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Machine Design 1

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STRESS

ME 561P/ME 147P

MACHINE DESIGN I

SIMPLE STRESSES

1. A cast iron link, as shown in the figure below, is required

to transmit a steady tensile load of 45 kN. Find the tensile stress

induced in the link material at sections A-A and B-B. [Ans:50 MPa,

64.3 Mpa]

2. The piston rod of a steam engine is 50 mm in diameter

and 600 mm long. The diameter of the piston is 400 mm and the

maximum steam pressure is 0.9 N/mm2. Find the induced stress

and the compression of the piston rod if the Young's modulus for

the material of the piston rod is 210 kN/mm2.

4

F pApiston 0.9 N / mm2 400mm

2

F 113097.34 N

F

S cro d

Arod

113097.34 N

4

50mm

2

57.6 N orMPa

mm2

FL

From :

Arod E

113097.34600

4

50 210 1000

2

0.165mm

3. A pull of 80 kN is transmitted from a bar X to the bar Y

through a pin as shown. If the maximum permissible tensile

stress in the bars is 100 N/mm2 and the permissible shear

stress in the pin is 80 N/mm2, find the diameter of bars and of

the pin.

4. Two plates 16 mm thick are joined by a double riveted lap

joint as shown. The rivets are 25 mm in diameter. Find the

crushing stress induced between the plates and the rivet, if the

maximum tensile load on the joint is 48 kN.

P 48000 N N

Sb 60 or MPa

2d t 225mm16mm mm 2

5. A mild steel rod of 12 mm diameter was tested for tensile

strength with the gauge length of 60 mm. Following observations

were recorded :

Final length = 80 mm; Final diameter = 7 mm; Yield load = 3.4 kN

and Ultimate load = 6.1 kN.

Calculate : 1. yield stress, 2. ultimate tensile stress, 3. percentage

reduction in area, and 4. percentage elongation.

STRESS IN

COMPOSITE BARS

A composite bar may be defined as a bar

made up of two or more different materials,

joined together, in such a manner that the

system extends or contracts as one unit,

equally, when subjected to tension or

compression. In case of composite bars,

the following points should be kept in view:

1. The extension or contraction of the bar

being equal, the strain i.e. deformation per

unit length is also equal.

2. The total external load on the bar is

equal to the sum of the loads carried by

different materials.

6. A bar 3 m long is made of two bars, one of copper having

E = 105 GN/m2 and the other of steel having E = 210 GN/m2.

Each bar is 25 mm broad and 12.5 mm thick. This compound bar

is stretched by a load of 50 kN. Find the stress produced in the

steel and copper and the increase in length of the compound bar.

The length of copper as well as of steel bar is 3 m each.

copper steel

1 2

F1 L FL

2

A1 E1 A2 E2

A1 E1

F1 F2

A2 E2

A1 E1

F F1 F2 F2 F2

A2 E2

A1 E1 A1 E1 A2 E2

F F2 1 F2

A2 E2 A2 E2

A2 E2 We know that :

F2 F F1 L FL

A1 E1 A2 E2 2

A1 E1 A2 E2

Similarly :

S1 S 2

A1 E1

F1 F E1 E2

A1 E1 A2 E2 E1 E2

S1 S 2 and S 2 S1

A1 E1 E2 E1

F1 F

A1 E1 A2 E2 F F1 F2 S1 A1 S 2 A2

but, A1 A2 25mm12.5mm

105

F1 50000 N 16666.67 N Load shared by the copper bar

105 210

F2 F F1 50000 16666.67 33333.33 N Load shared by the steel bar

16666.67 N

S1 53.33 or MPa stress produced in copper bar

2512.5 mm 2

33333.33 N

S2 106.67 or MPa

2512.5 2

stress produced in steel bar

mm

Elongation for both bars are equal.

F1 L F2 L

1 2

AE1 AE 2

16666.67 N 3000mm

1.52mm

25mm12.5mm 105000 N / mm 2

7. A central steel rod 18 mm diameter passes through a copper

tube 24 mm inside and 40 mm outside diameter, as shown in the figure. It

is provided with nuts and washers at each end. The nuts are tightened

until a stress of 10 MPa is set up in the steel.

The whole assembly is then placed in a lathe and turned along half the

length of the tube removing the copper to a depth of 1.5 mm. Calculate

the stress now existing in the steel. Take Es = 2Ec.

8. A shaft is transmitting 100 kW at 160 r.p.m. Find a

suitable diameter for the shaft, if the maximum torque

transmitted exceeds the mean by 25%. Take maximum

allowable shear stress as 70 MPa.

P T ; 2N

P 2NT

3 N m 2 160

100 x10 T

s 60

T 5968.31 N m mean torque

For Tmax 1.25Tmean 1.255968.31 7460.39 N m :

Tr 16Tmax

Ss

J d 3

70

N

167460.39 N m 1000mm

1m

mm2 d 3

d 81.57 mm

9. A shaft is transmitting 97.5 kW at 180 rpm. If the allowable shear

stress in the material is 60 MPa, find the suitable diameter for the shaft. The

shaft is not to twist more that 1 in a length of 3 metres. Take G = 80 GPa.

P 2NT

N m 2 180

97.5 x103 T

s 60

T 5172.54 N m

Compute for diameter of the shaft based on strength and stiffness.

Considerin g strength of the shaft :

Tr 16T

Ss 3

J d

60

N

165172.54 N m 1000mm 1m

mm2 d 3

d 76 mm

Considerin g the stiffness or rigidity of the shaft :

TL

JG

5172.54 N m 3m

1000 mm 2

m

1

180

d 4 80000 N

32 mm2

d 103.15 mm

Therefore, d=103.15 mm

10. A hollow shaft is required to transmit 600 kW at 110 rpm, the

maximum torque being 20% greater than the mean. The shear stress is not to

exceed 63 MPa and twist in a length of 3 metres not to exceed 1.4 degrees.

Find the external diameter of the shaft, if the internal diameter to the

external diameter is 3/8. Take modulus of rigidity as 84 GPa.

P 2NTmean

N m 2 110

600 x10 3

Tmean

s 60

Tmean 52087.07 N m

Tmax 1.2052087.07 62504.48 N m

Tr 16Tmax d 0

Ss

J d 04 d i 4

N

1662504.48 N m 1000mm d 0

1m

63

mm2

d 04 d i 4

di 3 3d 0

But di

d0 8 8

63

N

1662504 . 48 N m 1

1000mm d

m 0

mm 2

4 3d 0 4

d 0

8

d 0 172.7 mm

3172.7

di 64.8mm

8

Considerin g the stiffness or rigidity of the shaft :

TL

JG

62504.48 N m 3m

1000 mm

2

m

1.4

180

32

d 04 d i4 84000 N

mm2

d 3 3d

But i d i 0

d0 8 8

1.4

62504.48 N m 3m 1000mm m

2

180

4 3d 0 4

d0

32 8

84000 N

mm 2

d 0 175.5mm Use the larger value for d0.

3175.5 Therefore, d0 =175.5 mm and

di 65.8mm di=65.8 mm

8

11. The piston rod of a gas engine is to carry a load based on a

maximum pressure of 150 psi. The load is repeated but uni-directional

application. The cylinder of the engine is 20 inches in diameter. If the

material of the piston rod is AISI C1020 as rolled, recommend its

diameter based on the following: a) Yield Strength; and b) Ultimate

Strength.

from AT 7, p.576

S y 48ksi 48000 psi

Su 65ksi 65000 psi

Factor of Safety (from p.20, Table 1.1)

N

Sy

3

rep ,1dir

N

Su

6

rep ,1dir

Analysis :

Sind S0 S d Strength of M aterials

S 0 nominal stress

S d design stress

F Tr Mc S y Su

A or or or

J I N N

F

From : p ; Aapplication 2

Dcyl

Aapplication 4

lb

F 150 20in 2

47123.89lbs

in 4

2

a. Sind Sd b. Sind S d

F Sy F Su

N N

d2 d2

4 4

447123.89 48000 447123.89 65000

d 2 3 d 2

6

d 1.94 in d 2.35 in

12. A transmission shaft is to transmit 25 hp at 500 rpm. It is made

of AISI 3140 OQT 1000F. The load is repeated but not reversed.

Determine the diameter of shaft based on yield and ultimate strengths.

from Fig. AF2, p.573

S y 133000 psi

Su 152000 psi

Factor of Safety (from p.20, Table 1.1)

N

Sy

3

rep ,1dir

N

Su

6

rep ,1dir

a. Sind S d ; load is torsional.

Tr

S d ; since torsional stress is a shear stress

J

Td

2 ys S Generally, from AT 7,

d4 N S ys 0.6S y

32

16T S ys

Sus 0.75Su

d 3

N

But T

P 25hp

63025 3151.25in lbs

N 500rpm

163151.25 0.6133000

b. Sind S d ; load is torsional.

d 3

3 16T Su s

d 0.85in d 3

N

163151.25 0.75152000

d 3

6

d 0.95in

13. A rectangular beam is loaded as shown. If the beam is made of

ASTM 50 cast iron and load is steady, determine the dimensions h and b,

where h=2b.

Mc 0

R1 3.5 20001.5 30002.5

R1 1285.7lbs

Fv 0

1285.7 R2 3000 2000

R2 3714.3lbs

Ma 0

M b 0 1285.71 1285.7

M c 1285.7 1714.32.5 3000

M d 3000 20001.5 0

M max 3000 ft lbs 36000in lbs

Properties of ASTM 50(cast iron) - brittle material

From AT 6, p.570

S0 Sd

Su 50ksi 50000 psi

Mc S u

S y no value S

f : N steadyload 5 to 6; say 6

p .20

I N

h

36000in lbs

2 50000 ; but h 2b

bh 3 6

12

2b

36000in lbs

2 50000

b2b

3

6

12

b 1.86in

h 21.86 3.72in

Preferred Sizes

For many machine elements, there are

standardized sizes such as bolts, keys, I-beams,

which means that such sizes are more readily

available in the market and are also cheaper.

The designer always uses standard items and

standard proportions unless he feels strongly

that some custom design is desirable.

If there are no such standard sizes, refer below

for the preferred dimensions:

Increment Range of S izes

1

64

1 1

64 32

0.0156 - 0.03125

1

32

1 3

32 16

0.03125 - 0.1875

1

16

3 7

16 8

0.1875 - 0.875

1

8

7 3

8

0.875 - 3

1 36

4

1 above 6

2

Convert the following to their preferred sizes :

1. D 0.213"

D ; x 0.21316 3.408 4

x

16

D4 1 " 4. h 4.62"

16 4

2. b 0.172"

h 4 ; x 0.624 2.48 3

x

b ; x 0.17232 5.504 6

x 4

32 h 43 "

4

D 6 3 " 5. b 6.58"

32 16

3. d 1.123"

b 6 ; x 0.582 1.16 2

x

d 1 ; x 0.1238 0.984 1

x 2

8 b 6 2 7"

2

d 1 "1

8

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