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Shafting

ME 147P
Machine Design I
Shaft: is a rotating machine element which is used to
transmit power from one place to another and subjected
to torsion or a combination of torsion, bending and axial
loading.
In order to transfer the power from one shaft to another,
the various members such as pulleys, gears etc., are
mounted on it.
Shaft is used for the transmission of torque and bending
moment.
The various members are mounted on the shaft by means
of keys or splines.
The shafts are usually cylindrical, but may be square or
cross-shaped in section. They are solid in cross-section
but sometimes hollow shafts are also used.
An axle, though similar in shape to the shaft, is a
stationary machine element and is used for the
transmission of bending moment only.
It simply acts as a support for some rotating body such as
hoisting drum, a car wheel or a rope sheave.
A spindle is a short shaft that imparts motion either to a
cutting tool (e.g. drill press spindles) or to a work piece
(e.g. lathe spindles).
Types of Shafts
1. Transmission shafts. These shafts transmit power between
the source and the machines absorbing power. The counter
shafts, line shafts, over head shafts and all factory shafts are
transmission shafts. Since these shafts carry machine parts
such as pulleys, gears etc., therefore they are subjected to
bending in addition to twisting.
2. Machine shafts. These shafts form an integral part of the
machine itself. The crank shaft is an example of machine shaft.
Standard Sizes of Transmission Shafts
For SI Units: 25 mm to 60 mm with 5 mm steps; 60 mm to
110 mm with 10 mm steps ; 110 mm to 140 mm with 15 mm
steps ; and 140 mm to 500 mm with 20 mm steps.
For English Units: Use the preferred sizes in our previous
lecture.
Pure Torsion Tr
Ss
J
16T
Ss solid shaft
D 3

16TDo
Ss hollow shaft

Do Di
4
4

Mc
Pure Bending Sf
I
32 M
Sf solid shaft
D 3

32 MDo
Sf hollow shaft

Do Di
4 4

Stresses in Shafts
Angular Deflection

TL

JG
TL
solid shaft
4
DG
32
TL
hollow shaft

32
D 4
o D G
i
4

Deflections of Shafts
Lateral Deflection
For Simply Supported Shaft:

FL3
y
48 EI

For Cantilever:

FL3
y
3EI
Axial and Flexural Loads:

Mc F Sy S
S max S allow or u
I A N N
32 M 4 F 32 FD
S max 3
M
D 3
D D
2
8

Combined Loads on Shafts


Axial and Torsional Loads:

F 4F Tr 16T
S ; Ss
A D 2
J D 3
Based on Max. Shear Stress Theory :
2 2

S smax S s 2 S
16
T 2

FD

2 D 3
8
Based on Max. Normal Stress Theory :

S
2 FD
2

S max
S
S s 3
2 16
T2
FD

2 2 D 8 8

Flexural and Torsional Loads:

Mc 32 M Tr 16T
S ; S
D J D 3
3 s
I
Based on Max. Shear Stress Theory :
2
S
S s
16

2 2 2
S smax T M
2 D 3
Based on Max. Normal Stress Theory :


2
S
S max
S
S s 3 M T 2 M 2
2 16
2 2 D
Axial, Flexural and Torsional Loads

Mc F 32 FD Tr 16T
S 3
M ; S s
I A D 8 J D 3
Based on Max. Shear Stress Theory :
2 2

S smax S s 2 S
16
T 2


M
FD


2 D 3
8
Based on Max. Normal Stress Theory :
2 2

S max
S
S s 2 S 163 M
FD
T2 M
FD

2 2 D 8 8

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Guests Theory)
This theory is applicable for ductile materials.
The equation shows the maximum shear stress that would
result in a combination of shear stress and normal stress
applied to a machine member.
This is also based on the assumption that a ductile
material is most probably going to fail by shearing.

2 For design considerations, Ssmax


S
S smax S s
2
is equated to the allowable stress.
2

Maximum Stress Theories


Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Rankines Theory)
This theory is applicable for brittle materials.
The equation shows the maximum normal stress that
would result in a combination of shear stress and normal
stress applied to a machine member.
This is also based on the assumption that a brittle material
is most probably going to fail by normal stress (e.g.
bending)
2
S
S
S s
For design considerations, Smax is

2
S max equated to the allowable stress.
2 2
This is based on the two aforementioned stress theories
described.
The ff. expressions are used as design stresses based on
ASME Code for Design of Transmission Shafting:

Shear Design Stress :


S sd 0.3S y or 0.18Su use whichever is smaller.
If shaft is with a keyway, S sd ' 0.75S sd
Normal Design Stress :
S d 0.6 S y or 0.36 Su use whichever is smaller.
If shaft is with a keyway, S d ' 0.75S d

Shaft Design by ASME Code


For Solid Shaft

Tr 16T Mc 32 M
Ss ; Sf
J D 3
I D 3
If material is ductile, max. shear stress theory applies :
2 2 2
S 16T 32 M
S smax S s
2
3
2 D 2D
3

16
S smax T 2
M 2
; T 2 M 2 equivalent twisting moment
D 3

Combined Torsion and Bending on Shaft


Considering factors due to combined shock and
fatigue from Table 9.1
K s for shear; K m for bending

S smax
16
K sT 2 K m M 2 S s
D 3 d

If material is brittle, max. normal stress theory applies :


2 2 2
S 16T 32 M
S max
S
S s
2

32 M
3 3
2
2 2D 3
D 2D

S max
16
D 3
M
T 2
M 2

M
T 2 M 2 equivalent bending moment
Considering factors due to combined shock and
fatigue from Table 9.1
K s for shear; K m for bending

S max
16 K M K sT 2 K m M 2 S d
D 3 m
Table 9.1,
Recommended Values
of Km and Ks, from the
textbook by Faires is
similar to the table
below:
For Hollow Shaft

Tr 16TDo Di
Ss ; let j Di jDo
4

J Do Di4
Do
16TDo 16T 1
Ss
4 4 4

Do j Do Do3 1 j 4

Mc 32 MDo
S Sf
I
Do4 Di4
32 MDo 32 M 1
S

Do j Do
4 4 4

Do3 1 j 4

If material is ductile, max. shear stress theory applies, use :
1
S smax
16
K sT K m M
2 2
1 j 4 S sd
Do3
If material is brittle, max. normal stress theory applies, use :
K M 1
S max
16
m
K sT
2
K m M
2
1 j 4
Sd
Do3

If shaft is solid, the equation above can also be referred to


by using Do=D and j=0 since Di=0.
FD
S d for solid shaft
32
S max K
m M
D 3 8
32 1
FD 1 j 2
S max 3
K M
4 m S d for hollow shaft
Do 1 j 8
factor for column action
1, if axial load is tensile

Combined Axial and Bending Loads on Shaft


Column Factor
In case of long shafts (slender shafts) subjected to
compressive loads, a factor known as column
factor () must be introduced to take the column
effect into account.
2
S y e
L
A. For
Le
120, k
fr. Euler' s formula
k E 2

B. For 30
Le
120,
1
fr. Johnson' s formula
k Le
2

Sy k
1 2
4 E

From Max. Shear Stress theory :

K sT 2 K m M FDo 1 j 2
16 1 2
S smax
3

4 S sd
Do 1 j 8
From Max. Normal Stress theory :

16 1


FDo 1 j 2 K T FD 1 j 2

2

KmM Km M S d
2 o
S max 3 4
Do 1 j
s


8 8

If shaft is solid, the equation above can also be referred to


by using Do=D and j=0 since Di=0.

Combined Axial, Torsional and Bending Loads on Shaft


A solid circular shaft is to transmit 20 hp at 600 rpm. It also
supports a bending load of 2000 in-lbs. The shaft is made of
AISI C1020, as rolled steel. A gear is fastened at the midpoint
by means of a key. If the load is gradually applied with a
reversed bending, determine the shaft diameter.
Solve the above if shaft is hollow where Do=2Di.

P63025 2063025
T 2100.83in lbs.
N rpm 600
M 2000in lbs
Properties of AISI C1020, as rolled steel
S y 48000 psi
Su 65000 psi

Sample Problem 1
If material is ductile, max. shear stress theory :

S smax
16
K sT K m M S s d '
2 2

D 3

S sd 0.3S y 0.348000 14400 psi


S sd 0.18Su 0.1865000 11700 psi
Use whichever is smaller, that is, 11700psi.
But shaft is with keyway,
S sd ' 0.75S sd 0.7511700 8775 psi
For combined shock and fatigue factors :
From Table 9.1, p.279, gradually applied load with
reversed bending : K s 1.0; K m 1.5
Solving values :

S smax
16
1.02100.83 1.52000 S sd ' 8775
2 2

D 3

D 3
16 1.02100.83 1.52000
2 2

1.286in 1 3 in
8775 8
For brittle material :
16 2
S max K
3 m
M K T 2
K M
Sd '
D
s m

S max
16
3
1 .52000 1 .0 2100 .83 2
1.5 2000 2

Sd '
D
S d 0.6 S y 0.648000 28800 psi
S d 0.36 Su 0.3665000 23400 psi
Use whichever is smaller, that is, 23400psi.
But shaft is with keyway,
S d ' 0.75S d 0.7523400 17550 psi

16 1.52000

1.02100.832 1.520002
D3
17550
D 1.24in 1 1 in
4
Given : Transmission System
Shaft material properties :
S y 60000 psi
Su 78000 psi
Pressure angle of gears 20
Load is gradually applied.
Both shafts have keyways.
Required :
Sample Problem 2 diameters of shafts x and y
shaft x :
Assume material is ductile,

S smax
16
K sT K m M S s d '
2 2

D 3

P 3063025
T 3151.25in lbs.
Nx 600
For M :
2T 23151.25
Ft 1050.42lbs.
Dx 6
Fr Ft tan 1050.42tan 20 382.32lbs
2
r
2
2

FR Ft F 1050.42 382.32 1117.83lbs.
2

FR Lx 1117.83lbs 8in
M 2235.66in lbs
4 4
Design Stress :
S sd 0.3S y 0.360000 18000 psi
S sd 0.18Su 0.1878000 14040 psi
Use whichever is smaller, that is, 14040psi.
But shaft is with keyway,
S sd ' 0.75S sd 0.7514040 10530 psi
For combined shock and fatigue factors :
From Table 9.1, p.279, gradually applied load with
reversed bending : K s 1.0; K m 1.5
Solving values :

S smax
16
1.0 3151.25 2
1.5 2235.66 2
S sd ' 10530
D 3

D3
16 1.03151.252 1.52235.662 1.3in 1 3 in
10530 8
If material is brittle :
16 2
S max K
3 m
M K T 2
K M
Sd '
D
s m

S max
16
3
1 .52235 .66 1.0 3151 .25 2
1.5 2235.66 2

Sd '
D
S d 0.6 S y 0.660000 36000 psi
S d 0.36 Su 0.3678000 28080 psi
Use whichever is smaller, that is, 28080psi.
But shaft is with keyway,
S d ' 0.75S d 0.7528080 21060 psi

16 1.52235.66

1.03151.252 1.52235.662
D3
21060
D 1.24in 1 1 in
4
shaft y :
Assume material is ductile,

S smax
16
K T 2
K M 2
S sd '
D 3 s m

P N x Dx Dx D y
T ; Ny ;C
Ny Dy 2
6006
D y 29" 6" 12"; N y 300rpm
12
3063025
T 6302.5in lbs.
300
For M :
Ft 1050.42lbs; Fr 382.32lbs; FR 1117.83lbs.

M
FR Ly

1117.83lbs 12in
3353.49in lbs
4 4
Design Stress :
S sd 0.3S y 0.360000 18000 psi
S sd 0.18Su 0.1878000 14040 psi
Use whichever is smaller, that is, 14040psi.
But shaft is with keyway,
S sd ' 0.75S sd 0.7514040 10530 psi
For combined shock and fatigue factors :
From Table 9.1, p.279, gradually applied load with
reversed bending : K s 1.0; K m 1.5
Solving values :

S smax
16
1.0 6302.5 2
1.5 3353.49 2
S sd ' 10530
D 3

D3
16 1.06302.52 1.53353.492 1.57in 1 5 in
10530 8
If material is brittle :
16 2
S max K
3 m
M K T 2
K M
Sd '
D
s m

S max
16
3
1 .53353 .49 1.0 6302 .5 2
1.5 3353.49 2

Sd '
D
S d 0.6 S y 0.660000 36000 psi
S d 0.36 Su 0.3678000 28080 psi
Use whichever is smaller, that is, 28080psi.
But shaft is with keyway,
S d ' 0.75S d 0.7528080 21060 psi

16 1.53353.49

1.06302.52 1.53353.492
D3
21060
D 1.47in 1 1 in
2
A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of
3000 N-m and a torque of 10 000 N-m. The shaft is made
of a material having ultimate tensile stress of 700 MPa
and an ultimate shear stress of 500 MPa. Assuming a
factor of safety as 6, determine the diameter of the shaft.

More Problems
A shaft supported at the ends by ball bearings carries a straight tooth
spur gear at its mid span and is to transmit 7.5 kW at 300 rpm The
pitch circle diameter of the gear is 150 mm. The distances between
the centre line of bearings and gear are 100 mm each. If the shaft is
made of steel and the allowable shear stress is 45 MPa, determine
the diameter of the shaft. The pressure angle of the gear may be taken
as 20 and the load may be assumed as gradually applied.
A line shaft is driven by means of a motor placed vertically below it.
The pulley on the line shaft is 1.5 metre in diameter and has belt
tensions 5.4 kN and 1.8 kN on the tight side and slack side of the belt
respectively. Both these tensions may be assumed to be vertical. If the
pulley be overhung from the shaft, and the distance of the centre line
of the pulley from the centre line of the bearing being 400 mm, find
the diameter of the shaft. Assuming that the yield strength of the shaft
material is 187 MPa and the load is gradually applied with reversed
bending. The pulley is also mounted on the shaft with a key.
A mild steel shaft transmits 20 kW at 200 r.p.m. It carries
a central load of 900 N and is simply supported between
the bearings 2.5 metres apart. Determine the size of the
shaft, if the allowable shear stress is 42 MPa and the
maximum tensile or compressive stress is not to exceed 56
MPa. What size of the shaft will be required, if it is
subjected to gradually applied loads?