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PROBLEMS ON

STRESS

ME 561P/ME 147P
MACHINE DESIGN I
SIMPLE STRESSES
1. A cast iron link, as shown in the figure below, is required
to transmit a steady tensile load of 45 kN. Find the tensile stress
induced in the link material at sections A-A and B-B. [Ans:50 MPa,
64.3 Mpa]
2. The piston rod of a steam engine is 50 mm in diameter
and 600 mm long. The diameter of the piston is 400 mm and the
maximum steam pressure is 0.9 N/mm2. Find the induced stress
and the compression of the piston rod if the Young's modulus for
the material of the piston rod is 210 kN/mm2.
4

F pApiston 0.9 N / mm2 400mm
2

F 113097.34 N
F
S cro d
Arod
113097.34 N


4
50mm
2

57.6 N orMPa
mm2
FL
From :
Arod E
113097.34600


4
50 210 1000
2

0.165mm
3. A pull of 80 kN is transmitted from a bar X to the bar Y
through a pin as shown. If the maximum permissible tensile
stress in the bars is 100 N/mm2 and the permissible shear
stress in the pin is 80 N/mm2, find the diameter of bars and of
the pin.
4. Two plates 16 mm thick are joined by a double riveted lap
joint as shown. The rivets are 25 mm in diameter. Find the
crushing stress induced between the plates and the rivet, if the
maximum tensile load on the joint is 48 kN.

P 48000 N N
Sb 60 or MPa
2d t 225mm16mm mm 2
5. A mild steel rod of 12 mm diameter was tested for tensile
strength with the gauge length of 60 mm. Following observations
were recorded :
Final length = 80 mm; Final diameter = 7 mm; Yield load = 3.4 kN
and Ultimate load = 6.1 kN.
Calculate : 1. yield stress, 2. ultimate tensile stress, 3. percentage
reduction in area, and 4. percentage elongation.

Ans: 1. 30.1 MPa; 2. 54 MPa; 3. 66%; 4. 25%


STRESS IN
COMPOSITE BARS
A composite bar may be defined as a bar
made up of two or more different materials,
joined together, in such a manner that the
system extends or contracts as one unit,
equally, when subjected to tension or
compression. In case of composite bars,
the following points should be kept in view:
1. The extension or contraction of the bar
being equal, the strain i.e. deformation per
unit length is also equal.
2. The total external load on the bar is
equal to the sum of the loads carried by
different materials.
6. A bar 3 m long is made of two bars, one of copper having
E = 105 GN/m2 and the other of steel having E = 210 GN/m2.
Each bar is 25 mm broad and 12.5 mm thick. This compound bar
is stretched by a load of 50 kN. Find the stress produced in the
steel and copper and the increase in length of the compound bar.
The length of copper as well as of steel bar is 3 m each.
copper steel
1 2
F1 L FL
2
A1 E1 A2 E2
A1 E1
F1 F2
A2 E2
A1 E1
F F1 F2 F2 F2
A2 E2
A1 E1 A1 E1 A2 E2

F F2 1 F2

A2 E2 A2 E2
A2 E2 We know that :
F2 F F1 L FL
A1 E1 A2 E2 2
A1 E1 A2 E2
Similarly :
S1 S 2
A1 E1
F1 F E1 E2
A1 E1 A2 E2 E1 E2
S1 S 2 and S 2 S1
A1 E1 E2 E1
F1 F
A1 E1 A2 E2 F F1 F2 S1 A1 S 2 A2
but, A1 A2 25mm12.5mm
105
F1 50000 N 16666.67 N Load shared by the copper bar
105 210
F2 F F1 50000 16666.67 33333.33 N Load shared by the steel bar
16666.67 N
S1 53.33 or MPa stress produced in copper bar
2512.5 mm 2

33333.33 N
S2 106.67 or MPa
2512.5 2
stress produced in steel bar
mm
Elongation for both bars are equal.

F1 L F2 L
1 2
AE1 AE 2
16666.67 N 3000mm
1.52mm

25mm12.5mm 105000 N / mm 2

7. A central steel rod 18 mm diameter passes through a copper
tube 24 mm inside and 40 mm outside diameter, as shown in the figure. It
is provided with nuts and washers at each end. The nuts are tightened
until a stress of 10 MPa is set up in the steel.
The whole assembly is then placed in a lathe and turned along half the
length of the tube removing the copper to a depth of 1.5 mm. Calculate
the stress now existing in the steel. Take Es = 2Ec.
8. A shaft is transmitting 100 kW at 160 r.p.m. Find a
suitable diameter for the shaft, if the maximum torque
transmitted exceeds the mean by 25%. Take maximum
allowable shear stress as 70 MPa.
P T ; 2N
P 2NT
3 N m 2 160
100 x10 T
s 60
T 5968.31 N m mean torque
For Tmax 1.25Tmean 1.255968.31 7460.39 N m :
Tr 16Tmax
Ss
J d 3

70
N


167460.39 N m 1000mm
1m

mm2 d 3
d 81.57 mm
9. A shaft is transmitting 97.5 kW at 180 rpm. If the allowable shear
stress in the material is 60 MPa, find the suitable diameter for the shaft. The
shaft is not to twist more that 1 in a length of 3 metres. Take G = 80 GPa.

P 2NT
N m 2 180
97.5 x103 T
s 60
T 5172.54 N m
Compute for diameter of the shaft based on strength and stiffness.
Considerin g strength of the shaft :
Tr 16T
Ss 3
J d

60
N

165172.54 N m 1000mm 1m

mm2 d 3
d 76 mm
Considerin g the stiffness or rigidity of the shaft :
TL

JG

5172.54 N m 3m
1000 mm 2


m
1
180
d 4 80000 N
32 mm2
d 103.15 mm

Use the larger value for d.


Therefore, d=103.15 mm
10. A hollow shaft is required to transmit 600 kW at 110 rpm, the
maximum torque being 20% greater than the mean. The shear stress is not to
exceed 63 MPa and twist in a length of 3 metres not to exceed 1.4 degrees.
Find the external diameter of the shaft, if the internal diameter to the
external diameter is 3/8. Take modulus of rigidity as 84 GPa.
P 2NTmean
N m 2 110
600 x10 3
Tmean
s 60
Tmean 52087.07 N m
Tmax 1.2052087.07 62504.48 N m

Considerin g strength of the shaft :


Tr 16Tmax d 0
Ss

J d 04 d i 4
N


1662504.48 N m 1000mm d 0
1m

63
mm2
d 04 d i 4
di 3 3d 0
But di
d0 8 8

63
N

1662504 . 48 N m 1

1000mm d
m 0

mm 2
4 3d 0 4
d 0
8
d 0 172.7 mm
3172.7
di 64.8mm
8
Considerin g the stiffness or rigidity of the shaft :
TL

JG

62504.48 N m 3m
1000 mm
2


m
1.4
180

32
d 04 d i4 84000 N
mm2
d 3 3d
But i d i 0
d0 8 8


1.4

62504.48 N m 3m 1000mm m

2


180
4 3d 0 4
d0
32 8



84000 N
mm 2

d 0 175.5mm Use the larger value for d0.
3175.5 Therefore, d0 =175.5 mm and
di 65.8mm di=65.8 mm
8
11. The piston rod of a gas engine is to carry a load based on a
maximum pressure of 150 psi. The load is repeated but uni-directional
application. The cylinder of the engine is 20 inches in diameter. If the
material of the piston rod is AISI C1020 as rolled, recommend its
diameter based on the following: a) Yield Strength; and b) Ultimate
Strength.

Properties of AISI C1020, as rolled :


from AT 7, p.576
S y 48ksi 48000 psi
Su 65ksi 65000 psi
Factor of Safety (from p.20, Table 1.1)

N
Sy
3
rep ,1dir

N
Su
6
rep ,1dir
Analysis :
Sind S0 S d Strength of M aterials
S 0 nominal stress
S d design stress
F Tr Mc S y Su
A or or or
J I N N
F
From : p ; Aapplication 2
Dcyl
Aapplication 4
lb
F 150 20in 2
47123.89lbs
in 4
2

a. Sind Sd b. Sind S d
F Sy F Su

N N
d2 d2
4 4
447123.89 48000 447123.89 65000

d 2 3 d 2
6
d 1.94 in d 2.35 in
12. A transmission shaft is to transmit 25 hp at 500 rpm. It is made
of AISI 3140 OQT 1000F. The load is repeated but not reversed.
Determine the diameter of shaft based on yield and ultimate strengths.

Properties of AISI 3140 OQT 1000F :


from Fig. AF2, p.573
S y 133000 psi
Su 152000 psi
Factor of Safety (from p.20, Table 1.1)

N
Sy
3
rep ,1dir

N
Su
6
rep ,1dir
a. Sind S d ; load is torsional.
Tr
S d ; since torsional stress is a shear stress
J

Td
2 ys S Generally, from AT 7,
d4 N S ys 0.6S y
32
16T S ys
Sus 0.75Su

d 3
N
But T
P 25hp
63025 3151.25in lbs
N 500rpm
163151.25 0.6133000
b. Sind S d ; load is torsional.

d 3
3 16T Su s

d 0.85in d 3
N
163151.25 0.75152000

d 3
6
d 0.95in
13. A rectangular beam is loaded as shown. If the beam is made of
ASTM 50 cast iron and load is steady, determine the dimensions h and b,
where h=2b.
Mc 0
R1 3.5 20001.5 30002.5
R1 1285.7lbs
Fv 0
1285.7 R2 3000 2000
R2 3714.3lbs
Ma 0
M b 0 1285.71 1285.7
M c 1285.7 1714.32.5 3000
M d 3000 20001.5 0
M max 3000 ft lbs 36000in lbs
Properties of ASTM 50(cast iron) - brittle material
From AT 6, p.570
S0 Sd
Su 50ksi 50000 psi
Mc S u
S y no value S
f : N steadyload 5 to 6; say 6
p .20

I N
h
36000in lbs
2 50000 ; but h 2b
bh 3 6
12
2b
36000in lbs
2 50000
b2b
3
6
12
b 1.86in
h 21.86 3.72in
Preferred Sizes
For many machine elements, there are
standardized sizes such as bolts, keys, I-beams,
which means that such sizes are more readily
available in the market and are also cheaper.
The designer always uses standard items and
standard proportions unless he feels strongly
that some custom design is desirable.
If there are no such standard sizes, refer below
for the preferred dimensions:
Increment Range of S izes
1
64
1 1
64 32
0.0156 - 0.03125
1
32
1 3
32 16
0.03125 - 0.1875
1
16
3 7
16 8
0.1875 - 0.875
1
8
7 3
8
0.875 - 3
1 36
4
1 above 6
2
Convert the following to their preferred sizes :
1. D 0.213"

D ; x 0.21316 3.408 4
x
16
D4 1 " 4. h 4.62"
16 4
2. b 0.172"
h 4 ; x 0.624 2.48 3
x
b ; x 0.17232 5.504 6
x 4
32 h 43 "
4
D 6 3 " 5. b 6.58"
32 16
3. d 1.123"
b 6 ; x 0.582 1.16 2
x

d 1 ; x 0.1238 0.984 1
x 2
8 b 6 2 7"
2
d 1 "1
8