Machien Design 1

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Machien Design 1

© All Rights Reserved

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ME 147P

Machine Design I

Shaft: is a rotating machine element which is used to

transmit power from one place to another and subjected

to torsion or a combination of torsion, bending and axial

loading.

In order to transfer the power from one shaft to another,

the various members such as pulleys, gears etc., are

mounted on it.

Shaft is used for the transmission of torque and bending

moment.

The various members are mounted on the shaft by means

of keys or splines.

The shafts are usually cylindrical, but may be square or

cross-shaped in section. They are solid in cross-section

but sometimes hollow shafts are also used.

An axle, though similar in shape to the shaft, is a

stationary machine element and is used for the

transmission of bending moment only.

It simply acts as a support for some rotating body such as

hoisting drum, a car wheel or a rope sheave.

A spindle is a short shaft that imparts motion either to a

cutting tool (e.g. drill press spindles) or to a work piece

(e.g. lathe spindles).

Types of Shafts

1. Transmission shafts. These shafts transmit power between

the source and the machines absorbing power. The counter

shafts, line shafts, over head shafts and all factory shafts are

transmission shafts. Since these shafts carry machine parts

such as pulleys, gears etc., therefore they are subjected to

bending in addition to twisting.

2. Machine shafts. These shafts form an integral part of the

machine itself. The crank shaft is an example of machine shaft.

Standard Sizes of Transmission Shafts

For SI Units: 25 mm to 60 mm with 5 mm steps; 60 mm to

110 mm with 10 mm steps ; 110 mm to 140 mm with 15 mm

steps ; and 140 mm to 500 mm with 20 mm steps.

For English Units: Use the preferred sizes in our previous

lecture.

Pure Torsion Tr

Ss

J

16T

Ss solid shaft

D 3

16TDo

Ss hollow shaft

Do Di

4

4

Mc

Pure Bending Sf

I

32 M

Sf solid shaft

D 3

32 MDo

Sf hollow shaft

Do Di

4 4

Stresses in Shafts

Angular Deflection

TL

JG

TL

solid shaft

4

DG

32

TL

hollow shaft

32

D 4

o D G

i

4

Deflections of Shafts

Lateral Deflection

For Simply Supported Shaft:

FL3

y

48 EI

For Cantilever:

FL3

y

3EI

Axial and Flexural Loads:

Mc F Sy S

S max S allow or u

I A N N

32 M 4 F 32 FD

S max 3

M

D 3

D D

2

8

Axial and Torsional Loads:

F 4F Tr 16T

S ; Ss

A D 2

J D 3

Based on Max. Shear Stress Theory :

2 2

S smax S s 2 S

16

T 2

FD

2 D 3

8

Based on Max. Normal Stress Theory :

S

2 FD

2

S max

S

S s 3

2 16

T2

FD

2 2 D 8 8

Flexural and Torsional Loads:

Mc 32 M Tr 16T

S ; S

D J D 3

3 s

I

Based on Max. Shear Stress Theory :

2

S

S s

16

2 2 2

S smax T M

2 D 3

Based on Max. Normal Stress Theory :

2

S

S max

S

S s 3 M T 2 M 2

2 16

2 2 D

Axial, Flexural and Torsional Loads

Mc F 32 FD Tr 16T

S 3

M ; S s

I A D 8 J D 3

Based on Max. Shear Stress Theory :

2 2

S smax S s 2 S

16

T 2

M

FD

2 D 3

8

Based on Max. Normal Stress Theory :

2 2

S max

S

S s 2 S 163 M

FD

T2 M

FD

2 2 D 8 8

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Guests Theory)

This theory is applicable for ductile materials.

The equation shows the maximum shear stress that would

result in a combination of shear stress and normal stress

applied to a machine member.

This is also based on the assumption that a ductile

material is most probably going to fail by shearing.

S

S smax S s

2

is equated to the allowable stress.

2

Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Rankines Theory)

This theory is applicable for brittle materials.

The equation shows the maximum normal stress that

would result in a combination of shear stress and normal

stress applied to a machine member.

This is also based on the assumption that a brittle material

is most probably going to fail by normal stress (e.g.

bending)

2

S

S

S s

For design considerations, Smax is

2

S max equated to the allowable stress.

2 2

This is based on the two aforementioned stress theories

described.

The ff. expressions are used as design stresses based on

ASME Code for Design of Transmission Shafting:

S sd 0.3S y or 0.18Su use whichever is smaller.

If shaft is with a keyway, S sd ' 0.75S sd

Normal Design Stress :

S d 0.6 S y or 0.36 Su use whichever is smaller.

If shaft is with a keyway, S d ' 0.75S d

For Solid Shaft

Tr 16T Mc 32 M

Ss ; Sf

J D 3

I D 3

If material is ductile, max. shear stress theory applies :

2 2 2

S 16T 32 M

S smax S s

2

3

2 D 2D

3

16

S smax T 2

M 2

; T 2 M 2 equivalent twisting moment

D 3

Considering factors due to combined shock and

fatigue from Table 9.1

K s for shear; K m for bending

S smax

16

K sT 2 K m M 2 S s

D 3 d

2 2 2

S 16T 32 M

S max

S

S s

2

32 M

3 3

2

2 2D 3

D 2D

S max

16

D 3

M

T 2

M 2

M

T 2 M 2 equivalent bending moment

Considering factors due to combined shock and

fatigue from Table 9.1

K s for shear; K m for bending

S max

16 K M K sT 2 K m M 2 S d

D 3 m

Table 9.1,

Recommended Values

of Km and Ks, from the

textbook by Faires is

similar to the table

below:

For Hollow Shaft

Tr 16TDo Di

Ss ; let j Di jDo

4

J Do Di4

Do

16TDo 16T 1

Ss

4 4 4

Do j Do Do3 1 j 4

Mc 32 MDo

S Sf

I

Do4 Di4

32 MDo 32 M 1

S

Do j Do

4 4 4

Do3 1 j 4

If material is ductile, max. shear stress theory applies, use :

1

S smax

16

K sT K m M

2 2

1 j 4 S sd

Do3

If material is brittle, max. normal stress theory applies, use :

K M 1

S max

16

m

K sT

2

K m M

2

1 j 4

Sd

Do3

by using Do=D and j=0 since Di=0.

FD

S d for solid shaft

32

S max K

m M

D 3 8

32 1

FD 1 j 2

S max 3

K M

4 m S d for hollow shaft

Do 1 j 8

factor for column action

1, if axial load is tensile

Column Factor

In case of long shafts (slender shafts) subjected to

compressive loads, a factor known as column

factor () must be introduced to take the column

effect into account.

2

S y e

L

A. For

Le

120, k

fr. Euler' s formula

k E 2

B. For 30

Le

120,

1

fr. Johnson' s formula

k Le

2

Sy k

1 2

4 E

From Max. Shear Stress theory :

K sT 2 K m M FDo 1 j 2

16 1 2

S smax

3

4 S sd

Do 1 j 8

From Max. Normal Stress theory :

16 1

FDo 1 j 2 K T FD 1 j 2

2

KmM Km M S d

2 o

S max 3 4

Do 1 j

s

8 8

by using Do=D and j=0 since Di=0.

A solid circular shaft is to transmit 20 hp at 600 rpm. It also

supports a bending load of 2000 in-lbs. The shaft is made of

AISI C1020, as rolled steel. A gear is fastened at the midpoint

by means of a key. If the load is gradually applied with a

reversed bending, determine the shaft diameter.

Solve the above if shaft is hollow where Do=2Di.

P63025 2063025

T 2100.83in lbs.

N rpm 600

M 2000in lbs

Properties of AISI C1020, as rolled steel

S y 48000 psi

Su 65000 psi

Sample Problem 1

If material is ductile, max. shear stress theory :

S smax

16

K sT K m M S s d '

2 2

D 3

S sd 0.18Su 0.1865000 11700 psi

Use whichever is smaller, that is, 11700psi.

But shaft is with keyway,

S sd ' 0.75S sd 0.7511700 8775 psi

For combined shock and fatigue factors :

From Table 9.1, p.279, gradually applied load with

reversed bending : K s 1.0; K m 1.5

Solving values :

S smax

16

1.02100.83 1.52000 S sd ' 8775

2 2

D 3

D 3

16 1.02100.83 1.52000

2 2

1.286in 1 3 in

8775 8

For brittle material :

16 2

S max K

3 m

M K T 2

K M

Sd '

D

s m

S max

16

3

1 .52000 1 .0 2100 .83 2

1.5 2000 2

Sd '

D

S d 0.6 S y 0.648000 28800 psi

S d 0.36 Su 0.3665000 23400 psi

Use whichever is smaller, that is, 23400psi.

But shaft is with keyway,

S d ' 0.75S d 0.7523400 17550 psi

16 1.52000

1.02100.832 1.520002

D3

17550

D 1.24in 1 1 in

4

Given : Transmission System

Shaft material properties :

S y 60000 psi

Su 78000 psi

Pressure angle of gears 20

Load is gradually applied.

Both shafts have keyways.

Required :

Sample Problem 2 diameters of shafts x and y

shaft x :

Assume material is ductile,

S smax

16

K sT K m M S s d '

2 2

D 3

P 3063025

T 3151.25in lbs.

Nx 600

For M :

2T 23151.25

Ft 1050.42lbs.

Dx 6

Fr Ft tan 1050.42tan 20 382.32lbs

2

r

2

2

FR Ft F 1050.42 382.32 1117.83lbs.

2

FR Lx 1117.83lbs 8in

M 2235.66in lbs

4 4

Design Stress :

S sd 0.3S y 0.360000 18000 psi

S sd 0.18Su 0.1878000 14040 psi

Use whichever is smaller, that is, 14040psi.

But shaft is with keyway,

S sd ' 0.75S sd 0.7514040 10530 psi

For combined shock and fatigue factors :

From Table 9.1, p.279, gradually applied load with

reversed bending : K s 1.0; K m 1.5

Solving values :

S smax

16

1.0 3151.25 2

1.5 2235.66 2

S sd ' 10530

D 3

D3

16 1.03151.252 1.52235.662 1.3in 1 3 in

10530 8

If material is brittle :

16 2

S max K

3 m

M K T 2

K M

Sd '

D

s m

S max

16

3

1 .52235 .66 1.0 3151 .25 2

1.5 2235.66 2

Sd '

D

S d 0.6 S y 0.660000 36000 psi

S d 0.36 Su 0.3678000 28080 psi

Use whichever is smaller, that is, 28080psi.

But shaft is with keyway,

S d ' 0.75S d 0.7528080 21060 psi

16 1.52235.66

1.03151.252 1.52235.662

D3

21060

D 1.24in 1 1 in

4

shaft y :

Assume material is ductile,

S smax

16

K T 2

K M 2

S sd '

D 3 s m

P N x Dx Dx D y

T ; Ny ;C

Ny Dy 2

6006

D y 29" 6" 12"; N y 300rpm

12

3063025

T 6302.5in lbs.

300

For M :

Ft 1050.42lbs; Fr 382.32lbs; FR 1117.83lbs.

M

FR Ly

1117.83lbs 12in

3353.49in lbs

4 4

Design Stress :

S sd 0.3S y 0.360000 18000 psi

S sd 0.18Su 0.1878000 14040 psi

Use whichever is smaller, that is, 14040psi.

But shaft is with keyway,

S sd ' 0.75S sd 0.7514040 10530 psi

For combined shock and fatigue factors :

From Table 9.1, p.279, gradually applied load with

reversed bending : K s 1.0; K m 1.5

Solving values :

S smax

16

1.0 6302.5 2

1.5 3353.49 2

S sd ' 10530

D 3

D3

16 1.06302.52 1.53353.492 1.57in 1 5 in

10530 8

If material is brittle :

16 2

S max K

3 m

M K T 2

K M

Sd '

D

s m

S max

16

3

1 .53353 .49 1.0 6302 .5 2

1.5 3353.49 2

Sd '

D

S d 0.6 S y 0.660000 36000 psi

S d 0.36 Su 0.3678000 28080 psi

Use whichever is smaller, that is, 28080psi.

But shaft is with keyway,

S d ' 0.75S d 0.7528080 21060 psi

16 1.53353.49

1.06302.52 1.53353.492

D3

21060

D 1.47in 1 1 in

2

A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of

3000 N-m and a torque of 10 000 N-m. The shaft is made

of a material having ultimate tensile stress of 700 MPa

and an ultimate shear stress of 500 MPa. Assuming a

factor of safety as 6, determine the diameter of the shaft.

More Problems

A shaft supported at the ends by ball bearings carries a straight tooth

spur gear at its mid span and is to transmit 7.5 kW at 300 rpm The

pitch circle diameter of the gear is 150 mm. The distances between

the centre line of bearings and gear are 100 mm each. If the shaft is

made of steel and the allowable shear stress is 45 MPa, determine

the diameter of the shaft. The pressure angle of the gear may be taken

as 20 and the load may be assumed as gradually applied.

A line shaft is driven by means of a motor placed vertically below it.

The pulley on the line shaft is 1.5 metre in diameter and has belt

tensions 5.4 kN and 1.8 kN on the tight side and slack side of the belt

respectively. Both these tensions may be assumed to be vertical. If the

pulley be overhung from the shaft, and the distance of the centre line

of the pulley from the centre line of the bearing being 400 mm, find

the diameter of the shaft. Assuming that the yield strength of the shaft

material is 187 MPa and the load is gradually applied with reversed

bending. The pulley is also mounted on the shaft with a key.

A mild steel shaft transmits 20 kW at 200 r.p.m. It carries

a central load of 900 N and is simply supported between

the bearings 2.5 metres apart. Determine the size of the

shaft, if the allowable shear stress is 42 MPa and the

maximum tensile or compressive stress is not to exceed 56

MPa. What size of the shaft will be required, if it is

subjected to gradually applied loads?

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