp relief as bold and strong as out of a rock
!

hewn

1 1

ere

is

an argument

for

doing "the

best and truest

work we

can," a process that renders

loS

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.

indestructible of cremation

— so indestructible
rid of
it
;

that nothing short

would get

— every line that we
for

put

upon paper
of

an argument
the

learning

for

purposes

illustration

touch
b\-

and

method

best adapted for reproduction

the press.*

"a

silent pool."

(ed. w. waite.)
Kotcs,'' 1691.)

(From "Academy

*

The mechanical

processes, neglected

and despised by the

many years, have, by a sudden freak of fashion, apparently become so universal that, it is estimated, several thousand blocks are made in London alone every week.
majority of illustrators for

LINE PROCESS.

109

GELATINE PROCESS.

By

this

process a more delicate ami

sensitive

method has been used

to obtain a relief block. to the required size

The drawing
(as before),

is

photographed
laid

and the negative

upon a glass plate

(previously

coated with a mi.xture of gelatine and

bichromate of potash).
tive film not

The
to the

part of this thin, sensilight, is

exposed
in

absorbent, and

when immersed
exposed

water

swells

up.

The

part

to the light (/>., the lines of the

drawing)

remains near the surface of the glass.

Thus we
the
zinc

have a sunk mould from which a metal cast can be
taken,

leaving
In

the
skilful

lines

in

relief as
this

in

process.

hands

process

admits of

more
can

delicate gradaticms,

and

pale,

uncertain lines
fidelit\'.

be

reproduced with

tolerable

The
jjrice
is

blocks take longer to make, and are double the
of the photo-zinc process
first

described.

There

no process yet invented which gives better results
from a pen-and-ink

drawing

for

the

type-press.

These blocks when completed have

a copper surface.

The

reproductions of pencil, chalk, or charcoal draw"

ings by the zinc, or " biting-in

processes are nearly

always
artistic

failures, as

we may

see in

some of the

best

books and magazines to-day.

(

no

)

No.

XVI.
by E. K. Johnson.

" The Miller's Daughter^'

Another very interesting example of Mr. E. K.
Johnson's drawing in pen and ink.
line has the value

Nearly every

intended by the
has been

artist.

The drawing

largely

reduced,

and

reproduced by the gelatine

relief process.

"^

No.

XV]

"THE END OF THE

CifAI'TER."

(FROM THE PAINTING UV w. KAIKEV.)

[Roj'nl Acatieiii}', lSS6.]

(Reproduced ty the old Da-.vson fyocess.)

GRALXED PAPERS.

"in the

I'AS

DE CALAIS."

(jAF.

PRINSEP BEADLE.)"

GRAINED PAPERS.
For
there
tho.SC

who cannot draw
kinds
suitable

easily with

the pen,

are several

of grained

papers which

render drawings
first is

for reproduction.

The
it

a paper with black lines imprinted upon

on

a material suitable for scraping out

to get lights,
to get solid

and strengthening with pen or pencil
blacks.

On some

of these papers black lines are

* This excellent drawing was made on rough white paper
with autographic chalk
It is
;

the print being

much reduced

in size. this

seldom that such a good grey block can be obtained by

means.

114

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
horizontally,

imprinted
diagonally,

some

vertically,

some
lines

some

in

dots,

and some with

of

several
artist

kinds, one

under the other, so that the
tint

can get

the

required by scraping out.

Drawings

thus

made
too

can

be

reproduced

in

relief like line drawings, taking care

not to reduce
will

a fine black

grain

much

or

it

become

"spotty"

in

reproduction.

This drawing and the one opposite by Mr.
Nisbet show the
skilful

Hume

use of paper with vertical
;

and horizontal black

lines

also, in

the latter draw-

ing, the different qualities

of strength in the sky,

and the method of working over the grained paper
in

pen and

ink.

No.
*'

XV IT.
Nistet^/ubiishetf ly

TWILIGHT.**
in

(SI'ECIMEN OF DI.ACK-r.RAINED rAPBR.)

{From "Lessons

Att"

hy

Hume

Chattel Windus,)

(

1

16

)

No. XVIII.

"Z^ Dent
Another
skilful

dii

Gcant^' by E. T.

Compton.

use of the black -grained paper to represent

snow, glacier, and drifting clouds.

The

original tone of the

paper may be seen

in the

sky and foreground.

'

LE DENT DU G^ANT."

(frOM THE PAINTING BY

E. T.

COMPTON.)

The
It
is

effect is

obtained by scraping out the lighter parts on

the paper and strengthening the dark with pen and pencil.
interesting to

compare the two blocks made from the
of drawing

same drawing.

(Size

74X4

in.)

uS

)

No. XIX.
Landscape, by A. M. Lindstro.m.

Example of bold effect by scraping out on the black-lined paper, and free use of autographic chalk
This drawing shows,
of
this
I think, the artistic limitations

process in

the

hands of an experienced

draughtsman.

The

original

drawing by Mr- Lindstrom (from his

painting in the Royal
as the reproduction.

Academy) was the same

size

No. XIX.

CRArxr.l) PAPERS.

I2t

Other papers largely used

ior

illustration

in

the

type press have a ivhite grain, a good specimen of

which

is

on page 123

;

and there are variations of
is

these white-grained papers, of which what
in

known
for

France as allonge paper
in

is

one of the best

rough sketches

books and newspapers.
arise in

The
ducing

question

may

many

minds, are these
for

contrivances with their mechanical lines
effect,

pro-

worthy of the time and
?
1

attention

which has been bestowed upon them
very doubtful
if

think

it

is

much work ought

to be
;

producetl

by means of the black-grained papers

certainly, in

the hands of the unskilled, the results would prove
disastrous.

A

painter

may

use them for sketches,
(as

especially for landscape.

Mr. Compton

on

p.

i

1

6)

can e.xpress very rapidly and effectively, by scrajjing
out the lights and strengthening the darks, a snowdrift

or the surface of a glacier.
123,

In the drawing us

on page

Mr. C.

J.

Watson has shown
in

how

the grained paper can be played with,

artistic

hands, to give the effect of a picture.

The
sketches

difference,

artistically

speaking,

between

made on

black-grained and white-grained
in

papers seems to

me much
to

favour of the

latter.

But

at the best, blocks

made from drawings on
be
unequal, and do not

these papers are apt

(

122

)

No.

XX.
J.

"Vo/cndam,'' by C.

Watson.
treated

Example
skilfully

of

white-lined

paper,

very

and
could

effectively

— only

the

painter

of the

picture

have given so

much

breadth

and

truth of effect.

This

2vhiie pai)er

has a strong vertical grain which
with autographic chalk
black-lined pa[)er;

when drawn upon
same appearance
taken for
(Size of
it.

has the
is

as

and

often

drawing 6 x 4^

in.)

n

No. XX.

GRAINED PAPERS.
print with the ease
thc;y require g-Qod
is

125

and certainty of pure

line

work

;

paper and careful printing, which be
obtained.

not

al\va)s

to

The

artist

who

" AND WEE PEERIE

FOR A*,"

(from the I'AINTINC BV Ht'CH CAMERON.)
too largely reduced.

Example 0/ a good chalk drawing

draws

for the processes in this country
in

must not
cases) as
to
in

expect (excepting

very exceptional

have

his

work reproduced

and

printed

America, or even as well as

in this

book.

(

126

No. XXI.

"An
This
is

Arrcsf," by jNIeltom Prior.

a remarkable

example of the reproduction
seldom that the
soft

of a pencil drawing.
efifecl

It is

grey
a

of

a pencil

drawing can be obtained on

"half-tone"
preserved.

relief block, or the lights so successfully

This

is

only a portion of a picture by Mr. Melton

Trior, the

well-known special

aitist,

for

which

I

am

indebted to the proprietors of

Skctc/i.

The reproduction

is

by Carl Hentschcl.

^iff

No. XXI.

128

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION. The
reproduction

on the previous page owes and

its

success not only to good process, paper,

printing, but also to the firm, decisive touch

of an

experienced illustrator like Mr.
pencil

Melton
is

Prior.

A
to

drawing
"

in less skilful

hands

apt to

"go

pieces

on the G.

press.

Mr. C.

Harper,

in

his

excellent

book on

English Pen Artists,
in

has treated of other ways

which drawings on prepared papers may be
;

manipulated for the type press
with
success.

but

not

always

In

that

interesting

publication,

The
year
in

Sttidio, there

have appeared during the past
on
this

many
much

valuable papers

subject,
is

but

which the mechanism of
insisted
on.

illustration

perhaps

too
of

Some
and
of

of the

examples

"mixed drawings,"

chalk-and-pencil
artist

reproductions,

might well deter any
illustration.

from

adopting such aids to

The

fact

is,

that the use of grained papers

is,

at

the best, a makeshift and a degradation of the art of
illustration, if

judged by the old standards.
for the art of

It will

be a bad day

England when these
into

mechanical appliances are put

the hands of

young students

in art schools.

For the purposes of ordinary

illustrations
line.

we
All

should keep to the simpler method of

LIKE PROCESS.
these contrivances require great care in printing,

and the blocks have often
engraver.
T/ic viatcrial

to

be worked

u[)

by an
is

of the process

blocks

iinsuitcd to the purpose.

In a liandbook to students

of illustration

this

requires

repeating

on

nearly

every page.

As
a

a contrast
in

to

the
line

foregoing,

let

us look at
painter,

sketch

pure

by the landscape
little

Mr. M. R. Corbet, who, with
scribble

more than a
feeling

of the

pen,
still

can

express

the

of

sunrise and the

air amonorst the trees.

4^
/,

y

U

/^

"bUNKISE

IN

THB SEVERN VALLKY." (.MATTHEW

R.

COKBET.)

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
MECHANICAL DOTS.

Amongst

the

modern inventions
is

for helping the

hurried or feeble iUustrator,

the system of laying

on mechanical dots

to

give shadow and colour to
It
is

a pure line drawing, by process.

a

practice
to

always

to

be

regretted

;

whether applied

a

necessarily

hasty newsjxiper sketch, or to one of
in

Daniel Vierge's elaborately printed illustrations
the Pablo de Segovia.

One
which,

cannot condemn
in

too

strongly this system, so freely used
illustrated

continental

sheets,

but

in

the most skill ul

hands, seems a degradation of the art of illustration.

These dots and

lines,

used for shadow, or tone,

are laid upon the plate by the the artist indicating,

maker

of the block,

by a blue pencil mark, the
;

parts of a drawing to be so manipulated

and as
his oivn

the illustrator lias
line

not seen

the effect

on

drawing, the results are often a surprise to
I

everyone concerned.
contrivances
attention.

wish

these
of

ingenious

were

more

worthy

an

artist's

On
that

the opposite page

is

an example taken from
it

an English magazine, by which
all

may

be seen

daylight has been taken ruthlessly from the
figure,

principal

and that

it

is

no longer

in

tone

with the rest of the picture, as an open air sketch.

^a'/""

'^H/*

U:yL
*'th::

adjutant's love story."

(h. k.

millak.)

{^ExatiipU of nttchahiaxi gntiu.)

No. XXII.

132

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATIOX.
is

The system
he has only

tempting to the hurried ihustrator;

to

draw

in

Hne

(or

outline,
tint is to

which

is

worse) and then mark where the

appear,

and the dots are

laid

on by the maker of the blocks.
(I

In the illustration on the last page

have chosen

an example of fine-grain dots
papers and

;

those used in news-

common
injured
is

prints are
it

much more

unsightly,

as everyone knows),

is

obvious

that the artist's
fact,

sketch
the

is

by

this

treatment, that, in
at
all.

result

not
or

artistic

Nothing but
on
the
jjart

high pressure

incompetence

of

the illustrator can excuse this mechanical addition
to

an

incomplete
that

drawing
these

;

and

it

must
are

be
not

remembered

inartistic

results

the fault of the process, or of the "process man."

But the system

is

growing
is

in

every direction, to

save time and trouble, and
of topical illustrations.
alia)

lowering the standard
it

And
is

is

this

system

{Jiitcr

which

is

taught

in technical schools,

where the
of

knowledge of process
enyravintr.

taking the

jjlace

wood

The

question

is

again

uppermost

in

the mind,
I

are such mechanical appliances ("dodges,"

ven-

ture to call them) worthy the serious attention of
artists
;

and can any good
to

arise

by imparting such
in

knowledge

youthlul

illustrators

technical

LINE PROCESS.
schools
?

133

\\\)od

engraving was

a

craft

to

be
is

learned, with a career for the apprentice.

There

no

similar

career for

a

lad

by

Icamii/o-

Ike

"'processes;"

and nothing bid disappointment
mechanism before he

before
is

him if he
educated

learns the

an

and

qualified artist.
I

Mention should be made here (although
wish
to

do not
on

dwell

upon

it)

of

drawing

in

line

prepared transfer pap^jr with autographic
is

ink,

which

transferred

to zinc

without

the

aid
for

of jjhotorapid
for

graphy,

a

process
;

very
it
it

useful

and

common work
book

but
as

is

seldom used

good
and

illustration,

is

irksome to the
;

artist

not capable of very good results

moreover, the

drawing has often
will

to

be minute, as the reproduction
It
is

be the same size as the original.
I

one

of the processes which

think the student of art

had better not know much about.*
1 hat
it

is

possible,

by the common processes,
almost equal
to

to

obtain strong effects
*

engraving,

The young
the

artist

would be much
book,

better occupied in learning

draiving on stone direct, a branch of art which does not
into

come
book

scope of

this

as

it

is

seldom used

in

illustration,

and cannot be printed

at

the type press.

Drawing

on stone
in

is well worthy of study now, for the irt is being revived England on account of the greater facilities for printing than

formerly.

134

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
seen
in

may be
Mr.

some
in

process
whicli

illustrations

by

Lancelot Speed,

many

technical

experiments have been made,
use ot white lining.

including

the free

Mr. Speed

is

very daring

in his

exprTiments, and

stmlents ma)' well puzzle (>\er the

means

b)'

which

he obtains his

effects

by

tlic line ijrocesses.

The

illustration opposite

from Andrew

Lang's
treatit

Blue Poetry Book, shows a very ingenious

ment of the

black-lined papers.
I

Technically

is

one of the best e.xamples

know of,— the

result of

much study and

exjjeriment.

Ait,ir,w Land's

"Blue Poetry Book."

vLancelot speed.)

No. XXIII.

(

136

)

No.
"

XXIV.

The Armada^' by Lancelot Speed.
for

This extraordinary example of line drawing
process was taken from

Andrew Lang's Blue Poetry

Book, published by Messrs. Longmans.
Li this illustration no wash has been used, nor

has

there

been any

" screening " or engraving on

the block.

The methods
the

of lining are, of course, to

a

great

extent

artist's

own

invention.

This

illustration

and the two jireceding lead
is

to the conin

clusion that there

yet

for process

by

those
the
to
is

much to who will

learn

drawuig
it.

study

The
with

achievements of
difficult

makeri of the blocks,
reproduce,
is

drawings

quite

another
the

matter.

Here

all

easy for the reproducer,

common

zinc process only being employed,

and the

required effects obtained wiihout

much

worrjiiig of

the printer, or of the maker of the blocks.

Thus

far

a'l

the

illustrations

in

this

book have

been produced by the

common

line process.

No XXIV,

138

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION

"

HALF-TONE

"

PROCESS.
is

The

next process to consider

the

method of

reproducing wash

drawings and

photographs on

blocks suitable for printing at the type press, com-

monly known
process
"
;

as

the

Meisenbach or

" half-tone

a most ingenious and valuable invention,
is

which, in clever hands,

capable of

artistic results,

but which in
illustrations in
First,

common
the

use has cast a gloom over

books and newspapers.

as

to

method
in

of

making

the blocks.
in

As

there are no lines

a
it

wash drawing or
is

a

photograph from nature,

necessary to obtain

some kind of

grain,

or interstices of white, on the

HALF-TONE PROCESS
zinc plate, as in a mezzotint
;

139

so between the drawing

or photograph to be reproduced

and the camera,

glass screens, covered with lines or dots, are inter-

posed, varying

in

strength according to the light

THERE

IS

THE

I'RIORV

and shade required

;

thus turning the image of the

wash drawing

practically into "line," with sufficient

interstices of white for printing purposes.

!4o

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
Thus,
all

drawings

in

wash, chalk, pencil,

etc.,

that will not reproduce

by the direct

line processes,

already referred

to,

are treated for printing at the the are
all

type press

;

and

thus

uniform,
familiar,

monotonous
pervades the

dulness, with which

we

page.

The
to

conditions of drawing for this process have
caret ully studied, to prevent the

be

meaningless

smears and blotches (the

result generally of

making
There

too hasty sketches in wash) which disfigure nearly

every magazine and newspaper we take up.
is

no necessity for this degradation of illustration.

The

artist

who draws
oils

in

wash with body

colour,

or paints in

in

monochrome,

for this process,
will

soon learns that his high lights
his strongest effects neutralised,

be

lost

and

under

this effect of
X.o

gauze

;

and so

for pictorial

purposes he has

force

/lis ejfict

and exaggerate

lights

and shades; avoiding

too delicate gradations, and in his different tones

keeping, so to speak, to one octave instead of two.

Thus, also
cheap

for this process, to obtain brightness

and

effect,

the illustrator of to-day often avoids

backgrounds altogether.
In spite of

the
it

uncertainty

of

this

system of
skilful

reproduction,

has great attractions for the

or the hurried illustrator.

Jf^&^fhA

No. XXV.
'

HciRa rode without a saddle
t

as

if

she had grown to her horso— ;>t/ull speed.' horse— at/idl sp

("//.!/«

Aiideneni Fairy ra/cs:)

/

142

)

No. XXVI.
^'Thc S/orks,'" by
" And high through the
second stork
;

J.

R. Weguelin.
the
first

air

came

stork and the

a jiretty child sat on the back of each.''

Exam]ile of

lialf-tone process

applied to a slight
is

wash drawing.
vignetting

much relieved by and /caving out : almost the only chance
illustration

The

for effect that the artist has
It

by the screened process.
scope and possibilities

suggests, as

so

many

of the illustrations in this

book do, not the

limits but the

of process work for books.

This

and

the

[ircccding

illustration

by

Mr.
Fairy

Weguelin are taken
Talcs (Lawrence
\-

from

Hans Andcrscui

jjullcn, 1S93).

No. XXVI.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
That
this

"half-tone" process

is

susceptible of

a variety of effects and results, good and bad, every

reader must be aware.

The
165,

illustrations in this book,
all

from jjages 138 to

are

practically

by the

same process of
in

"screening," a slight difference only

the grain

being discernible.

The wash drawing on page
coarse grain on
are fairly well
it,

139 suffers by the
it

but the values,

will

be seen,

preserved.

The
the

lights

which are

out of tone appear to have been taken out on the
plate

by the maker

of

block,

a

dangerous Mr. Louis

proceeding with figures on a small

scale.

Grier's clever sketch of his picture in wash, at the

head of

this chapter, gives the effect well.

Mr. Weguelin's

illustrations to

Hans
lor

Aiidcrscii s

Fairy
success,

Talcs
the

have

been,

I

understand,
the

a

great
of

public caring

more

spirit

poetry that breathes through them than for more
finished

drawings.

This

is

delightful,

and as

it

should be, although, technicalh', the
considered
his

artist

has not
the

process

enough,
it

and
its

trom

educational point of view

has

dangers.
in

The

"process" has been blamed roundly,
criticisms of

one or two

Mr. Weguelin's
tlie

illustrations,

whereas
157.

the process 7tscd is

same as on pa^rs 149 and

HALF-TOXE PROCESS.
However, the
effect

on a wash drawing

is

not

satisfactory in the best hands.

So

uncertain and

gloomy are

the

results

that
it

several

well-known

illustrators decline to use

as a substitute for

wood

engraving.
before

We

shall

have
is

to inii)rove considerably

wood engraving

abandoned.

We

are

improving every day, and by

this half-tone process

numberless wash drawings and photographs from
nature
are

now presented

to

the public

in

our

daily prints.

Great advances have been made

lately
in

in

the

"screening" of pencil drawings, and
the
127),

taking out

lights

of a
results

sketch (as pointed out on page

and

have been obtained by carelul
last
si.x

draughtsmen during the

months which a

year ago would have been considered impossible.

These

results

have been obtained principally and
jiaper

by

gooel printing

— allowing

of a fine grain

on the block
prepared

—but where the
wool
pattern
all

illustration

has to be

for printing,

say 5,000 an hour, off rotary

machines, a coarser grain has to be used, producing
the " Berlin
"

eftect
in

on

the

page,

with which

we
now

are

familiar
at

newspapers.
of

Let

us

look

two

examples

wash

drawing

by

process,

lent

by the proprietors of

Black and

IV/iiic.

(

146

)

No. XXVII.
This
is

a

good average example of what
tame and monotonous no

to expect

by the halftone process from a wash drawing.
the result
artist,
is is

That

fault of the

whose work could have been more brightly

rendered by wood engraving.

That "

it is

better to have this process than
" is

bad
illus-

wood engraving
any
rate, if

the opinion of nearly
artist sdds his on'ii

all

trators of to-day.

The

ivork, at
is

through a
!

veil of fog

and gloom which

meant
But

for

sunshine
time

the

is

coming when the pubUc

will

hardly rest content with such results as these.

No. XXVII.

(

148

No. XXVIII.
lUuslration

from " B/ack and
G. G. Manton.

U'hi/e,"

by

This
process
;

is

a

good example of wash drawing
is

for

that

to say,

a

good example from the

"process man's" point of view.

Here the
to

artist

has used his utmost endeavours
;

meet the process half-way

he has been careful

to use broad, clear, firm washes,

and has done them
If,

with certainty of hand, the result of experience.
in the

endeavour

to get strength,

and the

best results
arlislic

out of a
qualities,
it

few
is

tones,

the

work lacks some

almost a necessity.
lining, or
itself

Mr. Manton has a peculiar method of
stippling,

over

his

wash

work, which
;

lends

admirably for reproduction
hardly be
It is

but

the

practice can

recommended
in the

to the attention of students.

as difficult to achieve artistic results by these

means, as

combination of

line

and chalk

in

one drawing, advocated by some
At the same time,
surfaces

ex])erts.

Mr. Manton's indication of
interesting

and textures by process are both

and valuable.

No. XXVIII.

(

I50

)

'a sunny land."

(from the painting by GEORGE WETHERCEE.)
{Netu Gallery^ 1S91.)

DECORATIVE DESIGN BY RANDOLPH CALDECOTT.

One
tion of

of the

many

uses which artists
is

may make

of

the half-tone process

suggested by the reproduc-

one of Mr. Caldecott's decorative designs,
freely with a brush full of white,

drawn

on brown
or
;

paper on a large scale (sometimes two
three
feet

even
the

long),

and

reduced

as

above

reduction refining and improving the

design.

This

is

a most legitimate and practical use
for illustrating books,
in artistic

of

"process"
others,

architectural

and

which

hands might well be further

developed.
(Tlie above design,

from the Memoir of

A'.

CalJccotl^

is

lent

by

Messrs.

Sampson Low

&

Co.)

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
Of
the illustrators

who
will

use this process in a

more

free-and-easy

way we

now

take an example, cut

out of the pages of Sketch

[see

overleaf

p.

[55).

Here

truths of light and shade are disregarded,

the figure stands out in unnatural darkness against

white paper, and

flat

mechanical shadows are cast
ability

upon nothing.
few modern

Only sheer

on the part of a

illustrators

has saved these coarse un-

gainly sketches from universal condemnation.

But

the splashes, and spots, and stains, which are taking the place of

more
in

serious

work
'^'le

in illustration,

have
in

become a vogue

1894.

sketch
;

is

made

two or three hours, instead of a week
is

the process

also

much cheaper

to

the publisher than
satisfied

wood
was

engraving,

and the public seems

with a

sketch where formerly a finished
required,
if

illustration

the subject be treated dramatically and
If the sketch
it

in a lively

manner.

comes out an unanswers the
suits
in

sightly

smear on the page,

at least

purpose of topical
the times.
It
is

illustration,
little

and apparently

short of a

revolution

illustration, of

which we do not yet see the end.*
that

*

The

evil of

it

is

we are becoming used

to black blots in

the pages of books and newspapers, and take them as a matter of

course

;

j'.ist

as

we submit

to the deformity of the

outward

man

in the matter of clothing.

HALF-TOXK PROCESS.

153

The
and

bookstalls are laden with the daring achieveHill,

ments of Phil May, Raven
others, but
it

Dudley Hardy,

is

not the object of this book to
for emulation or

exhibit the
imitation.

works of genius, either
It
is

rather to sug-gest to the average

student what he

may

legitimately attempt, and to

show him the
different hands.

possibilities of the process block in
It

may be

said,

without disparage-

ment

of the

numerous clever

and

experienced

illustrators of the day, that they are only

adapting

themselves to the circumstances of the time.
is

There

a theory— the truth

ol

which
rapid

I

do not cpicstion
sketches from the

that the reproductions ol

living
vitality

model by the hall-tone process have more
and
freedom,

more

feeling
b)' an\'

and

artistic

qu.alities

thim can be obtainc^d
illustrator

other means.

But the young
adapting
a)iything
'"

should

hesitate

before

these

methods,

and should never have
pJiblication
classes.
in

rcprcdiiccd

for

icliich

was

draiun to lime'' in art

One
called

thing cannot be repeated too often
:

this

connection

that

the

hastily

produced blotches

" illustrations,"

which disfigure the pages of
are generally the
artist

so

many books and magazines,
of want of
cart;

result

on the part of the
blocks.

rather th.in of the

maker of the

(

154

)

No. XXIX.
This
is

part

of a page illustration lent
It

by

the

pro]irietor3 of Skctih.

does not do justice to the
hope), of the illustrator,

talent (or the taste,

we

will

and

is

only inserted here to record the kind of work
is

which
edition

popular

in

1S94.

(Perhaps
exploits

in

a second
to

we may have other

of genius

record.)
It

should be noted that this and the illustration

on

p.

149 are both reproduced by the same

half-

tone process, the difference of result being altogether
in

the handling of the brush.

This sketch would
hands.
Artists

have been intolerable
will

in less artistic

doubtless find more feeling and expression in
us,

the broad washes and splashes before

than

in tlie

most careful stippling of Mr. Manton.
Students of wash drawing for process
a middle course.

may

take

No. XXIX.,

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.

A

word here on the influence of
PROCESS-BLOCK MAKERS

on the youn^-

illustrator.

The

"

process man,

"

the

teacher and inciter to achievements by this or that
process,
is

not usually an

" artist "

in the true

sense
else

of the word.

He knows
is

better than

anyone

what

lines

he can reproduce, and especially what
best adapted for his

kind of drawing

own

process.

He

will

probably
to
will

tell

the

young draughtsman what
reduction
his

materials

use,

what amount of

drawings

bear,

and other things of a purely
Let

technical not to say businesslike character.

me

not be understood to disparage the

work

of photo-

engravers and others engaged on

the.se

processes

;

on the contrary, the amount of patience, industrv,
activit}-,

and

anxious

care

bestowed

ujjon
is

the

reproduction of drawings and paintings
ing,

astonishis

and deserves our gratitude.*

This work

a

new
cratt

industry of an important kind, in which art and
are

bound up together.
is

The day
most

has past

when "process work"
as

to

be looked down upon
inferior,

only

fit

for

the

cheapest,

and

inartistic

results.

*

On

the

opposite page

is

an

excellent reproduction of a

painting from a photograpli

hy the half-tone process.

HALF-TOXE PROCESS.

piioto(;k.M'Uic

illustkatioxs.
in makintj; ilrawincjs,

One

result of hasty

work

and

the uncertainty of reproduction, promises to be a

very serious one to the
see ahead,
viz.
:

ilkistrator, as

far as

we can

the grackial substitution of photofor

graphs from

life

other

forms of

illustration.

The "I\Ieisenbach"reprodnction
life,

of a photograph from
in

say a

full

length figure of an actress

some

elaborate costume, seems to answer the purpose of

the

editor

of a

newspaper

to

fill

a

page, where

formerly artists and

engravers

would have
is

been

employed.

One

reason for this

that the details

of the dress are so well rendered

b\-

photography on

158

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.

the block as to answer the purpose of a fashion
plate,

an

imi)()rt;int

matter
is

in

some weekly news-

papers.

The

result

generally unsatisfactory from
is

an

artist's

point

of view, but the picture

often

most

skilfully

composed and the values wonderfully

rendered, direct from the original.
In the case of the reproduction of

photographs,

which we are now

considering,

much may be done
it

by working up a platinotype
out to be

print before giving

made

into a block.

Much depends

here

upon the
or bad

artistic
it

knowledge of editors and publishers,

who have

in their

power

to

have produced good
original.

illustrations

from the same

The

makers of the blocks being confined
price, are

to

time and

practically

powerless,

and seldom have
results.
It

an opportunity of obtaining the best
should be mentioned that blocks
drawings,
line

made from wash

being shallower than those made from
sutler

drawings,

more from bad printing and

paper.

A
from

good
life

silver print

(whether from a piiotograph
full

or from a picture),

of delicate gra-

dations

and

strong
film

effects,

appears on the plate
dull,
flat,

through the

of

gauze,
;

and com-

paratively uninteresting

but the expression of the
Jidclify

original

is

given

tvith

more

than could be

HALF-TONE PROCESS.
done by any ordinary wood engraving.
best that can be said tor
it,

159

This

is

the

it

is

a dull, mechanical
;

process, requiring help from the

maker of the blocks

and so a system of touching on the negative (before

making the block)
of the picture
is

to bring out the lights

and accents
This
is

the

common

practice.

a

hazardous business

at the best, especially
I

when

dealit

ing with the copy of a painting.

mention

to

show where "handwork"
first

in

the

half-tone process
is

comes

in.

The

block,

when made,
in places,

also often

touched up by an engraver

especially

where

spotty or too dark; and on this

work many who were
find

formerly wood-engravers

now

employment.

There

is

no doubt that the makers of process
as
to

blocks are the best instructors
to

the

results

be obtained by certain lines and combinations
;

of lines

but

in

the majority of cases they will

tell

the artist too muih, ,uk1 lead him to take loo
interest
in

much

the

mechanical

side

ol

the

business.

The
his

illustrator's best protection against this
cjt

tendency,

whole armour and coat

mail,

is

to

be an artist

first

and an
is

illtistrator afterioards.

This

the

sum

of the matter.

Perhaps some
us,

of the examples
to a

in this

book may help

and lead

more thorough

testing of results

by cai)able

men.

i6o

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
" SKETCH."
It will

be interesting here to consider

tlie

material

of which
is

one number of an

illustrated

paper {Sketch)

made

up,

and how
it.

far the artist

and wood engraver
it

have part
will

in

From
I

an economic point of view

be instructive.
it is

take this "newspaper" as an

example, because
publication,

a typical and quite "up-to-date"
in

vicing,

circulation

and importance,

with the Illnsfratcd Loudon Ncios, both published

by the same proprietors.

In one

number

there are

upwards of 30 pages, 10 being advertisements. There
are in
all
1

5

1

illustrations, of

which 63 appear

in

the

te.xt

part,

and 88
text

in

the advertisement pages.

Out

of

the

illustrations,

24 only are from

original

drawings or sketches.
life (several

Next
full

are 26 plioto-

graphs from

being

pages), and 13

reproductions

from engravings,

etc.,

reproduced

by mechanical processes

in

all

63.

Some
is

of the

pages reproduced from photographs are undeniably
good, and interesting to the public, as

evidenced
In

by the popularity of

this

i)aper

alone.

the

advertisement portion are 88 illustrations (including

many
old

small ones), 85 of which have been engraved
;

on wood

a

number
reason

of

them are electrotypes from

blocks,

but there are
for

week.

The

usinij

many new ones every wood eneravinrr

No.
MI^S

XXX.
Reproduced by half-tone process

KATE RORKE. (FROM "SKETCH."}
H,
S. Mendeissckn.
)

F'loto^raphed from

life

bv

^\0

H A

Hy"

UNIVERSITY

HALF-TOXE PROCESS.
largely tor advertisements
is,

163

that

wood

l)locks print
the-

more
type,

easily than " process,"

when mixed with

and print better (being cut deeper on the

block) where inferior paper and ink are employed.

But

this class of

wood engraving may be summed
craft to nn; lately
:

up

in the
is

words of one of the

" It

not worth
it

£2

a

week

to

anybody."
the "text" part of
illustrations are pro-

Thus
this

will

be seen that

in

newspaper two-thirds of the

duced without the aid of

artist or

wood engraver

!

To

turn to one of the latest Instances where the
Is

photographer

the illustrator.

A

-photographer,

Mr. Burrows, of Camborne, goes down a lead mine
in

Cornwall with his apparatus, and takes a series

of views of the workings,

which could probably

have been done by no other means.
difficult

Under most
groups
sur-

conditions he sets his camera, and by the

aid of the

magnesium

" tlash-light," gives us

of figures at

work amidst gloomy and weird

roundings.

The

results are exceptionally valuable

as " illustrations" in the true

meaning of the word,

on account of the clear and accurate definition of
details.

The remarkable

part,

artistically.

Is

the

good colour and grouping of the
* " 'Mongst

figures.*
C.
&:

Mines and

Miners" by

J.

liurrows

and

W. Thomas.

(London

:

Simpkin, Marshall

Co.)

i64

THE ART OF ILLVSTRATIOX.
in

Another instance of the use of photography
iUustration.

Mr.

Villiers, the special artist of

Black

and White, made a starthng statement lately. He said that out of some 50 subjects which he took at
i

the Chicago Exhibition, not

more than half-a-dozen

were drawn by him
photographs.

;

all

the rest being "snap-shot

be better, the

Some were very good, could result of many hours' waiting
of figures.

hardly
for the

fivourable grouping

That he would

re-draw some of them with his clever pencil for a

newspaper

is

possible, but observe the part photoin the matter.

graphy plays
In

America novels have been thus
in figure

illustrated

both
the

and landscape
the

;

the

weak

point being
I

backgrounds to

figure

subjects.

draw

attention to this

movement

because the neglect of

composition, of appropriate backgrounds, and of the
true lighting of the
figures

by so many young

artists, is

throwing

illustrations

more and more

into

the hands of the photographer.
" pen-and-ink artist,"

Thus
in

the rapid

and the sketcher
model
in

wash from

an
is

artificially lighted

a crowded art school,

hastening to his end.

The

time

is

coming
will

fast

when cheap

editions of
in tlie

popular novels
following way.

be illustrated
artist,

and many

The

instead of being called

No. XXXI.
(./

Photograph from

li/c, l,y

Mcsin. Camcrm &• Smith.

KrtroduccJ by half-tone froctst.)

HALF-TONE PROCESS.
upon
to draw,
will

167

occupy himself
through
the

in

setting of

and

composin<j^

pictures

aid

models
jjhoto-

trained for the purpose,

and the ever-ready

grapher.
lator

The
if

"process

man" and
rest,

the clever manipu-

on the

plates, will

do the

producing pictures

vignetted,

desired, as overleaf

Much more
do

the the

makers of blocks can do

—and

will

— with

photographs now produced,
tiring,

for they are earnest, un-

ready to

make

sacritices of

time and money.

The cheap
which
to
artists'
for,

dramatic

illustrations, just referred to,

models

in

America know so

well

how
com-

pose

may be found
will

suitable from the

mercial point of view for novels of the butterlly

kind

;

but they
here,
for

seldom be of

real artistic interest.

And
the
••

the present,

we may draw
" will

the line

between the

illustrator

and the i^hotographer.

But

black and white

man

obviously have to

do

his best in every
in

branch of

illustration to hold his

own
but
ing

the future.

It

may be thought by some artists
;

that these things are hardly worth consideration

we have

only to watch the illustrations appearto see

week by week

whither

we

are tending.*

• Both Mr. Cameron's and Mr. Mendelssohn's [thotographs have had to be sHghtly cut down to fit these pages. But as
illustralions

they are,

I

think,

remarkable
art.

examples of

the

photographer's and the [)hoto-engraver's

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.

The

last

example

of

the

photographer
is
is

as

illustrator,

which can be given here,
life

where a
published

photograph from

engraved on wood
It
is

as a vignette illustration.®

worth observing,

because

it

has been turned into line by the
serves
for

wood
as a

engraver, and

printing purposes
original
it

popular

illustration.

The
but

might have been

more

artistically posed,
pulilic.

is

pretty as a vignette,

and pleases the

[Sec opposite page.)

1 here are hundreds of such subjects now pro-

duced by the joint aid of the photographer and the
process engraver.
It is

not the artist and the

wood

engraver who are really "working hand-in-hand"

m
I

these days in the production of illustrations, but

the photographer
his
is

and

the

maker of process
is

blocks.

significant.

Hajjpily for us there

much
lUit

that

the photographer cannot do pictorially.

the
on,

photographer and the

is,

as

I

said,

marching on and

line of

demarcation between handwork

and phot(jgraphic
every day.

illuslnilions

becomes

less

marked

The
school,

photographer's

daughter
is

goes

to

an art
in

and her inlluence
of
the

shown

annually
societies.

the

exhibitions

photographic

*

From

the Graphic newspaper, 28th October, 1893.

No. XXXII.
(A Photograph from
ll/e,

engraved on wood.)

I70

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
This influence and
this

movement
it

is

so strong

and

vital to

the artist —that

cannot be emphasised
is

too much.
midst,
details

The photographer
our

ever

in

our

correcting

drawing

with
see,

lacts

and

which no human eye can
in

and no one

mind can take

at once.
to

On
as a

the obligations of artists

photographers
are not,

a book might be written.
rule,

The
;

benefits

unacknowledged

nor

are

the

bad

influences of photography always noticed.
is

That

to

say,
artist

that

before the

days of

[jhotngraphy,

the

made

himself
to

acquainted
art.

with

many
short,

things

necessary

his

for

which
;

he now
in

depends
he uses
did

upon the photographic lens
his

powers of observation
years
ago.

less

than

he

a few

That
is

the

photographer
thing
to

leads

him astray sometimes

another

remember.

The

future of the illustrator being uppermost in
let
is

our thoughts,

us consider further the influences

with which he

surrounded.

As

to

photography,

Mr. William
always draws

.Snicdl,

the well-known illustrator
:

for

wood engraving), savs

(who
it

"

will
"

never take good work out of a good

artist's

hands.

He

speaks as an

artist

who has taken
,

to illustration

seriously and most successfulh

having devoted the

THE ILLVSTRATOR.
best years of his
life

171

to

its

development.
style

The moral
newspaper

of

it

is,

that in

whatever material or
llieir

illListratii)ns

are done, to hold

own they must
work
(the best

be of the best.
if

Let them be as slight as you please,
In line

they be original and good.
lor the processes)
artist,
is

and surest

photography can only
not the competitor

be the servant of the

and

in this direction
for.

there

much employment
influence
is

to

be looked

At present the

very

much
fully

the other
it

way

;

we

are casting off

— ungrateplace an

would seem

—the

experience of the lifetime
its

of the

wood

engraver, and are setting in

art half developed, half studied, full of crudities

and

discords.

The

illustrations

which succeed

in

books

and

newspapers, succeed for the most part from
artist
;

sheer ability on the part of the

titcy

are full
for

of

ability,

but,

as a
"
;

rule,

are
is

bad exami)les
nn)ney
"

students to copy.
brilliant

Time

with these

executants
line,

they have no time to study the
prt)-

value of a
cesses.
to the

nor the requirements of the

and so a number of drawings are handed
photo-engravers

— which
It
is

are often quite un-

fitted ior

mechanical reproduction
a lew hours.

— to

be produced

literally in

an age of vivacity,

daring

originality,
"

and
it

reckless
up, look at

achievement
it,

in
it

illustration.

Take

and throw

172

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
is

down,"

the order of the day.

There

is

no reason

but an economic one

why

the worls done "to look at"
artist

should not be as good as the

can afford to

make

it.

The manufacturer
how

of paperhangings or

printed cottons will produce only a limited quantity
of one design, no matter
beautiful,

and then go

on

to another.

So much

the better for the designer,
if

who would
his best,

not keep employment
his

he did not do
to last for

no matter whether

work was

a day or for a year.

The
is

life

of a single

number of
illus-

an

illustrated

newspaper

a week, and of an

trated

book about a year.
illustrators

The young
of
effect

on the Daily Graphic

notably Mr. Reginald Cleaver

— (jbtain the maximum
of
lines.

with

the

minimum
out.

Thus
Keene's

Caldecott worked, spending hours sometimes studyinsr

the

art

of

leavincj

Charles

example may well be followed, making drawing'after
drawing, no matter

how
it

tri\ ial

the subject, until he
" Either right

was

satisfied that

was
;

right.
"
'

or
n<.it

wrong," he used to say

right

enough

'

will

do

tor

me."
intluencc

.\nother

on

modern

illustration
It

— for

good or bad

is

the electric light.

enables the

photographic operator to be independent of dark

and foggy days,

and

to

put a search-light upon

'\

/

No. XXXIII.
"PROUD MAIRIE."
(LANCELOT
SIEF.D.)

(From " The Blue Poetry Book."

Louilon:

Longmnm.)

Pen-and-ink drawing by line process;

174

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
So
a

objects which otherwise could not be utih.sed.
far

good.

To

the ilkistrator this aid

is

often

doubtful advantage.

whom
subject)

I

The late Charles Keene (with have had many conversations on this
a

predicted

general

deterioration

in
"

the

quality of illustrations

from what he called

un-

natural and impossible effects,"

and he made one or
seen under the
conditions

two
then

illustrations in Piiuc/i of figures

(lo or
street

15 years ago)
lighting,

— novel

of

electric

one of which represented

a

man who

has

been

"dining" returning home
electric lamps, tuck-

through a street lighted up by

ing up his trowsers to cross a black

shadow which

he takes

for a stream.
true,

Charles Keene's predictions

have come
light

we

see the glare of the

magnesium
is

on many a page, and the unthinking public

dazzled every

week

in

the illustrated sheets with

these "unnatural and impossible effects."

Thus
untrue
of

it

has come about that what was looked
garish, exaggerated,

upon by Charles Keene as
in effect, is

and

accepted to-day by the majority
legitimate

people as a lively and

method of

illustration.

LINE PROCESS.

175

DANIKL

VIKR(;K.

One

of the influences on the

modern

illustrator

a decidedly adverse influence on the unlearned

is

the pnjininence which has lately been given to the
art of

Daniel Vierge.
is

There

probably no illustrator of to-day
style,

who

has more originality,

and

versatility

in short

more genius

— than

\'

ierge,

and none whose work,
to students.

for practical reasons,

is

more misleading

As

to

his

illustrations,
side,

from the purely literary

and imaginative

they are as attractive to the
to

scholar as drawings

by Holbein or Menzell are

the

artist.

Let us turn to the illustration on the

next page, from the Pablo dc Segovia by

Ouevedo

;

an example selected by the editor,
of the

or

publisher,

book

as a specimen page.
it.

First,

as to the art of

Nothing

in

its

own
long

way could be more
and character than

fascinating in humour, vivacity,
this

grotesque duel with

ladles at the entrance to

an old Spanish po.sada.

The

sparkle and vivacity of the scene are inimitable;
figure

the bounding

haunts the

memory
by

with

its

diaphanous
expression
of ofcnius.
in

grace,

touched

in

a master

ot

line

In sliDrl. \\r arc in the [)resence

(

176

)

No.

XXXIV.
\'ierge's
illustrations

Example

of

Daniel

to

Pablo de Segovia, the Spanish Sharper, by Francisco

de Quevedo-Villegas,
1882
;

first

imblished in

Paris,

in

afterwards translated into English (with an

Essay on Quevedo, by H. E. Watts, and comments

on Vierge's work by Joseph Pennell), and published
by Mr. T. Fisher Unwin,
Yierge was born in 185
in 1S92.
1,

and educated

in

Madrid,
Since

where

lie

spent the early years of his
in Paris,

life.

1869 he has lived
illustrations for

and produced numerous

Le Monde lllustii and

La Vie Moderiie,
in

and other works.
Quevedo's
.f(7/'/i?

His fame was made

1882 by

de Segovia, the illustrations to which
to
illness

he was unable to complete owing
paralysis.

and
were

About twenty of these
left

illustrations

drawn with the
right
side.

hand, owing to paralysis of the
full

His

career,

of romantic interest,

suggests the future illustrator of

Don

Quixote.

These drawings were made upon white paper—
Bristol

board or drawdng paper
;

— with
by

a pen

and

Indian ink
old stylus.

but Vierge

now

uses a glass pen, like an

The drawings were
of
Paris,

then giren to Gillot,

the photo-engraver

who,

means

o(

photography and Iiandwork, [iroduccd metal blocks
to be printed with the tyjie.

«$r*
->/

LINE PROCESS.
But the whole and the
tricks
effect
is

179

obviously untrue to nature,
spots,

— of

black

of

exao-crcrated

shadows on the ground, of scratchings (and of carelessness, which might be excused in a hasty sketch
for

La

Vie Modcnic)

— are only too apparent.
of

In nearly every illustration in the Pablo dc Scgoina
(of

which there are upwards
for

one hundred),

the artist has relied

brilliancy

and

effect

on

patches of black (sometimes ludicrously exaggerated)

and other mannerisms, which we
genius,

accejjt

from

a

but which
to imitate.

the

student

had

better

not

attempt

To
is

quote a criticism from the
in

Spectator, "

There
is

almost no light and shade

Vierge.
there
is

There

an ingenious effect of dazzle, but
to truth

no approach attempted

of tone,

shadows being quite capriciously used for decoration and supplied to figures that tell as light objects
against the sky which throws the shadows."
yet

And

handsome pages there are gems of draughtsmanship and extraordinary tours de force
these
in illustration.

m

In the reproduction of these drawings,
the

I

think

maker of
to
fact

the blocks,

M.

Gillot, of Paris,

would

seem

have had a
is,

difficult

task

to

perform.

The
are

that Vierge's wonderful line drawings
difficult

sometimes as

tu

reproduce

for

the

I

So

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
press as those of

type

Holbein or Menzell,

and

could only
intaglio

be done satisfactorily by one of the
such as that employed by the
in

processes,

Autotype

Company
when

editions

de

luxe.

That

Vierge's drawings were worthy of this anyone

who
Inn

saw the
would,
It
is
I

originals

exhibited at

Barnard's

think, agree.

the duty

of

any writer or instructor
once for

in
all.

illustration,

to point out these things, to

That Vierge could adapt himself
process
if

almost any
in

he pleased,

is

demonstrated repeatedly
(as

\\\<^Pablo de Segovia,

where

on pages 63 and 67

of that book) the brilliancy and "colour" of pure
line

by process has hardly ever been equalled.
his illustrations are impossible to
in the

That

some of
well,

reproduce
is

and have been degraded

process

also

demonstrated on page 199 of the same book, where
a mechanical grain has been used to help out the
drawing, and the lines have had to be cut up and "rouletted"

on the block

to

make them

possible to print.

Of

the clever band of illustrators of to-day

who
their

owe much
tricks of

of their inspiration (and
to Vierge,
it

some of

method)
;

is

not necessary to

speak here

we

are in an atmosphere of genius in
to

this chapter,

and geniuses are seldom safe guides
art.

students of

LINE PROCESS.
Speaking generally (and these remarks
editors
refer to

and publishers as well as draughtsmen), the

art of illustration as practised in

England

is

far

from

satisfactory

;

we

are too

much given

to imitating

the tricks and prettinesses
it

of other nations, and

is

quite the exception to find either originality or

individuality on the pages which are hurled

from

the

modern

printing press

;

individuality as seen

in the
s[)irit,

work of Adolphe Menzell,
in that of

and, in a different

Gustave Dore and Vierge.

CHAPTER
O
turn to
;i

Y.

WOOD ENGRAVINGS.
more
practical side of
first

book
of
it

illustration.

The
is

principle

illustration

to illustrate,

and yet

is

a fact that few illustrations in books or

magazines are
the text.
It is

to

be found

in their

proper places

in

seldom that the

illustration

(.so

called)

is

in
it

artistic
is

harmony with
in

the rest of the page, as

found

old

books.
is its

One

of the great charms

of Bewick's
character.

work

individuality

and expressive

Here

the artist and engraver were one,

and a system of
a

illustration

was founded

in

England

hundred years ago which we should do well not

to forcret.*
* In

The Life and IFfris nf Ttiomas
;

Beivi'c/!,

by D. C.
oj

Thomson

in T/ie Portfolio, Tlie

Art Journal,

Tlie

Magazine

Art, and in

Good Words, Bewick's

merits as artist and engravei

have been exhaustively discussed.

IVOOD ENGRAVING.

183

We

are fast losing sight of

first

principles

and aim-

ing rather at catching the eye and the public purse

with a pretty page
imitators.

;

and

in

doing

this

we
it

are but

In the English magazines

is

strange
of the
for

to find a slavish, almost childish imitation

American
instance,

system

of

illustration

;

adopting,

the plan of pictures turned over at the

corners or overlapping each other with exaggerated
bkick borders and other devices of the album of the
last generation.

This

is

what we have come

to in

England
still),

in

1894 (with excellent wood engravers
art

and the kind of
at the

by which we

shall

be
!

remembered
I

end of the nineteenth century

am

speaking of magazines like Good Words and

Casseir s Alagazine, where
largely employed.
It

wood engra\ing

is

still

may be

as well to explain here that the reasons
for
in

for

employing the medium of wood engraving
illustrations

elaborate

which, such

as

we

see

American magazines, were formerly only engraved
on copper or
steel,

are

(i) rapidity of production,

and
can

(2) the almost illimitable

number

of copies that

be

produced from casts from
distinction

wood

blocks.

The broad

between the old and new
is,

methods of wood engraving
the lines were

that in early days
lh(;

drawn

clearly un

wood block and

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
the part not

drawn cut away by the engraver, who
to

endeavoured
artist's

make a
It
is

perfect

fac-simile

of the
to

hnes.

now

a

common custom
life

transfer a

photograph from
167), also to

on

to

the

wood

block

{see p.
in tint,

draw on the wood with a
photograph a water-colour

brush

and even
to

to

drawing on

the wood, leaving the engraver to

turn the tints into lines in his
In

own way.
illustration,

the very earliest

days of book

before

movable

type-letters
letters

were
of the

invented,
text

the
all

illustration

and the
on
the

were
thus,

engraved

wood

together,

and

of

necessity (as in the old

block books produced in
in

Holland and

Belgium

the

fifteenth

century),

there was character and individuality in every page;
the picture, rough as
it

often was, harmonising with

the text in an unmistakable
artistic

manner.

From an

point of view, there was a better balance of

parts and

more harmony of
illustrations

effect

than in the more
day.

elaborate
illustration

of the present
in

The

was an
It

illustration

the true sense of

the word.
that

interpreted something to the reader
;

words were incapable of doing
type

and even when
the

movable

was

first

introduced,

simple

character of the engravings harmonised well with
the letters.

There

is

a broad line of demarcation,

WOOD

E.\GRAVL\G.

i8s

indeed, between these early
for

wood engravings
1872, from the

(such,

instance,

as

the

"

Ars Moriendi," purchased
in

for the

British

Museum
Society)

Weigel

collection at

Leipsic,

and recently reproduced by

the

Holbein
art
is

and the

last

development

of the

in

the

American

magazines.

The

movement

important,

because the

Americans,

with an energy and

na'ivcti?.

peculiar to them, have
all

set themselves the task of outstripping
in the

nations

beauty and quality of magazine
in
call
is

illustrations.

That they have succeeded
effects,

obtaining
colour,

delicate

and what painters

through the
it

medium
is

of wood-engraving,
to

well

known, and

common

meet people
the last

in

England asking,
of

"

Have you seen

number

Harper s
is

or

the Century

Magazine f"

The

fashion

to

admire

them, and English publishers are easily found to

devote time antl capital to distributing American

magazines

which come

to

England

free of duty),

to the prejudice of native productions.
for

The
is

reason
of

the

excellence

(which

is

freely

admitted)

American wood-engraving and printing
the
first

that, in

place,

more

capital

is

employed upon the
is

work.

The American wood-engraver

an

artist in
is

every sense of the word, and his education

not

considered complete without years of foreign study.

(

li

No.

XXXV.
wood
at the

A

Portrait engraved on

Office of the

Century Mag.\zine.
Example of portraiture from
It
is

the Century Magazine.

interesting to

note the achievements of the
at a

American engravers
in

time when wood engraving

England

is

under

a cloud.

This portrait was

photographed from

life

and

afterwards worked up by hand and

most

skilfully

engraved

in

New

York.

XXXV.
(Photo^rafh /rom
life,

en^mvcd on

-.void.

From

tin

Century Afajazliu-.)

lyOOn EAGRA VJNG.

The American engraver
the
as
I

is

always en rapport with
matter

artist

— an
by

important
at
in

— working
the
in the
artist,

often,

have seen them

Harper s,

Cetitury

Magazine, and Scribncr s
studio, side
rule,

New

York,

same
as a

side.

In

England the

does not have any direct communication with

the

wood engraver.

In

America the

publisher,
is

having a very large circulation for his works,
to bring the culture of his

able

Europe and the

capital of

own country

to the aid of the
five or six

wood-engraver,

spending sometimes

hundred pounds on
of a monthly

the illustrations of a single

number

magazine.

The

result

is

an engraver s success of a

very remarkable kind.

A
of

discussion of the merits of the various styles

wood

engraving, and of the different methods

of drawing on wood, such as that initiated by the
late

Frederick Walker, A.R.A.
.Small, E.

;

the styles of Mr.
etc.

William

A. Abbey, Alfred Parsons,
this

does not come into the scope of
but
it

publication,

will

be

useful

to

refer

to

one

or

two

opinions on the American system.
"

Book

illustration as

an

art," as

Mr.

Comyns Carr
to

pointed

out in his lectures at the Society of Arts ten years ago, "is

founded upon wood engraving, and

it

is

wood engraving

that

we must look

if

we

are to have any revival of the kind of beauty

which early-printed books possess.

In the mass of work

now

I90

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATIOX.
is

produced, there

very

little

trace of the principles

upon which
simplest
to take the

Holbein laboured.
means, our modern

Instead
artist

of

proceeding

by the

seems rather by preference

most

difficult
it

and complex way of expressing himself
is

A wood

engraving,

not unjust, to

say,

has

become

scarcely dis-

tinguishable from a steel engraving excepting by

its inferiority."

Mr.

Hubert

Herkomer,
in the

R.A.,

who
arts,

has had a
says
raised
:

very wide experience
" In

graphic

modern times a body of engravers has been
art

up who

have brought the

of engraving on

wood

to such a degree

of perfection, that the most

modern work,
tlie

especially that of the

Americans,

is

done

to

show

skill

of the engraver rather than

the art of the draughtsman.
sign

This, I

do not

hesitate to say,

is

a

Take up any number of the Century or Harpers magazines, and you will see that effect is the one aim. You marvel at the handling of the engraver, and forget the
of decadence.
artist.

Correct, or honest, drawing
is

is

no longer wanted.
to the student,

This
7vill

kind of illustration
not last
"

most pernicious

and

America

is

a child

full

of promise in art
;

— a child
its

that

is

destined to be a great master
efforts or errors.
art,

so

let

us not imitate
first
it."

youthful

Americans were the
be the
first

to foster this style of

and they

will

to correct

Mr.

W.

J.

Linton, the well-known

wood engraver,
modern
great force from

expresses

himself

thus

strongly

on the

system, and his words

come with
:

the other side of the Atlantic
"Talent
steel-line
is

misapplied when

it

is

spent on endeavours to rival
following

engraving or etching,

in

brush-marks,

in

pretending to imitate crayon-work, charcoal, or lithography, and
in striving

who

shall scratch the greatest

number of

lines

on a

WOOD ENGRAVING.
given space without thought of whether such muhiplicity of lines

adds anything to the expression of the picture or the beauty of
the engraving.

How much

of talent

is

here thrown away
is

!

how

much

of force that should have helped towards growth

wasted

in this slave's play for a prize not

worth having
in

— the
For

fame of

having well done the lowest thing having
for that

the

engraver's art,
!

and
the

neglected the study of the highest

it is

lowest and the last thing about which an artist should concern
himself, this excessive fineness

and minuteness of work.
art,

.

.

In engraving, as in other branches of

the first

thing

is

drawing, the second driving, the third dra^vingP

This

is

the protcssional view, ;ibly expressed, of

a matter which has been exercising

many minds

of late
folly

;

and

is

worth quoting,

if

only to show the
e.x-

of

imitating a system acknowledged by

perts to be founded on false principles.

But there

is

another view of the matter which
of.

should not be lost sight
of the
is,

Whatever the opinion
illustration

American system of

may

be, there

on the other side of the Atlantic, an amount of
enterprise,

energy,

cultivation

of

hand and eye
industry,

delicacy of manipulation, and
cleverly

individual

organised

to

provide

a

wide

continent
in

with a better art than anything yet attempted

any country.

Some

fine

engravings,

which

the

Americans have

lately

been distributing amongst

the people, such, for instance, as the portraits (en-

graved from photograjihs from

life)

which have

192

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
in

appeared

Harper s and

the Century magazines,
in

only reach the cultivated few in Europe
books.
art
It
is

expensive

worth considering what the ultimate
distribution will
be.

effect

of this widespread

The

"prairie flower" holds in her hand a better
illustrations,

magazine, as regards
published
in

than

anything

England

at the

same

price;
is

and

a

taste for delicate

and refined

illustration

being

fostered

amongst a variety of people on the western

continent, learned and unlearned.

That there
that

is

a

want of sincerity
are

in

the movement,

"things

not

exactly what they seem," that something

much
but
it

better
will

might be done,

may be admitted
illustrators

;

be well

for

our
that

and

art

providers

to

remember

the

Americans
capital

are

advancing upon us with the power of

and

ever-increasing knowledge and cultivation.

In the

Ceniury magazine,
article

ten

years

ago,

there

was an

on

"The

Pupils of Bewick," with illustrations

admirably reproduced from proofs of early wood
engravings, by "photo-engraving."

This
ledge

is

noteworthy, as showing that the knowstyles
is

of
;

disseminated

everywhere
is

in

America

and

also,

how easy

it

to

reproduce
to

engravings by

"process,"

and how important
subject.

have a clear copyright laiv on this

woo/) EXGRAVIiW,.

'93

Of

the

English

wood

engravers,
in

and of

the

present state of the profession

England much
remains that
relied

has been written.

I

behevc the
is

fact
still

commercial wood engraving

on by

many

editors

and publishers, as

it

prints with

more

ease and certainty than any of the process blocks.

That there are

those

in

England

(like
I

Mr.

Biscombe Gardner and

others,

whose work
believe
in

am

unable to reproduce here), that

wood

engraving
results,
I

still

as a vital art, capable of the highest

am
it

also well aware.
is

But at the moment

of writing

difticult

to get

many

publishers to

expend

capital

upon

it

for
is

ordinary illustrations.

On

the ne.xt page

an example of good wood

eneravine.

'

DRIVING

HOME THE

PICS."

(jOHN PEDDEK.)
1891.)

(Acndemy Notes,

(

194

No.

XXXVl.
liy

Joan of

Arc's House at Rouen,

the late

Samuel Prout.
Engraved on wood by Mr.
J- 1^-

Cooper, from a

water-colour drawing by Samuel Prout.

The
flat

original drawing,

made

with a reed pen and

washes of colour, was photographed on to the
block,

wood

and the engraver interpreted the various

tints into line.

The method
in line
art

is

interesting,

and the
of

tones obtained
engraver's
art,

show the resources

the

an

rather carelessly set aside in

these days.

This engraving

is

from

Nonnandy
Co.)

Picturesque.

(London

:

Sampson Low

&

No.

X.VW

I.

SIGN bV

WALTER

i

CHAPTER
TIIK

VI.

DECOKATIVK PAGE.

jo

turn ncxl to thu

more dccunitive

side

of

modern
tile

illustration,

where design
printed
is

and
are

cusciiib/c

of

a
it

page

more considered,
to

pleasant to
art

be able to draw attention
school,

the

work of an
intelligent
;

where an
to

educated

and

mind
where

seems

have been the presiding genius

the illustrators, whilst they are fully the spirit of the past, have
their nielhoLls to mcjdern

imbued with

taken pains to adajH
I

re(iuirements.

reler lu

the liirmingham Municli)al School ot

An.

(

198

)

N.'.

XXXVII.
J.

Decorative Page, by A.

Gaskin.
:

(From Mans

Antk-i sen's Fairy Tales.

London
of the

George xVUen.)

This

is

a

good

example

appropriate

decoration of a page without any illustration in the
ordinary sense of the word.

The

treatment

of

ornament harmonises well with old-faced type

letter.

The
/he
is

original
size

was drawn
the

in

pen and

ink,

about

same

as

reproduction.

excellent

in

colour,

almost

equal

The ground to a wood

engraving.

This

is

another example of the possibilities

of

process, rightly handled,

and

also of effect

produced

without reduction of the drawing.

:7inDGRS€riS

s

scoRies,

7/,

u
\\^

Tlie Nightingale.
In China, as you know, Emperor is a Chinaman, and all tliose he has about him are Chinamen
the
too.

The
is

following story

happened many years ago,
but that
just

why

it is
it

\f

worth hearing before
is

forgotten.

Tne Em-

castle was the most beautiful in the world and was entirely of fine porcelain it was

peror's

;

very costly, but so brittle

and delicate that one had
careful.
.

to

touch,

to be very

In the garden were seen the most wonderful
flowers,

to

the

No. X.X.WII.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATli^X.
Whilst using wood engraving
trators of
freely,

the

illus-

Birmingham (notably Mr. Gaskin), are
in line

showing what can be clone
relief processes,

drawing by the

to

produce colour and ornament

which harmonise well with the letterpress of a book.
This seems an important step
in

the right direction,
this school

and
less,

if

the

work emanating from

were
to

apparently, confined to an
(jutline
I

archaic

style,
(I

heavy

and

mediaeval

ornament

speak

from what

see, not

knowing the school

personally),

there are possibilities for an extended popularity for

those

who have worked under its influence.* The examples of decorative pages by experienced
like

illustrators
will

Mr. Walter

Crane

and

others,

serve to remind us of what

some

artists are

doing.

But the band of
is

illustrators
it

who

consider

design
it

much
in

smaller than

should be, and than

will
it

be

the near future.
in

A

study of the past,

if

be only

the pages of mediceval books, will
In the

greatly aid the student of design.
I

Appendix

have mentioned a few

fine

examples of decorative

pages, with and without illustrations, which
usefully studied at the British
*

may be
;

Museum.
;

1

mention

this school as

a reiuesentative one

there are

many
the

others where design and

wood engraving

are studied under

same roof with success

in 1894.

No. XX.WIII.

WOOD ENGRAVING.
In
called
all

203

these pages,
in

it

will

be observed, what
is

is

"colour"
;

black and white

])reserved

throughout

showing that a page can be thoroughly
Closely

decorative without illustrations to the text.
criticised,

some

of the old block designs

may appear

crude and capable of more
pages, as a rule,

skilful treatment, but the
artistic

show the

sense

—unmistakby Pierre

ably, mysteriously, wonderfully.

In these and similar pages, such, for instance, as

Le Mer des Hisioires, produced le Rouge in 1488 (also in the
the
is

in

Paris

British

Museum),

harmony of

line ilrawing with the printtxl letters

interesting
It is in

and

instructive.

{Sec Appendix.)

the production of the decorative page that
asserts
its

wood engraving
quarters,

supremacy
in

still

in

some

as
in

may be
INIorris,

seen

the beautiful books

produced
]\Ir.

England during the past few years by
where
artist,

William

wood

engraver,

typefounder, papermaker,

printer,

and bookbinder
actual

work under the guiding
handwork) of the author.
us rather as exotics
;

spirit

(when not the

They

are interesting to

an attempt to reproduce the

exact work of the past under modern conditions,
conditions which render the price within reach only
of a lew, but they are at least a protest against ihc

modern shams with which we are

all

familiar.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION The
nineteenth-century
author's

love
to

for

the

hterature of his past has led

him

imitate

not
;

only the style, but the outward aspect of old books

and by a

series

of frauds (to which his publisher
t(.)

has lent himself only too readily)
thing w'hich appears to be what
it

produce somenot.

is

The genuine outcome
style
at the

of media;val thought and

— of patience and leisure — seems to
in

be treated

end of the nineteenth century as a fashion

to

be imitated in books, such as are to be seen
the British
the

under glass cases
to

Museum.

It

is

be feared

that

twentieth-century

reader,

looking back, will see few traces worth preserving,
either of originality or of individuality in the

work

of the present.

What
book
of

are the

facts

?

The typefounder
century,

of to-

day takes clown a Venetian writing-master's copythe
fifteenth

and,

imitating

exactly
pen,

the thick

downward
of
" old

strcjkes

of the

reed
in

forms

a

set

movable
face
"
;

type,

called

printer's

language

a style

of letter

much
with
living

in

vogue

in 1894,

but the style and character

of which

belongs
aids,

altogether to the past.
the

Thus,

such
in

a

whirl of
in

man of letters movement and

of to-day

discovery

clothes himself

the handwritinu' of the Venetian

No.
DESIGN FOR
This
is

XXXIX.
IMAGE.)
)

THE TITLE PACE OF THE " HOBBY-HORSE." (sELWVN
rediictiim /! ftvccss from

a

a large quarto

'.vchhI

cngravliis

2o6

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
as the

scholar as deliberately
bear-skin.

Norwegian dons a
book a

1 he next step

is

to present

in

his

series

of so-called "engravings," which are not engravings but

reproductions by process
of science"
steel
in

of old

prints.

The "advance
relief

producing photoiii/a'^iio

blocks from

and other
at

plates

for the

type

printing press,
is

a

small

cost per
artistic

square inch,
value
of
its

not only taking

from the

the

modern

edition dc luxe,

but

also

from

interest

and genuineness.
is

The
"

next step

to

manufacture

rough-edged,

coarse-textured

paper,

purporting to be carefully
edge,

hand-made."

The rough
now

which was

a

necessity

when every
is

sheet of paper
imitated

was

finished

by hand labour,
machinery, and
is

successfully

by

handled lovingly by the bookf^ict

worm

of to-day,

regardless of the

that

these
in

roughened sheets can be bought by the pound
Drury-lane.
call
it

The
less)

worst,

and

last

fraud
to

(I

can
is,

no

that can

be referred

here

that

the

clothing

— the
rags,

"skin of

vellum"

that

appropriately encloses our modern edition dc luxe
is

made from
gold,

pulp,

and other

dc'bris.

That

the gold illuminations on the cover are no longer
real

and that the handsomely bound book,

THE DECORATIVE PAGE.
with
its fair

207

margins, cracks

in

half with a " bang,"
witli

when

first

opened, are other matters connected

the discoveries of science, and the substitution of

machinery

for

hand
and

labour,

which

we

owe

to

modern

enterprise
at the

invention.*
in

Looking

"decorative pages"

most books,
past,
"

and remembering the achievements of the
is

one
one

inclined to ask

Is the " setting-out of a

page
?

of the lost

arts, like

the designing of a coin

What
?

harmony of

style

do we see

in

an ordinar)- book

How many
The
fact
is,

authors or illustrators of books show

that they care for th(;

"look" of a printed page?

that

the

modern author

shirks

his

responsibilities, following the practice of the greatest

writers of our day.
-

There are so many

" facilities"

— as they

are called
little

for

producing books that the
in

author takes

interest

the
is

matter.

Mr.
to be,

Ruskin, delicate draughtsman as he
has contril)uted
little to

known

the cnsciubic or appearance

of the pages that

How from

the printing press of

Mr.

Allen,
in

at

Orpington.

Mis books are well

print(!d

the

modern manner, but judged by exa deadly monotony pervades the
lecture
is

amples of the
* Mr.

past,

Cobden Sanderson's

on Bookbinding, read
well

before the " Arts and Crafts Society,"
of liook lovers.

worth the attention

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
page
;

th.e

master's
his

noblest

thoughts are printed
all

exactly
in

like

weakest,
in

and are

drawn out
!

lines together as

the

making of macaroni

Mr. Hamerton,

artist as well as author, is

content to

describe the beauty of forest trees, ferns and flowers,
the \-ariety of

underwood and the
in

like (nearly

every

word, in an article

the
or

Portfolio,

referring to

some picturesque form

graceful

line),

without
printed

indicating the varieties pictorially on

the

page.

The

late

Lord Tennyson and other poets
for years to sell their

have been content
line, little

song by the
it

heeding, apparently, in what guise

was

given to the world.
In

these
to

days

the

monotony

of

uniformity

seems
small,

pervade the pages, alike of great and
letter

and a

from a friend
!

is

now

often

printed

by a machine

No. XL.
**SCAK[,F.T POl'l'lES."
(\V.
J.

MUCKLEV.)

This bcMutiful piece of pen work by Mr. Muckley (from his picture in the Royal Academy, 1S85) was too delicate in the finer passages to reproduce well by any relief process (the pale lines having come out black); but as an

example

of breadth,

and indication of surfaces

in

pen and ink,

it

could hardly

be surpassed.

CHAPTER
AUTITOK, ILLUSTRATOR,

\II.

AM)

IT

lU.ISl

1

KR.

•VV us

now

CDiisiilcr

slmrily
tlu-

llu-

Author,

the Illustrator, ;uul
their inlluence

Publisher, aiul

ou the appearance and
If
it

production of a book.

be im-

possible in these days (and, in spite of the cttorts

of Mr. William Morris and others,
impossil)le)
details,
it

it

seems
in

to
all

be
its

to

produce a Genuine book
considerin;^' in

seems worth

what way the
indi\iduality
;

author
also to

can

stamp

it

with
is

his

own
in

what extent he
appliances.
far,

justified

making use of

modern

How

then,
for

may

the author be said
of

to

be
?

responsible

the
is
is,

state
tlu'

things just ([uoted
of taste and

'I'heoreticallv,

he
;

man

culture

par
of

excellence

he

or should be, in most cases,

the arbiter, the dictator to his publisher, the chooser
styl(!.
i

hf book

Is his,

ami

it

is

his business to

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
decide
concrete
in
;

what

form

his

ideas

should

become

the pubhsher

aiding his judgment with

experience, governing the finance, and carrying out
details.

How

comes

it

then

that,

with the present

facilities for

reproducing anything that the hand can

put upon paper, the latter-day nineteenth-century

author

is

so

much

in

the hands of others as to the
?

appearance of his book
educated

It is

because the so-called
taught
to

man

has

not

been

use

his

hands as the missal-writers and authors of mediaeval
times taught themselves to use theirs.
author,

The modern
in

who
"

is,

say, fifty )-ears old,
civilisation,"

was born

an

age of

advanced

when

the

only

method of expression
"

for

the

young was one
child of ten years
pictures, taking

pothooks and hangers."

The

old, in

whose eye was mentally forming

unconsciously the facts of perspective and the

like,

had a pencil

tied with string to his

two

first

fingers until

he had' mastered the ups and downs,

crosses and dashes, of

modern handwriting, which
little,

has been accepted by the great, as well as the

ones of the earth, as the

best

medium
;

of

comso, re-

munication between intelligent beings
gardless

and

of

style,
!

character,

or

picturesqueness,

he scribbles away

So much

for

our generally

straggling style of penmanship.

Author, illustrator, and publisher.
There
will
is

213

no doubt that the author of the future

have to come more into personal contact with
has l)een
I

the artist than he

in

the habit of doing,
to
in

and that the distinction
chapter,

referred

the

first

between
facts,

illustrations

which are
art,

to

be (i)

records of

and

(2)

works of

will

have

to

be more clearly drawn.

Amongst
producers
affects
is

the needs

in

the

community of book
it

one that
illustrator

I

only touch upon because
there

the
in

:

— That
is
it

should be an
to

expert
(i)

every publishing

house

determine

whether a drawing
(2)
b)-

suitable for publication;

and

what means

should

be reproduced.

The

resources of an establishment will not always
;

admit of such an arrangement
publishers
easily

but the editors and

who

are intormed on these matters can

be distinguished by the quality of their publi-

cations.

By

the substitution of process blocks for
in

wood engravings

books, publishers are deprived

to a great extent of the fostering care of the

master

wood engraver,

to

which they have been accustomed.

Amongst
none,
the
I

the influences affecting the illustrator,

venture to say, are more prejudicial than

acceptance

by

editors

and

publishers

of

inartistic
It

drawings.
difficult,
I

would be

think, to jtoint to a period

214

THE ART OF I/JJS'JRAnOX.
so

when

much

b;icl

work was procluccd
already
Ijeea

as at present.
out,

The
are

causes

ha\'e

[luinted

the

beautiful processes for the reproduction of drawings

scarcely understood

b\-

the

majority ot
It
is

artists,

publishers, authors, or critics.

the luismc of

the

jM'ocesses

in

these

htirrying

da_\s,

which

is

draq-ging otn' national reputation

m

the mire .md

perplexing the student.

The modern

publisher,

it

may be
art

said without

ofience, understands the manulacture and the com-

merce of a book better than the

in

it.

/^

nd

how should

it

be otherwise

'!

TIkj best
artistic

books that

were ever produced, from an

point ot \iew,
ot

were inspired and designed by students
letters,

art

and

men removed tVom
and
!

the commercial scramble
thing-

of

life,

to

whcjm an advertisement was a
ordinary art educ.ition
ot

unknown
lisher,

The
the

a pub-

aiid

multitude of affairs requiring his
generally, for the task of deciding
is

atterition, untit

him

whether an

illustration

good

or l)ad, or

how

tar

when he cheapens
nature)- he

the production ot his book by

using photographic illustrations ("snap-shots" troin
is

justified in calling

them "art."

The

deterioration in
in

the character of book illustration

England
well be

is

a serious matter,
to
it.

and public attention

may

drawn

AUTHOR, ILLUSTRATOR, AND PUBLISHER.

215

Here we look
the author.

for

the

active

co-operation

of

The

far-reaching spread of education

— especially
in this

technical art education

is

tending to

bring together, as they were never brought before
century, the author
ot

and the

illustrator.

The

author

a

book

will

give more attention to the

appearance of his pages, to the decorative character
of type
will

and ornament, whilst the average

artist

be better educated from a literary point of view;

and, to use a French
ci]uivaK:nt, will be
anel |)ublisher.

word

for

which there

is

no

more en

>-apport with both author

I'or the
artistic
in this

illustraiDr

by profession there seems no
to
tlo

leisure;

no lime

anything properly

connection.
is

" It

a poor career,

Blackburn," said a wellto
in

known newspaper
of distinction
anil
it

illustrator

me

lately (an artist

success

his profession

who

has practised

for

twenty

years),
to

"you seldom

give satisfaction
" It
is

— not

even

yourself."

an ideal career^
is

s;iys

another, a younger

man,

who
in

content
to-da)'

with

the

more

slap-dash

methods

vogue

— and

uiih the income he

receives for them.

Referring again to the question
"

in

the .lllioucuni,
in

W

liy is

not drawing for the press taught

our

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
Government schools
reasons
is

of art ?"

I

think the prhicipal

why

the art of ilkistration by the processes
in art

not generally taught
(i)

schools are


more
perin

drawing
teaching

for reproduction requires

sonal
public

than
(2)

is

possible
art

in

art

classes

schools;

the

masters

throughout
do
not

the

country,

with

very

few

exceptii.Mis,
is

understand

the ncio processes

— which
in

not to be

wondered
It
is

at.

not the fault of the masters
that

our schools

of art
if

students are taught
to

in

most cases as

they

were

become
the

painters,

when
is

the only
ot illus-

possible career for
tration, or design.

majority

that

The masters
to

are, for the
in

most

part, well and worthily occupied

giving a good
as

groundwork of knowledge
to

every student,

drawing
that

for

the

press.

There
for

is

no ques-

tion

the

best jireparation

this

work

is

the best Qeucral art teaching that can be obtained.

The
from

student must have drawn from the anticpie and
life
;

he must have learned com[)osition and
relati\-e

design; have studied from nature the
of light
in

values
like
lor
;

and shade,

aerial perspective

and the

short,

have followed the routine study
first

a

painter

whose

aim should be

to be a

master

of

monochrome.

AUTHOR, ILLUSTRATOR, AND PUBLISHER.
In the
illustrator

217

more
b}-

technical

parts,

which the young
to

process

will

require

know,

he

needs personal help.
questions to ask

He

will

have a multitude of

"somebody"
;

as to the reasons for

what he
he
on.
is

is

doing

for

xoliat style

of process ivork and so

by touch

and

toiipcraniciil best fitted,
if

All this has to be considered

we

are to keep

a good standard of art teaching for illustration.

The

fact that

a pen-and-ink drawing ivhich looks

well scarcely ever reproduces well, must always be

remembered.

Many

drawings

for

process,

com

mended

in

art

schools for

good draughtsmanship

or design, will not reproduce as expected, for want of
exact knowledge of the requirements of process
;

whereas a drawing by a trained
look belter in the reproduction.
especially to

hand

will

often
refer

These remarks

ornament and design,
like.

to architectural

drawings and the

The
less

topical

illustrator

aiul

sketcher

in
ii

weekly-

prints has,

of course,

more

licence,

and

matters

what becomes of

his lines in their rapid transit

through the press.
rank or
is

Still

the illustrator, of whatever
if

style,

has a right to complain

his tlrawini'-

reproduced on a scale not intended by him, or by
it

a process for which
badly,

is

not

fitted,

or

if

printed

and with bad materials.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
But the sketchy
a
little

style of illustration

seems

to

be

overdone
allied

at present,

and

—being
There

tolerable

only

when
in

to

great

ability

— remains
is

con-

sequently

the hands of a few.
is

plenty

of talent in this country which
control.
It

wasted

for

want of

plavs about us like
the

summer

lightning

when we want
telegraph.

precision and accuracy of the

The

art of colour printing

(whether

it

be by the

intaglio processes, or
relief blocks)

by chromo-lithogra[)ln-, or on

has arrived at such proficiency and

has

become
be

such

an

important
here.
Millais,

industry
its

that

it

should
beautiful

mentioned
1)\-

By
is

means,

a

child-iace,

scattered

over

the

w<!rld

by

hundreds

of

thousands;

and the

reputation of a

young

artist, like

Kate Greenaway,
owes much
ot

made and
her

established.

The
to

latter

prestige

and

success
taste,

the

colour- printer.

Admitting the grace,

and invention of Kate
doubt
that,

Greenaway
without the

as an

illustrator, there is little

wood engraver and

the

e.xample and

sympathetic aid of such

artists as II. S.

Marks,

R..\.,

Walter Crane, and the

late

Randolph Caldecott,

she would never have received the praise bestowed

upon her by M. Ernest Chesneau, or Mr. Ruskin.

These things show how intimately the

arts

of

AUTHOR. Ill.L'SIRATOR. AXD
rL-procUiction aftect reputations,
it is

PLJIIJS.'/ICR.

219

and how important

that

more sympathy and communicalion should
all

exist

between

procUicers.

In

the

mass

of

ilUistrated

pubh'cations issuing from the press the

exp.rt can discern clearly where this sympathy and

knowledge
the
artist,

exist,

and where

ability,

on the part of

has been allied to practical knowledge

of the requirements of illustration.

The
some
to

l)usiness of man\-

will

be to contribute,

in

iorm. to the

making of
;

pictures and designs

be multiplied

in the press

and, in order to learn

the technique and obtain employment,

some

of

thct

most promising pupils have

to

fall

into the

ways of

the producers of cheap illustratinns, Christmas cards,

and the

like.

On

the other h:uul. a knowledge of

the mechanical processes for reproducing drawings
(as
is
it

is

being pressed forward

in

technical schools)

leading to disastrous conseciuences, as
Ijookstall in the

may be
hope

seen

on every railway
In

kingdom.
"

the

"book

of

the

fiuure

\\v

to see

less of the

"lath and plaster'' style of illustration,

produced
processes
the

Ironi careless
;

wash drawings by the cheap
i)age,

fewer of the blots upon the
to

which

modern reader seems

take as a mailer of

course.

In books, as in [leriodicals, the illustrator by
will

process

have

to divest himself, as far as possible.

220

THE ART OF ILLVSTTATION.

of that tendency to scratchiness and exaggeration
that injures so

many

process ilkistrations.

In short,

he must be more careful, and give more thought
to the

meaning of

his

hues and washes, and to the

adequate expression of textures.

There
artists

is

a great deal yet to learn, for neither

nor writers have mastered the subject.
or

Few
in-

of our best illustrators have the time
clination to take to the
criticism,
it

the

new methods,

and, as regards

is

hardly to be expected that a reviewer

who

has a pile of illustrated books to pronounce

upon, should

know

the reason of the failures that

he sees before
misled by those

him.

Thus

the

public
its

is

olten

who should be

guides as to
of

the value and importance of the
illustration.*

new systems

In

conclusion,

let

us

remember

that

everyone

who

cultivates a taste for artistic beauty in books,
artist,

be he author,

or artificer,
the

may do something
confusion

towards
in

relieving

monotony and

style,

which pervades the outward aspect of so

• There seems but one rule of criticism in this connection. a book illustration comes out coarsely and (as
a
is

If

often the case)

mere smudge, the process

is

blamed, when the drawing or
for

photograph may have been
employed.

quite unsuitable

the

process

AUTHOR, ILLUSTRATOR, AND PUBLISHER.

221

many
missal

books.
writer

It is

a far cry from the work of the
to

in

a monastery
taste

the pages of a

modern book, but the
shown
in
tlic

and feehng whicli was
in

fifteenth

and sixteenth centuries

the prothiction of books, exists in the nineteenth,

imder difhcuk concHtions.
In

the

"book

of the

future"

the

author

will
I

help personally, more than he has ever done, as

have already suggested.
ventilated yet, nor can
I

The

subject
it

is

not half-

touch upon

further, but

the day

is

not far distant
will

when

the

power of the

hand of the author
and
lines
is

be tested to the utmost,
will

of

all

kinds

a])pear

in

the

text.

There

really

no

limit to
if

what may be done with
is

modern

appliances,

only the idea

seized with

intelligence.

Two
(i)

questions,

however, remain unanswered
history,

Whether, as a matter of language and
are communicating
better than the

we

information to each other
ancients

much

did

in

cuneiform
(2)

inscriptions,

on

stones

and

monuments.
art,

Whether, as a matter of

illustrative

we

are

making the best use of modern
Let
art of
us,

appliances.

then, cultivate
for

more systematically the
press,
it

drawing

the

and
be

treat

it

as

a

worthy profession.

Let

not

said

again.

THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION.
as
halt
it

was

to

nic lately
to

by one who has devoted
things,
"

a lifetime
rej)r()diiction

these
to

The
the
fast

processes

of

are
it

hand, but where are
said
that

our

artists?"

Let
the

not be
press

chariotfor

wheels

of

move
the
in

too

us

— that
time
!

chemistry and

sun's
short,

rays

have been

ntilised too

soon

— that,

the processes of

reproduction
I

have

been

perfected

before

their
art of

think not,

and that an
has

art

— the
for

pictorial

expression

— which

existed

ages

and

is

mw

best understood by the Jap;incsc,

may

be cultivated amongst us to a more practical end.

AKK CASE."

(U-

11.

IJAIKU.)

[^Royal Acctdcnty, 1S91.)

*^\ 6 ^ A fty* or TBK

UNIVERSITY

:^3

)

studi:nts' dr.\\vixc;s.
The
folknving
fcv.ir

examples of
Street,

ilrawing'

from

life,

by

siudents at \'ictoria
intcrcstiiit^ as

fresh

from art schools, arc
object

tentative work.

The
for

has
;

been

to

test their

powers

aiul adaptability

line i^'oik

a\-oitiiii_<^

outline in the experiment as

much
be

as possible.
obser\-ed,

Nos.

I,

3,

and

4,

it

will

evade

back-

grounds altogether problem
in line.

— the

too read}' solution of a difficult

Tliese drawings were

made

direct

from

life,

in

line

a .sj'stem not to be recommended, excepting as an ex-

periment of powers.
ICxamplcs of students' wash drawings,
in future editions
S:c., will

appear

of this book.

224

)

No. XLI.
" Spam's/!
JJ'diiiaii."

A

Stud}^ from Life.

]!y

Ina Bidder.
pen and ink and
Inrush,

This

is

a clever sketch with
free

and drawn with a bold

hand, reproduced on
It

an (untouched) process block.

shows

originality

of treatment and courage on the part of the student
also the value of great reduction to give strength
effect.

and

(Size of drawing, 16 x

11.',

in.)

No.

Xl.l.

(

226

)

No. XLII.
'^

Sketch from

Life,''

by Estelle d'Avigdcr.
in a prize

This student was the winner
lately

competition
ability,

in

T/ie Stiuiio.

She has undoubted
direction

but

not

clearly

in

the

of line drawing.

After considerable success in
writes:

painting, this student
difiicult

"I

still

find the

pen a

instrument to

wield."

In

this

sketch we see the

influence of

Aubrey
reckless

Beardsley and others
school of

of the dense-black,

modern

illustrators.
6-^

(Size of drawing, lo x

in.)

Zinc process.

E.fAvicE^i^^

No. XI. n.

(

228

)

No. XLIII.
Sketch from Life, by G. C.

Marks.

This pen-and-ink drawing
especially in the hair
;

is

interesting for colour,

it

would have been better
pencil or chalk.

modelled

if

drawn

first in

This student has an obvious

aptitude

for

line

work

;

the touch

is

very good for a beginner.

(Size of drawing, \o\ x S in.)

Zinc process.

Nu. XI. III.

(

230

)

No. XLIV.

Bough of

Coiiuiwii Furze,

by William Frenxh. pen and
ink.

A most

careful study from nature in
1
1
J,

(Size of original drawing, 14 x

in.)

Reproduced

by zinc process.

This

artist

learned the

method of

line

work

for

process in a month.

•ME
tj ,,,M im
-*L

'

^"4,,
I

''1

£0n-)k.
^/^ 'f Hlf^//
XLIV
.No.

(

232

)

CANTOR LFXTTRES.

The Illustrations
liart,

in this

Volume are,

for the

most

reproductions of drawings which

for

purposes

of

study

and
at his

comparison

— are

shown

by

Mr.

Blackburn

Lectures in Art Schools, enlarged
ft.

to a scale of 15 to 20

Students
lectures

who may be unable
(by letter)
to
'"

to

attend

these

can see some of the original drawings on

application

The

Secretary, at

Mr.

Henry Blackburn's
AVestmin^ter.'

Studio, 123, Victoria Street,

APPENDIX.
I.

P110TO-7.INC
4.

Process.— 2.

Gelatine Process.— 3.

Half-tone.—

Intaglio Processes.— 5. Drawing Materials.— 6. Books for

Students.— 7. Decorative Pages.— S. List of Photo-engravers.

PHOTO-ZINC PROCESS.
for the reproduction of line drawings in relief, suitable for printing at the type press.

Description of the Process.
drawing photographed to the
of
it

—The

first

stage

is

to

have the

size required, plate.

and

to transfer a print

on to a sensitized zinc

This

print, or

photographic

image of the drawing lying upon the zinc
stance (bichromate of potash and

plate,

is

of greasy subis

gelatine),

and

afterwards

inked up with a
nitric acid

roller

;

the plate

is

then immersed in a bath of
left

and

ether,

which cuts away the parts which were

white upon the paper, and leaves the lines of the drawing in
relief.

This " biting

in," as

it

is

called, requires

considerable

experience and attention, according to the nature of the drawing.

Thus, the lines are turned into metal
plate,

in a

few hours, and the
is

when mounted on wood
if

to the height of type-letters,

ready to be printed from,

necessary, at the rate of several

thousands an hour.

The cost
a

of these blocks averages 6d. the square inch where

number

are

made

at

one time, the minimum price being
this process,

5

'-.

Small book illustrations by

by firms who make

a specialty of producing single illustrations, are often charged 9d.

the square inch, with a

minimum

of 7/6

;

but the cost should

never be more than this for a single block by the zinc process.

(

234

)

GELATINE PROCESS.
FOR THE RF.rRODUCTlON OF DRAWINGS IN LINE IN RELIEF, SUITARLE

FOR

I'RINTINi;

AT

1

HE TYPE

I'RESS.

This

is

a

more

delicate

and

sensitive

method of obtaining

a

reh'ef block.

It is called
is

the " gelatine," or " Gillot " process.
size (as before),

The drawing
and the negative

photographed to the required

laid

upon a

glass plate (previously coated with a

mi.xture of gelatine

and bichromate of potash).
exposed to the

The

part of this

thin, sensitive film not

light is absorbent,

and

when immersed
light,
i.e.,

in water swells up.

The

part exposed to the

the lines of the drawing, remains near the surface of

the glass.
cast can

Thus we have a sunk mould from which

a metal

be taken, leaving the
hands
this process

lines in relief as in the /inc process.

In

skilful

admits of more delicate gradations,
fidelity.

and

pale, uncertain lines
is

can be reproduced with tolerable
results

There

no process yet invented which gives better

from a

pen-and-ink drawing for the type press.

Reproductions of

jiencil, chalk,

and charcoal are
it,

also possible

by

this

process;

but they are

not suited far

and there

is

generally too

much working up by hand on

the block to suit

rapid printing.
surface.

These blocks when completed have a copper
blocks take longer to make, and are about double

The

the price of the photo-zinc process.
i/6 the square inch.

The

cost varies from gd. to

M.

Gillot, in Paris,

may be

said to be the inventor or perfector

of this process,

now used by many photo

engravers in London,

notably by Mr. Alfred Dawson, of Hogarth Works, Chiswick.

(

235

)

HALF-TONE PROCESS.
KOR THE REPRODICTION OF WASH DRAWINGS, PHOTOGRAPHS, ETC.,
IIY

THE SCREENED PHOTO-ZINC RELIEF
of

PROCESS.

This

method
no
in

making the blocks

is

more complioited.
in a photograph

As

there are

lines in a

wash drawing, or
it is

from nature, or
of grain,
mezzotint
;

a painting,

necessary to obtain some kind
the
zinc
plate,

or

interstices

of white, on

as

in

a

so

between the drawing or photograph

to

be

re-

produced and the camera, glass screens covered with

lines or

dots, are interposed, varying in strength according to the light

and shade required

;

thus turning the image of the wash drawing

or photograph practically into " line,' with sufficient interstices of

white for printing purposes.

The

coarseness

or fineness of grain on these blocks varies

according to circumstances.

Thus,

for ra[)id printing

on cylinder

machines, with inferior paper and ink, a wider grain and a deeper
cut block
is

necessary.
in this

The examples

book may be said

to

show these process

blocks at their best, with good average printing.

The

results

from wash drawings, as already pointed out, are uncertain, and
generally

gloomy and mechanical -looking.

The
this

reproductions of pencil, chalk, or charcoal drawings by

process are generally unsatisfactory, even

when

printed under

good conditions.
zinc line process,

The

blocks are shallow as com[)ared with the
cost.

and are double the

(

236

)

INTAGLIO PROCESSES.
I'lIOTOCKAVURE, AUTOTVI'E, DALLASTYPK, ETC.

Photogravure.
bon
print
is

First, a

photographic negative
this

is

taken direct

from the picture to be reproduced, and from
instead of on the paper used in

an autotype car-

taken and transferred on to glass or silvered copper,

This picture

is is

in

delicate relief,

making carbon prints for sale. and forms the mould, upon
After being

which copper

electrically deposited.

made

" con-

mould is placed in a galvanic bath, the deposit of copper upon it taking the impression perfectly. Another method is to transfer the same mould upon pure, clean copper, and then operate with a powerful biting solution, which is resisted more or less according to the varying thickness Thus the parts to be left of carbon mould to be penetrated. smoothest are thick of carbon, and the parts to be dark are bare, This, it will be perso that the mordant may act unresisted. ceived, is the opposite way to the process above given, and is therefore worked from a " transparency," or photographic " positive," instead of a negative. This is the Klick and Fox Talbot method, and is very commonly in use at i)resent. The process of " photogravure " is well known, as employed by Messrs. Boussod, Valadon, & Co. (Goupil), of Paris, and is
ductive," the carbon

adapted

for the

reproduction of wash drawings, paintings, also

drawings where the lines are pale and uncertain, pencil, chalk,
etc.
;

the greys and gradations of pencil being wonderfully inter-

preted.

In

London

the intaglio processes are used by

the firms mentioned on page 240.

They

are

many of now much used for

the reproduction of photographic portraits in books, taking place

of the copperplate engraving.

The

co.st of these plates

is,

roughly, 5/- the square inch.

The

makers of these plates generally supply paper, and print, charging by the 100 copies. But engravings thus produced are comparatively little

used

in

modern book

illustration, as

they cannot be
;

printed simultaneously with the letter-press of a book
suitable only for limited editions

they are

and

" editions dc luxe."

(

237

DRAWING MATERIALS FOR REPRODUCTION.
I.

For Drawings

in

Line.
;

— For

general use, liquid Indian

ink and Bristol board

or hard paper of similar surface.

" Clay board," the surface of which can easily be removed
with a scraper,
is

useful for
is

touch on clay board
2.

apt to

some purposes, but the pen become mechanical.

For Drawings
used (see
p.

Pencil and Chalk, grained papers arc These papers arc made of various textures, with black or white lines and dots As a matter of fact, vertical, horizontal, and diagonal. grained papers are little used in book and newspaper illustration in this country, and unless artistically treated
in

113 and following).

the

results

are

very

unsatisfactory.

They

are

most

suitable for landscape
3.

work and sketches of
for

effect.

For Wash Drawings.
the drawing,

— Prepared boards

wash drawings,

varying in surface and texture according to the scale of
the brush handling of the
artist, and the These must be Lamp black and opaque white combination of line and wash is

nature of the work to be reproduced.

decided by the teacher.
are

commonly

used.

A

generally to be avoided.

The

materials for drawing for reproduction are to be obtained
artists'

from the following amongst other
A.
J.

colourmen.

AcKERMAN,

191,

Regent

Street, \V.

Barnarh &

So.N, 19, Berners Street,

W.
W.C.

CORNELISSEN

&

SoN,

22, Great

Queen

Street,

Lecubrtier, Barhe, & Co.,
Jas.

60,

Kegent Street, W.

Newman,

24,

Soho Square, W.

Reeves & Sons,
Geo. Kow.ney

113, Cheapside, E.C.

Chas. Roberson & Co.,

99,

Long

Acre,

W.C.

&

Co., 64, 0.\ford Street,
37,

WiNSOR & Newton,
I'liRCY

W. Rathbone I'lace, W.
W.C.

YoUNC,

137, Clutter Street,

(

238

)

BOOKS FOR STUDENTS.
The
following will be found useful
Arts,'"
:

I.—" The Graphic
millan

by P. G.

Hamerton (London

:

Mac-

&

Co.).

2.—"' Pen aiid Pencil Artists'' by Joseph

Pennell (London:

Macmillan
3.
''

&

Co.).
J.

English Pen Artists of To- Day" hy
Rivington, Percival

G.

Harper (London

:

&

Co.).

The
book
is

value and comprehensive character of Mr. Hamerton's
well

known, but

it

reaches into branches of the art of
this

illustration far

beyond the scope of

book.

Of

the second

it

may be

said that Mr. Joseph Pennell's

book

is

most valuable to
that

students of " black
illustrations in
it

and white," with the caution

many

of the

were not drawn for reproduction, and would

not reproduce well by the processes

we have been
for

considering.

The

third

volume seems more
It is to

practical

elementary and

technical teaching.
costly as to

be regretted that these books are so
;

be out of the reach of most of us

but they can be

seen in the library of the South Kensington Museum.

Mr. Hamerton's " Drawing and Engraving, a Brief Exposition
of Technical
Principles
1892),
J.

and Practice

"

(London

:

Adam and
of
Co., 1890),

Charles

Black,

"The Photographic Reproduction
Waterhouse (Kegan, Paul,

Drawings," by Col.

&

"Lessons

in Art,"

by

Hume
"

Nisbet (Chatto
full

&

Windus, 1891),
Sir

are portable

and

useful books,

of technical information.

Henry

Trueman Wood's

Modern

Methods of

Illustrating

Books," and Mr. H. R. Robertson's

"Pen and Ink Drawing"
little

(Winsor

&

Newton)

are both excellent

manuals, but their

dates are 1SS6.

(

239

)

DECORATIVE PACES.
(KROM OLD MSS. AND ROOKS TO UK SKKN IN THE liRITISH MUSF.l'M.)
Reprintld from the Cantor Lrctiircs.)

1.

"

Example of

early Venetian writing,

15th century, written with a reed pen.

from a copybook of the Note the clearness and

picturesqueness of the page

;

also the similarity to the type letters
'

used to-day
bad)
2.

— what are

called

old face,' and of

much (good and

letter in

modern books."
example of Gothic writing and ornament, from
in

"A

beautiful

a French illuminated manuscript
1480.

the British

Museum

;

date

page
3.

is

Here the decorative character and general balance of the delightful to modern eyes."
of a
printed
page,

" Facsimile

from

Polydorc
1556.

Vergil's
style

"History of England," produced
of type
is

in Basle, in

The

again familiar to us in books published in 1894; but

the setting out of the page, the
little

treatment of ornament (with
is

figures introduced, but subservient to the general effect),
it

not familiar, because
tive page.

is

seldom that we see a modern decora-

The

printer of the past

had a sense of beauty, and
all

of the fitness of things apparently denied to
4.

but a few to-day.'

"An

illuminated printed page, 1521, with engraved borders,

after

designs

by

Holbein

;

figures

again

subordinate

to

the

general effect."
5.

"Examples
forming a

of Italian, 14th century
brilliant

;

ornament,

initial,

and

letters

and harmonious combination."

could not be reproduced in

Illustrations of the above and other decorative pages (which this book) arc shown at the lectures
large scale.

on a

the many modern books on decoration and ornament, the handbooks by Mr. Lewis Foreman Day (London Batsford) are

Of

:

recommended to students of " the decorative page " " English Book PlaU's," l)y Egerton Castle (G. Dell & Son.s).
;

also

(

240

LIST OF PROCESS
From
a long
list

BLOCK MAKERS.

of photo-engravers, the following arc mentioned
:

from personal knowledge of their work

Relief Blocks.

Andr6 & Sleigh, Bushey, Herts. The Art Reproduction Company,
Mr. Dallas,
5,

Clairville Grove,

South Kensington.

Furnival Street, E.C.

A. & C. Dawson, Hogarth Works, Chiswick. Dellagana & Co., Gayton Road, Ilampstead, N.W. Direct Photographic Company, 38, Farringdon Street,

E.C.

Hare &

Sons, Ltd., Bride Court, Fleet

Street.

Carl Hentschel, 182, Fleet Street, E.C. Chas. Geard (Agent for Krakow), MacLean's

BIdgs.,

New

St. Sq.,

E.C.

Meisenbach Co., Ltd., Wolfington Road, West Norwood, S.E. John Swain & Son, 58, Farringdon Street, E.C. Swan Electric Light Co., 114, Charing Cross Ro.id, W.C. Typographic Etching Co., 3, Ludgate Circus Buildings, E.C.

Walker & Boutall, Clifford's Inn, Fleet Street, Waterlow & Sons, Ltd., London Wall, E.C.
\'incent

E.C.

& Hahn,

34, Barbican,

E.C.

Int.\glio.

Several of the firms inentioned above are makers of " Intaglio
plates
;

"

some

are also wood-engravers, photo-lithographers, etc.

;

and agents for French, German, and Austrian photo-engravers. Amongst leading firms who make " Intaglio " plates are Messrs. and Messrs. Boussod, Valadon, & Co. (London and Paris)
;

Angerer

&

Goschl, of Vienna.
rejjroductions of photoin this

The Autotype Company's admirable

graphs and drawings should also be mentioned

connection.

UNIVERSITY

"BlacU anb Mbitc."
NOTICE.— MR. HENRY BLACKBURN'S STUDIO
open
at five
is

days a week for the Study and Practice of
with Technical Assistants.

DRAWING

FOR THE PRESS
any time.

Students join

Private Inst riirt Ion and

bi/

Corresptnitfoice.
.-irmj' Cr= A''av}' Sion-s).

i;^ \'icTORiA Street, Westminster (miu

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS
On
"
'

tlie

First

Edition.

The Art

of Illustration

'

is

a brightly written account, by a

man who

has had large experience of the ways in which books
illustrated

and newspapers are

nowadays.

.

.

.

As a

collec-

tion of typical illustrations

by

artists

of the day, Mr. Blackburn's

book is very attractive." The Times. " Mr. Blackburn explains the processes line, half-tone, and exemplifying each by the drawings of artists more so forth They are or less skilled in the modern work of illustration. well chosen as a whole, to show the possibilities of process work in trained hands." Saturday Review. " We thoroughly commend this book to all whom it may

concern."

Athemetim. " Mr. Henry Blackburn, perhaps our greatest expert on the
of

subject

the

book

illustrator's

art,

has

written

a
artist

most
can

interesting

volume, which no young black-and-white

very well afford to do without.
instructive illustrations."

Nearly a hundred splendid and

Black and White.

"

The

author's purpose in this

book
its

is

to

show how drawing
. . .

for the press

may be

best adapted to

purpose.
all

Many

of Mr. Blackburn's instructions are technical, but
illustrated

are beautifully

by choice reproductions from some of the best blackdesigned,

and-white work of the time." -Daily News. " Mr. Blackburn's interesting and practical manual
in the
first

is

instance, for the guidance of students
illustrators in black-and-white,

who

intend

to

become
it

but

for

the general

reader

contains a large quantity of readable and attractive

Tin Literary World. matter." " must express our admiration for the contents of

We

'

'l"he

Art of

Illustration,'

and

its

fund of technical information."

Bookseller.

"The book is full of interest, containing close hundred varied examples of illustrations of the day.
of unquestionable value."
" Mr. Blackburn

upon a A work

Publishers' Circular.

processes

;

his

knows from experience what is best for the volume is illustrated with nearly one hundred

viii

,

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.
is

drawings, most of them good examples of what

being done.

'The Art of Illustration' is an entirely safe guide." Art/oumal. "Mr. Henry Blackburn has written an able book on 'The
Art of Illustration,' which,
in the
it

is

not overpraise to say, should be
for reproduction."
T/n-

hands of every

artist

who draws
'

Goitlewcinan.
"
'

The

.'\rt

of Illustration
that

is

perhaps the most

satisfactory

work of
Times.

art of its kin<i

has yet been published."

Sunday

"A
tion."

very clear e.xposition of the various methods of reproduc-

— Guardian.
Blackburn
sails

"

i\Ir.

his

book under the
the

flag

of

Sir

John

Gilbert,

and
Art

justly

exjrounds

all-importance

of line."

National Observtr.

"'The
bookshelf."

of

Illustration'

contains

a

vast

amount

ot

valuable artistic information, and should be on every student's

— Court Cinuiar.
is

"Mr. Henry Blackburn
technical aspects of painting

a

well-known authority on the
this

and design, and
'

circumstance
. . .

lends value to his exposition of

The Art
and

of Illustration.'

He

writes with admirable clearness

force."
in

Leeds Mercury.
this

"The

excellent

series

of reproductions

book show

(inter alia) the variety of effects to

be obtained by the
will

common

zinc process.

Mr. Blackburn's book

prove of great value to
reader."

the student

and

interest

to

the

general

Manciiester

Guardian.
" This

volume

is

full

ot

good

criticism,

and takes a survey
.
.

of the

many

processes by which books

A

charming and instructive volume."
"
'

may be beautified. Birmingham Gazette.
interest
illustration

.

The Art

of Illustration

'

will
in

have the deepest
the

for

artists

and others concerned
very
interesting

of books."

Yorkshire Post.

"A
"

quarto,

worth

having

for

its

typical

illustrations."

British Architect.
to artists,

Mr. Blackburn's volume should be very welcome

editors,
".•\

and publishers." The Artist. most useful book." Studio,

"UNIVERSITY

u\\o\rcKir(A
-—
--

^xi-vObL Lvki^^u
™—»»
,-,»T

mm?

T »«!T

DATH

'

JO^^

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