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GPON Technology

Overview Principles
Working Principles Frame Structure Acronyms
The GPON technology uses the P2MP architecture of a standard PON network. A GPON network consists The GPON technology uses different upstream and downstream wavelengths to transmit data bidirectionally over a single optical fiber. A GEM frame is a GPON service transmission unit with a length of 125 s. All data is encapsulated into
GEM frames for transmission. CPE customer premises equipment
of an OLT, ONUs, and optical splitters. The following figure shows the GPON network architecture.
SNI S/R R/S UNI DS center wavelength: 1490 nm DS Frame D
125 s DBA dynamic bandwidth allocation
A GEM port is the minimize unit for
ONU ONU 1 carrying data. Physical Control Block Downstream (PCBd)
Optical splitter E
Optical splitter T-CONT A T-CONT is an upstream service flow Payload
Upstream EPON Ethernet passive optical network
IFgpon control unit.
IFgpon OLT GEM port Bandwidth Map
Service node OLT CPE A GPON port on an ONU contains ONU 1 F
T-CONT multiple T-CONTs.
FTTB fiber to the building
A T-CONT contains multiple GEM AllocID Start End AllocID Start End
ONU ONU N ports. FTTC fiber to the curb
US center wavelength: 1310 nm
FTTD fiber to the door
1 100 200 2 300 500
FTTH fiber to the home
GPON Standards and Protocols FTTO fiber to the office
Service Transmission Principles OLT
ITU-T G.984.2 FTTW fiber to the Wi-Fi
ITU-T G.984.1 T-CONT 1 T-CONT 2
ODN parameter specifications 1 1 G
GPON network parameters ONU 1 ONU 1 (ONU 1) (ONU 2)
2.488 Gbit/s downlink optical port parameter specifications
Networking requirements for a protection Slot Slot Slot Slot GEM GPON encapsulation mode
1.244 Gbit/s uplink optical port parameter specifications 1
Physical layer overhead allocation 100 200 300 500
GPON gigabit-capable passive optical
2 1 2 3 2 ONU N network
OLT ONU 2 OLT 2 ONU 2 PLOu PLOAMu PLSu DBRu Payload x DBRu Y Payload y

ITU-T G-984.1/2/3/4 3 US Frame ISP Internet service provider

ITU-T G.984.3 3 3
GTC layer specifications
NSP network service provider
GTC multiplexing architecture and protocol stack
GTC layer frame structure ITU-T G.984.4 PLI O
Data is transmitted in TDMA mode in upstream direction. In this mode, PLI
OMCI message structure Data is broadcast in downstream direction. ONUs receive the

5 bytes
ONU registration and activation flows multiple timeslots are allocated to an uplink. ONUs transmit data based Inter-packet gap Port ID ODN optical distribution network
OMCI device management architecture desired data according to GEM port IDs. Port ID
DBA specifications on allocated timeslots. This prevents data conflict. PTI ONU optical network unit
OMCI principles Preamble PTI
Alarms and performance Ingress buffer HEC
SFD CRC OLT optical line terminal
Service Multiplexing Principles
GPON Parameters OLT
OLT Payload PON passive optical network
Data GFP GEM payload TDM data

Wavelength/Center US 12901360/1310 ONU 1 Length/Type TDM fragment P2P Point-to-point
GEM port IFgpon GEM port T-CONT IFgpon ONU 1
Wavelength (nm) DS 14801500/1490 Voice TDM/VoIP MAC client data P2MP Point-to-multipoint
Service Supporting
Video GEM-IPTV IFgpon GEM port GEM port filter
US 1.244 IFgpon
Bandwidth (Gbit/s) EOF
GEM port SNI service node interface
DS 2.488 TDM GEM T-CONT IFgpon
GEM port ONU N

IFgpon GEM port T
Line NRZ/FSS Format of DBA packets Standard ONU N Mapping Ethernet frames to GEM frames Mapping TDM data to GEM frames
Protocol T-CONT transmission container
Link ATM/GEM Ranging Equidistant EqD mode
DS US TDMA time division multiple access
Ethernet frames are mapped to GEM frame payloads. TDM packets enter a buffer queue and are encapsulated
Maximum Logical Reach (km) 60 Bandwidth Efficiency 92%
Each Ethernet frame is mapped to one or multiple GEM to GEM frames in a fixed number of bytes for transmission. U
1. OLT data is mapped to GEM ports. 1. ONU data is mapped to GEM ports.
Maximum Physical Reach (km) 20 ONT Management-compliant Protocol OMCI frames. The GPON system transparently transmits the TDM UNI user network interface
2. The OLT broadcasts GEM port data to all ONUs. 2. ONUs transmit data to the OLT based on T-CONT requirements. packets.
Nominal Reach (km) 20 Data Encapsulation Protocol GEM
A GEM frame supports only an Ethernet frame. W
3. ONUs receive the desired data according to GEM port IDs. 3. The OLT restores GEM port data and transmits the data to its service
Split Ratio 1:641:128 Optical Power Budget Class A/B/C processing units. WDM wavelength division multiplexing

Key Technologies Networking Applications Networking Protection

The DBA technology uses the dynamic upstream bandwidth adjustment mechanism to effectively improve upstream bandwidth usage. The GPON technology applies on FTTB, FTTC, FTTD, and FTTH networks based on access nodes. GPON lines are protected in type B or type C mode. ONU 1


1:N optical splitter
DBA report OLT IFgpon
DBA IFgpon
OLT 2:N optical splitter
DBA module Control plane The DBA module in the OLT continuously IFgpon
BW map collects DBA reports from the ONU and uses Distribution point IFgpon
Distribution point IFgpon
the DBA algorithm to calculate the bandwidth to ONU N
be allocated to the ONU. IFgpon ONU N
Data plane The OLT issues the calculated bandwidth to the IFgpon
Macro ONU IFgpon 1:N optical splitter
ONU through a BW map. Pico ONU IFgpon
T-CONT The ONU uses the allowed timeslot to transmit
Timeslot data upstream based on the BW map data. FTTC Type B OLT port backup Type C full backup
Scheduler T-CONT
FTTB An OLT uses two GPON ports as active and standby ones. Both OLT and ONU use two GPON ports as active and standby ones.
Micro ONU
If the active feeder fiber is faulty, the OLT automatically switches data to the Feeder and drop fibers as well as GPON ports are protected in this mode.
FTTH/FTTD standby feeder fiber.
The ranging technology ensures that all ONU upstream data does not conflict. All standby ports are idle, resulting in a low bandwidth usage.
Feeder fibers and GPON ports are protected in this mode. Drop fibers are not
Start of D/S Frame protected.
Zero-distance EqD Sstart
Ranging IFgpon
Assigned EqD IFgpon GPON port Protection scope IFgpon Single GPON uplink port on an ONU Dual GPON uplink ports on an ONU
During the ranging process, the OLT obtains ONU's The GPON technology applies on FTTB, FTTC, FTTD, FTTH, FTTO, and FTTW networks based on service scenarios. IFgpon
Pre-assigned EqD RTD.
OLT The OLT specifies proper EqD values for ONUs
reception of
start of the
reception of
based on the RTD to ensure the same logical reach CO
Technology Evolution
from all ONUs to the OLT.
S/N response U/S frame SN response
ONU The PON technology is being evolved at NG PON1 and NG PON2 phases.
response Pre-assigned Business NG PON1 provides higher rates based on the TDMA PON technology. The NG PON1 phase involves XGPON1 and XGPON2.
time EqD Sstart
ONU in ranging FTTO XGPON1: provides asymmetric 10G PON transmission with a downstream rate of 9.953 Gbit/s and an upstream rate of 2.488 Gbit/s.
state FTTC
XGPON2: provides symmetric 10G PON transmission with a downstream rate of 9.953 Gbit/s and an upstream rate of 9.953 Gbit/s.
Start of the U/S Transmission of
U/S BW map containing frame for the pre- S/N Response NG PON2: ITU-T has already used TWDM PON as the NG PON2 standard.
a ranging request ranged ONU
Reception of D/S Frame
FTTB Small cell
FTTDp DS: 15751580
Wavelength (nm)
The burst optical and electrical technology prevents upstream data conflict and ensures correct data reception. TWDM-PON, stacked, 40G, US: 12601280
DS: 1577
Continuous transmit module Center wavelength(nm)
Burst transmit module Burst Transmission US: 1270
The ONU optical transmit module uses only a preset DS: 9.953
Rate (Gbit/s)
timeslot to transmit data upstream in burst mode. ODN reuse is not obligation US: 2.488
OLT OLT Residential NGA1
Class N1: 1429
Data conflict Class N2: 1631
XGPON1 XGPON2 Power budget (dB)
Class E1: 1833
OLT Class E2: 2035

Signal recovery Burst receive module ONU 3 Multi-Scenario Multi-Mode Multi-Medium Maximum fiber distance (km) 60
Burst Reception
The OLT optical receive module dynamically and @Home FTTH, FTTC, FTTB, and Copper, optical fiber, coaxial Maximum differential fiber distance(km) 40
ODN reuse
promptly adjusts power threshold based on received @Move FTTDp cable, and electric power cable Split ratio 1:64
Continuous receive module Threshold signals. This prevents signal discarding or signal GPON
recovery faults caused by large attenuation. @Work FTTW and FTTO Wi-Fi and small cell Frame structure XGEM

2010 2011