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Knowledge Requirement:-

4.1 Explain the socialization process & its relevance to the eating habits.
Primary Socialization, Culture, Social class, Peer Group, Roles, domestic cuisine;
Geographical influence.

As we live in the social structure our choices, decisions, etc are governed directly or
indirectly by the numerous social factors:-
Primary socialization:- As in early child hood we are prone/exposed to the different
type of food habits in our family. For example if one is brought up in the Hindu family he
will be a lacto vegetarian because of the beliefs of the family. These kinds of early
influences affect the eating habits. Significance of the people around us & friend circle
also puts the effect on our eating habits.
Culture:- Religion is one of the major factor in our culture that determines our eating
habits. For example Strict Jains do not eat root vegetables, garlic, onions
All foods that might have meat, fish and eggs.
And in the the Muslim religion Islam allows Muslim to consume all kinds of vegetables,
meats, fruits, etc. Except the pork & alcohols. Advertisements. All the major fast food
restaurants spent their large amount of money in the promotion & advertisements to get
their target market. Therefore fast foods consumption is increasing day by day in the
economy. Due to increases in commodities & ready to eat food in the containers (frozen)
or tins etc have also affected eating habits of the people. Immigration .When people
migrate from one country to another they take their eating& cultural habits with them.
And when they are exposed to the new culture they adopt the new eating & cooking
habits. For example when British came to India they were exposed to the different kind of
cuisines in the India & they adopted various curries, pickles, chutneys, dals, and chapates.
This has become their part of eating habits. Holidays abroad. When people go abroad for
holidays they are exposed to new variety of foods. That they may adopt in their food
habit.
Social class:- In this context we will define social class in context to their purchasing
power or ability to spent money on the food. If a person is from rich class he will indulge
himself in to expensive eating style & habits such as caviars, game food,oysters,lobsters,
scampi trufles, etc. And hence rich person would have full 13 course menu or American
menu. But in country like India where some people are living below poverty line they
may hardly be able to fulfill their nutritional needs. Poor people use very simple
flavorings like fennel, coriander, etc. But on the other hand the rich person will use the
expensive flavorings agents such as vanilapods, saffron, truffles, etc.
Peer group:- are the people whom we hang out with our co-workers, subordinates,etc.
These people put serious influence on our day to day aspects of our life, including our
eating habits too. For example if a person is fitness freak &hit the gym more often his
peer group will be of same nature they will eat out in the joints providing healthy &
nutritional food & have same healthy eating habits & values . In the same way girls
commonly look out for the spicy food & teenagers are more vulnerable to new eating
trends/ habits like they go by trend as today roasts are favorite tomorrow they may go for
sushi.
Roles:- Kitchen organization at our homes play major role in our eating habits. As in
early child hood we are adapted to smell, taste, texture, etc of food &they are imbedded
in our conscious & subconscious mind. For example if in a family children are given tea
early in the morning then they are gernally used to that habit to latter stages of their lives.
Influences to diet also influence our eating habits. Say a person is suffering from
diabetes then he will have to opt for low calorie food, & go for complex carbs & high
protein food. People suffering from the blood pressure, heart disorders, calestrol, and
obesity will also have different diets. This will put the impact upon the eating habits.
Domestic cuisine:- All the regions of the world have their specific domestic cuisine with
different food choices. Which are governed by different values & budgets.
We will compare two different regions of India with their cuisines.
GUJRAT: - Gujarati cuisine refers to the cuisine of the people from the state of Gujarat in
the West region of India. It is predominantly vegetarian. The typical Gujarati Thali
consists of Rotli (a flat bread made from wheat flour), daal or kadhi, rice, and sabzi/shaak
(a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices, which may be stir
fried, curry-like, or even dry boiled).Sugar is added in each & every food item as the
seasoning.
PUNJAB: - Punjabi cuisine (from the Punjab region of Northern India and Eastern
Pakistan). Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or vegetarian. The level of spices can
vary from minimal to very prevalent. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its
diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary
significantly, with restaurant style using large amounts of clarified butter, known locally
as desi ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooked concentrating
on mainly upon whole masalas (spice) flavorings.
Punjab being a rich & fertile state offers more budgets to the people & their food is
made by expensive medium as desi ghee & they also enjoy their rich produce, dairy,
meats & poultry.
Geographical influence:- Eating habits also are influenced by the geographical factors
that is produce,climate,etc. As people living on the costal strips of a country commonly
depend on the sea & the rain forests for their major food needs. Their stable diet will
consist of fish, clamps, shell fish, coconuts and other tropical fruits & vegetables. But on
the other hand the people living on the land lock areas depend on their local produce &
their live stock for their protein needs.
Local climatic condition also affects the eating habits. People living in hotter parts of
world prefer to eat light & less spicy food on the other hand people living in colder part
prefer to eat the hot & heavy foods.

4.3 Describe the relationships of religious influences, such as beliefs & restrictions to
eating habits
Major world religions, Minority grouping, Foods, Drink, Beliefs.
There are following main religion in the world:-
• Buddhist
• Christian(Protestant & Roman Catholic)
• Hindu
• Islamic
• Jewish
• Sikh
We will discuss their religious beliefs on the food & restrictions on food & drinks.
There are many cultures that prohibit eating a particular meat because of religious beliefs.
For example,

Hindu& Sikh .Both hindu & sikh eating & drink laws are same. Both religion are strict
lacto vegetarian religion. They doesn’t allow consumption of any kind ofmeat, fish,
eggs, etc. And strictly forbids eating beef & any by produce from the beef because the
religion considers the cow to be familiar to the god. But are allowed to consume the dairy
products. These religions also forbid consumption of the alcohols.

Buddhist. In some Buddhist cultures consumption of meat is allowed. But in general


majority of Buddhist are lacto vegetarian as in Hinduism they do not allow consumption
of the meat, poultry, seafood, etc. They also forbid the consumption of the alcohols
They believe in serenity of life & do not harm any living creature. In Tibetan Buddhist
culture the use of garlic is also forbidden in the food.

Islamic. Things that are allowed in the religion are called “halal” & that are not allowed
are called “haram”.
1. Islam forbids eating pork because the pork is thought to be an unclean meat &
considered “haram”. It also forbids consumption of predators & carnivorous
animals & birds. But they allow consumption of the beef, goat, sheep, poultry,
game, fish, etc.
2. Also Different rules apply to fishes and, in general, fish with scales are always
halāl, while some fatwas declare shellfish and scale less fishes such as catfish to
be harām.

3. Unless animals are sacrificed in a specific Ritual slaughter called “Dhabiĥa”. It


is made sure that al the blood drains out of the kill. All the vegetables& fruits are
considered halal.
4. Therefore they commonly buy animal based products like gelatin, ice creams,
bakery products with the Islamic stamps indicating that the product is halal so
goes with the restaurants.
5. Islam forbids consumption of alcoholic be verges.
6. Consumption of the vegetables & fruits are considered as hilal.

Jewish. "Kosher," which describes food that meets the standards of Jewish religion. And
are bit similar to that of Islam.

1. Certain animals may not be eaten at all. This restriction includes the flesh, organs,
eggs and milk of the forbidden animals.
2. Of the animals that may be eaten, the birds and mammals must be killed in
accordance with Jewish law. Animals that are eaten must have cloven hooves and
chews its cud like Sheep, cattle, goats, deer and bison. Animals that are not
allowed to eat are the camel, the rock badger, the hare and the pig.
3. Of the things that are in the waters, you may eat anything that has fins and scales.
Thus, shellfish such as lobsters, oysters, shrimp, clams and crabs are all
forbidden. Fish like tuna, carp, salmon and herring are all permitted.
4. All blood must be drained from the meat or broiled out of it before it is eaten.
5. Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten.
6. Fruits and vegetables are permitted, but must be inspected for bugs
7. Meat (the flesh of birds and mammals) cannot be eaten with dairy. Fish, eggs,
fruits, vegetables and grains can be eaten with either meat or dairy. (According to
some views, fish may not be eaten with meat).
8. Utensils that have come into contact with meat may not be used with dairy, and
vice versa. Utensils that have come into contact with non-kosher food may not be
used with kosher food. This applies only where the contact occurred while the
food was hot.
9. Grape products made by non-Jews may not be eaten.
10. Marks to look for on the Jewish food

Christian.
Roman Catholicism: Devout Catholics observe several feast and fast days during the
year.
1. Feast days include Christmas, Easter, the Annunciation (March 25th), Palm
Sunday (the Sunday before Easter), the Ascension (40 days after Easter), and
Pentacost Sunday (50 days after Easter.
2. Few foods are associated with these feasts internationally, though Catholics in
each country observe many food traditions .
3. Fasting (one full meal per day permitted; snacking according to local custom)
and/or abstinence (meat is prohibited, but eggs, dairy products, and
condiments with animal fat are permitted) may be practiced during Lent, on
the Fridays of Advent, Ember Days (at the beginning of the seasons) by some
Catholics; some fast or abstain only on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.
4. Food and beverages (except water) should be avoided for one hour before
communion is taken.
Protestantism:
1. The only feast days common in most Protestant religions are Christmas and
Easter.
2. Few practice fasting.
3. The only denominations with dietary laws fundamental to their faith are Mormons
(Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) and Seventh-Day Adventists.
4. Mormons avoid strong drink (alcoholic beverages) and hot drinks (coffee and
tea).
5. Many Mormons also avoid caffeine-containing drinks.
6. Followers are encouraged to eat mostly grains and to limit meats.
7. Some Mormons fast one day a month and donate their food money to the poor.
8. Seventh-Day Adventists avoid overeating; most are lacto-ovo-vegetarians (when
meat is consumed, most avoid pork).
9. Tea, coffee, and alcoholic beverages are prohibited.
10. Water is consumed before and after meals, and eating between meals is
discouraged. Strong seasonings and condiments, such as pepper and mustard, are
avoided.

MINORIT GROUPING:-

Rastafarian food laws


1. Rastafarian dietary requirements are based on Old Testament hygienic laws.
2. Some Rastafarians eat only vital foods - foods that are pure and untainted, or
otherwise natural. Milk, coffee and alcohol are all forbidden beverages.
3. Rastas refuse to eat pork, lamb and some seafood. Many Rastas are vegetarian.
Parsee / Zoroastrianism
1. There are no forbidden food products in Zoroastrianism.
2. Meat, poultry and fish was either roasted or cooked or fried before eating and
eaten with various kinds of vegetables fruits, and dry fruits and consumed with
milk, yogurt drink and alcohol.
3. Animal food is used in the sacred feasts and festivals or in funeral repasts.
4. To be constantly alert against evil, excess – gluttony, and deficiency – fasting is
forbidden.
5. Zoroastrianism has no food products that are forbidden and consuming alcohol,
especially wine, is considered a religious duty.
JAINISM
1. Ingredients that are forbidden
• Meat
• Fish
• Eggs
• Honey
• Figs
2. Strict Jains do not eat root vegetables, garlic, onions
3. All foods that might have meat, fish and eggs.
4. Apart from not eating meat, fish and eggs, strict Jains do not eat onions and
garlic because they increase sexual desires.
5. Strict Jains also do not eat any root vegetables like potatoes because smaller
insects are killed in their harvest and the vegetable itself will have millions of
bacteria.
6. The emblem of the Jain religion, symbolizes its main tenet, the doctrine of
Ahimsa, nonviolence. The practice of Jain asceticism, the avoidance of harm
to any living creature, is central to the Jain practice of vegetarianism.
Common Religious Food Practices

ADV - Seventh Day Adventist X - prohibited or strongly discouraged


BUD - Buddhist A - avoided by the most devout
EOX - Eastern Orthodox R - some restrictions regarding types of foods
HIN - Hindu or when foods are eaten
JEW - Jewish O - permitted, but may be avoided at some
MOR - Mormon observances
MOS - Moslem + - practiced
RCA - Roman Catholic

*Fasting varies from partial (abstention from certain foods or meals) to complete (no
food or drink)

ADV BUD EOX HIN JEW MOR MOS RCA

Beef A X

Pork X A A X X

All Meat A A R A R R R

Eggs/Dairy O O R O R

Fish A A R R R

Shellfish X A O R X

Alcohol X A X X

Coffee/Tea X X A

Meat & Dairy at Same


X
Meal

Leavened Foods R

Ritual Slaughter of
Meats + +

Moderation + + +
Fasting* + + + + + + +

4.4 Describe the various food movements & their eating preferences & restrictions.
Healthy eating & Vegetarians.
As our day to day lifestyle is changing this involves less of physical & laborious jobs
especially in he urban areas of our country. And that are suffering from different health
problems. Therefore people & government star a regime & movements of healthy &
organic eating food.
Healthy Eating:-
“Healthful eating is the act of following a balanced nutritional diet.”
Because our ideas of what counts as "healthful" change according to scientific advances
in the field of nutrition, along with personal and cultural considerations, accepted
standards of healthful eating differ from person to person and through history.

Basic Principles of Healthy Eating:-


Although there is no single blueprint for a healthy balanced diet, there are a few basic
principles that are likely to be part of most healthy eating-plans. As follows:

1. Include Foods From All Food Groups


Unless you are a vegetarian or otherwise advised by your doctor, your daily diet should
include a variety of foods, ideally from all the main groups of foods, such as: meats,
dairy, fruits, vegetables and fats.
See also: Food Digestion Guide.

2. Carbohydrate Should be Slow-Release and Low in Glycemic Value


Carb-containing foods with a low value on the glycemic index keep you satisfied for
longer, reduce cravings and help maintain stable blood glucose levels. It's not necessary
to eat only low GI foods. Intermediate (moderate) GI foods are okay, too. But you should
include at least one low GI food at every meal.

3. Fat-intake Should be Predominantly Non-Saturated


- Choose lower-fat meats and dairy foods.
- Trim all visible fat.
- Eat regular fish (any type).
- Eat butter/margarine sparingly.

4. Eat Enough Omega-3 Fats


- Choose unrefined cooking oils.
- Try oils containing omega-3 fatty acids: (eg.) canola, flax oil.
- Alternatively, include regular oily fish in your diet.

5. Eat More High-Fiber Foods


Unless otherwise advised by your doctor, make sure your daily diet includes sufficient
dietary fiber (both soluble and insoluble) for your needs. A ballpark figure is 25-30g per
day. When increasing your fiber intake, do so gradually.

6. Beware Hidden Fats and Sugars (and Sodium)


Much of our intake of fat and sugar and sodium is typically from packaged or prepared
foods, such as: sauces, packet foods, sodas, candy, soups and so on. You can't avoid these
types of food, but you should check the label and choose brands that are lower in sugar,
saturated fat ("hydrogenated" or "trans-fats") and sodium.

7. Choose Healthy Snacks


Snacking is a universal and very healthy eating habit. Eating regularly throughout the day
maintains stable blood-glucose levels (thus reducing the build-up of hunger) and helps
maintain optimum metabolic rate. For healthy snacks, choose chopped fruit, chopped
vegetables, nuts and seeds, wholegrain sandwiches, fresh lean meats, and mineral water.

8. Avoid the excess of salt in the diet


As the excess of salt increases the sodium level in the body. This lead to the
abnormalities in the blood pressure. Therefore people who have to restrict their salt in
take should avoid the sea food, M.S.G, processed cheese, pickles, etc.

Vegetarians:-
Vegetarian diet have varied motivations including religious, cultural, financial, ethical,
environmental, and health concerns.

Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal, with or without
also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs.
Some vegetarians choose to also refrain from wearing clothing which has involved the
death of animals, such as leather, silk and fur. Veganism, sometimes called "strict
vegetarianism", excludes all animal products from diet and attire, whether or not their
production has involved the actual death of an animal (dairy, eggs, honey, wool, silk and
down feathers).
Fruitarianism is a diet of only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be
gathered without harming the plant.
Foods allowed in the main vegetarian diets

Diet Name Meat (includes fish) Eggs Dairy

Lacto-ovo vegetarianism No Yes Yes

Lacto vegetarianism No No Yes

Ovo vegetarianism No Yes No

Veganism No No No

Characteristic Comments/Possible Mechanisms


Leanness Vegetarians tend to be more physically active than nonvegetarians.
Higher intakes of dietary fiber may decrease absorption of food by 2-
3 % and contribute to a feeling of fullness.
Lower blood Vegans, who consume a diet very low in fat, tend to have blood
pressure pressures 10 to15 mm Hg lower than nonvegetarians of similar age
and gender. Much of this effect appears to be related to body weight
rather than other dietary variables.
Lower serum Total blood cholesterol levels are lower in vegans than in
cholesterol lactovegetarians or nonvegetarians. Whole-fat milk products and eggs
tend to raise serum blood lipids due to their saturated fat and
cholesterol content. Vegetarians often use non- or lowfat milk, and
vegans use no milk or eggs at all
Less colon cancer Diets high in meat may increase the incidence of colon cancer by
increasing the fecal concentration of various carcinogens. A high
intake of animal fat also may increase the risk of colon cancer. It is
also possible that carcinogens are produced by cooking meat at very
high temperatures.
4.5 Explain methods of modifying recipes for specific cultural demands, using
ingredients substitutes or other adaptation.
Animal food for replacement, Substitute flavoring, Animal based flavoring,
Substitute flavoring, recipe balance, recipe authenticity, cooking method.

Different cultures have different approach to their food & while coming up with the new
recipes it should be kept in the mind to use & find ingredients substitutes to the food.
Some time to modify the recipe too.
At a common glance wide variation comes between all culture on to main heads:-
• Vegetarian.(Lacto-vegetarians, vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians & ovo-vegetarians)
• Non-vegetarian.(further non vegetarians also have some rules to observe i.e. like
Muslims cannot eat pork ,if they eat another animal it should be killed in a
specific ritual manner.)
Animal food for replacement will consist of meat, fish & poultry(eggs & flesh).
Fats & oils,
• Derived from the carcasses of beef, lamb &pork. Pork fat is commonly used as
because of its properties of flavor as it have plain flavor & blend easily with other
food product.
• Skin of the poultry & game birds as in chicken, duck, etc.
• Some time oils are also extracted from the fish e.g. code’s liver oil.
Gelatin, It is extracted from the cartilage of bones of beef, veal, lamb, pork, etc. It is used
in the ice-creams, confectionaries, & aspic decorations in larder.

Dairy products, such as milk, whey, cheeses, cream, yoghurt and other range of products
derived from the cattle’s milk.

Substitute foods for the animal products should be able to full fill the nutritional aspects
that are fulfilled from the animal products, & also should contribute taste, flavor and
texture of the dish.
Therefore we should select variety of many vegetables that are high in protein as meat
substitutes. Legumes, beans, nuts, and whole grain seeds make up a plethora of items
from which they have developed tasty and nutritious products.
• Animal fats & oils can be substituted to vegetable based hydrolyzed fats & oils.
• Beef Jerky can be replaced by a soy-based jerky. (e.g. Stonewall's Jerquee)
• Butter is easily replaced by dairy-free margarine. Any brand made with non-
hydrogenated oils is recommended (e.g.. Earth Balance or Spectrum brands).
• Cakes and Brownies can be made with dairy-free, egg-free mixes (e.g. Pamela's
brand)
• Cheese can be replaced by soy- or rice-based cheese. Unfortunately, many brands
still contain casein (a milk protein). A couple of brands which don't are Soymage
and VeganRella.
• Chocolate Bars are available without dairy, usually in the form of dark chocolate
(e.g. Tropical Source brand).
• Cookies can be made without eggs or dairy products. Several brands typically are
available in natural food stores (e.g. Sunflour Cookies or Boston Cookies)
• Cream Cheese is easily replaced by delicious soy-based alternatives (e.g. Tofutti
or Soya Kaas brands).
• Deli Meats can be replaced by soy- or gluten-based sandwich slices. Yves and
Tofurky brands are very good and widely available. Shelf-stable brands exist too,
such as Dixie Diner.
• Eggs can be replaced in frying, egg salad, and baking. Mashed tofu combined
with a little turmeric or with a mix (e.g. Tofu Helper or Fantastic Foods brands) is
a nice alternative to scrambled eggs. Tasty tofu mixes are also available for easy
eggless "egg" salad.
• Eggs can be replaced in baking too. For each egg, substitute a heaping teaspoon
of soy flour and a tablespoon of water, or slightly less than a 1/4 cup of
applesauce or mashed banana. Prepackaged substitutes for eggs in baking are
also available (e.g. EnerG Egg Replacer or Orgran No Egg).
• Gelatin is a protein obtained by boiling animal bones, tendons, ligaments, hooves,
and/or skin. It is a common ingredient in jellied candies, frosted toaster pastries
and cereals, Jell-O, etc. Alternatives include carrageenan, agar-agar, fruit
pectin, and locust bean gum.
• Ground Beef can be replaced by healthy soy-based varieties (e.g. Yves or
Lightlife brands).
• Hamburgers are easily replaced by soy-, grain-, or vegetable-based burgers.
Some taste very much like traditional burgers (e.g. Gardenburger Flame-Grilled),
while others have an original taste of their own (e.g. Dr. Praeger's). Shelf-stable
mixes are available too, such as Harvest Direct.
• Hot Dogs can be replaced by soy/tofu dogs. Several brands are now widely
available.
• Ice Cream is easily replaced by soy- or rice-based frozen desserts. Some brands
are so good that you truly can't tell the difference (try Tofutti Supreme or, for an
excellent low-fat variety, Soy Delicious). Also, sorbet is almost always dairy free.
• Macaroni and Cheese can be replaced by a nondairy alternative (e.g. Macaroni
and chReese by Roads End Organics)
• Mayonnaise is easily replaced by eggless or tofu-based alternatives (e.g. Hain or
Nayonaise brands)
• Milk is easily replaced by soy milk, rice milk, or oat milk. These are excellent
replacements in baking too. There are dozens of brands available and they all taste
different, so find the one that's right for you.
• Parmesan Cheese can be replaced by a soy-based parmesan alternative (e.g.
Soymage brand).
• Pizza Pepperoni is easily replaced by the much healthier soy-based varieties. The
flavor and texture is the same, but without the grease! Try Yves or Lightlife
brands.
• Sausage can be replaced by soy/tofu sausage (e.g. Lightlife brand).
• Sour Cream is easily replaced by a soy-based alternative (e.g. Tofutti Sour
Supreme).
• Whey is a serum obtained from cow's milk. Soybean whey is a good alternative.
• Whipped Cream/Topping is easily replaced by a delicious soy-based whipped
topping (e.g. Hip Whip by Now and Zen).
• Yogurt can be replaced by soy yogurt. Several brands are now available.
• Yeast products can be aerated by using chemicals like baking soda & sodium – bi
– carbonate.

Recipe balance: - When using the alternative in the recipe it should be kept in the mind
that the texture, taste & colour of the dish should not suffer.
For example:- While making a dish from paneer (an Indian version of cottage cheese
made from dairy milk.). Can be substituted to plain hard tofu. Which have nearly the
same colour & texture & give same flavors with the spices & other condiments when
cooked.
Recipe authenticity: - Authenticity of the recipe is very important through out the
industry. As the base or main ingredient can never be changed.
For example in a “Lamb Rogan josh”. Main ingredient is lamb it self so it cannot be
replaced by another vegetable based substitute.
But the other ingredients such as cooking medium (fats & oils), raising agents (yeasts),
gelatin, etc. can be substitute.
PUFF PASTRY we use pork fat, lard, suet or butter as a fat for lamination. But we can
substitute them by using the vegetable based hydrolyzed fats. But the authenticity of the
recipe prevails giving same dish.

Cooking Methods: - Cooking method to be used in the preparation using substitute


ingredients should be simple & not complex. While cooking it should be made sure that
nutrients & flavors should not be lost by using appropriate technique, temperature &
cooking time.
Cooking medium/media should also be selected wisely & have the same qualities to the
one that has been substituted. For example the cooking medium used for the deep frying
have high smoking point & is gernally animal fat. It should be substituted by vegetable
based oil or fat with the same factors.

Animal based flavorings: - Flavoring of food that is done with the parts of the animal,
fish, poetry, etc . For example in compound & flavored butters such as Anchovy butter,
shell fish butter, etc. This kind of the flavoring is also used in the chips, crackers,
wafers( all flavored as beef, chicken, etc), cheese (Animal-based rennet and also pepsin),
stock in sauces & soups (animal, poultry, &fumet), Worcester sauce (use Anchovies or
Anchovy essence) .etc.

Substitute flavoring:- Food items can be replaced by the other options such as
• Aromatic extract from the vegetables such as carrots, garlic, onions, leeks,
shallots, turnip, etc.
• Herbs & spices are also used to flavor the food without using the animal
flavorings which gives the appetizing flavor, & fragrance to the food. Such as
parsley, coriander, bay leaves, mint, nutmeg, black pepper, white pepper, etc.
• Yeast extracts are also used for the flavorings as they give nearly the same
fragrance from the meat, such as truffles, mushrooms, etc.

4.6 Analyze & compare the demand for the ethnic & national foods in relation to
supply & market outlets.
National Foods, ethnic foods, locations, demand, outlets.

Before opening the food outlet in the market we have to understand the various national
& ethnic foods in our society.
National foods are the foods that belong to a particular nation we will discuss the
different national foods example wise:-
Turkey:-
• Skewered and roasted meats, the famous shis-kebab,
• rice or bulgar pilaf dish, lamb or chicken baked with peppers and eggplant, and
fresh fish grilled with lemon.,
• Favorites include sucuk,
• a spicy sausage, pastirma, a sun dried cumin-fenugreek coated preserved beef,
soups are central in Turkish cuisine,
• "kofte", spiced lamb meatballs, all tantalize the diner,.
• the "zeytinagli" or olive oil course. Foods such as peppers or tomatoes are
prepared with olive oil. These are typically served at room temperature.
• Raki, an anise liqueur is the national drink of Turkey.
• "Lokum," a gelled sweet often mixed with hazelnuts or pistachios, is cut into
cubes and rolled in powdered sugar. In the United States it is commonly called
Turkish delight.

Chinese :-
Chinese food items differ from the state to the state but the common food items are:
• Jiaozi (steamed or boiled (shuijiao) dumplings)
• Guotie (fried dumplings)
• Xiao Long Bao (soup dumplings)
• Noodles
o Fried noodles
o Noodle soup
• Kung Pao chicken
• Hotpot
• Fried pancakes (including green onion pancakes)
• Zongzi (glutinous rice wrapped in bamboo leaves, usually with a savory or sweet
filling)
• Peking Duck - the trademark dish of Beijing
• Baozi (filled steamed buns)
• Soy egg (hard boiled egg, cooked in soy sauce)
• Tea egg (hard boiled egg soaked or stewed in tea)
• Congee ( rice porridge)
• Pickled vegetables ( sauced vegetables)
• Soy milk (in either sweet or "salty" form)
• Youtiao ( "Cow tongue pastry" ), or other fried Chinese dough foods
• Shaobing ( a flaky baked or pan-seared dough pastry.)
• Rice balls ( with savory fillings)

Mexico:-
These are the popular Mexican dishes:-
Enchilada with mole sauce
Salsa verde, salsa roja
Pico de gallo ("salsa mexicana")
Assorted tacos
Guacamole
Ensalada de nopales
• Dry soup, sopa, typically pasta with flavoring of meat or tomato consomme
• Consomme, broth, either made from drippings of meat roasted for barbacoa, or
dry bouillon cubes and powder (usually known by its most common brand name, (Knorr-
Suiza)
• Curtido
• Ensalada de fruta, Fruit salad
• Fideos, Noodles
• Frijoles pintos, pinto beans
• Frijoles negros, black beans
• Frijoles charros
• Lentejas, Lentil beans
• Refried beans (frijoles refritos)
• Nachos
• Nopalitos

• Salsa
• Yuca Cassava

Entrees
• Bacanora
• barbacoa
• caldo, soup, (generally considered an entree rather than an appetizer) which has
many variations, such as
o caldo de pollo, chicken soup
o caldo de res, beef soup
o caldo de queso, cheese soup
o caldo de camaron shrimp soup, typically made from dried shrimp
o carne en su jugo, meat and beans in a meat broth
o caldo de mariscos, seafood soup, similar to the Italian dish zuppa di pesce.
• tacos
• tamales
• taquitos
• tortillas
• tortas (sandwiches)
• "Tortas de...." Small omelettes similar to egg foo yung patties. See also romeritos.
Drinks
• Tejate
• Chocolate Generally known better as a drink rather than a candy or sweet
• Atole or Champurrado
• Mexican beer and soft drinks are very popular and are major export products.
• Tequila
• Pulque, sacred drink of the Aztecs.
Desserts and sweets
Mexico's candy and bakery sweets industry, centered in Michoacan and Mexico City,
produces a wide array of products.
• Arroz con leche, rice with milk and sugar
• Pay de queso, cheesecake
• Jamoncillos
• Empanadas
• Flan
• Pastel de tres leches (Three Milk Cake)
• Dulce de leche
• Chongos zamoranos, a milk candy named for its place of origin, Zamora,
Michoacán.
• Jarritos (spicy tamarindo candy in a tiny pot), as well as a brand of soda
• Pan dulce sweet pastries, like American doughnuts, very popular for breakfast.
Japanese foods:-

Sushi
Sushi is vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually fish or
seafood.
• Nigiri-zushi: This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.
• Maki-zushi: Translated as "roll sushi", this is where rice and seafood or other
ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on
a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces.
• Temaki: Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a
cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside. Sometimes referred to as a "hand-roll".
• Chirashi: Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh sea food, vegetables or
other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish.
Sake
Sake is a rice wine that only contains 15% alcohol and is made from fermented rice
Noodles (men-rui)
Noodles often take the place of rice in a meal. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is
so strong that many restaurants even serve noodles-rice combination sets.
• Traditional Japanese noodles are usually served chilled with a dipping sauce, or in
a hot soy-dashi broth.
o Soba: thin brown buckwheat noodles. Also known as Nihon-soba ("Japanese
soba"). In Okinawa, soba likely refers to Okinawa soba (see below).
o Udon: thick wheat noodles served with various toppings, usually in a hot soy-
dashi broth, or sometimes in a Japanese curry soup.
o Somen: thin wheat noodles served chilled with a dipping sauce. Hot Somen is
called Nyumen.
Grilled and pan-fried dishes (yakimono)
• Genghis Khan barbecue: barbecued lamb or mutton, with various seafoods and
vegetables.
• Gyoza: Chinese ravioli-dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and
vegetables and pan-fried.
• Kushiyaki: skewers of meat and vegetables.
• Teriyaki: grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed
with a sweetened soy sauce.
• Unagi, including Kabayaki: grilled and flavored eel.
• Yakiniku: various bite-sized meat and offal (most often beef) barbecued, usually
at the table, resembling Korean bulgogi.
• Yakitori: barbecued chicken skewers, usually served with beer.

Japanese sweets (dagashi)


• Karumetou: Brown sugar cake. Also called Karumeyaki
• Sosu Senbei: Thin wafers eaten with soy sauce
Kakigori: shaved ice with syrup topping.
• Kompeito: crystal sugar candy
• Manju: sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center
• Matsunoyuki
• Melonpan: a large, round bun which is a combination of regular dough beneath
cookie dough, with a sweet filling in between. It often (but not always) contains a melon-
flavored cream, and its general shape is said to resemble that of a melon.
• Mochi: steamed sweet rice pounded into a solid, sticky, and somewhat translucent
mass
• Oshiruko: a warm, sweet red bean (an) soup with mochi: rice cake
• Uiro: a steamed cake made of rice flour
• Taiyaki: a fried, fish-shaped cake, usually with a sweet filling such as an: red bean
paste
Snacks include:
• Azuki Ice: vanilla flavored ice cream with sweet azuki beans
• Koara no māchi
• Umai Bō Puffed corn food with various flavors
• Pocky
• Hello Panda
• Hi-chew
• Ice cream - usual flavours such as vanilla and chocolate are the most common.
Distinctly Japanese ones include Matcha Ice (green tea ice cream), less common ones
include Goma (black sesame seed) and sweet potato flavours.

Japanese green teas


• Genmaicha: green tea combined with roasted brown rice.
• Hojicha: green tea roasted over charcoal.
• Kombucha (tea): a tea poured with Kombu giving rich flavor in monosodium
glutamate.
• Matcha: powdered green tea.
• Mugicha: barley tea, served chilled during summer.
• Sencha: steam treated green tea leaves then dried.
• Umecha: a tea drink with Umeboshi giving refreshing sourness.
Alcoholic beverages
• Awamori
• Sake
• Shōchū
• Umeshu

Germen Foods:-
• "Badener Schneckensuepple" (a snail chowder flavored with herbs),
• "Schwarzwalder Kirschtorte" (Black Forest cake),
• "Rheinischer Sauerbraten" (beef roast stewed with wine).
• "Spannferkel" (spit roasted baby pig),
• "Handkaes" (a smelly type of cheese mixture made with sour cream)
• "Dresdner Stollen" (a holiday fruit cake shaped like a wrapped infant and covered
with confectioner's sugar),
• "Blechkuchen" (a simple flat layer of cake dough covered with seasonal fruit),
and "Welfenspeise" (vanilla flavored dessert made with wine).
• "Rote Gruetze" (fruit soup),
• "Sauerfleisch" (meat in aspic made with fish gelatin),
• "Bulletten" (meat balls),
• "Helgolander Krabbensalat" (Helgoland shrimp salad),
• "Soeier" (pickled eggs).
• "Torte" or "Kuchen" (cake).

Popular Australian foods:-


• Kangaroo Steak: - Roasted lion of kangaroo fillet.
• Meat Pie: - Small size meat pies.
• Balmain bugs: - Barbecued or boiled crustaceans found in Sydney harbor.
• Lamingtons: - Piece soft light sponge cake dipped in the chocolate icing &
coconut.
• Pavlova: - A large meringue served with fruit & cream.
• Damper: - basic bread made from flour & water, kneaded, shaped into round &
cooked on the coals of a fire made on the ground.
• Anzac biscuits.

ETHNIC FOODS:-These are the foods that are the specialist of the particular region or
ethnic groups.
We will discuss the ethenic foods of the India:-
The finest of India's cuisine is as rich and diverse as it's civilization Very often the taste,
color, texture and appearance of the same delicacy changes from state to state.

Bengali
Bengal's greatest contribution to the food heritage of India is a magnificent spectrum of
sweets made from burnt milk and curd. 'Rasogullas', 'gulab jamuns', 'cham cham', 'malai
sandwich', 'chena murki', 'anarkali', 'rajbhog' - the list of mouth-watering delicacies is
endless. 'Mishti dhoi' or yoghurt sweetened with jaggery is a must in every Bengali home.
Guests are always welcomed with 'sandesh' or sweets made from burnt milk and
'singadas' or crisp samosas.

Besides sweets, the Bengalis eat fish with great relish and most of the popular Bengali
dishes are made from fish. A variety of styles are adopted to cook fish. They are at times
marinated in spices, at other times cooked in curd.
The specialty of Bengali cooking is the use of panchphoron i.e. five basic spices which
include zeera, kalaunji, saunf, fenugreek and mustard seeds. Generally, Bengali food is a
mixture of sweet and spicy flavors .

Goan
Famous for it's distinctive cuisine, Goa have delicacies like the tangy pork 'vindaloo',
spicy 'sorpotel' and the ever popular Goan fish curry with rice. Goa's luscious coconut
and fish based dishes draw in people from all over the world. Goans often accompany
their meal with one of their innumerable local wines or the local liqueur called 'Feni'.

Goan food is simple but one has to bear in mind that most, though not all, of it
is chili hot, spicy, and pungent.
Rice, fish, and coconut are the basic components of the typical Goan food platter.
Besotted with seafood, the Goans find truly world-class
prawns, lobsters, crabs, and jumbo pomfrets along the coastline and use them to make a
variety of soups, salads, pickles, curries, and fries.
Kokum, a sour, deep red colored fruit that gives it a sharp and sour flavor. The famous
red Goan chilies are also a must for most dishes, as is tamarind. Goans make their own
version of vinegar from toddy. Then there are innumerable chutneys that are typical of
the state.

Gujarati
Gujaratis have truly perfected the art of vegetarian cooking. From the simplest lentils and
vegetables, they create a mouth-watering variety of food.
In Gujarat, during winter when green vegetables are available in plenty, a delicious
vegetable concoction called undhyoo is made using potato, brinjal, and green beans
amongst several other vegetables.
The main dish of gujarati cuisine is the khichdi, a simple lentil and rice mixture. It is
eaten with kadhi, a savory curry made with yogurt using bay leaves, ginger, chilies and
finely chopped vegetables as garnishing, onions and pickle.
Using the same lentils and rice, Kutchi kitchens produce delectable items like the khaman
dhokla, a salty steamed cake made from chickpea flour; doodha pak, sweet, thickened
milk confection with nuts, and srikhand, a dessert made of yogurt, flavored with saffron,
cardamom, nuts and candied fruit which is eaten with hot, fluffy puri.

Hyderabadi
The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is reputedly the spiciest and hottest of all Indian cuisine.
The cuisine includes both the original Andhra cooking and the Hyderabadi cuisine with
its Mughlai influence. It is the former which is red hot.

The vegetables and greens are prepared with various different masalas giving the same
vegetable different flavors. Traditional Andhra cuisine also has many non-vegetarian
dishes which are also spicy and unique in taste.
Hyderabadi cuisine is rich and aromatic with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee, not
to speak of nuts and dry fruits. Lamb is the most widely used meat in the non-vegetarian
dishes. The biryanis (flavored rice with meat or vegetables) is one of the most distinct
Hyderabadi food.

Kashmiri
Kashmiri cuisine is essentially meat-based. Lamb, goat's meat and chicken form the
basis of many a famous dish. It is flavored delicately with saffron and kashmiri chilies
which are not too spicy but impart a rich red color to the food.
The abundance of dry fruit like walnuts, dried dates, and apricots also inspire the
Kashmir connoisseur to use them lavishly in puddings, curries and snacks. Cottage
cheese or chaman as it is called, is also a popular accompaniment to many meats and
vegetables. Fresh water fish like trout found in the numerous fresh water streams flowing
down from the Himalayas is also a delicacy.
Food is generally followed by a generous serving of fresh fruits like strawberries, plums,
cherries and apples which grow here and not all over India due to the cool climate.

Maharashtrian
Maharashtrians are by and large, meat eaters. The cuisine includes subtly flavored
vegetarian delicacies and hot, aromatic meat and fish curries.
Their crunchy, crisp sweets are made mostly from rice and jaggery. The exotic 'Konkani'
and 'Malwani' cuisine also have their origins in the coastal parts of this region and are
sea-food based.
Grated coconuts spice many kinds of dishes, but coconut oil is not very widely used as a
cooking medium. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and peanut oil
is the main cooking medium. Another feature is the use of kokum, a deep purple berry
that has a pleasing sweet and sour taste. Kokum, most commonly used in an appetizer-
digestive called the sol kadhi, is served chilled. All non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes
are eaten with boiled rice or with bhakris, which are soft rotis made of rice flour. Special
rice puris called vada and amboli, which is a pancake made of fermented rice, urad dal,
and semolina, are also eaten as a part of the main meal.
The most popular dessert of Maharashtra is the puran poli, which is roti stuffed with a
sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour and is made at the time of the Maharashtrian
New Year. Other popular sweets are the ukdiche modak (these are served during the
Ganesh festival), the panpole ras, and the shreekhand. Shreekhand, a sort of thick yogurt
sweet dish, is a great favorite at weddings and the Dussehra festival. Flavored with
cardamom powder and saffron, this aromatic dish is served with piping hot puris.

Punjabi
Punjabi people are robust people with robust appetites and their food is like the Punjabi's
themselves, simple, sizeable and hearty with no unnecessary frills or exotic
accompaniments.
The Punjabi tandoori cooking is celebrated as one of the most popular cuisine
throughout the world. Huge earthen ovens are half buried in the ground and heated with a
coal fire lit below it. Marinated meat, chicken, fish, paneer, rotis and naans of many types
are cooked in this novel oven and the results are absolutely scrumptious!
Murgh makhani is served the state well to combine this influence in its cooking since it
had a lot of pure ghee and butter. Murgh makhani also provided a balance to tandoori
chicken, which was dry because it was charcoal cooked.
Naans and parathas, rotis made of maize flour are typical Punjabi breads. Of course, over
the years the roti has been modified to add more variety, so there is the rumali roti, the
naan and the laccha parathas, all cooked in the tandoor.

Winter, in Punjab, brings in the season of the famous makki ki roti(maize flour bread)
and sarson ka saag(mustard leaf gravy). No meal is complete without a serving of
lassi( sweet or salted drink made with curd) or fresh curd and white butter which is
consumed in large quantities.
The other popular dishes, which belong exclusively to Punjab, are ma ki dal, rajma
(kidney beans) and stuffed parathas.

Rajasthani
The ancient princely state of Rajasthan gave rise to a royal cuisine. The Rajas who went
on hunting expeditions ate the meat or the fowl that they brought back. Even today,
Rajasthani princely feasts flaunt meat delicacies that are incomparable.

In contrast are the vegetarian Rajasthanis. Their food cooked in pure ghee is famous for
it's mouth- watering aroma. Rajasthani cooking was also influenced by both the war-like
lifestyles of its inhabitants and the availability of ingredients in the desert region. Food
that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating was preferred, more
out of necessity than choice. Scarcity of water and lack of fresh green vegetables also had
their effect on Rajasthani cooking.

Know we will analyze & compare the demand of ethnic & national food in relation to the
supply & market outlets

DEMAND: - Demand for the ethnic & national foods is greatly influenced by the
religious influences. For example if a Chinese restaurant is opened in the Muslim area in
order to make business it will have to govern all the Muslim rules. I.e. food should be
halal; no use of the pork or its byproducts, alcohol should not be used, etc. Another
example is if a steak house restaurant is opened in the Buddhist area then it will not be
able to attract as much customers, because they are forbidden to consume meat , but if it
would have been opened in the Christian area then would have flourish as they are not
forbidden to eat meat.
Different groups of the market also impact the demand of the food. Groups may be
divided on the bases of the sex, age, ethnic groups, etc.
SEX on this bases we will divide the demand group into male & female. Female gernally
have demand to the spicy & hot food. And on the bases of the national food they may
choose Oriental foods which are both hot & spicy .But on the other hand the male
population will go for the hearty, less spicy & big portions of the food like Greek &
Italian foods.
AGE GROUP on this bases different age group will choose different food. Young
people choose the food that is spicy, tasty, take away style, easy & quick to consume.
Looking out for the less formal rules to eat the food like Turkish kebabs, Dim sums,
tandoori chicken, etc.
But on the other hand senior citizens like to have plain, less spicy & easy to digest food.
They like to eat their food in the more formal setting like Chinese, French, Japanese, etc.
ETHENIC GROUPS An ethnic group prefers to eat their own food such as Punjabi
would prefer to eat in the Punjabi restaurant more often

OUTLETS:- By outlets we mean the different restaurants, franchises, etc.


Different outlets of the National foods & ethnic food follow different menus .It can be a
la cart, table d ´hote, buffets, etc. And these days the Chinese Restaurants are coming up
with the buffet system. But in some ethnic cultures such as Gujaratee culture of India this
kind of system is in place as the Thali system.
But more formal food such as French is always preferred in table d’hote or a la carte
menu alone.

Cooking style also varies in ethnic & national foods & from the outlet to the outlet. As in
Chinese restaurants most of the food that is cooked by the process of steaming, boiling &
deep frying. In French restaurants the conventional methods, frying, baking, roasting,
grilling, etc. are used. In Turkish food split roasting, grilling & baking are the dominant
cooking styles.
On the other hand in ethnic foods such as Punjabi cooking (roasting) is done in special
clay ovens called tanddor& stewing & deep frying are the major cooking styles.

Service style. There are different service styles available such as


• English Service
• French Services
• Silver Service
• American Service
• Counter Service: (Snack-bar Service)
• Grill Room Service
• Buffet Service
• Gueridon Service
There is a wide variety in which the food is served in the different out lets .
For example in the Turkish restaurants where the meat pieces are roasted & grilled in
front of the customers ,their grill room service will be appropriate. Were various meats
are grilled in front of the guest. The meats may be displayed behind a glass partition or
well decorated counter so that the guest can select his exact cut of meat. The food comes
pre-plated.
Buffet service is introduced in the Chinese, Indian, Thai, etc restaurants, where the guest
takes his plate from a stack at the end of each table or requests the waiter behind the
buffet table to serve him.
Elaborated service style are used in the French cuisine such as Gueridon Service,
French service, silver service, buffet service & grill room service.

LOCATION:-
Location of outlets puts the major impact on the demand of the goods provided & supply
of the goods required for the production as all these factors are interrelated.
This can be better understood by the example say if we have to open a Goan restaurant in
the Gujarat. Which is a land locked area & all the costal sea food that is required for its
production would be very difficult to supply for its production.

4.7 Describe the influence of migration & travel on national eating habits.
History, Developments, books, Case – studies.

When two cultures come in the contact with each other then they leave very serious
impact on each others eating habits by migration & travel.

HISTORY: - when the two cultures interact with each other they learn & adopt new
cooking techniques, learn about new ingredients such as spices, condiments, fruits, etc.
And people adapt to new style of cuisine or they do developments in their existing styles.
We will better understand this concept when we do the case study of India.
India was conquered & had different foreign rulers for the long period of the time. That is
Mughals, Portuguese, & British which introduced new cuisines to the country.
Those parts of India with the longest history of Mughal rule exhibit strong Persian
influences in their food, using fresh and dried fruit, cashews, pistachios and almonds in
their meat dishes as well as a great many dairy products. Tandoori ovens which heat up
to 1000 degrees cook meat, fish and bread lightning-fast and remain their greatest claim
to glory. A mix of Punjabi and Mughal cuisine has become standard restaurant fare both
in India and abroad.
The cuisine of royalty, Mughlai dishes may use as many as 12 spices in a single dish
including the most expensive of them -- saffron, cardamom, cinnamon and cloves.
Mughal influence is most strongly felt today in the culinary centers of Delhi and
Lucknow in the North and Hyderabad in the South. But while the kebabs, pilafs, kormas
and yogurt dishes may spring from similar roots, interpretations reflect local cooking
styles. The foods of Delhi and Lucknow remain slightly closer to the Persian models --
with the addition of cumin, coriander, turmeric, cardamom, cinnamon and ground chilies
typical of the North. Meanwhile mustard seeds, curry leaves, hot chilies, tamarind and
coconut milk infuse the dishes of Hyderabad.

Meanwhile, the food of Goa on the Southwestern coast betrays that province's long
history as a Portuguese colony. Goans eat pork and duck, meats rarely seen outside the
area, and use vinegar as a souring agent, a Portuguese legacy.

Colonial rulers have never been known for their linguistic accuracy and no one knows for
sure where the British got this one. "Kari" is a South Indian word for sauce and "tarkari"
is a North Indian dish -- which may or may not be relevant. Clearly the sahibs and
memsahibs fell in love with the flavors of India. When they returned to the homeland,
they had their cooks grind up a mix of spices to sprinkle on their staid British staples.
The world now knows this as "curry powder" and whatever is cooked with it is "curry."

DEVELOPMENTS:-
Developments in the eating habits come when the change is introduced in the country by
the influence of migration of one culture in the society or when people travel abroad then
also they pick up some eating habits which suites them & then they introduced these
habits in their society.
For example if the good Chef travels abroad & gets influenced by some of the fast food
items that he have never tried. He come back & after some through research he
introduces these items in the menu. And if these items become hit his dishes are tried out
in other restaurants & thus puts the serious influence on the society.
In metropolitan cities of the countries were people from the different countries &
communities live specialty restaurant are open. For example a country like Australia
were different communities live they have their own restaurants were food of that
community is made & served that had increased the culinary wealth of the Australia. And
Australian have developed eating habits to eat Turkish food (donner kebabs, shish
kebab), Chinese food, Sushi, Indian foods, etc.

International Fast food retail chains also put serious influence on the eating habits of the
country. Pizza Hut, Kentucky Fry Chicken (KFC) & Mac Donald’s has introduced some
food items from the international food menus which has influenced the eating habits of
the people of India.
BOOKS:-
As the countries are getting globalize people are sharing their cultures & eating habits
with each other. They are learning about each other through the sources of information
such as books, internets, television programs, etc.
Now a days good cooking books from the international chefs are available from the
good book stores, libraries of the reputable collages & internet.

CASE STUDIES:-

4.8 Analyze & compare the meal experience of different cultural groups.
Groups, restaurants, domestic.

Groups: - Different religious & cultural groups of different countries in the world have
specific meal experiences.
On the culture bases we will go through some local national cultures & international
cultures:-

JAPAN: - The traditional Japanese table setting small individual box tables or flat floor
trays is set before each diner. Larger low tables accommodated entire families.
Traditionally, the rice bowl is placed on the left and the soup bowl on the right.
Chopsticks are generally placed at the very front of the tray near the diner with pointed
ends facing left.

CHINESE:-
Chopsticks are the primary eating utensil in Chinese culture for solid foods, while soups
and other liquids are enjoyed with a wide, flat-bottomed spoon (traditionally made of
ceramic).
In most dishes in Chinese cuisine, food is prepared in bite-sized pieces (e.g. vegetable,
meat, and doufu), ready for direct picking up and eating.

Traditionally, Chinese culture considered using knives and forks at the table "barbaric"
due to fact that these implements are regarded as weapons. It was also considered
ungracious to have guests work at cutting their own food. Fish are usually cooked and
served whole, with diners directly pulling pieces from the fish with chopsticks to eat,
unlike in some other cuisines where they are first filleted.

In a Chinese meal, each individual diner is given his or her own bowl of rice while the
accompanying dishes are served in communal plates (or bowls) that are shared by
everyone sitting at the table, a communal service known as "family style" in Western
nations. In the Chinese meal, each diner picks food out of the communal plates on a bite-
by-bite basis with their chopsticks.
This is in contrast to western meals where it is customary to dole out individual servings
of the dishes at the beginning of the meal.

INDIA:- India it self is a vast country & have potpourri of different cultures. India offers
one of the most varied cuisines of any place on the planet.

South India –Traditionally for lunch and dinner Southerners eat rice meals - the famous
thali which really should be eaten with your fingers. You can still find it served on a
banana leaf, though it is now most commonly served on a stainless steel platter,
surrounded by small dishes of sauces, curries, and curd (yogurt). The heart of the thali is
rice, though sometimes you get a few deep fried puris, followed by rice. The thali is
always vegetarian, though in some non-veg restaurants you can order an extra meat side
dish.
The size and quality of the thali varies with the restaurant.
The normal order of eating a thali is to start with the curries and perhaps a dhal. Mix
different amounts of these with the rice and try them. Then you can graduate to the
thicker sauces, usually presented in small bowls. You can cleanse the palate with some
rice and rasam, the thinnest sauce almost like a soup. Your final amount of rice is mixed
with the curd, possibly salted, and eaten with bits of the spicy pickle.

North Indian- North Indian meal experience is very colorful, tasty but heavier then the
South Indian food .it is both combination of the vegetarian & non vegetarian food. With
the varied sweets that are served at the end of the course.
Traditional he stable of north Indian is wheat & bread made from that such as chapatti,
phulka, parontha, naan, etc. These are the food is served in the form of al a cart menu to
the guest. North India also used the hands but some do prefer the use of the spoons,etc.
He north Indian meal experience is very spicy & appetizing. Some of the signature north
Indian dishes are the tandoori chicken, Kashmeeri Dum aloo, Maha ked al, Dal Makhane.

RELIGIOUS:-
Religious food practices vary widely. Prohibitions and restrictions even within a
particular faith may change between denominations or branches. National variations are
also common. Further, individual adherence to a religious diet is often based on personal
degree of orthodoxy. Our intention is to provide only a brief overview of religious meal
experience.

Judaism
.
Kosher is loosely used to identify Jewish dietary laws, and to "keep kosher" means that
the laws are followed in the home. The dietary laws are among the most complex of all
religious food practices. Briefly, they include what foods are "clean" and fit to eat, those
that are considered "unclean" and are prohibited (a lengthy list that includes pork,
shellfish, and other foods), how foods must be slaughtered, how they must be prepared,
and when they may be consumed (specifically, rules regarding when milk products can
be consumed with meat products). Special kosher laws are observed during Passover,
including the elimination of any products which can be leavened (breads, bakery ,iems).
Christianity
Christian likes to dine & wine. They do not have to strict diet regulation in compare to
the diet & food to what to eat & what to not eat. But different groups of the Christian
groups have different preferences & faith to them selves.
Christianity is spread to different segments of the world. So their food & eating habit is
affected by the local preferences of the area. That is a Turkish Christian would have
different meal experience o that of the Christian in the Kerela (India).

Islam
Eating is a matter of faith in Islam. Muslims eat for good health and overindulgence is
discouraged (eating only 2/3 of capacity is recommended).
The Islamic dietary laws are called halal. This is also the term for all permitted foods.
Prohibited foods as described in the Koran are called haram; those in question are
mashbooh. Pork and birds of prey are haram; meats must be slaughtered properly; alcohol
is also prohibited and stimulants, such as coffee and tea, are avoided by the most devout.

They have special feast during the weddings & religious day ceremonies called DAWAT.
During this people sit around the big plate And food is pured into it & they eat from it.

Hinduism

In general, Hindus avoid all foods which are thought to inhibit physical and spritual
development. Although eating meat is not explicitly prohibited, many Hindus are
vegetarian because they adhere to the concept of ahimsa, non-violence as applied to
foods (particularly the infliction of pain on animals). If meat is eaten, beef never eaten
because the cow is considered sacred, and pork is often avoided. Some foods are
prohibited in some regions (which foods are prohibited vary widely), such as snails,
crabs, fowl, cranes, ducks, camels, boars, fish with ugly forms, and the heads of snakes.
Devout Hindus may avoid alcoholic beverages. Foods that stimulate the senses, such as
garlic and onions, are not recommended for anyone seeking spiritual unity.

They also have special food ceremonies which is called bhandaras. In which sadhus &
people are served with the food made up of food without the garlic& onions.

Sikhism

Although Sikhs participate in many Hindu practices, they differ significantly in their
belief in a single God. Sikhs abstain from beef & pork; alcoholic beverages are
prohibited.
Sikhs food ceremonies are called guru ka langar. In which are people no difference their
cast, co lour, race, etc. Sit together & are served with the vegetarian food.

RESTAURANTS:-

We will discuss the restaurants on the bases of the availability, kinds & characteristics
on the bases of the different cultural group.

In India the most common form of the restaurant in the street eateries called the
“Dhabas”. Were the food is made everyday & served fresh. The food that is served in the
dhabas covers only basic service only. Gernally the food is made to order. Some also do
serve the Thalis. Their interior is very simple just have some chairs & tables to sit on &
eat the food. Cost of the food is very cheap to.

Thai restaurants have beautiful interior. Displaying their silk that is silk curtains, bed
sheets, rugs, etc. They use expensive bone china to serve their food in. In traditional Thai
restaurant people sit on the floor on the soft rugs. And the food is kept on the small
tables.

European restaurants: - Europe has taken their culinary art to great distinction.
European hotels are expensive then any other restaurant. They offer different courses of
the meal in their menus. They have elaborated service styles such as silver, French, etc.
They take minute detail in each and every setting of their restaurant & spend lot of money
& efforts.

DOMESTIC meal experience: - Domestic meal experience differs from one family unit
to another. These meal experiences are affected by the numerous factors such as buying
power, religious factors, local influence (availability of the local produce, climate,
etc.). For example if the person belongs to a rich class in his society then he may have
elaborated meal & courses when he or she are dinning. But on the other hand if the
person is from the poor class of the society then it may be difficult for him to fetch a
square meal.

Local influences also plays the major role in the meal experience. For example if a
person living in the Hawaii (America) which is a costal state. The main part of their meal
would be the sea food, tropical vegetables & fruits, etc. But if the person is living in the
Antarctica (Green Land) that is Eskimos their meal will consist of mainly reindeer meat
& milk, & other game meats.