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# SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS

GRADE ? THEOREMS, POSTULATES, AND CORROLARIES
Ruler Postulate
The distance between points ? and ?, written as
POSTULATE 1 ??, is the absolute value of the difference between
the coordinates of ? and ?. ?? is also called the
length ̅̅̅̅
?? .

POSTULATE 2 If ? is in between ? and ?, then ?? + ?? = ??.
If ?? + ?? = ??, then ? is in between ? and ?.

Protractor Postulate
The measure of ∠??? denoted by ?∠??? is
POSTULATE 3 equal to the absolute value of the difference
between the real numbers for ?? ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ and ??
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

POSTULATE 4 If point B is in the interior of ∠???, then:
?∠??? + ?∠??? = ?∠???

Line Postulate
POSTULATE 5 Through any two points there exists exactly one
line.

Points-Existence Postulate for a Line
POSTULATE 6
A line contains at least two points.

Line Intersection Postulate
POSTULATE 7 If two lines intersect, then their intersection is
exactly one point.

Plane Postulate
POSTULATE 8 Through any three noncollinear points there
exists exactly one plane.

Points-Existence Postulate for a Plane
POSTULATE 9
A plane contains at least three noncollinear points.

Flat-Plane Postulate
POSTULATE 10 If two points lie in a plane, then the line containing
them lies on the plane.

SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC.

. then ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ?? ?? ̅̅̅̅ Properties of Angle Congruence For any angle ?. Properties of Segment Congruence For any segment ??. then THEOREM 20. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Plane Intersection Postulate POSTULATE 11 If two planes intersect.3 All right angles are congruent Congruent Supplements Theorem If two angles are supplementary to the same angle (or to congruent angles) then they are congruent. then their intersection is a line. and ∠? ≅ TRANSITIVE PROPERTY ∠? then ∠? ≅ ∠? Right Angle Congruence Theorem THEOREM 20. THEOREM 20. then SYMMETRIC PROPERTY ∠? ≅ ∠? If ∠? ≅ ∠?. then ∠4 ≅ ∠6 Linear Pair Postulate POSTULATE 12 If two angles form a linear pair.4 If ?∠1 + ?∠2 = 1800 and ?∠2 + ?∠3 = 1800 . REFLEXIVE PROPERTY ∠? ≅ ∠? THEOREM 20.5 If ?∠4 + ?∠5 = 900 and ?∠5 + ?∠6 = 900 . SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC.1 SYMMETRIC PROPERTY ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ??̅̅̅̅ ?? ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ?? If ?? ̅̅̅̅ and ??̅̅̅̅ ≅ TRANSITIVE PROPERTY ̅̅̅̅ ?? . then they are supplementary. then ∠1 ≅ ∠3 Congruent Complements Theorem If two angles are complementary to the same angle (or to congruent angles) then the two angles are congruent.2 If ∠? ≅ ∠?. REFLEXIVE PROPERTY ̅̅̅̅ ?? ≅ ̅̅̅̅?? ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ?? If ?? ̅̅̅̅ . THEOREM 20.

Alternate Interior Angles Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. then POSTULATE 14 there is exactly one line through the point perpendicular to the given line. then the lines are perpendicular. Corresponding Angles Postulate POSTULATE 15 If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal.1 congruent angles.4 the pairs of alternate interior angles are congruent. If two lines are perpendicular. then they intersect THEOREM 21. . then THEOREM 21. then POSTULATE 13 there is exactly one line through the point parallel to the given line. Perpendicular Postulate If there is a line and a point not on the line.6 Vertical angles are congruent. If two sides of two adjacent acute angles are THEOREM 21. Parallel Postulate If there is a line and a point not on the line.3 to form four right angles. If two lines intersect to form a linear pair of THEOREM 21.2 perpendicular. then the angles are complementary. then the pairs of corresponding angles are congruent. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Vertical Angles Theorem THEREM 20.

6 the pairs of alternate exterior angles are congruent. then the lines are parallel Consecutive Interior Angles Converse.5 the pairs of consecutive interior angles are supplementary.1 alternate interior angles are congruent.3 alternate exterior angles are congruent. then it is perpendicular to the other. Alternate Exterior Angles Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Consecutive Interior Angles Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. If two lines are cut by a transversal so that THEOREM 22. then the lines are parallel. then the lines are parallel.7 If a transversal is perpendicular to one of two parallel lines. then THEOREM 21. then the lines are parallel. then THEOREM 21.2 consecutive interior angles are supplementary. Alternate Interior Angles Converse. If two lines are cut by a transversal so that THEOREM 22. If two lines are cut by a transversal so that THEOREM 22. Perpendicular Transversal Theorem THEOREM 21. Alternate Exterior Angles Converse. Corresponding Angles Converse Postulate If two lines are cut by a transversal so that the POSTULATE 16 corresponding angles are congruent. . SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC.

5 same line. then △ ??? ≅ △ ??? POSTULATE 17 Slopes of Parallel Lines (Discussed in LG 14) POSTULATE 18 Slopes of Perpendicular Lines (Discussed in LG 14) SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. then they are parallel to each other. ?∠? + ?∠? + ?∠? = ???? COROLLARY TO THE TRIANGLE SUM THEOREM The acute angles of a right triangle are COROLLARY 1 complementary ?∠? + ?∠? = 900 Exterior Angle Theorem The measure of the exterior angle of a triangle is THEOREM 23. Triangle Sum Theorem THEOREM 23.3 angles of another triangle. ?∠1 = ?∠? + ?∠? Third Angles Theorem If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two THEOREM 23. then they THEOREM 22. Symmetric Property of Congruent Angles THEOREM 23.2 equal to the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles. . In a plane. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS If two lines are parallel to the same line. then ∠? ≅ ∠? Properties of Congruent Triangles Reflexive Property of Congruent Triangles Every triangle is congruent to itself. if two lines are perpendicular to the THEOREM 22. then the third angles are also congruent. then △ ??? ≅ △ ??? Transitive Property of Congruence If △ ??? ≅ △ ??? and △ ??? ≅ △ ???.1 The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 1800 . If ∠? ≅ ∠? and ∠? ≅ ∠?.4 are parallel to each other.4 If △ ??? ≅ △ ???.

If Side ̅̅̅̅ ?? ≅ ??̅̅̅̅̅.1 If Angle ∠? ≅ ∠?. then the two triangles are POSTULATE 20 congruent. and Side ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ?? ?? ̅̅̅̅ Then ∆??? ≅ ∆??? Planning a Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Proof Congruent (CPCTC) Base Angles Theorem If two sides of a triangle are congruent. and ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ?? Side ?? ̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅ ≅ ?? Then ∆??? ≅ ∆??? Side-Angle-Side (SAS) Congruence Postulate If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to two sides and the included angle of a second triangle.2 sides opposite them are congruent. then the THEOREM 25. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. and Side ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ?? ?? ̅̅̅̅ Then ∆??? ≅ ∆??? Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) Congruence Postulate If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to two angles and the included side of a second triangle. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Side-Side-Side (SSS) Congruence Postulate If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of a second triangle. Side ̅̅̅̅ ?? ≅ ̅̅̅̅ ?? . Angle ∠? ≅ ∠?. Side ?? ̅̅̅̅. THEOREM 24. ?? ≅ ̅̅̅̅ ??∠? ≅ ∠?. Converse of the Base Angles Theorem If two angles of a triangle are congruent. ?? ≅ ̅̅̅̅ ?? ̅̅̅̅ ??. ???? ̅̅̅̅ ??. then the two triangles are congruent. Angle ∠? ≅ ∠?. then the two triangles are congruent. then the two triangles are congruent. then the THEOREM 25. . and Angle ∠? ≅ ∠? Then ∆??? ≅ ∆??? Angle-Angle-Side (AAS) Congruence Theorem If two angles and a non-included side of one triangle are congruent to two angles and the corresponding non-included side of a second triangle.1 angles opposite them are congruent. POSTULATE 21 If Angle ∠? ≅ ∠?. POSTULATE 19 ̅̅̅̅̅ ≅ ̅̅̅̅ If Side ?? ??. ???? ∠? ≅ ∠?.

then THEOREM 26.3 it is equidistant from the two sides of the angle. Hypotenuse-Leg (HL) Congruence Theorem If the hypotenuse and leg of a right triangle are congruent to the hypotenuse and a leg of a second THEOREM 25. then it is equilateral. then ? lies on the perpendicular bisector of ̅̅̅̅ ??. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS COROLLARY TO THEOREM 25. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. Converse of the Perpendicular Bisector Theorem If a point is equidistant from the endpoints of a segment. then ?? = ??. If ?∠??? = ?∠???.1 COROLLARY 2 If a triangle is equilateral. ̅̅̅̅ ≅ ̅̅̅̅ If ?? ?? and ̅̅̅̅ ?? ≅ ̅̅̅̅ ??.2 of the segment. COROLLARY TO THEOREM 25. Angle Bisector Theorem If a point is on the angle bisector of an angle. If ?? = ??.3 right triangle. then it is equiangular. then it is equidistant from the endpoints THEOREM 26. then the two triangles are congruent. . then △ ??? ≅ △ ??? Perpendicular Bisector Theorem If a point is on the perpendicular bisector of a segment. then it is on the perpendicular bisector THEOREM 26. If ⃡⃗⃗⃗⃗ ?? is the perpendicular bisector of ̅̅̅̅ ??.1 of the segment.2 COROLLARY 3 If a triangle is equiangular. then ?? = ??.

THEOREM 27. ? ? Concurrency of Altitudes of a Triangle The lines containing the altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. then it lies on the bisector of the angle. ? ? ? ?? = ??. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Converse of the Angle Bisector Theorem If a point is in the interior of an angle and is THEOREM 26. ??. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. then the lines ??. Concurrency of Perpendicular Bisectors of a Triangle The perpendicular bisectors of a triangle intersect THEOREM 26. and ?? = ??. .4 equidistant from the sides of the angle. ?? = ?? = ?? Concurrency of Angle Bisectors of a Triangle The angle bisectors of a triangle intersect at a THEOREM 26. then ?? = ??. ?? = ?? = ?? Concurrency of the Medians of a Triangle The medians of a triangle intersect at a point that is two-thirds of the distance from each vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side THEOREM 27. If ?? = ??.5 at a point that is equidistant from the vertices of the triangle. and ⃡⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃡⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃡⃗⃗⃗⃗ ?? intersect at some point ?. then ?∠??? = ?∠???. 6 point that is equidistant from the sides of the triangle.1 ? If ? is the centroid of ∆???.2 If ̅̅̅̅ ??. ̅̅̅̅ ??. and ?? ̅̅̅̅ are the altitudes of ∆???.

If one angle of a triangle is larger than another THEOREM 28. Exterior Angle Inequality Theorem The measure of the exterior angle of a triangle is greater than the measure of either of the two THEOREM 28. then the third side of the first is longer than the third side of the second.3 nonadjacent interior angles. 4 ?? + ?? > ?? ?? + ?? > ?? ?? + ?? > ?? Hinge Theorem If two sides of one triangle are congruent to two sides of another triangle. 5 the first is larger than the included angle of the second. and the included angle of THEOREM 28. THEOREM 28.3 sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and is half as long. ? ̅̅̅̅ ?? ∥ ̅̅̅̅ ?? and ?? = ?? ? If one side of a triangle is longer than another side. . SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC.2 angle. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Midsegment Theorem The segments connecting the midpoints of two THEOREM 27.1 then the angle opposite the longer side is larger than the angle opposite the shorter side. ?∠? > ?∠? and ?∠? > ?∠? Triangle Inequality Theorem The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. THEOREM 28. then the side opposite the larger angle is longer than the side opposite the smaller angle.

GRADE ? THEOREMS. ?? ?? ?? If = = . then the included angle of the first is larger than the included angle of the second. POSTULATES. then: ?? + ?? + ?? + ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = = = = ?? + ?? + ?? + ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Angle-Angle (AA) Similarity Postulate If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle.2 similar. If the altitude is drawn to the hypotenuse of a Theorem ??. AND COROLLARIES Perimeters and Scale Factors If two polygons are similar. If ???? ∼ ????. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Converse of the Hinge Theorem If two sides of one triangle are congruent to two sides of another triangle. ? right triangle. Side-Side-Side (SSS) Similarity Theorem If the lengths of the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional. then the triangles are Theorem 29. .6 first is longer than the third side of the second. then the two triangles Postulate 22 are similar. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. then the Theorem 29.1 corresponding lengths (scale factor).3 triangles are similar. If ∠??? ≅ ∠??? and ∠??? ≅ ∠???. then the two triangles formed are similar to the original triangle and to each other. ?? ?? ?? then ∆??? ∼ ∆???. ?? ?? then ∆??? ∼ ∆???. then the ratio of their perimeters is equal to the ratios of their THEOREM 29. Side-Angle-Side (SAS) Similarity Theorem If an angle of one triangle is congruent to an angle of a second triangle and the lengths of the sides including these angles are proportional. then ∆??? ∼ ∆???. ?? ?? If ∠? ≅ ? and = . and the third side of the THEOREM 28.

For Altitude: ?? ?? = ?? ?? ?? = √(??)(??) Geometric Mean Leg Theorem In a right triangle. Theorem ??. then ∆??? is a right triangle Pythagorean Inequality Theorem 1: Acute Triangles If the square of the length of the longest side of a Theorem ??. then the triangle is a right triangle. ? the lengths of the two segments. The length of each leg of the right triangle is the geometric mean of the lengths of the hypotenuse and the segment of the hypotenuse that is adjacent to the leg. ? For Shorter Leg: ?? ?? = ?? ?? ?? = √(??)(??) For Longer Leg: ?? ?? = ?? ?? ?? = √(??)(??) Pythagorean Theorem In a right triangle. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Geometric Mean Altitude Theorem In a right triangle. then ∆??? is acute. ? triangle is less than the sum of the square of the lengths of the other two sides. the square of the length of the Theorem ??. the altitude from the right angle to the hypotenuse divides the hypotenuse into two segments. If ?? < ?? + ?? . ? lengths of the other two sides. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. If ?? = ?? + ?? . the altitude from the right angle to the hypotenuse divides the hypotenuse into two segments. ? hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs. The length of the altitude is the geometric mean of Theorem ??. then the triangle is acute. . Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem If the square of the length of the longest side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the square of the Theorem ??.

then ∆??? is obtuse. ∠? ≅ ∠? and ∠? ≅ ∠? Properties of Consecutive Angles If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. ̅̅̅̅ ?? ≅ ̅̅̅̅ ?? and ̅̅̅̅ ?? ≅ ̅̅̅̅ ?? Properties of Opposite Angles If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. ? opposite angles are congruent. ??° − ??° − ??° Triangle Theorem In a 30° − 60° − 90 triangle. ? In a 45° − 45° − 90 triangle. . ? twice as long as the shorter leg. then its Theorem ??. ?∠? + ?∠? = ???° ?∠? + ?∠? = ???°. ?∠? + ?∠? = ???°. ? opposites sides are congruent. ? quadrilateral is 360°. the hypotenuse is Theorem ??. If ?? > ?? + ?? . ? consecutive angles are complementary. ??° − ??° − ??° Triangle Theorem Theorem ??. then its Theorem ??. the hypotenuse is √2 times as long as each leg. SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS Pythagorean Inequality Theorem 2: Obtuse Triangles If the square of the length of the longest side of a Theorem ??. ?∠? + ?∠? = ???° SUMMARY OF POSTULATES AND THEOREMS APEC SCHOOLS INC. ?∠? + ?∠? + ?∠? + ?∠? = ???° ? ? Properties of Opposite Sides If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. then its Theorem ??. Interior Angles of a Quadrilateral ? The sum of the measures of the interior angles of a ? Theorem ??. ? triangle is greater than the sum of the square of the lengths of the other two sides. and the longer leg is √3 times as long as the shorter leg. then the triangle is obtuse.