THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB,
EDITED BY
t T. E.
t E.

LL.D.

PAGE,

C.H., LITT.D.

CAPPS,
POST,

PH.D., LL.D.

t

W. H.

D.

ROUSE,

litt.d.

L. A.

M.A.

E. H.

WARMINGTON,

m.a.,

f.r.hist.soc.

JOSEPHUS
II

JOSEPHUS
WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
H. ST.
J.

THACKERAY,

M.A.

HON. D.D. OXFORD, HON. D.D. DURHAM

IN NINE VOLUMES
II

THE JEWISH WAR, BOOKS

I-III

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS
MCMLVI

First printed 1927

Reprinted 1956

s.w

Printed in Great Britain

CONTENTS OF VOLUME
Introduction

II
PAGE
vii

THE JEWISH W AR—
Book Book Book
I

2
.

II

III

.

322 574

The Herodian Family
Maps

— Galilee

.

at

end of Book

and

District

....

Surrounding

Central
Jerusalem

and

Southern

Palestine

:

INTRODUCTION
The
History of the Jewish War is the earliest and the most famous of the works of Josephus. The firstfruits of the leisure which he found in Rome after the war, it was written with all the advantages possessed by an ex-combatant and eyewitness, now a pensioner

quartered
"

in the former palace of Vespasian, with the commentaries " of his imperial patrons, the commanders in the recent campaign, placed at his disposal." The title by which the author refers to his work is "Concerning the Jewish War" (Ilept tov 'lov^alKov TTokifjiov Vita 412, A. xx. 258, cf. xviii. 11). Laqueur, Der Jild. Hisioriker Flavins Josephus, Giessen, 1920, p 255 and p. 98, considers that this heading plainly betrays the purely Roman point of view of the Jewish turncoat. The expanded form, 'loi'SaJKov iroXe/xov Trpos 'Poj/zaiovs, found at the head of the first two books in Niese's principal ms P, may, it has been suggested, be an attempt of the author to neutralize the offensive character of the former superscription. But the majority of the mss employ another title, " Concerning (the) capture " (Ylepl aAolcreojs), often

Title.

with the addition of
Ilepi

'lov8al'Ky]s

l(rropia<i.

The

title

found also in Origen and Jerome, the latter of whom attributes it to the author himself * quae Josephus Judaicae scriptor historiae septem explicat uoluminibus,quibusimposuittitulumCaptiuiaAcuo-ews is
<'

Ap.

i.

50, Vita 358, 423.
vii


INTRODLXTION
tatis Judaicae id est Oepi aAojo-€oj? " {Comm. in Isaiam, Niese (vol. i. p. vi) regarded this cap. 64-, sub Jin.). as a title of Christian origin, introduced at a time when our author's principal works, the IVar and the Antiquities, were collected into a single corpus, bearing
•, and sub-titles llf/.t ^^^ the short title is one which the author might well have employed himself;

the general
oAa^cr<tL«9

title 'loidatKT) t'o-ropt

and

'Apx"^'0'^°7''"'

of the

often without the article, is constantly used tragedy, e.g. ii. 454 (-poointov aAtucrecjs), iv. 318, and v. 3 (uAojaews ap^ai, a A. Ka-iipqiv nj TrdAei). Dr. Robert Eisler, to whom the present writer is indebted for many suggestions in this Introduction, and whose forthcoming volume on the important Old Russian version of the IVar will throw much light on the genesis of the work, draws a distinction between an older and simpler draft, the Halosis, and a later and more elaborate edition, the Polemos.
aAioo-t9,

final

" Jewish history " or *' histories Euseb. Histnr. EccL i. 8) was the 345 general title of Josephus's " collected works " as they were finally published by Epaphroditus. He emphasizes the fact that all mss of the Russian version are entitled " On the Capture of Jerusalem " and that a hitherto unidentified quotation from Josephus, iv tJ5 Trt/xwTw Xo-ycj TTjs aM-aoL'^, in the Chron. Pasch. i.363 Dind.,can be traced He hopes to prove in his forthto certain of those .mss. coming work that the Russian version, as well as the " Egesippus " (Heg.) so-called a Christianized Latin translation by a converted Jew. Isaac alias Gaudentius or Hilarius, a contemporary of Pope Damasus is based on a lost earlier, somewhat different edition of our work

He

thinks

that

"

(ioTop/ai

Vita

:

first

published
aXJvTfws
Tr/s

in

triumph of Titus
TTfpl

— which

a.d.

12 for the celebration of the bore the title 'i^\aviov 'lijcrrj-rrov

to, revised, curtailed,

He
viii

considers

This was gradually added in subsequent years. lotoaiVos ir6\(tx.os to be the title of the
'l(povaa\r)u..

and expanded

INTRODUCTION
thoroughly revised edition, published during the reign of Domitian, as it survives in the mss PA and L, while

and represent earlier, less carefully revised editions of the original "AXwjij, such as were used also by the Slavonic translator.

VR

MC

We learn from the proem that the Greek text was First not the first draft of the work. It had been preceded ^Jfuonf by a narrative written in Aramaic and addressed to " the barbarians in the interior," who are more precisely defined lower down as the natives of Parthia, Babylonia, and Arabia, the Jewish dispersion in Mesopotamia, and the inhabitants of Adiabene, a principality of which the reigning house, as was proudly remembered, were converts to Judaism {B. i, 3, 6). Of this Aramaic work the Greek is described as a " version" ("EAAa'St yXwcrcrr] /aeTa/iaAuJi), made for the benefit of the subjects of the Roman Empire, i.e. the Graeco-Roman world at large. The Aramaic is lost, but two probable inferences may be drawn with regard to (i) its relation to the Greek text, and (ii) its purpose. First, the Greek was not a literal translation. This may be inferred from the language of the historian elsewhere. He describes his Antiquities as a translation from the Hebrew Scriptures (€K Tuju 'Ef3paLKii>v
iJLedrjp/j.-)]ieviJLei'-i]u

ypo.iJ./xdTwUf

and again as a rendering of the Hebrew books into Greek (/^erac^pa^eii/ et's Tt)v "EA/VaSa yAwTTai') without material addition or omission on his own part (A. X. 218) but we know in fact that that work is a

A

\.

5),

;

free paraphrase of the Biblical story,

made

with the

assistance of the translation, and including considerable additions derived from other sources. The Jetvisk War in its Greek form was, we are told, pro-

LXX

duced with the aid of Greek assistants and shows no
VOL.
II

A 2

ix

INTRODUCTION
trace whatever of Semitic phraseology we may infer that the older work has been practically rewritten.
;

With regard to its purpose, written as it was almost immediately after the war under the patronage of Vespasian, there is good ground for believing that it was officially "inspired" (see L?iqueuT, Der jUd. Historiker Fl. Josephus, 126 f.). It was a manifesto intended as a warning to the East of the futility of further opposition and to allay the after-war thirst for revenge, which ultimately led to the fierce outbreaks under Trajan and Hadrian. The danger of a Parthian rising was a constant menace, and it is significant that the Parthians stand in the forefront of the list of contemplated readers (i. 6). Such a motive is in fact admitted in the remark with which
Josephus closes his description of the Roman army If I have dwelt at some length on this topic, my intention was not so much to extol the Romans as to console those whom they have vanquished and to deter others who may be tempted to revolt " (iii. 108 cf.
:
;

Agrippa's speech ii. 345 ff., with the reference to the Jewish hopes of aid from Mesopotamia).
rhe Old Russian
yersiOD.

original Aramaic edition was at an early date lost Western world. A theory advanced byH. Kottek 16S6 that part of it has survived in the 6th century Syriac version of Book vi was shown by Noldeke to be untenable. More recently, however, A. Berendts (ap. Harnack. Tf^xte und Cnfersuchungen, xiv. 1, 1906) has maintained that it survives in the Old Russian version. That version contains some remarkable deviations from, and additions to. the Greek text of the Har. including in particular passages relating to John the Baptist, Christ,
to ttie
in

The

and the early Christians.

The

full text

of the Slavonic version has not yet been
:

made available to scholars but the first four books of the War have appeared in a German translation by the late

INTRODUCTION
A. Berendts. edited by K. Grass (Dorpat, 1924-27). This work reached the hands of the present translator
too late for use to be nnade of it in the volume now issued. He hopes, however, to print in an Appendix to vol. iii a translation of the more important additions in the Slavonic text, together with a list of the passages which it omits. The theory of Berendts can. according to Dr. Eisler, be accepted only with reservations. The Slavonic text is interpolated, but even after certain Christian interpolations have been detected and set aside, it cannot be derived directly from the lost Aramaic numerous indications prove that it is a translation from a Greek text, allied to that contained in the mss VRC. But below this Greek text Dr. Eisler finds, in certain transliterated words, traces of an underlying Semitic original. According to him." the Greek was translated into Slavonic in Lithuania between a.d 1250 and 1260 by a Judaizing heretic priest of the Russian Church, who by chance obtained a copy. or copies, of Josephus's first rough Greek version of the original Aramaic (the Halosis), before it was rewritten in the form in which it has come down to us.
:

draft of the Greek work was produced in formed the subject of a long correspondence between the author and King Agrippa, two of whose 62 compUmentary letters, one offering further oral information, are reproduced {Fita 364 ff.) we may suspect that Agrippa was also consulted on the earlier Aramaic edition. On its completion copies were presented by the author to his imperial patrons and others, Titus giving it his imprimatur " indeed so anxious was the Emperor Titus that my volumes should be the sole authority from which the world
first

The

Producti
eiiuo^n.''

parts and

;

:

la traduction slave de Josepiie, Russie et la secte des Josephinistes en. et en Provence." Asie Mineur. en Italie Communication au Qongres des Historiens Franqais le 22 Avrii 1927 {Revue des Etudes slaves^ Paris, 1927).
"

"

Les

Origines

de

I'heresie judaisante en

INTRODUCTION
facts, that he affixed his own sigra" ture to them and gave orders for their publication (ib. 363, Ap.i. 50 ff.). The date of publication is commonly regarded as falling within the latter half of the reign of \>spasian, between a.d. 15 and 79, before the death of that Emperor, who received a copy, but after the dedication of the Temple of Pax {B. vii. 158 ff.) in the year 15 (Dio Cassius, Ixvi. 15). It had, we know, been preceded bv other narratives of the war [B. i. 1 If.,

should learn the

A.'i.^).

These limits cannot, however, be pressed and may be applicable only to a single edition. Josephus, as we have come to learn, like other ancient authors, must have constantly retouched and added to his works as fresh copies were called for. We know that in a.d. 93-4, towards the end of his life, he was contemplating a new edition of the ^Vor, which was to include the after events of his nation's history brought up to date {A. w. 267). Similarly our extant text was not improbably preceded by a shorter draft. From the fact that the " table of contents" in the Greek proem {B. i. 39) concludes with the triumph. Dr. Eisler infers that the first Greek edition ended with that event and appeared as early as AD. 71. He acutely suggests that Josephus strove to complete his work by the day of the triumph and to present a copy to the two emperors on that memorable occasion. The sequel, including the penultimate chapter about the destruction of the other Jewish temple, that of Onias in Egypt, in a d. 73 (B. vii. 420-436), was, in Dr. Eisler's opinion, added after that event, the opportunity being taken at the same time to prefix to the whole work a corresponding chapter about its foundation (5. i. 33) and contemporary Hasmonaean history.

A
and
(i.

brief preface includes a

somewhat inadequate

unsystematic
;

19-29)

primarily
zii

of the whole work the topics mentioned are probably selected to catch the imperial eye and also to

summary

I

INTRODUCTION
Then follows an inattract the general reader. ordinately long introduction, occupying the whole of the first and nearly half the second Book, containing a sketch of Jewish history from the previous capture of the Temple by Antiochus Epiphanes down to the outbreak of the war with Rome, nearly 250 years later. When in later life the author undertook a complete history of his nation, this portion of the narrative was expanded in the Antiquities, where it fills seven and a half books {^A. xiii-xx). A comparison of these two narratives forms an instructive study the parallel passages in the Antiquities are indicated at the head of the pages of the present translation. Book i extends from the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 170 b.c.) to the death of Herod ii continues the history down to the outbreak of war in A.D. Q>Q, the rout of Cestius, and the preparations of Josephus for a campaign in Galilee. Book iii narrates Vespasian's Galilaean campaign of a.d. 67, including the siege of Jotapata and the capture of Josephus iv the conclusion of the Galilaean campaign, the isolation of Jerusalem, and the interruption of operations by the acclamation of Vespasian as Emperor (68-69) ; v and vi describe the siege and capture of Jerusalem by Titus in a.d. 70 ; vii the return of the conquerors to Rome, the triumphal procession, the extermination of the last strongholds of the rebels and some later events. Considered as a literary work the Jewish War as Greek a whole possesses great merits. The style is an excellent specimen of the Atticistic Greek fashionable in the first century, introduced by the school which sought to stem the development of the language that set in with the Alexandrian age and to revive the
; ;

;

s

INTRODUCTION
A choice vocabulary, Attic of the age of Pericles. well-knit sentences and paragraphs, niceties in the use of particles and in the order of words, a uniformly classical style but without slavish imitation of classical models, these and other excellences tax and often
defy the powers of a translator
Vocabulary.

— The

characteristic of the

following: words, among others, are \yar, and do not occur elsewhere
,

inJosephuS:
iUoilos

d5idXfi7rTos (a;?), d^fSTj^, d-rocos i-wj

/SaatXftdi',

dr]LU)Tris, ^if/cTratfif,

5iex(iv [distare, in preference to dTre'xf"'),
ei,ai(pvr)<i),

(ws), f^aTrifTjs (in preference to

eiiodivos,

dauardi', KaTaXrj-ydu, KaravTi^oXdv, KaToppu}5(if
KOTTidf, \a6palos (ws), Xeuxpopoi, /xfarjtx^pivos

and oppwbuv,

("southern"),

/xfTayeueaTepo^

and irpoyefearepos, fibvov ovk ("almost"), 6X60i'pcrts (from Thuc), iraXifdpofj.di', vavovpyos (and derivatives), TrapdcTTTjixa ("intrepidity"), iroXixur) and 7roXiX'''Of, vpbs 6i (adverb: where ^nf. uses nai wpojin), npoaaixvudv,
TrpoadpKTLOs,
TTpoatros,

tnoelaOai.,

ai/j./j.ij^,eiv,

aiffTddrif,

5id

TQXOi'j

and Kara rdxo':, tovoi/Uj uirodeibitv Xti'picTMOs ("departure"), x^^po'.

(epic), x^'^Z-^O'^os,

^
,

PP^
^t^
'

Writing for educated readers, Josephus boasts of having immersed himself in Greek literature {A. xx. 263), and taken extraordinary pains to cultivate style. "Among other qualifications," he writes, "the needs charm of style, in so far as this historian attainable by the choice and nice adjustment is {apfxovia) of words and whatever else may serve to
embellish the narrative for his readers " {A xiv. 2) in the " nice adjustment " he refers to the careful avoidance of hiatus or harsh clashing of vowels, which is a But such marked feature, particularly in the War mastery could only have been gradually acquired, and that an author, who had hitherto written solely in Aramaic, should open his literary career with a work showing such a thorough command of Greek
;

xiv

INTRODUCTION
niceties

would be astonishing, were

it

not explained

dictum in a later work. In the Contra Apionem, written perhaps a quarter of a century after the War, the historian makes a welcome, if tardy, acknowledgement of the help which he had received in the composition of the
obiter

by an

Ltterar

^^^'^tau

earlier

work.

He employed, he

tells

us,

some

assistants for the sake of the Greek {xpy)(Ta^€.v6% no-i Trpo<; Ti)u 'KWy-juiSa (fiojin^v crvvepyoU, Ap. i, 50). The

immense debt which he owes to these admirable collaborators is apparent on almost every page of the work. Book vii stands apart ; the style here shows many of the characteristics of the Antiquities, and the author seems to have been more dependent
on
his

own

resources.

The
in

also

perhaps be detected

author's own style may some autobiographical

passages and occasional insertions.

The admission made in the Contra Apionem serves to explain the inequalities in the work of Josephus as a whole, and puts us on the track of other "assistants." The cruder style of the Life appears to represent the ipsissima verba of the author. The Antiquities also seem to have been largely written with little assistance, until towards the close, when, having reached the narrative already partially covered in the War, the author for nearly five books (xv-xix) entrusts the work to other hands : xv-xvi appear to betray the style of one of the able assistants in the War-, xvii-xix. 275 exhibit the marked mannerisms of a hack, a slavish imitator of Thucydides. In the Contra Apionem the choice diction, recondite classical lore, and excellent arrangement ot subject matter again suggest that assistance has been obtained.
Josephus, by the time that he wrote the Antiquities, claims to have been thoroughly conversant with the best Greek literature, including, according to the reading of some mss, Greek poetry; rC)u'KX\rjviK(^>u
XV
ciassica
"'°^^'*-

INTRODUCTION
06
ypafxfxdrtjjv

ia—oiSo.rra

neTa(T\ui- ti]v ypan/xaTLKi^v

where after ypafifxaTiov and the epitome add the words K-at 7roi?;rtKwv [laSrjixciTMv ( + -oAAa A). The last words may have dropped out of the other mss through homoioteleuton, or possibly, as Dr. Eisler suggests, through
€fx-€ipiai>

avaXafthjv A. XX, 263.

Cod.

A

the deliberate malice of his assistant slaves, who knew the truth about these boasted achievements of their master. In his earlier work we may well believe that he is indebted for an occasional classical phrase or allusion to his learned secretaries. Thucydides was
naturally a model to which most historians turned.'* In the Antiquities Joseph us quarries freely from this

mine, and his assistant in Books xvii-xix deserves the ridicule already cast by Cicero on such plagiarists (" ecce autem aliqui se Thucydidios esse profitentur, novum quoddam imperitorum et inauditum genus," Orator 30). In the War, on the contrary, the use of this source is far more restrained, being confined to an occasional reminiscence or phrase. Similar use is made of Herodotus, Xenophon, Demosthenes, and Polybius. More interesting is the familiarity shown with

Greek poetry, Homer and the tragedians.

The

poignant narrative of the domestic troubles of Herod the Great is told in the manner of a Greek drama :^ we hear of Nemesis at the outset (i. 431), of the pollution of the house (/xi'cro^ 6S^. cf. 4-4-5). the tempest lowering over it (488), the villain and stage-manager
"

Dr.

P>isler

draws

my

attention to Liician's strictures

on

such borrowing in his Qvomodo historia sit conscribenda. The quotation from Cicero I^owe to Driiner, Untersuchungen vber Josephus, 1S!'6. " Eusebius describes this portion of the narrative as rpayiKTj dpa/xarovpyia {II. E. i. 8), I am again indebted for the reference to Dr. Eisler.
xvi

INTRODUCTION
of the plot
(roi'

Xvfxeujva

Tr]<i

oiVtas Kat SpafiaTovpyov

anxious waiting for " the end of the drama " (54'3), the avenging deity (KaO' aSov (fiepetu Toi/ dXdcTTopa 596), the ghosts (Saipoveq) of the murdered sons roaming the palace and dragging secrets to light (599) or sealing the lips of others (607). But there are other more precise allusions. Sophocles was evidently a favourite ; the allusions to this tragedian, being mainly confined to the JVar and to portions of the Antiquities, especially Books xv-xvi, written in the style of the War, are probably attributable rather to the assistant than to the historian. From him also doubtless come some apparent
6/\ov Tov fjivcrovs 530), the

allusions to Virgil.

Thucydides.—The proem of Josephus
yd.p
.
. .

(i.

4

yevoixlvov

jxeyiaTov Tovbe tov KLvrifxaTos

.

.

.

dK/j.d^ou)

echoes
. .

. that of Thucydides (i. 1 Kivrfais ydp olvti) /xeyicmj e7^j'erowith preceding o.Kfj.d^oi^Tes) ; Herod's speech to his troops disheartened by defeat followed by earthquake (i. 373 fF.) recalls that of Pericles to the Athenians exasperated by invasion and the plague (ii. 60 ff.); the reception at Jerusalem of the news of the fall of Jotapata (iii. 432) is reminiscent of the reception at Athens of the news of the Sicilian disaster (viii. 1). In phraseology the following parallels are noteworthy: /Si'-fr?// D. u\. -296, di^appnrTeli' kIuSvi'oi^ B. iv. 217, vi. 326, Thuc. iv. 8; Thuc. vi. 13; irepLaXyeli^ tw -rrddei B. iv. 590, Thuc. iv. 85, 95; dovXeia dKii^dvi^o's B. vii. 324, cf. Thuc. vi. 80; to ^ovXbixevou rijs yuiJjp.Tjs B. vii. 338, Thuc. i. 90; {ixT]) (TTepL(pujT€p{ou) TToielv B. wu. 314, Thuc. vii, 36. Herodotus supplies the following: t€/j.€i^os dwodaKuui'aL B. i. 403; irpoKaBi^iLV (eVt dpouov) ii. 27, cf. Hdt. i. 14 (e'j dpbvov)\ TTju ewi BavdTLO {sc. bbov) ii. 231, vi. 155: Trdtres rj(3r)5bu iii. 133, cf. iv. 554; rpoxoetSr^s Xifxfy] iii. 511; aKecns "cure" iv. 11, vii. 189; irpbs d\Kr]i^ TpeneaBaL vi. 14, vii.

232;

irXripy]^ vii.

vii. 329; Xr/paTOS Hdt. V. 111. Xenophov, Cyropaedia, probably furnishes dqyuv \pvxds

dvajxdpTriTO'i

irpos

tlvo,

yiueadai.

340,

cf. Xrifxaros jrXeos

xvii

; ;

INTRODUCTION
iv. 174: avTifjifT'jjiros rdpaxos (for rapaxv)

V. .56
i^'-

and

di/Tnrp6crw7roj v. 63,
vi.

136;
pi\/0-

495; OLaOwpdaOai

418;

Kifovfos vii. 77.

Demosthenes provides phrases
(WLTeTiiy^i^/Jiei'r)

for speeches

such as
iv.

Tvpauvis

iv.

172,

Ttuwpt'as
iv.

5iaKpovea6ai
(k
tC:v

257; perhaps also
vi.

dvaicrdrjTeli'

165,

(vovtlou

250, aKev(Jjpr}iJ.a vii. 449. dfaiaurt ii. 495, iv. 40 etc. eixovTo Kal fiera kijJkvtCjv iii. 202, cf. kcjkvtu t' etxovTO II. xxii. 409; ^/c0oper;' = " carry out corpse for burial,"
iTTKjirdiv vii.

183, ^poxov

From Homer come
330;
d/voXos

iv.

"morsel"

v.

dudos "dunff" V. 571; (for 0i'Xat) vii. 291.

Tr€irappLit'{a)

432; dpiapa "conduit" and rjXois vi. 85; q>v\aKTTjp

From the Elecfra come dcpade^v \pvxvs B. 212, El. 980, and Opaaos 6ir\i^(Lv B. iii. 153, EL 995 f., and we may confidently infer that we have a paraphrase of a line in the near context of that play (opa ttovov TOL x^'P'5 ovbkv evri'xd El. 945) in B. iii. 495, v. 501 reminiscences of this play and of the Ajax occur also in A. xv-xvi. tind also ddp^Tos npo^euslu B. v. 66 from Track. 726 ; ivaK-qiTTeiv Oeoi B. v. 408, probably from O.T. 27; Trpoa-4yaOeiu B. vii. 348, c/. O.C. 330 etc., and immediately after f?? Kai liUqXtv from Track. 235 ovbkv vyu^ (Ppoi'dv, B. V. 326, cf. Phil. 1006. X'rRGiL. Like a rather younger historian of the same period Tacitus the civ^pyb^ (for Josephus can here hardly be responsible) seems to have interwoven some \'irgilian reminiscences into the narrative. The sack of Jotapata (as in Tacitus the siege of the Capitol under Vitellius, Mackail, Latin Literature 219) recalls the sack of Troy. Compare B. iii. 319 -rrfpl ydo r'qv {crxdriqu (pvXan-qv, Kad' rjv duetriu re twj/ OeifCJi' (Ookovv ^x^'" '^^'^ KaddirreTaL fxd\i(TTa K^KOTTUiixevujv [=mortalibus aegrisj ewdivbs virvos
Sophocles.
iii.

We

;

.

.

.

323
.
.

flF.
.

jecraj'

TlItos

vffvxv '"'pos ro reixos. Kal wpuiros fTn^aivei d7ro(70d^afTes de rovs (pvXaKas daiacrii' els tt]v
fiF.
.

iroXiu
.
.

I

" primusque Machaon ii. 263 Invadunt urbem somno vinoque sepultam caeduntur uigiles. Tempus erat quo prima quies
with Aen.
.
.

.

.

.

.

mortalibus aegris incipit et dono divum gratissima serpit." The personified 'i'-qurj B. iii. 433 f. (with the allusion to facts embroidered by fiction, TrpoTfa-xfSidfeTo ye pLr]v Tots Treirpa-^/ieVoiS Kai rd /xtj ya/o/xeva) recalls the picture
'

INTRODUCTION
Fama in Aen. iv. 173 ff. ("et pariter facta atque infecta canebat " 190) cf. B. i. 371. The portrait of John of Gischala in B. ii. 585 flF. curiously resembles that of CatiHne in Sallust, Cat, 5.
of
;

The War contains no

allusions to authorities such

Sources,

as are interspersed throughout the Antiquities.

The

historian in this earlier work is silent as to his sources, merely leading us to infer from his proem that his information is largely first-hand and based on his own recollections as an eyewitness (i. 3), that he had new materials and constructed the framework of the

narrative himself (cfakoTrovos ... 6 /xera tov Kan^a Aeyeti/ Kal to aojfxa Trj<; IcTToptas KaracTKeva^'cuv I'Sioi'), and that he collected the facts with laborious care (i. 15 f.). These scanty hints can be supplemented by a fewnotices in the works produced in later life, the Contra Apionem and the Life. Here again he emphasizes the personal part which he took in the contest, as commander in Galilee in the opening campaign, after his capture in constant touch with the Roman generals, and during the siege of Jerusalem associated with Titus behind the Roman lines. He tells us that throughout the siege he made careful notes of the proceedings in the Roman camp and was kept aware of events within the city by deserters, whose information he was alone in a position to understand {Ap. i. 47-49). know, moreover, from the War^ that he was employed on more than one occasion as

We

intermediary to urge his besieged compatriots to surrender. We learn further that King Agrippa, who was kept supplied with a copy of the War as it appeared in parts, was in correspondence with the author throughout its production and offered to

INTRODUCTION
furnish

him with information about
{I'ita 364ff.).

facts not generally

known

But, besides his own notes and recollections and such further information as he may have obtained from Agrippa, the author appears to have had access to another document of the first importance, the " memoirs " or " commentaries " (t'-o/jU'vy/jta-a) of Vespasian and Titus. No reference to this source is made in the JVar itself; this silence is In accordance with the historian's consistent practice of naming no authorities in this work, but may, perhaps without injustice, be partly attributed to vanity. He would have us know that the framework of the narrative is

own (o-oi/ja Toior), and a mention of this source, whatever weight it might add to his authority, might detract from his personal fame. At any rate, like his acknowledgement of indebtedness to his Greek
his

to the Commentaries only works, in reply to the adverse criticism which his Jenish War evoked from Justus and other rival historians. His previous silence on other matters (ra /xexpl ivv a-ea-LOiinjixeia) evidently formed one of the complaints of his critics (Fiia 338 f.). Tlie Commentaries are thrice mentioned. Replying to the criticisms of Justus of Tiberias, Josephus reminds him of hostilities for which he and his fellow-citizens were responsible at the opening of the war before \'espasian's arrival, and which were afterwards brought to that general's notice. He adds: " This is no unsupported assertion of my own. The facts are recorded in the Commentaries of the emperor \'espasian, which further relate how insistently the inhabitants of Decapolis pressed Vespasian, when at Ptolemais, to punish you as the culprit " {Vita 342).
assistants,
his

allusions

appear

in his later

INTRODUCTION
Ptolemais was the first place to which Vespasian led his army from Antioch, his original base (B. iii. 29) we
;

here learn that the Commentaries went back to the opening of the campaign. Again, attacking the same opponent, Josephus writes " Perhaps, however, you will say that you have accurately narrated the events which took place at Jerusalem. How, pray, can that be, seeing that neither were you on the scene of action, nor had you perused the Commentaries of Caesar, as is abundantly proved by your " account which conflicts with those Commentaries ? Again, of certain malignant critics who {Vita S5d>). have dared to compare his Jewish War to a schoolboy's prize composition {ioa-n-ep eV ct^oA?/ jxiipaKLwi' yv/j.i'oa-fjLa TrpoKdcrBai vo/jLi(ovTi^), the author writes " Surely, then, one cannot but regard as audacious the attempt of these critics to challenge my veracity. Even if, as they assert, they have read the Commentaries of the imperial commanders, they at any rate had no first-hand acquaintance with our position in the opposite camp" (Ap. 1.53-56). These two last passages, in which Josephus is contrasting his own qualifications with those of others, clearly imply that the Commentaries were before him when he wrote the War. Indeed, as has been suggested by a recent writer (VV Weber, Josephus und Vespasian, 1921), there is reason to think that our author has made extensive
: :

use of these documents.
it

The

may be supposed, were Latin, made on the field of

Commentariiprincipales, the notes, presumably in action by the Roman com-

manders and their staff, which might sometimes be put out in a more literary shape as the official record
of the campaign, like the Commentarii de Bello Gallico of Julius Caesar. From this or from some other official

INTRODUCTION
source must come the information with regard to the disposition of the Roman legions in a.d. 66, which is strikingly confirmed by other evidence and is here worked up into the great speech of King Agrippa Another passage which looks Hke a {B. ii. 3i5 tf.) direct extract from the Commeritaries of Titus is the concise itinerary of the march of that general from Egypt to Caesarea, with its bare enumeration of the various stages, though it must be remembered that Josephus accompanied him (B iv.658-end). Whether Weber is right in referring to this source the geographical sketches of Palestine interspersed throughout the narrative may perhaps be questioned, but the description of the Dead Sea with the mention of Vespasian's visit of inspection (B iv. 477) lends support to his view {cf. the rather similar account in Tacitus, Hist. v. 6).

Weber goes so far as to maintain that the backbone of the whole history is a *' Flavian work." of which the theme was the rise to power of the Flavian dynasty. In his opinion, this work opened with a sketch of the disposition of the legions in a.d. Q& (utilized in Agrippa's speech), included much of the material of B. iii-vi. and ended with the passage which stands in Josephus at In vii. 157 : it was used by Pliny the Elder and Tacitus. his review of Weber, Laqueur denies the existence of any such literary work, on the ground that Josephus severely criticizes all previous publications on the war (B. i.
ad
las of

init.).

iSCU«.

For the pre-war period (Books i-ii) we can confiname one writer, frequently mentioned in the Antiquities, as having furnished material also for the JVar Nicolas of Damascus (c. 61- B.C. to the end of the century), the intimate friend of Herod the Great and of Augustus, and author of a universal history in 144 books and other works, including probably a
dently

xxii

INTRODUCTION
separate life of Herod. From Nicolas undoubtedly derived the detailed history of Herod's house, which fills two-thirds of Book i, and of the accession of Archelaus (opening of Book ii), in which he himself played an important part. Here again Josephus had the advantage of a first-rate, if somewhat biased, After Archelaus the narcontemporary authority rative unfortunately becomes meagre, expanding into rather greater fullness when the reign of Agrippa I With regard to him the historian would is reached. obtain information from his son, Agrippa II, and for the events leading up to the war he might draw on For the slight sketch of the his own recollections. Hasmonaean house the history of Nicolas is perhaps the historian shows no acquaintagain the authority ance in the War with the first book of Maccabees, of which he afterwards made large use in the Antiquities. As historian of the Jewish War Josephus thus comes before us with apparently high credentials at any rate few war historians in ancient or modern times can have enjoyed so rare a combination of opportunities for presenting a veracious narrative of How does his work appear when tested by events. the highest of standards, the Historic of ike PeloponIt is natural to compare the Jew and nesian War ? the Athenian because, widely different as were the characters of the two, there were points of similarity
is
;
;

credibi

in their careers.

Like Thucydides, Josephus combined the functions of general and historian like him he failed as a commander and was consequently brought into close contact with the enemy and enabled to view the war from the standpoint of both belligerents (Thuc. iv. 104 ff., V. 26 " associating with both sides, with the Peloponnesians quite as much as with
;

xxiii


INTRODUCTION
the Athenians, becau-e of my exile," cf. Jos. B \. 3); the Jewish historian, unlike the Greek, had the further advantage of the use of the official record of the campaign compiled by, or under the supervision of, the enemy's generals. With access to these first-hand sources, with the weighty authority both of his imperial patrons and of King Agrippa behind him, and with the possibly more questionable benefit of good literary assistants, the historian's narrative as a yihole cannot but be accepted as trustworthy. Unfortunately reservations must be made. Josephus lacks the sober impartiality of Thucydides and, with all his boasted zeal
^vhile

shows on occasions, when his statements are subject to control, a lax sense of the meaning of that word. The Comme?itaries themselves were written from the Roman standpoint, and the proRoman bias of this client of the conquerors, who from the first had recognized the hopelessness of resistance to imperial Rome, is frequently evident. His repeated references to the clemency of the Roman generals, his hero Titus in particular, and his representation of them as the saviours of an oppressed people, are specially open to suspicion. In one crucial instance, a statement of Josephus that Titus desired to spare the temple is directly contradicted by a later historian. The fourthcentury Christian writer, Sulpicius Severus, who has been thought to be here dependent on the lost work of Tacitus, states, like Josephus, that a council of war was held on the subject, at which different opinions were expressed, but here the roles are reversed and Titus who sanctions the destruction of the it is building. The passages are as follows :
for truth,

xxiv

INTRODUCTION
Josephus, B.
vi.

Sulpicius, Chron.
vaoii

ii.

30.

Trepl tov 238 ^ovXrjv To'i.% ixiu 239 irpovTldei.

Fertur Titus adhibito consilio
prius deliberasse, an
tanti operis euerteret.

ovv

templum
Etenim

nonnullis
TTOTf 'lovbaiovi
f fajTeptfoi/Tas

uidebatur,

aedem

wavaacdai
tov
5p
oi

fxivovro%,
24-0

(0'

vaou vautlu(s

sacratam ultra omnia mortalia illustrem non oportere deleri,

raxddev crvWeyovTai.
d(

quae seruata modestiae Romanae testimonium, diruta
perennem
crudeJitatis

iraprjuovv,

ii

fxev

Kara-

notam

XivoLeu avTou '\ohbaioi Kai fi-qbels f7r' avrov to. oirXa
Oiiri,

a Cj^eiv.

d

de iroXeuLoleu
. . .

praeberet. At contra alii et Titus ipse euertendum in pnmis templujn censebant, quo plen\us

(7n^6.i'T(s.KaTa(p\€y€Lu

ludaeorum

et

Christianorum

241

6 5( Tiros Qv8' av €Tnl3(xpT6<i

eV

avTou TroXffxCjaiu

']ov-

religio tolleretur: quippe has religiones, licet contranas sibi,

5aloi 0rj<jo.% avTLrCjvapbpCov
dfjivpeladai. to.

isdem

d\pvxo- ovbe

tamen ab auctoribus profectas; Christ ianos ex
ludaeis extitisse:
radice subperituram.

xara^Xe^eiP
TOV ?p-yov ^ofadai T7]v
Kal

Trore ttjXikoij-

Vw/jLaiup
Tr}%

yap

lata stirpem facile

I3\d(3rip. Cbatrep

Koap-OP

r]y(/j.opias
.

avTOv pJpopTo^

The evidence
the
;

of Sulpicius

is

somewhat

vitiated

by

which can hardly be correct ^ but the known partiality of Josephus leaves him under the suspicion of having misrepresented
final allusion to Christianity

the attitude of Titus, in order to clear him of the imputation of cruelty. Weber (Josephus u?id Vespasian 72 f.) wMth others upholds Sulpicius against Josephus Schiirer {Gesch. des jild. Folkes, ed. 3, i. 631 f.) inclines to the middle view of Valeton that Josephus, without actual mendacity, has by the suppression of important facts created a false
;

impression.
" Dr. Eisler suggests that " Christian! " may be a general designation for Jewish " Messianist " rebels; but here I hesitate to follow him.

XXV

INTRODUCTION
For the earlier pre-war history Josephus has himcheck upon his statements and enabled us to form some estimate of his treatment of his sources by the double narrative which he has left us. The precise relation between the two narratives cannot here be considered. The fuller account in the Antiquities was based partly on the same sources which he had used in the JVar, partly on new information since obtained. The subject matter has sometimes been re-arranged, notably in the latter part of Herod's reign, where the JVar separates the external history from the domestic tragedies, while the Antiquities keep the
self provided us ^vith a certain

There are, as is natural, chronological order. inconsistencies between the two accounts but, generally speaking, it may be said that the author faithfully follows his written authorities. It is otherwise with the passages in which the War overlaps with the Life. Here there are unaccountable discrepancies, and the autobiographical notices of the historian must be pronounced the least trustworthy portion of his writings. The numerous inconsistencies, of a minor or a graver character, between the two accounts of his command in Galilee, to which attention is called in the footnotes to B. ii. 569-64:6, betray either gross carelessness or actual Laqueur, who holds the Life, or certain fraud.'' portions of it, to be the earlier and more faithful record, suspects the author of deliberate misrepresentation of some details in the War in order
;

alternative. Dr. Eisler informs me, is certainty through his critical comparison of the third, and again quite distinct, account in the Slavonic Halosis.
"

The

latter

rendered a

xxvi

;

INTRODUCTION
to ingratiate himself with another patron, King Agrippa. Nothing, unfortunately, has survived of the earliest, probably Roman, histories of the war criticized by Josephus in his proem, nor yet of the Jewish history of Justus of Tiberias produced soon after a.d. ]o6, in which his own work was criticized. We possess, however, from the pen of Tacitus early in the second century a brief sketch of the campaign up to the preparations for the siege of Jerusalem {Hist. v. 1-13) the sequel is lost. We have also the hves of Vespasian and Titus written at about the same time by Suetonius, and an epitome of this portion (Book Ixvi) of the great Roman history of Dion Cassius (early third century) made in the eleventh century by Xiphilinus. The account of Tacitus presents some interesting parallels not only with the War, but also, on the origin of the Jewish nation, with the Contra Apionem of our author. Though the Histories were written at Rome almost within the hfetime of Josephus, the Roman's antipathy to the Jews makes it improbable that he ever consulted his works. But both writers may be dependent on a common source, such as the Flavian Commentaries.

other
of

narrative

the wa

The Greek text here printed is based on that of Greek tej Niese, but is the outcome of a careful and independent ^"^ "^^' investigation of the ms evidence collected in his great edition. The mss and other ancient authorities
for

the text, in so far as they have been used by Niese, are quoted in the present work M'ith his abbreviations as follows ^
:

"

For particulars with regard to the versions

I

am

indebted

to Dr. Eisler.

P Codex
Codex
xi.

Parisinus Graecus 14-25, cent. x. or

xi.

A Codex Ambrosianus
cent. x. or xi.
^J

(Mediolanensis) D. 50 sup.,

Marcianus
xii.

(Venetus)

Gr.

383,

cent,
xi.

or
xii.

L Codex
or

Laurentianus, plut. Ixix. 19, cent.
1

V R

Codex Vaticanus Gr iS, about cent. Codex Palatinus (Vaticanus) Gr. 28i,
or
xii.

xi.

cent. xi.

C Codex

Urbinas (\'aticanus) Gr. 84, cent. xi. made in the tenth century by order of Constantine \'II Porphyrogenitus. Lat. A Latin version known to Cassiodorus in the fifth century and commonly ascribed to Rufinus in the preceding century. Pleg. Hegesippus, a corruption of Josepus or Josippus another Latin version, wrongly ascribed to S. Ambrose, written about 370 A.D. by a converted Jew, Isaac, as a Christian called Hilarius or Gaudentius, the so-called Ambrosiaster, a contemporary of Pope Damasus (see Jos. Wittig in Max Kirchengesch. Ahhandlungen Sdralek's iv ed. Keber-Caesar, Marburg, 1864). A new edition by Vine. Ussani for the \'ienna Corpus is forthcoming.
Exc." Excerpts
: ;

Syr.

Syriac translation of Book vi in Translatio \'et. Test, ex cod Ambrosiano phololith. edita cura et adsec. fere vi notationibus Antonii Maria Ceriani, Milan, 1876-1883.

A

Syra Pescitto

To

these

may be added

:

xxviii

Yos. =Josephus Gorionides or Yosippon, a Hebrew paraphrase, derived from Heg., ed. Breithaupt, Gotha, 1727. Slav. A critical edition of the Old Russian Version by Vladimir Istrin is nearing completion. The first four books are published in a German version by Konrad Grass (see above, p. xi).

Among
are
:

other mss occasionally quoted by Niese

N

Codex
cent.

Laurentianus,
xii.

plut.

Ixix.

17,

about

T Codex

Philippicus, formerly belonging to the

library

of

the

late

Sir

Thomas

Phillips,

Cheltenham, about cent.

xii.

The MSS fall into two main groups, PA(ML) and VR(C) M, L, and, to a less extent, G are inconstant members, siding now with one group, now with the other. The first group is decidedly superior to the second. The two types of text go much further back
;

than the date of Niese's oldest mss, since traces of the " inferior " type appear already in Porphyry (3rd century) the diversity of readings must therefore have begun very early. Indeed some variants appear to preserve corrections gradually incorporated by the author himself in later editions of his work." Mixture of the two types also began early, a few instances of " conflation " occurring
;

" A striking instance occurs in B. vi. 369, where, beside ttSj Xi/ulou viKpbu etx^" v (Trdafcj?, a more the neater tovoi prolix and apparently older phrase Kal wevXrjpcoTo veKpCju >) 5ta
. .

.

(jTaaiv

been left undeleted. See Historiker Fl. Josephus, p. 239, whose theory is confirmed, 1 am told, by Dr. Eisier's analysis of the did Russian.
i)

8ia Xiiubu dTroXwXora-i/ lias
jitd.

Laqueur, Der

j.>

1

n-WJ^L.

\^ 1

iw->

already in the fourth-century Latin version. P and A, on which Niese mainly relies, appear to have been copied from an exemplar in which the terminations of words were abbreviated, and are to that extent untrustworthy. The true text seems to have been not seldom preserved in one of the mss of mixed type, L in particular. The mixture in that ms is peculiar throughout Book and down to about \'RC, from that point onwards ii. 24-2 it sides with more often with the other group or with the Latin version. In the later books L becomes an authority of the first rank and seems often to have preserved alone, or in combination with the Latin version, the
:

i

original text.

The translator must finally express his grateful acknowledgement for the assistance which he has
received from the labours of many previous workers, of various nationalities, in the same field notably Dr. Robert Eisler, of whose forthcoming work on the Slavonic version an English version is expected from Messrs. Methuen, Benedict Niese (on whose edition the Greek text is based), the Rev. Robert Traill, D.D., who fell a victim to his devoted exertions for his parishioners during the Irish famine of 1 84-6—t? (for his excellent translation), the Rev. William Whiston (for his pioneering version, produced nearly two centuries ago, as revised by the Rev. A R. Shilleto, 1889-90),
:

and last, but not least, Dr Theodore Reinach and his collaborators (for his French translation and invaluable notes, (Euvres completes de Flavins Josephe^

tome

V, Guerre des Juifs, livres i-iii, Paris, 1912). Dr. Reinach has graciously permitted me to make use of this work with its admirable commentary, and

XXX

;

my
R.

constant indebtedness to this brilliant scholar be evident to the reader from the references in the footnotes throughout this volume. The works of
will

Laqueur and W. Weber must

also

be mentioned.

The Map of Jerusalem is based partly on that contained in the article Jerusalem in the Encyclopaedia Biblica (vol. ii), partly on one published by the Palestine Exploration Fund. The translator gratefully acknowledges the kindness of Messrs. A. & C. Black and of Dr. E. W. G. Masterman, the Hon. Secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund, in permitting him to make use of their respective publications. He is further indebted to Dr. Masterman for much helpful advice in the matter, as well as to Mr. C. E. Mott, the Hon. Secretary of the but the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem responsibility for the form in which the map is here presented rests solely with himself. The invaluable Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land by Sir George Adam Smith and Dr. J. G. Bartholomew (Hodder & Stoughton, 1915) has been in constant
;

use.

Abbreviations

A = Antiquitates
.

Ap.=
B.

= V.=

Judaicae. Contra Apionem. Bellum Judaicum.
Vita.

cow;'.

= conjectural emendation. ed. pr. = editio pri?iceps (Basel, 1544.). Eus. {HE. ; jP.£.) = Eusebius {Historia
Praeparatw Evangelica).
ins.

Ecclesiastica

= inserted

by.

om.

= omit.

Conjectural insertions in the Greek text are indicated by angular brackets, > doubtful ms readings and apparent glosses by square brackets, [ J. The smaller sections introduced by Niese are sliown in the left margin of the Greek text. References throughout are to these sections. The chapterdivision of earlier editions is indicated on both pages (Greek and English).
<:

;

xxxii

THE JEWISH WAR

VOL n

UTOPIA lOTAAlKOT nOAEMOT RPOS PaMAIOVS
BIBAIOX A
(1)

'ETTeidr)

TOP-

^lovSaicou

Trpo^

'Poj^atou?
ruju

TTo'AejLtoi^

avdTdura jxeyiGTov ov ixovov
de

KaQ*

rjjxd?,

axeSou

Kai
Tj

(Lv

OLKofj

77ap6tArj0a^€i^

^

TToAeojv 77p6? TToXeL?
01
fj-kv

idvcov edueac ovppayeurcov,
TOL<i

01)

77apaTV)(6vr€s

TrpdyfiaGLV, dAA* aKofj
ao(f>i.

ovXXeyovre^ eiKala
2 ariKU)';

/cat dGVfj.(f)OJva SirjyrjfjLara

dvaypd(fiovGiv,
rfi

ol

7Tapay€p6fjL€voi
rj

8e

ij

KoAaK€La
^lovSaiovs
€)(€(

Trpog

'Pajfiaiovs

p-ioei

rep

rrpog

KaraipevSourai tojp TTpayp-drojv,

nept'

§e airroh ottov p,kv Kar-qyopiav ottov 8e iyKUJ-

jiLov

rd GvyypdfjLfxara, to

S'

aKpt^kg

ttJ? tcTToptas'

3 ovba/jLOV, TTpovdefirjv eyco tol^

Kara

rrju

'Pcofxalajv

rjyefjLOPLav,

'EAAaSt
rfj

yXajoarj
rrarpLcp

fiera^aXdw

a

roTs

dvoj

^ap^dpoi<;

ovvrd^ag

dve-nepiijja,

rrporepov, d(f)rjyT^Ga(jdaL,
[yeVet

'IceJcrr^TTO?

Slardiov rraX?
iepevg,

'EjSpato?,]^

cf 'lepoGoXufxatv
^

avros

om. P Eus.

3

HISTORY OF THE JEWISH WAR AGAINST THE ROMANS
BOOK
(1)

I

The war

of the Jews against the

greatest not only of the wars of our

Romans — the own time, but,

prefm

so far as accounts have reached us, well nigh of all that ever broke out between cities or nations has not lacked its historians. Of these, however, some,

[nadeq

having taken no part in the action, have collected from hearsay casual and contradictory stories which they have then edited in a rhetorical style while others, who witnessed the events, have, either from flattery of the Romans or from hatred of the Jews, misrepresented the facts, their writings exhibiting alternatively invective and encomium, but nowhere
;

5lLtorii

historical accuracy. In these Josephus, son of Matthias, a

circumstances,

I

Hebrew by race, a native of Jerusalem and a priest, who at the opening of the war myself fought against the Romans and in

Joseph
*^''^'*®'^

the sequel was perforce an onlooker propose to provide the subjects of the Roman Empire with a
narrative of the facts,

account which

I

previously

by translating into Greek the composed in my ver3

JOSEPH us
T£ *PojfJLaLOV<; 7ToX€iJLrjoa<i TO. TTptora kol rols vcnepov TTaparvx^Jv i$ dvdyK-qge</»r]i/, pieyiorov rovSe (2) yevofjievov yo-p, cu? Tov KLvqpLaro? , iv 'Pa»/Ltatot? pikv €v6g€l rd OLKela, *lovSaLOJU be ro vecjrepil^ov rore rerapaypievoL? eTTavioTT) rols Katpolg OLKpid^ov /caret re X^^P^ '^^^
XP^JP-O-OLU,
cos
St'

4

VTTep^oXrjv dopvf^oju tols pi€v iv

eX—lSi KTi]G€Ojg Tols S' eV d^atpccreoj? Seet yiveiTretSr} 'lofSatot pLev 5 odai rd Trpos ttjv dvaroXrjv aTTav TO V77€p Kv(l)pdrr)u 6pi6(j)vXov ovverrapdrjaeo,

rjXmGap, 'PajpLatovg S' ol re yeiroves KeXriKov ovk rjpe/cat to pL€L, pL€(jrd S' "^u Trdvra Oopv^ojv pLerd ^cpcoua, /cat rd TToXXovs pL€v ^aoiXeLav 6 KciLpos dv€7T€L9ev arparLCjTLKd Se yjpa pera^oXrjg cXttlBl XrjpLpLarcxju'
Bat
G(j)LOLv

TaXdrai TrapeKivovv

,

C

droTTOv

r^yrjodpevos^

TrepLidelv

TTXal^opevrjV

eVt

nqXiKO'tnoLs Trpdypaoi ttiv dXiqdeiav, /cat Yidpdovs pL€v /cat Ba^vXojPLOvg Wpd^ow t€ rovg TToppcordrco
/cat TO VTTep ¥lv(f)pdrr)v 6p.6<f)vXov r]plv WSta^r^vovs T€ yvojvat 8td rrjg eV^^" eVt/xeActa? d/cptjSojs", odeu re yjp^aro /cat 8t' oacop excop^creu Tradcvu 6 TToXepLO^ /cat OTTcog Karearpeijjeu, dyuoelv Se "KXX-qvag ravra /cat 'PajpLaioju rovg prj eTnarparevaapievovg, evrvy-

Xdvovrag
'

rj

/coAa/cetat?

rj

TrXdopiaoL.
riyTjad/x-ni'.

Some

Mss.

have arowov

ouu

(-2)

apparently form a single sentence, §§

But chaps. (1) and 4 and 5 being a

parenthesis.
"
"

Aramaic or Hebrew. The " up-country barbarians
§
(3.

" intended are

more

pre-

cisely specified in
'

As Reinach points out, this is exaggerated. At the outbreak of war the Roman Empire was free from disorder. i.e. the Germans. The references are respectively to
<*

4

JEWISH WAR,
nacular tongue
interior.^
°

I.

3-6

and sent

to the barbarians in the
Critical

(2) I spoke of this upheaval as one of the greatest magnitude. The Romans had their own internal disorders. The Jewish revolutionary party, whose numbers and fortunes were at their zenith, seized

Sairs k
East

am

insurrection.''

the occasion of the turbulence of these times for As a result of these vast disturbances the whole of the Eastern Empire was in the balance the insurgents were fired with hopes of its acquisition, their opponents feared its loss. For the Jews hoped that all their fellow-countrymen beyond the while Euphrates would join with them in revolt the Romans, on their side, were occupied with their neighbours the Gauls, and the Celts ^ were in motion. Nero's death, moreover, brought universal confusion juneA.i many were induced by this opportunity to aspire to the sovereignty, and a change which might make their fortune was after the heart of the soldiery. I thought it monstrous, therefore, to allow the truth in affairs of such moment to go astray, and that, while Parthians and Babylonians and the most remote tribes of Arabia with our countrymen beyond the Euphrates and the inhabitants of Adiabene ^ were, through my assiduity, accurately acquainted with the origin of the war, the various phases of calamity through which it passed and its conclusion, the Greeks and such Romans as were not engaged in the contest should remain in ignorance of these matters, with flattering or fictitious narratives as their only guide.
; ; ;

the revolt of

Gaul under Vindex

(a.d. 68)

and

to that of the

Batavi under Civilis (69). « In the upper Tigris region.

JOSEPHUS
7 (3)
fjLcoGLi',

Katrot ye laropiag auras
if

€7TLypd(f)€LV

ah

77/30? TO) fiTjSeu

vyieg SrjXovf

OK07T0V hoKOVGLV euLOLye OLafj^apTOLUCLV.
jikv

roXtou ^ovXovraL
/cat

8

yap fieydXov? rovg 'Poj/xat'ous" aTToSeiKi'veLU, Kara^aXXovcnu Se del rd ^[ovSaioju Kal raTretvovGLW ov)( opo) Se, TTcos du eluai fieydXoL Sokol€v ol
TToXe/jLOV

fjLLKpovg vevLKTjKore?- Kal

rod
crrjs

ovre to firJKO? atdoui'rat ovre ro TrXrjOog rrjs 'PcofjLaLa>v KafjiovorrparLas ovre ro pueyedos rcjv arpar-qydjv, ol

TToXXd TTepl rots 'lepoaoXvfjLOt? ISpcocraures, oip^ai, raTTetvovfjievov rod Karopdojp.arog avrol? dSo^OVGLU.
9
(4)

Ov

fjirjv

eyoj rol?

eTraipovGL
rcJov

rd

'Pcop^alajv

dvrixjiiXoveiKcov av^ecv

rd

6pL0(f)vXa>v

SLeyva)v,
St-

dXXd rd
e^eLf.u,

fjueu

epya
S'

/Ltcr'

d/cpt/Seta?

dfi(j)orepajv

rovs

eVt

rolg

TrpdyfxaGi

Xoyovs dua-

10

SLadeaet, Kal rotg efiavrov Trddecn StSous" erroXoSvpeod at rat? rrjs TrarplSos Gvp,<f>opals. on ydp avrr]v GraGL? OLKela KadeiXev, Kal ra? 'Pcopiaiojv -x^elpas d/coJaa? Kal ro rrvp inl rov [dytov]' vadv elXKVoav ol ^Xovhaicov rvpavvoi, pudprvs avros 6 TTopdrjGas KaLGap TtVo?, eV Travrl roj TToXepLCx) rov iiev SrjpLov eXerjOas vtto row crracrtacrrajv ^povrtO-qpLL rfj^

povpLevoVy
TToXecjs
11

TToXXaKLS

he

Ikojv

r-qv

oXcoglv
rfj

rrjs

V7Tepridep.evos

Kal

SiSou?

TToXiopKia

Xpouov els pLerdvotav rojv alritov. el he ti? oaa 77po9 rovs rvpdvvovs rj rd XrjGrpLKOV avrdjp KariqyopLKOJS Xeyotfiev
eTTLGrevovres
^

rj

rolg hvGrvxrjiiaGL rrjs rrarpihos

GVKO(j>avroirj,
inserts
<i5Lq.>,

hthoroj

irapd rov
-

rfjs

Holwerda

oni.

PM*.

6

JEWISH WAR,

I.

7-11

(3) Though the writers in question presume to Erroneou give their works the title of histories, yet throughout menroP them, apart from the utter lack of sound information, -^ews by they seem, in my opinion, to miss their own mark. SstodaL They desire to represent the Romans as a great nation, and yet they continually depreciate and disparage the actions of the Jews. But I fail to see how the conquerors of a puny people deserve to be accounted great. Again, these writers have respect neither for the long duration of the war, nor for the vast numbers of the Roman army that it engaged, nor for the prestige of the generals, who, after such herculean labours under the walls of Jerusalem, are, I suppose, of no repute in these writers' eyes, if

achievement is to be underestimated. have no intention of rivalling those who extol the Roman power by exaggerating the deeds of my
their
(4) I

Theautno
flfehugs!

compatriots. I shall faithfully recount the actions of both combatants but in my reflections on the events I cannot conceal my private sentiments, nor refuse to give my personal sympathies scope to bewail my country's misfortunes. For, that it owed its ruin to civil strife, and that it was the Jewish tyrants who drew down upon the holy temple the unwilling hands of the Romans and the conflagration, is attested by Titus Caesar himself, who sacked the city throughout the war he commiserated the populace who were at the mercy of the revolutionaries, and often of his own accord deferred the capture of the city and by protracting the siege gave the culprits time for repentance. Should, however,
; ;

any

critic

censure
their

me

for

my

strictures

upon the
for
I

tyrants

or

bands of marauders or

my
ask

lamentations over

my

country's misfortunes,

7

JOSEPHUS
icTTopta?
I'Ofjbov

GvyyvJjjx-qv ro) Trddei' ttoXlv
'Poj/i.atot?

[{JLevY

yap
€771

817

Toju

VTTO

Traocvv rrjv -qixeripav

TrX^iorov re evSaifjiovLa? crvve^-q rrpoeXSeZv kol

12 Trpo?

eoxarou
TrdvTOJv

oviJL(f)op6jv
(ztt'

avdc?

KaraTreaelv

.

yovv

alojvo?

aTV^i^P'O-'^O-

Trpos

ra tq
Kal

^lovhaiojv
-qv

rjTT-qadai

Sokw
€l

Kara
8e

GvyKpcoLV,

rovTcov OLTLOs ovhel<^ dXX6(j)vXoSy
oSvpfxojv
e'i-q

wore

df.LT]xavov

eTTiKparelv.

ri?

olktov okXt)-

porepog
13
(5)

StKaarij?, rd fxkv Trpdyfjuara rfj IcrropLa TrpouKpiviroj, rag 8' 6Xo(l)vpG€L<; ra> ypd(f)OVTi.

KairoL ye

i7nrLixi-jGaLi±

dv avros

hiKaiojs

TOLS 'RXXr/vajv XoyloLQ, ol nqXtKovrajv /car' avTOVs
TTpayfidrajv yeyeuqfMevojv, d Kara GvyKpiGiv iXaXLGrov? dTToheLKvvGL rovs TrdXai rroXefiovg, rovrojv
/lev KddrjvraL

14

15

Kpiral rols (j>LXorLp,ovpLevois cTT-qpedKal rcij Xoyw ttXcovcktovgl, AetTTovrai rfj TrpoaipeGCf avrol 8e rd AGGvplojv Kal M-t]Sa)V Gvyypd(f>ovGLV cjGTrep rjrrov KaXcos vtto rojp dp)(ai(jjv Gvyypa(j)eojv dTnqyyeXfjLeva. Kairoi roGOvrco rij? iKeivcov rjrrdjuraL Svvdfji€w? eV rco ypd(f)€Lv, OGCp Kal rrjg yvajfir]?- rd ydp Kad^ ainovs €G7TovSail,ou €KaGroL ypd(f)€LV, OTTOV Kal rd vaparv)(eLV TotS" rrpayfiaGiv €7tol€l rrju arrayyeXiav ivapyij Kal rd ifjevheadaL Trap* €lS6glv aLG\pdv tjv. rd y€ p.T)v /xi^-qixr] rd [lJ.r}Y TrpoiGropijOevra 8i8ovat Kal rd rdjv ldia>i> xpdvojv rols p-ed^ lavrdv gvvLGrdv€iv irraivov Kal fiaprvpiag d^Loi^' (jyiXoTTovos Se ov^ d (lerarroLcou OLKOx^op^iav Kal rd^tv dXXorpiaVy
C,ovr€?,
ojv
€L
^
'

PAM

:

on), the

rest

:

Destinon conj. ulav (after Lat.
2
A'^^'^"^

solam).
Literallv cf. B. V. 20/
"
*'

Lat,

:

om. the

rest.
:

which

is

contrary to the law of history "

8

^

JEWISH WAR,
his

I.

11-15

indulgence for a compassion which falls outside For of all the cities under Roman rule it was the lot of ours to attain to the highest felicity and to fall to the lowest depths of calamity. Indeed, in my opinion, the misfortunes of all nations since the world began fall short of those of the Jews and, since the blame lay with no foreign nation, it was impossible to restrain one's grief. Should, however, any critic be too austere for pity, let him credit the history with the facts, the historian with the lamentations. (5) Yet I, on my side, might justly censure those historian c erudite Greeks who, living in times of such stirrinff contempoi C5 ary events actions as by comparison reduce to insigmricance the is superior wars of antiquity, yet sit in judgement on these ^^^^^^^'j^^j. current events and revile those who make them their ancient "^^^ ^^^' special study authors whose principles they lack, even if they have the advantage of them in literary skill. For their own themes they take the Assyrian and Median empires, as if the narratives of the ancient historians were not fine enough. Yet, the truth is, these modern writers are their inferiors no less in hterary power than in judgement. The ancient historians set themselves severally to write the history of their own times, a task in which their connexion with the events added lucidity to their record while mendacity brought an author into disgrace with readers who knew the facts. In fact, the work of committing to writing events which have not previously been recorded and of commending to posterity the history of one's own time is one which merits praise and acknowledgement. The industrious writer is not one who merely remodels the scheme and arrangement of another's work, but one

an

historian's province.^

;

.

.

f,

,

;

VOL.

II

B 2

O

JOSEPHUS
IG

dAA' o /Ltera rod Kaiva \iyeiv koX to atu/xa tt^? LOTopLag KaraGKevd^ojv lSlov. Kayoj fxev duaXcvfiacn /cat 7701^01? fJLeyLCTTOL? dXXochvXo? a)u "EAXrjGL T€ Kal 'Pco^taioi? tt7i^ ^vrj^rjv tojv Karopdoj'
Tolg Se yvr]GLOig Trpo? fjikv rd Kal rag St/ca? Ke^-qvev evdeojs ro orojia Kal r) yXdJaaa XeXurat, 7Tp6<; he rrfv loTopiav, evda \pr] rdXrjBrj Xey€Lv Kal fxerd ttoXXov ttovov rd TTpdyfiara ovXXeyen', 7T€<j)i}xa>vTaL Trapevre^ rot?
fj-drcou

dvariBrnML-

X-q/jL/jLara

17

Kal fxrjSe ywcoGKOVOi rd? Trpd^ei? ypd^eiv. TLfjcdaOo) Sr) ttq/d' tjulu to T7J<; LGToplag dXy]d€^, errel nap* "EaXXtiglv rjfjLeXrjTaL. (6) WpxatoXoyelu fxev S?) rd ^lovSatcov, TiVes" t6 6i^T€? Kal 07TC0? drraviGnqGav AlyvTTTLOJU, ^copav re 00171^ €7TrjXdou dXcofxeuot Kal iroGa €^i]9 KareXa^ov Kal ottoj? fxeraveGTTjGav, uvu re aKaipov (hrjB-qv elvat Kal dAAcu? TTepirrov, €7T€lSi]7T€P Kai

dodeueoTepoL^

70JW

rjye/JLOucoi'

\ov8aLCxju

77oAAot
ftcr'

TTpo

ijjLOV

rd
Kai

row

Trpoyoviov

avverd^avro
€K€Lva
]S rrjg
rfj

dKpt^eiag
cfycoufj

nve? 'EAAt^vcov

TTarpicp

dXi]0€La<^ hn^fiaprou.

fxera^aXoi^reg ov ttoXu ottov S* ol re rovrojv

Gvyypa(f)els eTravaavro Kal ol -qp-erepoi 7Tpocl)rjraL,
rrjv

dpx-qi>

eKeldev
fieu

TTonjGoixai

rrj'i

Gvvrd^etog.

rovr ojv Se rd
p.aL
5tet/Ltt,

rod Kar^ ifxavrou TToXepLOV 8te^ohiKojrepov Kal p.ed^ do-qs dv e^epyaoias hvvuj-

rd Se rrpoyeveorepa
Gwrofxajs' 'Avrloxog
6
KXrjOel'i

rrjs

^P-'rj?

rjXiKLag

e-Lhpap,(jL)
19

(7)

cLs

'K7n(f)aurjg

eX(l)v\

Perhaps " successively." allusion to the works of Demetrius, Philo the elder, Eupolemus, etc.; c/. Ap. i. '218, where Josephus speaks in the same terms. Subsequently he thought that these 10
*
"

An

JEWISH WAR,

I.

15-19

who uses fresh materials and makes the framework of the history his own. For myself, at a vast expenditure of money and pains, I, a foreigner, present to Greeks and Romans this memorial of great achievements. As for the native Greeks, where personal profit or a lawsuit is concerned, their mouths are at once agape and their tongues loosed but in the matter of liistory, where veracity and laborious collection of the facts are essential, they are mute, leaving to inferior and ill-informed writers the task of describing the exploits of their rulers. Let us at least hold historical truth in honour, since by the Greeks it is disregarded. (6) To narrate the ancient history of the Jews, the Limits o origin of the nation and the circumstances of their So^ij'J^j migration from Egypt, the countries which they Jewish traversed in their wanderings, the extent of the negiectec territory which they subsequently" occupied, and the incidents which led to their deportation, would, 1 considered, be not only here out of place, but superfluous seeing that many Jews before me have accurately recorded the history of our ancestors, and that these records have been translated by certain Greeks into their native tongue without serious error. shall therefore begin my work at the I point where the historians of these events and our prophets conclude. Of the subsequent history, I shall describe the incidents of the war through which I lived with all the detail and elaboration at my command for the events preceding my lifetime 1
; ;
**

;

shall
(7)

be content with a brief summary. I shall relate how Antiochus,
works
still

surnamed

earlier

left

room

tor a

new

" archaeology "

{A.

i.

proem).

n

'

:

JOSEPHUS
Kara
Kpdro?
-717?

rpioi Kal

fjLrjcrlv

'lepoaoXvfia Kal Karao^ajv ereat e^ vtto tojv Waafiajvalov Traihojv
;\;c(j/)as"

eV^aAAerat
yovoL
TTcpl

erreid^

ojs

ol rovrcov

eyctA-

rrj?

^aatXeta?

StacrraCTtaaavre?

'Pa>p,aLOvg Kal YIojjlels ~o. Trpdyfiara Kal CO? 'HpcoSrjs 6 Wi'TLTrdrpov KareXvoe 20 T-qu hvvaoTeiav airrcou errayayoju ^octolou, ottojs re o Aao? ftera rriv 'Wpa'jhov reXevTrju Karearaaiaaev \vyovGTOv pkv 'Pco/xatcov -qyefjiOvevovTOS, KvlvtuXlov Be Ovdpov Kara rrjv ^copav ovtos, Kal (jjs €Tet hojheKdroj rrjg Sepa>vos apx^js o rroXepios dveppdyrj, rd re ovpL^dvra Kara \\eoTLOv Kal oaa
TTTjiov

Kvoav

Kara} rds Trpcvrag
OTrXotg
21
(8)

6pfj.d? eTrrjXdov ol ^lovSaloL rot?

OTTOJ?

re

rd?

TrepiOLKovs

ireix^aai'TO,
toj

Kal

cu?

yepojv
oXuju

eirl

rols Keariov TrraiajJiaoL heiaas Trepl
i(f)LarrjOL
TroXefjLco,

TOJV

OveoTTaoLavov

Kal ojs ovTos fxerd rod Trpea^vrepov rcov Traihcov €iV TTjv ^lovhaiojv x^P^^ eve^aXeu, oarj re XP^' pL€vog 'PojfjLaLOJv or par La Kal tocrot? avfifiaxoLS eloeTTaLoevT' el? oXyji' r-qv FaAtAatW, Kal oj? rcov TToXecou avrrjs d? fieu oXoax^pco? Kal Kara Kpdros 22 d.g 8e 8t' ofioXoylag eXa^ev evda b-q Kal rd rrepl rrjs 'Pcoiiaccjov ev TToXepLois evra^ia? koI rrjv daKTjOLU rcjjv rayjjidrcov y r-qg re FaAtAata? eKarepas rd hiaor-qp^ara Kal r-qv <f)V(7LV Kal rou? rrj? 'louSata? opovs, ert re rrj? x^P^^ '''W IBtor-qra, XtfjLva? re Kal Trrjyd? rdg ev avrfj, Kal rd rrepl eKaorqv ttoXlv rcov dXiOKopLevcuv Trddrj fierd aKpi»

irapd

LVXC.
€i<T^-irai<Tei>

'

0001% avfjLpLdxois

conj. (after Niese

and Kaber)

5aoi aufi^axoi (KOirrjaay MS3.

12

JEWISH WAR,
ing

I.

19-22

Epiphanes, took Jerusalem by storm and, after hold- Summar it for three years and six months, was expelled Book next how from the country by the Hasmonaeans their descendants, in their quarrel for the throne, dragged the Romans and Pompey upon the scene how Herod, son of Antipater, with the aid of Sossius, of the revolt Book overthrew the Flasmonaean dynasty of the people, after Herod's death, when Augustus was Roman Emperor and Quintilius Varus provincial of the outbreak of war in the twelfth governor year of Nero's principate, the fate which befell Cestius and the success which attended the Jewish arms in overrunning the country in the opening
i.

**

;

;

;

ii.

;

engagements.
(8) Then I shall proceed to tell how they fortified the neighbouring towns how Nero, apprehensive for Book the Empire in consequence of the reverses of Cestius, entrusted the conduct of the war to Vespasian of his invasion of Jewish territory, accompanied by his of the strength of the forces, Roman and elder son auxiliary, with which he penetrated into Galilee, and of the towns of that province which he captured either by main force or by negotiation. In this connexion I shall describe the admirable discipline "o of the Romans on active service and the training the extent and nature of the two of the legions 35 Galilees,^ the limits of Judaea, the special features of the country, its lakes and springs. I shall give a c/. precise description of the sufferings of the prisoners taken in the several towns, from my own observation
; ; ;

iii.

iii-

fr.

;

iii.

ff.

iii.

so

Or. " the sons of Asamonaeus."
*

Upper and Lower.
13

JOSEPHUS
^€ias, d)S cidou
rj

erraOov,

dleLUL.

oide yap tojv
fieXXcov

ifiavrov

tl

avfi6opow
6u?
rjhrj

aTTOKpuipofJiaL,

ye
rcov

rrpos eldorag epelv.
23
(9)

"Ettci^*

Kafivovrajv

^lovhaioLS

Trpay/jLOLTajv
irrl

dvrjOKeL fxev Xepcov, OveGTraGtavo? he
copfirj/jievo?

'lepoGoXv/jLOJi'

vrro
rrepl

rrj?

rjycfiovLa?

avdeXK€Tai'
24 Giqfiela

rd re
ra? eVt

yevofjieva
'Poj/xrj?

ravrrjs

avrcp

Kal
V7TO

piera^oXds , kol (hs
aKOJV

avros
Tcov

row
KOL
€L?

GrpaTLCxJTOJU

avTOKpdrojp
€7TL

dTToheLKVVTaL,
oXojv
,

dTToxojprjGavTos

Slolk-^G€L

rrjv

AlyvTrTOv eGraGLaGdr] rd rcbv

^lovhaiaw
VOL,

ottoj?

re eTraveGrrjGav avroLS ol

rvpav
Tlrog
re rag
Kal

Kal rd? tovtujv npo? dXXijXov? hiaSopds'

25

(lO)

Kal

d>g

dpag
OTTOV

aTTO

rrj?

AlyvTrrov
orrajg

bevrepov el?

t7]v

)(wpau

eveBaXev, Kal

SwdfieL?
OTTOjg

Kal
rrjs

crvvrjyaye
r)

OTTOGag,

tV

GrdGeojs

TToXig

SieKecro rrapovrog

avrov, rrpoG^oXdg re OGag eTTOLrjGaro Kal oTTOGa
Xojfjuara, rreptftoXovg re rojv rpccov

reixow kol rd

fierpa rovrojv, r-qv re rrjg TToXeojg oxvporrjra Kal
26 rod lepov Kal rov vaov r-qv StddeGLv,

en
rdg

Se Kal
/xer'

rovrojv

Kal

rod ^ojfxov
eOq
re

rd

fierpa
evLa

rrdvra

aKpij^etag,

eoproju

Kal

enrd

dyveiag
he rdg

Kal

rdg

eodrjrag
Tjv

rwv lepecov Xetrovpyiag, en rwv Upeow Kal rov dp^t-^peajg,
vaov
rd
dyiov,

Kal

olov

rov

ovhev

ovre

"

Lit.

" the seven purifications," referring doubtless, as

14

;

JEWISH WAR,
or personal

I.

22-26

share in them. For I shall conceal nothing even of my own misfortunes, as I shall be addressing persons who are well aware of them. (9) I shall next relate how, at the moment when Book i\ the Jewish fortunes were on the decline, Nero's death occurred, and how Vespasian's advance upon Jerusalem was diverted by the call to imperial dignity the portents of his elevation which he received, and his the revolutions which took place in Rome proclamation by his soldiers as Emperor against his iv. eoi. 656. will the civil war which, on his departure for Egypt to restore order to the realm, broke out among the Jews, the rise of the tyrants to power and their Book v
'^'^^'
; ;
'\'-

;

mutual feuds.
(10)

'^- ''' ^

M}^ narrative will proceed to tell of the second iv. 658. invasion of our country by Titus, starting from Egypt how and where he mustered his forces, and their v. 47. strength; the condition to which civil war had v. 1. reduced the city on his arrival his various assaults and the series of earthworks which he constructed further, the triple line of our walls and their dimen- v. i36. sions the defences of the city and the plan of the temple and sanctuary, the measurements of these v. 184. buildings and of the altar being all precisely stated certain festival customs, the seven degrees of purity,'^ the ministerial functions of the priests, their vest- v. 231. ments and those of the high priest, with a description of the Holy of Holies.'' Nothing shall be concealed,
; ;
; ;

Reinach suggests, to the zones or rings into which the Holy City was divided, and accessible to persons of various degrees of ceremonial purity. A list of these, omitting the innermost ring (the Holy of Holies), is given in the Mishna, Kelim, i. 8 (quoted in Schiirer, GJV^, ii. 273); Josephus gives an incomplete enumeration in B. v. 237, cf. Ap. ii. 102 fF. * " The holy [place] of the sanctuary."

15

.

JOSEPHUS
aTTOKpuTTTOfievos
27

ovre

TrpooTidei'^

rot?

77€<f)Ojpa-

(11) "ETietra

hU^eiiu

r-qv re

row Tvpdvvow

irpos

'Poj/jLalajv Kal rrju Kal ogolkls Ttro? (f)€LSaj Trpos rov? d?^o(f)vXovg , oworaL rrjv ttoXlv Kal rov vaov eTndvfiojv irrl Sc^ta? hLaKptvo) 8e rovs orraGLal^ovTa? TrpovKaXeaaro. rd Trddrj rod S-qfiov Kal ra? cn-'fi<f>opd?, ooa re VTTO rod TToXefiov Kal ooa vtto rrj^ crrdaeajg Kal Trapa28 ocra vtto rov Xiixov KaKOjOevreg idXojaav. Xeli/jco 8e ouSe rd? row avrofxoXajv drvxias ouSe rds rojv aL)(iiaXojrojv KoXdcrei?, ottojs re 6 vao? aKOvros iveTrp-qodri Kalaapo? Kal ooa rcov Upojv KeLiirjXlajv eV rov rrvpos rjpTrdyr), r-qv re rrj? oXrj? TToAecos" dXojGLv Kal rd rrpd ravrrj? cn^/xeta /cat

Tov?

ofioc^vXov?

(xjfiorrjTa

repara, Kal r-qv alxfJiaXcoGLav rojv rvpdwcov, rcov re dyhpaTTohiGdevrcov rd ttXtjOos Kal els tjv eKa29 GroL rvx'qi' hLevepL-qOrjGav Kal oj? 'Poj/jLaloL fiev e7Te^rjX£ov rd Xetipava rov TroXefiov Kal rd epvfiara rcov -xcjjpicov KaOelXov, Tiros Se iraGav eVeXdcjjv

r-qv

)(copav

Kareonqoaro,

r-qv

re

vtto-

Grpo^-qv avrov rrjv els TraXlav Kal rov dplafjL^ov. 30 (12) Tavra Trdvra nepiXa^cjjv ev eTrrd ^l^Xlols Kal fjL-qSefxlav rots emGrajievoLs rd TTpdyfiara Kal Traparv^ovGL rco TToXefxa) KaraXtTrcjw -q fxepufjecos Tj Kar-qyoplas, rots ye r-qv dX-qdeiav d(f)opiJLrjv TTOiiqdyaTTOJGU', dXXd fi-q TTpds -qhovrjv^ dveypaipa. GOfiaL he ravr-qv rrjs e^rjy-qGeojs dpxrjv, -qv Kal
rcov KecfyaXalojv eTTOfqGd/jLrjv
31

E

(i.

l)

SrciCTeoj?

rols

hvvarois

^lovbalcov

ep,TTe-

16

JEWISH WAR,
hght.«

I.

26-31

nothing added to facts which have been brought to
(11) I shall then describe the tyrants' brutal treatof their fellow-countrymen and the clemency

ment

of the Romans towards an alien race, and how often Titus, in his anxiety to save the city and the temple, invited the rival parties to come to terms with him.
I shall distinguish between the sufferings and calamities of the people, culminating in their defeat, as attributable respectively to the war, the sedition, and the famine. Nor shall I omit to record either Book vi. the misfortunes of the deserters or the punishments inflicted on the prisoners the burning of the Temple, contrary to Caesar's wishes, and the number of the sacred treasures rescued from the flames the taking of the whole city and the signs and portents that vi. 288. preceded it the capture of the tyrants, the number of the prisoners and the destiny allotted to each vi. 414.
; ; ; ;

nor yet how the Romans crushed the last remnants Book of the war and demolished the local fortresses how Titus paraded the whole country and restored order ; and lastly his return to Italy and triumph. (12) All these topics I have comprised in seven books. While I have left no pretext for censure or accusation to persons who are cognisant of the facts and took part in the war, my work is written for lovers of the truth and not to gratify my readers. I will now open my narrative with the events named at the beginning of the foregoing summary.
;

vii

(i.

1)

At the
ii.

time**

when Antiochus, surnamed
Antiochus

"

C/.

Ap.

80, 107, for the " discoveries " of

Holy of Holies and the " unspeakable c. 171 b.c. mysteries " supposed to take place there.
Epiphanes
in

the

''

17

.

JOSEPHUS
aovoTjg KaS^ ou Kaipov 'AvTto;^o? o KXrjdel^ 'Etti(f>avrjg

hL€(f)€p€TO

TTcpl
{t)

oXtj?

Hvpla? TTpog UroXe-

S' -qv avroig Trepl hvvaoTeia?, eKdcrrov row eV d^LcofJiaTL purj (})epovTog Tols op-OiOLS V7Tor€TdxOo.L) ^OvLa? pikv els tojv dpxiepeojv eTTLKparrjoa? e^e^aXe rrjg 7t6X€Cj<; rovg 32 Toj^la vlov?. ol Se Karacfyvyovreg Trpo? ^Avtloxov LK€T€Voav airrols rjyepLOGL )(poj/x€vov etV ttjv 'loi;Saiav epi^aXelv. TreiOeraL §' o ^aoiXevs chppLT]pLev'os TrdXat, /cat pcrd TrXeLGTrfs hvvdpieojs ainos opp^Tjoas TTjv re ttoXlv alpel Kara Kpdros kol ttoXv ttXtjOos roiv YlToXefJiaLOj Trpooexovrajv dvaipel, raZs re dpTrayals dveh-qv eVa^iet? rovs orpar noras avros kol rov vaov eavX-qcre Kal rov ivSeXeXi-op-ov ra)v Kad^ -qpuepav evayiapLow eTravaev €77* 33 er-q rpia kol pbijva? e^. 6 8* apxtepev? 'Oi^tW Trpos YlroXepialou biacfyvydw Kal Trap' avrov Xa^(jjv roTTOv ev rep ' HXcoTToXirrj vopLOj ttoXixvtjV re roZs ^lepoooXvfioig aTreiKaGp^ev-qv Kal vaov eKrioev opLOLOv TTepl d>v avdt? Kara ;;^c6pav SrjXojoopiev 34 (2) 'AvTid^w ye p-rjv ovre ro Trap* eXrriha KparrjooL rrjs TToXews ovd^ at dpTrayal Kal 6 rooovrog <f)6vo9 rjpKeoeu, vno 8e aKpaoias rradcov Kal Kara

pLOLOv TOP

eKTOv

(jyiXoripia

,

pLvqpLrjv

(hv

Trapo}

rrjv

rroXiopKLav

eiradev

rjvdy-

Katev ^lovhaiovs , KaraXvoavrag rd Trdrpia, ^pe<j)7j re avrojv cbvXdrreiv aTrepirpirira Kal ovg eTndveiv 35 roj jjojpLoj' 77 pos a Trdvres p^eu 'qneidovv , eo(f>drrovro he ol boKLpLOjraroL. Kal HaKXthr]? 6 7re/x^

Trapd

Naber, Niese:

irepl

mss.

" " The refrular course," literally " continuity," i.e. the Tdwui or continutus (standing) burnt offering. "Sacrifices";

18

JEWISH WAR,

I.

31-35

Epiphanes, was disputing with Ptolemy VI. the Antiochn suzerainty of Syria, dissension arose among the EpiphaiK Jewish nobles. There were rival claims to supreme t^^'^'^ power, as no individual of rank could tolerate sub- and inter jection to his peers. Onias, one of the chief priests, ™m^pie^*^ gaining the upper hand, expelled the sons of Tobias worship. from the city. The latter took refuge with Antiochus and besought him to use their services as guides for an invasion of Judaea. The king, having long c. 170 b.c cherished this design, consented, and setting out at the head of a huge army took the city by assault, slew a large number of Ptolemy's followers, gave his soldiers unrestricted licence to pillage, and himself plundered the temple and interrupted, for a period of three years and six months, the regular course of the daily sacrifices." The high priest Onias made his escape to Ptolemy and, obtaining from him a site in the nome of Heliopolis, built a small town on the model of Jerusalem and a temple resembling ours. We shall revert to these matters in due course.^ (2) Not content with his unlooked for success in Religious capturing the city and with the plunder and whole- P^^secuti sale carnage, Antiochus, carried away by his ungovernable passions and with the rankling memory of what he had suffered in the siege, put pressure upon the Jews to violate the code of their country by leaving their infants uncircumcised and sacrificing swine upon the altar. These orders were disobeyed by all, and the most eminent defaulters were massacred. Bacchides,^ who was sent by Antiochus to command
the Greek word is that elsewhere used for the Lat. parentatio or offering to the manes of the dead. B. vii. 421 ff. " The mention of Bacchides is, as Pteinach notes, an anachronism ; he did not appear on the scene till some years later, A. xii. 393, 1 Mace. vii. 8.
**

19

JOSEPHUS
^^et? VTT^ ^ AvTioxov (f)povpapxo?, rfj (f)uaLKi^ irpoGXa^ojv (hfioT-qri to. doe^rj TrapayyeXfjLara napavop.ia<i

ovhepLiav

KareXiTrev

vrrep^oXrjV,

/cat

/car

avhpa rovs d^toAdyou? atVt^d/xevo? Kal
Tj/jiepav
fJi^xpi-

KOLvfj KaO^
rfj

ivSeLKvvfjLcvo^

oiJjlv

dAojcreaj?

ttoXcl,

rat? VTTep^oXalg tojv dhiKrjpbdrojv tovs tto.oxovras ch djivvrfs roXpiav rjpediGC. 36 (3) Mar^ta? yovu vlo? WcraficovaLOV tojv Upeojv ef? aTTo Kcofjirjg McoSeelv 6Vo/xa, ovvauTrioas fJLerd X^^pos OLK€Lag, rrevre yap vUls rjaav avrcp, kottLoiv dvaipeL rov BaKxi^^^]^- Kal Trapaxp^P'd jjlcv Setaas
37 TrpooyevojjL^vcov he

ro TrXijdog tojv (f)povpwv els to, oprj KaTa(f)€vy€L, dno rod hrjpuov ttoXXcov dvadapOTjoas KdreiGi Kal GVjji^aXdw p^dx'O vlko. re rovs ^AvTLOxov Grpar-qyovs Kal rrjg 'louSata? e^eXavvei. TTapeXddw he dno rrjs evrrpaytag els hvvaGreiav Kal hid rrjv dTraXXayqv rwv dXXo(l)vXa)V dp^ag rcjv a<f)erepa)V eKovrojv, reXevra *Iou8a roj rrpeG^vrdrcp rcjv Traihojv KaraXiTrajv rrjv dpxT]i^. ^Avrloxov vttrfpefJU^GeLv (^) '0 he, ov yap 38 eXdfjL^ave, rds r' eTTixojpiovs GvyKporel hwdfieis Kal TTpds 'PojfjLalovs TjpvJros enoL-qGaro (jjiXiaVy Kal rov ^K7TL(i>avrj TrdXtv els rrjv x^P^^ e/x^dAdno he 39 Xovra^ fierd Kaprepds TrXrjyrjs dveoretXev. depjjLov rov KaropdaypLaros wppLrjoev enl rrjv ev rfj TToXei <f)povpdv, ovTTCo yap eKKeKonro, Kal eK^aAtL»i^ dno rrjs dvoj noXews Gvvojdel rovs Grpanojras els rrjv Kara)' rovro he rov aGreos ro fiepos
^

I
'*

A

Lat. (vid.)

:

da^oKbvTa the

rest.

«
"

Mattathias (1 Mace). Apelles according to A.
1

xii.

270

;

the officer

is

unnamed

in

>lacc.

ii.

25.

20

JEWISH WAR,

I.

35-39

the garrison, with these impious injunctions to back his innate brutahty, was guilty of every excess of iniquity, torturing distinguished individuals one after another, and daily parading before the eyes of all the appearance of a captured city, until by the extravagance of his crimes he provoked his victims to venture on reprisals. Rising of (3) These began with Matthias," son of Asa^ monaeus, a priest of a village called Modein, who hiL. forming an armed band of himself and his family of Fear of five sons, slew Bacchides " with choppers. the large garrison drove him to seek refuge at the moment in the hills but, on being joined by many of the common people, he summoned courage to descend, fought and defeated the generals of Antiochus, and drove them out of Judaea. This his expulsion success brought him supreme power of the foreigners led his countrymen willingly to submit to his rulersiiip, which, on his death, he be- c i67 b.c queathed to Judas, the eldest of his sons. (4) Judas, assuming that Antiochus would not re- Exploits mam mactive, besides recruiting a native force, of Judas made an alliance he was the first to do so with -^Iaccathe Romans ^ and when Epiphanes ^ again invaded the country struck hard and forced him to retire. Flushed with this success, he attacked the garrison, not yet ousted from the capital, expelled the troops from the upper city and confined them to the lower portion of the town, known as Acra. Being now i65 b.c.
; ;
'^

;

"

According

to

1

Mace.
:

ii.

4,

Judas was the third of the

five sons.

narrative of
*

Another anachronism I Maccabees Demetrius (162-150 b.c).
^

(viii.)

the treaty with Rome, if the is to be trusted, fell under

Or

rather his generals Lysias

and Gorgias

(I

Mace).
21

JOSEPHUS
"A/cpa
Xojpou
KeKXrjTat-

Kvpcevaa? de rov Upov rov re
Travra

iKddrjpe

kol
OKev-q
ojs"

TTeptereixioe,

/cat

to.

TTpos Tas XeLTOVpyias
€tV

Katva KaraaKevdaa?
ercpov
Kal
tcop

Tou vaou €LGrjV€yK€V
^ajfiov

rcov rrporepajv /xe/zta/x-

jjievojv,

re

ojKoh6}xriGev

40 evaytopLoyv rjp^aro.
KaTCiarrjiJLa
rrj^

XafjiBavovcrrjg Se dprc

ro lepov
r-fj?

TToXeoj?

reXevra

fxev

WvrLO)(o^^,
Trpog

KXrjpovoixog he rrjg ^aGiXeiag avrov Kal

^lovSalovs aTTey^deias 6 vlos
41 (5)

Avrloxos yiveraL.
fxev^ fjLvpidSas Trevre,

YiVvayaycjv yovv irel^wv

1777761? S' €19^ TTevTaKLorxf-Xiovs ,

eXe(f>avras he dyhoij-

Kovra

ifJi^dXXei hid rrj? ^lovhatas el? ttjv opeiv-qv.

Srjdaovpoi' fxev ovu TroXixvqv alpel,

Kara he
Trplv

tottov

o? KaXelrai UedLaxapla, OTevrjS ovGiqs rrj? rrapohov,
42 'louSas- vTTai'Ta fierd rrjg hwd/jueoj?
di/jat
.

he gvu-

TOL?

cf)dXayya? 'EAca^apo? o

dheX(f)6?

avrov
nvpyoj

TTpoihoju

rou

viprjXorarov

rcjv

eXecbdvrojv

re

fjLeydXo)

Kal

irepixpyGOis TTporeLX^GfJiaGL kckoerr*

Gfji-qfieuou,
rijjv

VTToXa^ujv

avrov rov Wvrloxou eluai
ttoXv

re

Ihiojv

e/CTpe;^ct
errl

Kal

htaKoiJjas

rd

Grl^os row
43 e(j)LKeGdaL
ov)(
rr)v

TToXefJLLOJV

rov eXe(pavra hLt]vvGev.

fiev
yjv

ovv rod hoKovvros elvai ^aoiXeaj?
hid rd v(po?, 6 he rd Orjplov vtto

olog re

yaGrepa

rrX-q^ag

emKareoeLGev eavrw Kal gvv-

rpi^el? ereXevrTjGeu, fxrjhev irXeov hpdGag rov fxeydXoL<; e-TTL^aXeGdaL, Oefxevos evKXeias ev hevrepco rd
4
1

Lrjv.

o ye

fjirjv

KV^epvojv rdv eXecfiavra
^

Ihidjriqs rjv

Kav
'

el Gvve^rj he etvai

rdv WvrLO^ov, ovhev TrXeov
om,
eij

Text emended by Destinon.

AM.

22

JEWISH WAR,

I.

39-44

master of the temple, he cleansed the whole area and walled it round, replaced the old and polluted vessels for the services by others which he caused to be made and brought into the sanctuary, built another altar

and reinstalled the expiatory sacrifices." The city was just recovering its hallowed character when Antibchus died, leaving his son Antiochus heir, alike to his kingdom, and to his detestation of the Jews. (5) The latter, accordingly, having collected 50,000 infantry, some 5000 horse and 80 elephants, pushed through Judaea into the hill country.^ After capturing the small town of Bethsuron,^ he was met at a spot called Bethzacharia, where there is a narrow defile, by Judas at the head of his forces. Before the opposing armies came into action, Eleazar, brother of Judas, observing the tallest of the elephants, surmounted by a huge howdah ^ and an array of gilded battlements, and concluding that it bore Antiochus, rushed out far beyond his own lines and, cutting through the enemy's ranks, made his way to the elephant. Being unable to reach the supposed monarch because of his height from the ground, he struck the beast below the belly, brought its whole weight down upon himself, and was crushed having achieved nothing more than to to death attempt great things, holding life cheaper than renown. The elephant-rider was, in fact, a commoner ; yet, even had he happened to be Antiochus, his
;

i64 b.c.

See note on § 32. There is an independent account of this battle of the elephants in 1 Mace. vi. 28 if., of which Josephus made use
"

in his later
"

work {A.
1

xii.).

According to Mace. vi. 50 {A. was not taken until after the battle. " tower." Greek
**

xii.

376) Bethsuron

23

;

JOSEPHUS
6 ToA/xv^aas" rov doKelv err^ eArrtSt l^ovrj iXeadai rov KaropdcofiaTOS Bdvarov. 45 yiv^rai he kol KXrjhujv TaSeA</)tZ» ttjs oX-qg napard^eco?' KapT€p(Jo<; p-kv yd.p ol 'louSatot koX />te;(/3t TToXXov btrj-yajVLGavro, TrXrjdeL 8e V7T€pe)(ovT€£ ol ^aaiXiKol /cat Sc^ta xpiqadpievoL rv)(rj Kparovai, dvaipedevrcuv rov? Xolttov? e)(Ojv TToXXcjv /cat 'IoJ8a? etV rrfv To(f)VLrLKrjv rorrapxLCLV <f)evy€L. 46 'Ai^Tt'o;^©? 8e TrapeXdojv el? 'lepoaoXvp^a /cat Kadioas oAtya? iqfiepa? eV aur?] /cara OTrdvLv rd>u eTTLrriheicov dTTavicrraraL, KaraXiTTow p.kv <f)povpdv ocrrju d-TTOXP'TjueLV vTreXdp^^aue, rrjw 8e XoLTTrjv bwapiiv aTTayayajv x^tpiepLOVGav el? rrjv Hvplav. he rrjv vttoxo^P'QOlv rov ^aGiXeoj? 47 (6) ripo? 'louda? ovK rjpefxei, Trpooyevopevajv §' e/c rov eBvov? TToXXojv /cat rov? hi.aooj6evra? e/c ri]? pLd^r]? e-LGvyKporrjcra? Kara KOjp.rjV WKehaoav^ ovpL^dXXet rol? ^ Avrio^ov crrpar-qyoZ?, /cat <f)auei? dpioro? Kara rrjv pdx'qu ttoXXov? re rojv rtoXe\.iiojv drroKrelva? dvaLpelrai. /cat /xe^' rjp.epa? oXlya? 6
rjuvaeu
ciu

XafjLTTpov

dheX<f)6?

avrov

^lojduvrjg

eTTif^ovXevdel?

vrro

rtov

ra ^AvrLo^ov
48
(ii.

(j^povovvrojv reXevra.
'Icu(f)v-

1)

vddrj?

Atade^a/xet^o? he rovrov 6 dheX(f)6? rd re dXXa npo? rov? e7TL)(copLov? hcd
/cat
rfj

XaKT]? Tjyev eavrov,
rrjV

Trpo? 'Ptu/xatou? (;^tAta

dp)cqv
^

eKparvvaro,

"Trpo?
;

re
cf.

rov
A.

W^no-^ov
iii.

Adasa

Lat., perhaps rightly

\\\. 4-0;^.

*

One

of the eleven sub-districts of

Judaea {B.

55)

according to A. xii. 375 Judas withdrew to Jerusalem and prepared for a "^iege. ^ Strictly Nicanor, the general of Demetrius, 1 AMacc. vii. 39 fF.

24

JEWISH WAR,

I.

44-48

daring assailant would have gained but the reputation of courting death in the bare expectation of a To Eleazar's brother the incident brilliant exploit. proved an omen of the issue of the engagement. For, long and stubborn as was the resistance of the Jews, the king's forces, with superior numbers and and, after favoured by fortune, were victorious the loss of many of his men, Judas fled with the remainder to the province of Gophna." Antiochus proceeded to Jerusalem, where, owing to a shortage he then left of supplies, he stayed but a few days what he considered a sufficient garrison and withdrew the rest of his army to winter quarters in Syria. (6) After the king's retreat, Judas did not remain Rallying the survivors of the combat and inactive. joined by numerous new recruits from his nation, he gave battle to the generals of Antiochus ^ at the where, after winning the honours village of Acedasa of the day and slaying a large number of the enemy, he was slain himself.^ A few days later his brother John also perished, a victim of a conspiracy of the partisans of Antiochus.**
;
; ;

lei b.c.

(ii.

1)

Jonathan,

his brother,

who succeeded him,

Jonathan
^fg^de?

amongst other safeguards against his countrymen, strengthened his authority by an alliance with Rome ^ and made a truce with the young Antiochus.-^
Judas was slain, not at the battle of A(ce)dasa, but in a later engagement at Elasa (1 Mace. ix. 5) or Berzetho {A. xii. 422). Cf. 1 Mace. ix. 35 f ; A. xiii. 10 f. " Mace. xii. 1-4; A. xiii. 164 f. 1 f Greek " the son of Antiochus," i.e. presumably of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. But the reference must be to the treaty of .Jonathan with Antiochus VI Dionysus, 1 Mace, xi. 57, A. xiii. 145. Josephus has confused Antiochus and Antiochus VI.
<"

161-143

b.

<*

.

V

25

JOSEPHUS
TratSa

StoAAaya?
airrco

iTTOi-qaaro

.

ov

ixtjv

n

49 'qpKeoev

Trpos

aa<J3a.XeLav'

TpvcfxDV

rovrcov yap 6

rvpavvos, eVtVpoTTos' fJikv ojv rod 'Avrtd;\;ou iraiho?, eTTL^ovXevcov S' avrco /cat Trpoadep, a-nooKevateadai Tovs (fjlXov? avrov TTecpajpLevog, rjKOvra rov ^lojuddrjv ovv oXiyoLS €1? YiroX^ixatha Trpos ^Avrioxov hoXo) cruXXafxBdvei /cat Si^aa? cVt 'louSatav
crrpar€V€L' clr^ aTTcXaOel? vtto
dSeXcfyog

rod HifxcDvo?, o?

"^v

rod 'IcjvdOov,

/cat

Trpo? r-qv -qrrav (hpyi-

50

rov ^lojvddrjv. yewacios drfj-qyo-ufxevos ra>v rrpayfidrajv aipet fiev Tdi^apd^ re /cat 'Iottt^v /cat 'la/x.vetay rcDv TTpoaoiKcov, KareaKaipe 8e /cat tt^i/ a/cpav TcrJv <j)povpojv Kpartjo-a?. au^t? 8e ytVerat
cr/xeVo? Kr€LU€L
(2)

St/xoiv Se

/cat

'AvTto;^6fj

A(jL}poLg

TTpo

rrjg

Gvixpbaxo? Kara Tpv(f)OJVos, ou iv eVt MtJSous" arparela? eVoAtop-

51 /cet.

i^ehvuojTTTjuev rrjv rod /SacrtAea)? Tpvchowa avve^eXcov fxer^ ov ttoXv yap 'Avrioxo? Kevhe^alov rov avrod Grpariqyov

aAA'

ou/c

TrXeove^iav
/jL€rd

SuvajLteojs"

Srjcocrovra rrjv

52 /cat

/caraSouAajao/xet'ov St^a>va,

'louSatav eTre/jufjev c) Se /catrot yi^-

patog OJV veavLKOjrepov dcfirjyrjo-aro rod TroXe/jLov rov? p.€v roL ye utet? avrod^ pier a rujv eppojpLeveardr OJV TTpoeKTrepLTreL, avro? 8e fjiotpav rrj? Svvd53 /xcco?

di'aAa^wy eTTrjei /car' aAAo pLepog. ttoXXovs Kdv rot? opeui TrpoXoxicro.? Traaats KpareZ rals eTTi^oXaZs, /cat viK-qoas XajjiTrpcos
Be
7ToXXa)(od
dpxi'^p^vg
1

dTTohe'iKvvrai

/cat

rry?

Ma/ceSop'cov

€7rt

Bernard
2

M Lat.
Mace.

{cf.

A.

xiii.
:

215): Fai-af or Zapd mss. iw avrbv the rest.

"

C/.

1

xii.

39

flF. ;

A.

xiii.

187

fiF.

26

JEWISH WAR,

I.

48-53 (51-53 = ant.

xiii.

225-227)

None, however, of these precautions proved a suffiFor the tyrant Trypho, guardian cient protection. of the young Antiochus, who was ah-eady conspiring against his ward and attempting to make away with his friends, treacherously arrested and imprisoned Jonathan, when on a mission with a small retinue to Antiochus at Ptolemais, and started on a campaign Repulsed by Simon, Jonathan's against Judaea. brother, and indignant at his defeat he then put his
captive to death. '^

Simon's administration of afftiirs was excellent. of Gazara, Joppa, and Jamnia, in the vicinity of the capital, and, after overpowering the garrison at Jerusalem, razed the citadel ^ to the ground. Subsequently, he made alliance with Antiochus ^ against Trypho, whom the king, before (lis expedition against the Medes, was besieging at Dora. Yet Simon's contribution to the fall of Trypho failed to shame the king out of his cupidity for not long after Antiochus sent his general Cendebaeus at the head of an army to ravage Judaea and make a The latter, though advanced in vassal of Simon. j^ears, took command of the war with juvenile energy and, sending his sons ahead with the most ablebodied of his troops, proceeded himself, with a division of his army, to the attack on another front. Having, further, posted numerous ambuscades in different parts of the hills, he was successful in all the engagements, and after a brilliant victory was appointed high-priest and liberated the Jews from
(2)

Simon's
1*4^2*^131^8^0

He captured the towns

;

;

''

Greek " Acra "

;

A.

xiii.

215 shows that Jerusalem

is

referred to.
"

Antiochus VII Sidetes, A. xiii. 223. From this point the two narratives in B. and A. are closely parallel.

27

JOSEPHUS
Kpar€La? fiera eVarov Kal il^SofJu^KOvra
err]

rous"

'louSatou? dTTaXXdrrei. 8e /cat avrog im^ovXevOel? ev 54 (3) GvqGK€L TlToXcfiaLOV Tov yafj^^pov, og V7t6 uvfjiTTOolu) avTov rijv re yvvatKa Kal rovs ^vo TralSag iyKadeip^as eVt rov rpirov ^Iwduvrju, o? Kal 'YpKavog
55 eVaAetTO,

rovs

dvaip-qGOvras

eTreiJUpev.

npoyvovs

8e rrjw e(f)oSov 6 veavioKOS rrapayeveodai ets" rr]v TToXiv rjuetyero, TrXeiGrov ro) Xaoj 7T€7ToiBa>s Kara

re

{Jivqfxr)u

row

Trarpojcov

Karopdoj/Jidrajv
.

Kal

a)ppLr]Ge 8e ploos rrjs TiroXefJiaLOV Trapavopiias Kal YlroXefiaLog eloeXdelv Ka9^ erepav -nvX-qv, e^eKpovoOrj ye pLTjv vtto rod htjp^ov ra^eajs heheyKal 6 p.ev TTapaxprjP^o. 56 p.evojv rjhrj rov 'YpKavov.

duexojp'^^cr^v et? ri rcov virep 'lepixovvro? epvpidrow, o Saydjv KaXelrar Kopnadpievos he rrjv irarpojav dpxtepujuvvqv 'Tp/cavo? Kal Bvaas rep dew pLerd rd^ovg irrl TiroXeixalov wppbTjuev BorjO-quojv rfj pLTjrpl Kal rols dheX(j)ols.

57

(4)

Kat rrpoo^aXojv
rju,

rqj

(Jipovptoj

rd

f-tev

dXXa
6 yap

Kpeirrojv

rjrrdro

8e

St/cat'ou

nddov?.

YlroXepLalos dnore Kararrovolro, r-qv re p.-qrepa Kal roug dBeXc^ovg avrov Trpodyojv IttI rov reL)(ovg*, el? evGVVOTTrov r^Kil^ero Kal KaraKp-qpivielv el p,rj\ Trpos a rov /x€IA 58 ddrrov dnavaGraLr], Str^Tret'Aei. 'YpKauov opyrjs TrXeitov olKrog elorjet Kal Seog, r^ be pLTjrrjp ovdev ovre Trpos rds alKuig ovre npo^ rov dTTeiXovpLevov avrfj ddvarov cVStSoucra )(elpas (jopeye Kal Karr^vrL^oXei rov Tralba /xryrt 77p6s" rrji
,

"

Reckoning from 312
;

era

b.c, the first year of the Seleucid according to this reckoning Simon's high priesthood

28

JEWISH WAR,
years."

I.

53-58 (=ant.

xiii.

228-232)

the Macedonian supremacy which had lasted for 170
(3) He too, however, fell a victim to treachery, john being murdered at a banquet by his son-in-law /^35'1^J5 Ptolemy. The latter, after incarcerating Simon's B.c.)opp wife and two of his sons, sent a body of men to kill in^ia\v° the third, John, also called Hyrcanus. This youth, Ptolemy forewarned of their approach, hastened to reach the city, fully confident of the people's support, both from their recollection of his father's achievements and their hatred of Ptolemy's enormities. Ptolemy also rushed to gain entrance by another gate, but was repelled by the populace, who had with alacrity already admitted Hyrcanus. Ptolemy forthwith withdrew to one of the fortresses above Jericho, called Dagon while Hyrcanus, having gained the high priestly office held by his father before him, offered sacrifice to God and then started in haste after Ptolemy to bring aid to his mother and brethren. (4) Attacking the fort, he proved superior in other ways, but was overcome by his righteous feelings. For Ptolemy, as often as he was hard pressed, brought forward his mother and brothers upon the ramparts and tortured them within full view of Hyrcanus, threatening to hurl them over the battlements, if he did not instantly retire. At this spectacle indignation in the breast of Hyrcanus gave way to pity and terror. His mother, unshaken by her torments or the menace of death, with outstretched hands implored her son not to be moved
;

dates from
ship,

c. 142 b.c, i.e. from the beginning of his leaderwhere it is placed in the parallel account in A. xiii. 213. " In the hundred and seventieth year Cf. 1 Mace. xiii. 41 f., was the yoke of the heathen taken away from Israel," and Jerusalem started a new era of its own.

29

JOSEPHUS
avrrjg

v^ptu
cl>?

eVi/cAaa^eVra

(fyeioaodat

rod

Svcr-

ye Kpeirrova rov eV ^ToA€^tatou Odvarov aOavaaias elvai hovros StVa? €</>' ols €ls 50 Tou oIkov airrojv TraprjvofjLrjGev 6 8e ^Icodwrj^ oTTore p,kv ivdvfjLrjdecr) to Trapdarr-qiia rij? f.Lrjrp6^ Koi KaraKovaete rfj? cKealag, (Zpijurjro TrpoojjdXXeiu, eVeiSav 8e^ KariBoL rvTTTOfJLevrjv t€ Kal arraae^ovg,
OLvrfj
.

paTrofJL6vrji> ,

id-qXvvero

Kal rov

ndOovs oXos

'qv.

CO rpi^o/jLev-qg

8e Sid ravra rrjs TToAtop/cta? iTrearr]

ro dpyov erog, o Kara eVraertav dpyelrac napd *Iou8atot? ofiOLOJS roL? e^Oofidcnv rjpLepaLg. Kav
rovToj YlroXefiaLOS dvedelg rrjs TToXiopKias dvaLpel

rov? dS€X<f)ov£ ^Icjdvvov gvv rfj firjrpl Kal ^euyet Zj-jvojva TOP i—LKXrjOevra KoruAav OtA77/30? adeAi^etas" 8' rji' rvpavvos.
CI
(5)

€7Tad€v

rov
fiotg.

Xvrioxo? hk /car' opyrjv ow vtto Hificovo's orparevoag ctV rrjv ^lovSalav irroXiopKeL 'YpKavov 7TpoGKadel,6}X€Vos rots' '\epoGoXv6 Se rov Aavihov rd<f)Ov dvol^ag, og Si]
^

TrXovoLcoraros ^aoiXeojv
vrrkp rpiGxiXia

eyevero,
;^p7^/xaT6UP'

Kal

v(f)eX6pL€VOS

rdXavra
rrjg
Sr]

Xov dvLGrrjOL
raXdvrois, Kal
Saia>v €K
62
rrj'i

rov re ^AvrioTToXcopKLag Treioas rpiaKOGioLS Kal ^evorpo<^elv irpwros Mou-

rrepiOVGLas rjp^aro.

(6) AvOl? ye fJLTjv a>s" ^Avrtoxog inl MijSovs GrparevGas Katpov dfivvrj? avroj TrapeZ^^v evOeojs (ZpfjL-qGev eVt ra? ev Supta TroAet?, Kevd<^, orrep rjv,
,

^

e-rreiSap 5(

MS>.

:

(Trel S'

au Xiese.

"
••

The sabbatical year: Lev. vvv. L in tin puiallel account So J. vii. 393
;

in

A.

xiii.

349

30

JEWISH WAR,

I.

58-62

(

= ant.

xiii.

232-254)

by her outrageous treatment to spare the monster ; to her, death at Ptolemy's hands would be better than immortality, if he paid the penalty for the wrongs which he had done to their house. John, as often as he took his mother's unflinching courage to heart and gave ear to her entreaties, was impelled to the assault but, when he beheld her beaten and mangled, he was unmanned and quite overcome by emotion. The siege consequently dragged on until the year of repose came round, which is kept septennially by the Jews as a period of inaction, like the seventh day of the week." Ptolemy, now relieved of the siege, put John's brethren and their mother to death and fled to Zeno, surnamed Cotulas, the
;

despot of Philadelphia. (5) Antiochus, smarting under the blows which His war Simon had dealt him, led an army into Judaea and, Ai?tiochi sitting down before Jerusalem, besieged Hyrcanus (yjO who, opening the tomb of David, wealthiest of kings, extracted therefrom upwards of three thousand talents, with three hundred of which he bribed Antiochus to raise the blockade.^ The surplus he used to pay a mercenary force, being the first Jew
;

to start this practice.
(6) Subsequently, however, the campaign of Anti\ the A/r J gave 1,- an opportunity V. ocnus agamst j-T, Medes him forrevenge.'^ He at once flew upon the cities of Syria, expecting to find them, as he did, drained of efficient

His

i.

-1.

victories.

Hyrcanus did not open the of Antiochus.

tomb

until after the

departure

" The account in A. xiii. 250 There Hyrcanus joins Antiochus

ff., is more trustworthy. in his expedition against " Medes ") in 130 b.c. the Parthians (here called his attack on the Syrian cities only began after the death of Antiochus
;

in 129 B.C.

31

.

JOSEPH LS
63 vTToXafjL^dvoji' ^r^v fi€u

row

fiaxLfiojrepow €vpi]aeiv.

McSa-

ovu Kal Hafiayau a/xa rat? ttXtjolov, en he ^LKLfia Kal Wpyaptl^lu avro?^ alpel, 7rp6? at? to \ovSaia)v yevog, ol TrepicoKovu to eiKaoOkv rw ev
'lepocroAu/i,oi?

Upov}
re

alpel

he

/cat

rrjs

'ISou/cat

/Liat'a?

aAAa?

ovk
he

oAtya?
Kal

Kal

Whwpeou
,

Maptcrai'.
G4
(7)

TipoeXdojv

p-expt
ixj)^

T^afiapeiag

evda

vvv

eonv

T.e^aorrj 77oAt?

'Hpcohov KrtoOeloa

Kal rravrodev avrrjv aTToreix^oas rovg vlelg eTrearrjoe rfj -TToXiopKLa Wpiaro^ovAov Kal ^Avrtyovov cbv ovhei' avievrcov Ai/xou fiev eis roaovrov TrporjXOov ol Kara rrju ttoXlu, co? a^a65 cr^at Kal rujv drjdecrrdrajv. eTTiKaXovvrai he ^orjdov Wvrio-)(^ov rov eTTLKXiqdevra AoTrevhtov^ KOLKelvos eroLfiojg VTraKOVoas vtto rcjjv rtepl 'Aptaro^ovXov TjrrdraL. Kal 6 fieu p-^XP'- ^KvOonoXeaJS
^

rod ^aoiXewg,

hiojxd^l?

VTTO

rcov

dheX(l>d)v

eK(f)evyeL,

ol

8'

em

TrXijdog VTroarpeipavres ro re ^afiapelg TrdXiv el? ro relxos ovyKXeiovaiv Kal rrjv rroXiv eXovre? avrrjv re KaraoKd—rovoLv Kal rov? iv66 OLKOVvra? e^-qvhpaiTohiaavro Trpoxcopovurcou he rojv Karopdojpidrojv rrju oppL-qv ov Kareipv^av, dXXa rrpoeXdovre? a/xa ri] hwdptei p-expi- Trj? TiKvdoTToXeo)? ravrr]v re Karehpapiov /cat rr^v evro? KappLrjXov rov opov? x^P*^^ aTraoav Kareveip,avro (8) Wpo? he TO? evTTpayia? avrov re ^Icoduvoi 67 Kal rojv rralhajv (j)d6vo? eyeipeL ordotv riov emKal /car' avroju crvveXdovres TToXXol Xojplojv, OVK rjpepLovu, piexpt- Kal Tjpo? <f>avep6v TToXepLOu Ik. '

rov?

A.

(in parallel
j«pi^

passage) has evdis
'

-.

r

read oirwj.
Mss.

*

Niese:

mss.

'AaTro^'Sto*'

32

JEWISH WAR,

I.

63-67

(

= ant.

xiii.

255-288)

troops. He thus captured Medabe and Samaga with the neighbouring towns, also Sichem and Argarizin, besides defeating the Cuthaeans,^ the race inhabiting the country surrounding the temple modelled on that at Jerusalem. He further took numerous cities in Idumaea, including Adoreon and Marisa. (7) Advancing to Samaria, on the site of which now stands the city of Sebaste, founded by King Herod, he blockaded it by a surrounding wall and entrusted the siege to his sons Aristobulus and Antigonus, who pressed it so vigorously that the inhabitants were reduced by the extremities of famine to make use of the most unheard of food. They summoned to their aid Antiochus, surnamed Aspendius,** who, readily complying, was defeated by the forces of Aristobulus. Pursued by the brothers as far as Scythopolis he got away they on their return to Samaria again confined its people within the walls, captured the town, razed it to the ground, and reduced the inhabitants to slavery. Not allowing the flowing tide of success to cool their ardour, they proceeded with their army to Scythopolis, overran that district, and laid waste the whole country south of'' Mount Carmel. (8) The prosperous fortunes of John and his sons, His however, provoked a sedition among his envious f-l°^^ countrymen, lar^e numbers of whom held meetings gift o proph to oppose them and continued to agitate, until the smouldering flames burst out in open war and the
;

exile,

Tlie foreigners imported into Samaria at the time of the A. ix. 288, 2 Kings xvii. 24. " Antiochus of Aspendus(in Pamphylia) = Antiochus VIII or Grypus ; A. xiii. 276 names, instead of him, his half"

brother and rival, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. " Literally " within," i.e. " this side of."

VOL.

II

c

S3

JOSEPHUS
68 piTTiadivTes
evSaL/jLoi^la

rjTTCovTaL.

to
/cat

Xolttov

8*

im^Lovs

iv

^lojdvvrj? /cat
eVt^

rd Kara

ttjv o-px^jv

koX-

Atcrra
€771

Stot/C7]cras"

TpiaKovra oXols ereoLV

7T€Ure
/xr^heu

VLOLS

Kara

TcXeVTa, IxaKapLGTOS OVTCOS Kal idaa? e</>' eavro) fiefKJidrji'ai rrjv rv)(r]v.

rpia yovv rd /cpartcrreuovra fiovo? ^'^X^^' '^W '^^ ^PXW '^^^ edvov? Kal ttjv dpxicpcoGwrjv /cat TrpowfiiXeL yap avro) to SaifiovLOv ct>? fxrjSev 69 (f>rjr €iav. Toju /xeAAdvTOJV dyvoelv, o? ye Kal irepl hvo tcjv TTpeo^VTepojv vlcov otl iitj Sta/xei^ouat Kvpioi tcjv TtpayixaTajv TrpoeiSev re /cat 7Tpo€<l)iqT€VO€V' (Lv TTjv KaTa(jTpo(f)rju d^LOV d(f)rjy-qoa(jd at, Trap* doov
TTJ5 TTa-pajag evSai/jLOVta? aTreKXivav.

70

71

(iii. tt/u tov Txarpd? TeXevTTju 6 1) Merd ydp TTpeo^VTaTos airrCjv Wpioro^ouXo?, ttjv dpx'rjv ct? ^aoiXeiav /Ltera^et?, TrepLTideTai piev StdBrjfjLa TrpcjTO? /zerd t^t paKOOiooTov Kal e^SopLrjKOOTOv TrpcoTOV €TOS, TTpOS Se fJL-qvaS Tpelg, €$ OV KaTTjei^ 6 Aad? etV Tr]v x^P*^^ drraXXayels ttj? eu Ba^vXdJi'L SouAeia?* tcov Se dS€X(f>dju tov fxev (JLed^ iavTov AvTiyovoVy eboKet ydp dyaTrdv, "qyeu tVort/xco?, Sea/Ltet Se /cat tt)v TOi)? hi* dAAou? elpyvvoL hi]oa£. pLTjTepa hievexd^icro-^ rrepl ttj? e^ovoLa?, TavTrju ydp Kvpiav tcjv oXcjv 6 ^Icjdvvq^ aTToXcXoLneL, Kal
^

p^^xptAt/Ltoj

TOGavTrj<i

wpLOT-qTo?

TTporjXdev,

tuare
etV

/cat

htacfiOeipaL SeSepLevqv.

72
*

(2)
ivi

UepLepx^TaL

3e

aurdi^^
cf.

-q

TTOLvrj*
xiii. -299,

tov
l".

(with Hegesippus) Niese,

A.

xx. 2+0: iv

Tpiaif Mss. Lat., EN I having * KaTrjXOeu the rest. :

perhaps been read as
*

EN

AM

«

AMC:

ai)rti(i.)

the rest.
xiii.

AM:

riais

the rest.

''

481 years according to A.

301.

Both numbers are

34,

JEWISH WAR,

I.

68-72

(

= ant.

xiii.

299-303)

rebels were defeated. For the rest of his days John lived in prosperity, and, after excellently directing the government for thirty-one whole years, died leaving five sons ; truly a blessed individual and one who left no ground for complaint against fortune as regards himself. He was the only man to unite in his person three of the highest privileges the supreme command of the nation, the high priesthood, and the gift of prophecy. For so closely was he in
:

touch with the Deity, that he was never ignorant of the future thus he foresaw and predicted that his two elder sons would not remain at the head of affairs. The story of their dovvnfiill is worth relating, and will show how great was the decline from their
;

father's
(iii.

good fortune.

On the death of Hyrcanus, Aristobulus, the aristoeldest of his sons, transformed the government into lo^^ill a monarchy, and was the first to assume the diadem, four hundred and seventy-one years " and three months after the return of the people to their country, when released from servitude in Babylon. Of his brothers, he conferred upon Antigonus, the next in seniority, for whom he had an apparent
1)

honours equal to his own the rest he imprisoned in chains. His mother also, who had disputed his claim to authority, John having left her mistress of the realm, he confined in bonds, and carried his cruelty so far as to starve her to death
affection,
;

in prison.
(2)

Retribution, however, overtook him
;

^

in

the

the decree of Cyrus for the return of the Jews is dated 537 b.c, 432 years before Aristobulus I. The chronology of Josephus appears to be based on the " seventy weeks " ( =490 years) of Dan. ix. 24. " See §§ 81 ff.
too large

S5

.

JOSEPHUS
dS€X(t)6p
Aetas"

*AvTLyovov, ou
etx^^'

rj-yci-a

re

Kal

rrjg

^aat-

KOLVCovou
y

kt^lv^l

hta^oXcov

a? ol Trovqpol rojv €V€OK€vdoavT0. ra fieu Srj Trpajra Sltjttlgt^l tols XeyofMei'OLS 6 ^ApLaro^ovXo?, are Sr] /cat rov d8eA(l>6i^

yap /cat rovrov eV Kara ro ^aoiXeiov

dyaTTcou

/cat
.

StSou?
ojs
S'

(f)d6va)

to,

ttoAAo,

tcou

73 XoyoTTOLOVjJiivcxjv

o
deep,

^

Avriyovo?
avve^rj
re'Aet

Xapurpos
fj

diTO Grparelag "^XOev etV ttju ioprrjv, iu
TTOtetCT^at

gkyjuo/car'

TTarpLOV

ro)

piev

eVetVab ra? rjpLepas voocp

;!^p7^(7aCT^at

tov 'AptCTTOttjs

^ovXoVy TOV he
lidXiara
74 vrrep

Avriyovov eVt dva^dvTa perd raJv irepl avrov
^

ioprrj?
cb? ivrjv

OTrXircoVy

KCKoap-qpevov,
kolv

rdBeX(f)oO.

rovrco

TrpooKwrjoai ro rrXeov npooLOvreg ol ttovt]-

pol ro) /SaatAet r-qu re TToprr-qv

rwu

ottXltcvu iS-q-

Xovu /cat TO Trapdor-qpLa rou Wuriyovou pLei^ov rj Kar^ ISicorrju, on re Trapelr]^ perd p-eyiorov ovvrdypiaro? duaip-qacov avrov ov yap dvexeodai npLT^v pLouou €K /SacTtAet'a? ^X^^> irapov avr-qu Karaax^LU 75 (3) Tovroi? Kard piKpov aKiov intGrevorev 6 ^ApLGro^ovXo?, /cat irpovoaJv rov pi'qO* V7to7TT€Voju yeveodat Kal 7Tpor)G(f)aXLGdaL npo? to (f>av€p6? dBrjXou KadLGTrjGL^ p,kv rov^ oojp.aro(f)vXaKas €i TLVL Ta)V VTTOyaLOJV dXapL77€L, KaT€K€LTO S' cV T7^ AvTOJvia pLerovopia Bapet rrporepov aO^t? S' odeLGT], TTpoord^a? di-OTrXou pL€u aTrexeodaL, kt€l veiu 8e rou WuTLyovov, ei /xerd rcov ottXojv npoGLOL Kal Tjpos avTOv enepLipev rov<; Trpoepovura^ dviXdelu. rrpos rovro nduv rravovpyajg r 76 ottXov ^aaiXiGGa GwrdoGeraL puerd roju im^ovXajv
^

C;

irapiqei

the rcbt.

"

oUotijoi

LVN.

36

JEWISH WAR,
person of

I.

72-76

(

= ant.

xiii.

303-308)

his brother Antigonus, whom he loved and had made partner of his kingdom for he slew him also, owing to calumnies concocted by knavish
;

murders

\

AnTigonn;

courtiers.

Aristobulus at

first

distrusted their state-

ments, out of affection for his brother and because he attributed most of these fabricated reports to envy. But one day when Antigonus had come in pomp from a campaign to attend the festival at which, according to national custom, tabernacles are erected in God's honour," Aristobulus happened to be ill and, at the close of the ceremony, Antigonus, surrounded by his bodyguard and arrayed with the utmost splendour, went up (to the Temple) and offered special worship on his brother's behalf. Thereupon these villains went off to the king and told him of the mihtary escort and of Antigonus 's air of assurance, grander than became a subject, and that he was coming with an immense body of troops to put him to death, disdaining the mere honours of royalty when he might occupy the throne itself. (3) Gradually and reluctantly Aristobulus came to
;

Taking precautions at once to conceal his suspicions and to secure himself against risks, he posted his bodyguards in an unlit subterranean passage he was lying at the time in the castle formerly called Baris, afterwards Antonia with orders to let Antigonus pass, if unarmed, but to kill him if he approached in arms. To Antigonus liimself he sent instructions to come unarmed. To neet the occasion the queen concerted with the :;onspirators a very crafty plot. They induced the
believe these insinuations.

<•

The autumn

feast of

Sukkoth or Tabernacles.

37

JOSEPHUS
TOVS yO-p 7T€[l(f)9€VTaS TTeidoVGLV TO, fl€V TTapOL TOV ^aoiXeojs OLajTrrjaat, Aeyeiv Be npo? rov 'Avrtyovov ojs 6 aheX(f)6s OLKovoag orrXa re avrco rrap€GK€VaK€VaL KoXXlGTa KOI TToXepHKOV KOGfjLOV €V TTJ FaAiAata, Sea fiev rrjv aGdiveiav avro? eVtSetv eKciGTa KOjXvOeLT], vvv 8' eVet /cat ^ajpit^eGdai f.LeXXoL'?, BeaGaiT^ av T^Stara g€ iv rols ottXolsTaur' aKOVGag 6 Wvriyovos, evrjyev 8' r^ (4-) 77 TOV aheX(f)ov hiddeGi? fxriheu V7T07rT€V€LV TTovrjpov,

ix^P^^
rcovo?

P-^TO.

Tcov

ottXojv,

CO?

Trpog

eTTtSet^a'.

y€v6p,6i'o? Se

Kara

rr]v GKOT€Lvr)v

ndpoSov, ErpaCTCo/xaro^uAa-

eKaXeiTo

rrvpyos,

vtto

tcov

Kcov dvaipeLTai, j^e^aiov OLTToheL^ag

on

TTO-Gav

eu-

voiav KOI ^vGiv KOTTTei Sia^oXr)

Kal

ovSev ovtojs
(f)d6va}

Twv
78
(5)

dyadcoi'

Tradow LGXvpov, o to)

p^e^p^

Tjavros avTe)(€L.
8* dv rt? eV tovtco kol 'louSai', yivos ovk cgtlv ore TrraiGas rj ipeuoOels eV Tols TTpoarrayyeXp^aGLV, o? ineiS-q Kal rore TOV ^AvTiyouov e^eacraro irapiovTa Sta tov Upov, npos TOVS yvajplfj-ov? dueKpayev, rjaau 8' ovk dXiyoL TTapehpevovTes avTco tojv pavdavovTOJV, 79 " 77a7rat, vvv epLol KaXov," e0^, "to Oavetv, 6t€ pov^ 7TpoTe6vrjK€v Tj dXrjdeLa /cat tl tojv vtt^ ipLOV TTpopprjdevTcov yap ^AvTiyovog BUiJjevGTaL' l^fj ovtogI Grjpepov d(j)eiX(jjv di'T^prjadai. ;^c/jpiop' 8e avTO) TTpos G(f)ayrjv Srpartoi'o? nvpyos etpapTO' Kal TOVTO pkv (1770 e^aKOGLCov evTevdev GTahiojv eGTiv, ihpai he ttjs r^pepas TJhrj TeGoapeg. 6 8rj SO xpdvog eKKpovei to p,dvT€VpLa." tgvt^ eLTTojv gkv dpcjTTos irrl crvvvoias 6 yepojv SteKapTepeLj Kal

SavpaGai
Tjv

"YjGGOlos

^

Niese:

/j.oi

mss,

38


JEWISH WAR,
I.

76-80

(

= ant.

xiii.

308-313)

messengers to keep the king's orders to themselves, and instead to tell Antigonus that his brother had heard that he had procured for himself some very fine armour and military decorations in Galilee that illness prevented him from paying a visit of inspec" but, now that you are on the point of detion parture, I shall be very glad to see you in your armour." (4) On hearing this, as there was nothing in his
;

;

brother's disposition to arouse his suspicions, Antigonus went off in his armour as for a parade. On reaching the dark passage, called Strato's Tower, he was slain by the bodyguard affording a sure proof that calumny severs all ties of affection and of nature, and that of our better feelings none is strong enough to hold out interminably against envy. (5) Another feature of this case which may well Predict! excite astonishment was the conduct of Judas. He murfer was of Essene extraction, and his predictions had Judas ti never once proved erroneous or false." On this occasion, seeing Antigonus passing through the court of the temple, he exclaimed to his acquaintances a considerable number of his disciples were seated beside him " Ah me now were I better dead, since truth has died before me and one of my prophecies has been falsified. For yonder is Antigonus alive, who ought to have been slain to-day. The place predestined for his murder was Strato's Tower, and that is 600 furlongs from here and it is already the fourth hour of the day. So time Having said this, the old frustrates the prophecy."
;

!

;

man remained plunged
«

in

gloomy meditation.
ii.

A

For the Essenes as prophets see B.

159 with note.

39

.

JOSEPHUS
/Li€r'

oXiyov

avrjpriix^vos

WvTLyovos
o
§17

T^yyeAAero

Kara ro vrroyatov x^P^oVy
Tojvo?

Kal avTO Srpa-

81

IkqX^Ito TTvpyos, ofiowvi-hovu rfj TTapaXlaj KaLdapcLa. rovro yovv rov jxavTiv hicrdpa^ev €vdv^ rj nepl rov fir)v (6) ^ApiGTO^ovXoj ye ^voovs /jLeraiieXeia vooov €vgki]7tt€L Kal npos evvoLav rod (fyovov rrjv ipvy^-qv e^ow dec rerapay
f >

fj.€vr)v

Gvv€Ti]K€ro,
rrjg

ff-^XP^

"^^^

GTrXdyxvajv

vtt
atfJLa

dKpdrov
iK(f)€pojv

XvTrrj?

GTraparrofJLevcov
rfj

ddpovv

82 ai'a/SaAAet.

rovro ris rcov iv
SaLfiovLw
TTpovoia
€G(f)aKro,
8'

depaTTeia rraihcov

G(j)dXXerai

Kad*

ov

roTTov

*

Avrlyoi^og

Kal

(j^awofJievoLS

en

TOts" a77o

rod

(f)6vov gttlXols

ro aifxa rod Kreivavros

i7T€^€X€€V.

rfpOif]

evOvs
rrj?

fievon', (Zorrep
8'i

eTrirvihes

rojv OeaGaolfjLOfyrj rod rraihos eK€L irrcKara-

GTTeiGavros
jSacriAeu?

ro
rr]v

alfia.

Se

^orjg

d/coJaa?
Kal

o

alriav

€7TVvddvero,

ixrjhevos

roXfjLwvros elrreZv fidXXov eveKeiro fiadelv ideXojv
dTTeiXovvri Kal ^iSta^o/xeVoj rdXrjOes elrrov. rovs 6(f)9aXfiovg efi—LTrX-qGL haKpvojv Kal 84 Grevd^a? ogov rjv avroj Svi'afjLLS elrrev " ovk dpa Seov /leyav 6(l)6aXii6v eV epyois dSepLiroLS

reXo?
6 he

5'

XrjG€LV

efieXXov,

dXXd

fie

rax^la
fJLOi,

fiereiGu

Slktj

4>6vov

Gvyyevovs.

P-^XP^ tou^
8'

Gcofia

duathe-

orrarov, rrjv dSeXcfxx) Kal pLifrpl KaraKpirov

^v^^v

Kade^eis;
fjLepos

P^XP^ rov^
af/xa;
raTs"

avrol?^ eiTLGTreLGOj Kara

rovjiov

Kal

iJLr]Keri

Xa^erojGav dOpoov rovro, eK rwv ifxdjv GrrXdyx^ojv x*^^^^
:

'

^ Niese ttoO mss. Destinon (with Lat.): ai'ros mss.

0

JEWISH WAR,
little

I.

80-84

(

= ant.

xiii.

313-317)

later

came the news that Antigonus had been
underground quarter,
also called, like

slain in the

the maritime Caesarea, Strato's Tower." It was this identity of names which had disconcerted the seer. (6) Remorse for his foul deed had the instant effect The of aggravating the malady of Aristobulus. His mind ever distracted with thoughts of the murder, he fell into a decline until, sheer grief rending his entrails, he threw up a quantity of blood. While removing this, one of the pages in attendance slipped, so divine providence willed, on the very spot where Antigonus had been assassinated, and spilt on the yet visible stains of the murder the blood of the murderer. An instantaneous cry broke from the spectators, believing that the lad had intentionally poured the bloody libation on that spot. The king, hearing the cry, inquired what was its cause, and, when no one ventured to tell him, became more insistent in his desire to be informed. At length, under pressure of threats, they told him the truth. W^ith tears filling his eyes and a groan such as his " My lawremaining strength permitted, he said less deeds, then, were not destined to escape God's mighty eye ; swift retribution pursues me for my kinsman's blood. How long, most shameless body, wilt thou detain the soul that is sentenced to a brother's and a mother's vengeance ? How long shall I make them these drop-by-drop libations of my blood ? Let them take it all at once, and let heaven cease to mock them with these dribbling
; :

enc

" For Strato's Tower on the coast, afterwards rebuilt by Herod the Great and renamed Caesarea, see B. \. 408 The quarter in Jerusalem so called is not mentioned elseff".

where except
VOL.
II

in the parallel

passage
c 2

in

A.

xiii.

41

JOSEPHUS
eTTeipajpeveadoj
deoj? reXevra
85
(iv.

l)

ro haifiovLOV." raur' etTTOju ev^aoiXevoas ov ttX^lov eVtaurou. Avoaoa 8' 77 yvvr] tov? dSeA^oi)? avrov

PaoiXea
rjXLKLav

KadioT-qaiv 'AAe^avSpoi^, rov koI Kad^ Koi iieTpiOTrjTL npovxeiv SoKOVura. 6 8e TTapeXOcjv els ttjv i^ovoiav rov erepov pceu tojv kt€lv€l, tov 3e /caraAi/xdSeXcfxjji' ^aoiXeLcjjvra dyarrcovTa to l^rjv hi\a Trpay/jLarcov 77ai'6p.€Pou
{'2)

86

FtWrat

8'

avTco

kol

Trpo?

top
ttoXlv

Addovpop
^Aooj)(lp

iTTLKXrjdcvTa

YlToXefxatop
77/30C
T-fjs

avpL^oXi]

TjprjKOTa, Kal ttoAAoi)? fi€P dpelXep tcop rroXefiLcop,
T)

be

PLKT]

UToXe/jLOLOP

€pp€ip€P.

inel

8'

KXeoTTaTpas SLOJxdel? els AiyvrrTOP dv€)(d)prjoep, 'AAe^ai'Spo? Vahdpcup T€ ttoXlopklo. KpaT€L Kal WfxadovPTOs, o 8r} fieyLcrTOP fjikv 'i)p epvfjLa tcop vnep ^lopSdprjp, to. ri/xtaSrara 8e Tojp OeoScopou tov 7jT]pcdvos KTiqpidTtop rip ip eTTeXdojp 8' e^aL(j)Piqs 6 0eo8topos" ra T€ 87 avTOj. o(f>€Tepa Kal ttjp tov ^acrtAecas" drrooKevi^p alpei,
oiiTos
VTTO
fjii-jTpos

TCOP

8*

^lovbalajp els fivplovs KTeipei.
TTjS
TrXrjyijs

yipeTai 8'
TpaTTOfiepos

eTrdpcj

WXe^avbpos Kal
vcf)^

els TTjP TTapdXiOP alpel

Tdt^ap Te Kal 'Pd(f)Lap Kal

WpOqhopa
88
(3)

T-rjP

avdis

'HpcoBou tov ^aoiXecjJS

^AypiTTTndSa e7n KXrjde to ap.
'E^av8pa77o8to-a/xeVcu Se raura? enapiaTaTak
ep
:

to
*

^lovhaiKOP
iv
Ti/jLT]

eopTrj'

fidXiOTa

yap

ep
xiii.

rats
323.

om.

.Mss.

inserted

by Hudson from A.

" Salina (t\/. Salome) or Alexandra, ^. xiii. 330. Though Josephus never expressly says so, it appears certain that besides the throne, she gave Alexander Jannaeus her banc in marriage. For her sub'sequent reign see ^ 107.

4t>

JEWISH WAR,
offerings
his

I.

84-88

(

= ant

xiii.

318-372)

from my entrails." With these words on hps he expired, after a reign of no more than a

year.

(iv. 1) The widow of Aristobulus " released his alexan: imprisoned brothers and placed on the throne 104^^3^^^ Alexander, who had the double advantage over the others of seniority and apparent moderation of character. However, on coming into power, he put to death one brother, who had aspirations to the throne the survivor, who was content with ^ a quiet Hfe, he held in honour. (2) He also had an encounter with Ptolemy, sur- His eaiij named Lathyrus, who had taken the town of Asochis ^^^^^" although he killed many of the enemy, victory inchned to his opponent. But when Ptolemy, pursued by his mother Cleopatra, retired to Egypt,^ Alexander besieged and took Gadara and Amathus, the latter being the most important of the fortresses beyond Jordan and containing the most precious possessions of Theodorus, son of Zeno. Theodorus, however, suddenly appearing, captured both his own treasures and the king's baggage and put some ten thousand Jews to the sword. Alexander, nevertheless, recovering from this blow, turned towards the coast and captured Gaza, Raphia, and Anthedon, a town which subsequently received from King Herod the
;

;

name
(3)

of Agrippias.'^
'f^y^j^^.^^^

After his reduction of these places to servitude, the Jewish populace rose in revolt against him at
^
<*

against

i

to Cyprus, where he reigned after his expulsion by Cleopatra from the throne of Egypt A» xiii. 328, 358. See B. i. 416 (where the name is givefl as Agrippeion).
;
"*

Or " loved." More correctly

43

.

JOSEPHUS
€vujxiaLS

avTOJv

orduLS airrerai.

Koi

iSoKCL
el
(jltj

jjurj

to OtacSat /cat KiAt/ce? rqaav T.vpov£ yap ovk eS^x^TO fiLoOocfiopovs Slol rr^v avra)v Trpos ro ^dvos aTrexdcLav. eiJ.(f)vrov 80 Kreivas Se tcjv iTTavacrravTcov vrrep e^aKiGXiXtovg 'ApajSta? rjTTTero, kol raxjTrj? eAtui^ roAaaStra? /cat Woja^lra?, chopov re avroig eTTLrd^as, dveuTpeipev eVt AjxaOovvra. QcoScupov 8e Trpos- rd? evrrpayias avrov^ KaraTrXayevros eprjfiov Xa^ojv to
Kp€LTTajv yeveadat rrjs ^ei/iKou avTO) Tiape^orjdei'

av

eTn^ovXrjs,

^

(f>povpLov

KareoTKatpev
(ivfx^aXdjv

90

(4)

"ErretTa

'O^eSa

to)

Wpd^ojp

91

^aaiXel TTpoXoxioavTi Kara rriv TavXdvriv ivehpa^ avroj yevopLewrjg Trdoav dTTo^dXXec Tr]v orpandv crvvLoodeZcrav Kara ^aOeias (f>dpayyo? /cat nXijde KajjLi'jXajp ovvrpL^eZaav. SLa(f)vyd)V 8' avro^ et'v 'lepoGoXvfjLa roj fxeyedet rrj^ ovii^opds rrdXa fJLLaovv TO edvo? r^pediGev els eTravdaraaLV yivera he /cat TOT€ Kpeirrajv /cat /Lta;^at? eVaAAT^Aot? ovh eXarrov TTevraKiGfjivpLajv ^Xouhaiojv dveZXev iv ii €T€GLV. ov jJLTjv €v<f)paiver6 ye Tat? VLKaig ttj iavrov ^aGiXeiav dvaXiGKcov' ddev TravGdficvo Tojv ottXojv XoyoLS i-rrexeipei hiaXveGdai rrpog rov
.
.

02 VTTorerayixevovs

ol he fxaXXov €/jllgovv ttju /uerd
,

tou rponov ro dvcopiaXov nvvOa pofieuco re [ro ainowY re av TTonjoag KaraGrelXeLt avrovg, dirodavajv, eXeyov veKpd) ydp av htaX XayrjvaL /xoAt? rat rooavra hpdGavrc. dfia he kq rov "AKaipov eTTLKXrjdevra AT^^ry-ptov eireKaXovvr
/cat
^

voiau avrov

omit Destinon

avTov Lat., Hegesippus: avrov mss. has probably arisen out of rt
:

tI &*»,

44-

JEWISH WAR,
;

I.

88-92

(

= ant.

xiii.

374-376)

one of the festivals for it is on these festive occasions that sedition is most apt to break out. It was thought that he would never have quelled this conspiracy, had not his mercenaries come to his aid. These were natives of Pisidia and Cilicia Syrians he did not admit to the force on account of their innate hatred of his nation. After slaying upwards of six thousand of the insurgents, he attacked there he subdued the people of Galaad Arabia and Moab and imposed tribute upon them, and then
; ;

Theodorus being overawed by his victories, he found the fortress abandoned and razed it to the ground. (4) He next attacked Obedas, king of Arabia. The latter having laid an ambuscade near Gaulane, Alexander fell into the trap and lost his entire army, which was cooped into a deep ravine and crushed under a multitude of camels. He himself escaped to Jerusalem, but the magnitude of his disaster pro^^oked the nation, which had long hated him, to insurYet once again he proved a match for them, fjjg lo^g rection. ind in a succession of engagements in six years killed war with no fewer than fifty thousand Jews. His victories, tiowever, by which he wasted his realm, brought him desisting, therefore, from hosittle satisfaction lilities, he endeavoured to conciliate his subjects by But his change of policy and inconDersuasion. nstency of character only aggravated their hatred md when he inquired what he could do to pacify even death would hardly Lhem, they replied " Die reconcile us to one ffuiltv of your enormities." Thev ^"^ ^'^^^ simultaneously appealed for aid to Demetrius, sur- theUnread
;
;

returned once more to Amathus.

;

45

.

JOSEPHUS
pahioj<;

Kal
03

ii€Ta.

he VTraKovaaprog Kar^ ^XrrLda il€ll6vojv cTTparid? tJkovto'^ uvveiiioyov ol 'louSatot
5'

rot? GU/X/.Ld)(OL? TTepl ^iKLiia.
(5)
fj.ev

\exerai
he

eKarepovs WXe^avhpos
be
rrelol'^

LTTTTcvaL

)(lXlols, fiLado(f)6poLg

OKraKLcrxiXioL^'

TTaprjv

avroj

Kal

to

eiJi'oovi'

'lovSaiKov

els

fjLupLOVS.

Twv

S*

evavriojv In— el'? p.ev rjuav rpccr/JLvptoi reTpaKLOxiXiOL. Kal —plv hiaKrjpvauovres ol ^aatXels eVet-

XlXlol,

ne^ajv he
Tcjju

els ;(etpas' eXOelv

paJUTO
fxeu

TTap^ dXX-qXoLS

drroaraGewv

,

ArjiJLtjrpLos

Tovs WXe^di^hpov puaOochopovs, WXe^avhpos he Tovs dfxa Ar]fjLrjTpLCp ^lovhaiovs pieraTTeioeLV 9 eXrrLoas. cos S' ovre ol ^lovhalot Ouijlcov,^ out€ ol "EXXrjves eTTavaavTO TrlaTeojs, hieKpivov>70 rjhr) rols Kparel he rfj fidx^] ^rjfi-q95 ottXols avfiTTeoovres. jpios, KalroL TToXXd raw WXe^dvhpov iJiLodo(f)6pcou Kal iJjvxT]S ^py^ Kal x^f-pos eTTihei^afievcov. x^P^^ he TO -eXos TTJs TTapard^ecos Trapd ho^av dfxchorepois' ovre yap SrjpLrjrpicp Trapefieivav vlkojvtl ol KaXeaavres, Kal Kar* oIktov rrjs fJLera^oXijs 'AAe(di'hpoj 77 po a excoprjaav els to. oprj KaTa(f)vy6vTL
1

'\ovhaLOjp

qveyKev

Arj/jLi^rpLos,

e^aKLGxlXiOL. ravr-qv rr^v poTrrjv ovk aAA' VTToXa^ojv rjhr] fiev d^io-

p.axov elvai ndXiv WXe^avhpov, pLerappelv he Kal -nav TO edvos els avrov, dvex^J^iprjaev
im
(6)

Ol)

p.r]u

TO

ye

Xolttov

nXijOos

VTToxcupy]

odvTOjv

Tcjjv

GVfjLfidxojv

KaTedevTO ra? htac^opds
tjv

ovvex'^S he Ttpos

WXe^auhpov
Lat.,

avrois 6 TToXepLOS.
restores opyCjv.

C:

of,KU3i>

PAM

whence Destinon

Demetrius III, king of Syria; his nickname is else where given a5 Eukairos, "' the timely," here Akairos, " the untimely."
"

46

JEWISH WAR,

I.

92-96

(

= ant.

xiii.

377-379)

named the Unready." Hopes of aggrandizement brought from him a prompt response. Demetrius arrived with an army, and the Jews joined their aUies in the neighbourhood of Sichem. (5) Their combined forces, amounting to three thousand horse and fourteen thousand foot, were met by Alexander with one thousand horse and eight thousand foot, mercenaries besides these he had some ten thousand Jews who were still loyal Before action the two kings endeavoured to him.^ by proclamations to cause desertion from the Demetrius hoped to win over opposite ranks Alexander's mercenaries, Alexander the Jewish allies of Demetrius. But, when neither would the Jews abate their resentment nor the Greeks their fidelity, they ended by referring the issue to the clash of arms. The battle was won by Demetrius, notwith;

;

standing many feats of gallantry and strength displayed by Alexander's mercenaries. The upshot, however, proved contrary to the expectations of both combatants. For Demetrius, the victor, found himself abandoned by those who summoned him ; while Alexander, who took refuge in the hills, was joined by six thousand Jews, moved by compassion for This turn of affairs was more his reverse of fortune. and in the belief that than Demetrius could stand Alexander was now once more his match and that the whole nation was streaming back to him, he withdrew. (6) The remainder of the people, however, did not, on the withdrawal of their allies, drop their quarrel, but waged continuous war with Alexander,
;

there The numbers in A, xiii. 377 are different Demetrius has 3000 horse and 40,000 foot, Alexander 6200 mercenaries and about 20,000 Jews.
''

:

47

JOSEPHUS
rov? AoiTroi)? CLTT-^Xaocv Kal ravTrjv KaTaGTpeipdfJLevog dvr^yay€V eiV 'lepoaoAu/xa. -npov97 alxfJ-aXcoTOvg Koipev 8' avTOj 8t' V7T€p^oXr]u opyrjs €t9 doe^etau
fLexpi- rrXeicTTOvs OLTTOKrea'ag

€iV Be/LteaeAii' ttoXlv,

ro

rrj?

dnioTTiros'

twv yap

Xr]<f)d€vrojv

movs dvacrravpojoag
ravra
cucrre

eV pL^ar] rfj ttoXel

oKraKoyvvalKa? re

Kal TEKva avrojv d7T€o4)a^€V <eV>^ rat? 6ip€GL, Kal ttlvojv Kal (jvyKaraKeLjievog rat? TraXXaKiOLV TouavTiq Se KardnX-q^LS ecrx^v rov 8rJ/xoi/, 98 d(f)€copa.

Kara r-qv iTnovaav OKraKiox^Xiovg e^o) 'louSaia? oAt7?, ofs" opog rrj? (f)vyfj? 6 ^AXe^dvhpou Odvaros Kardarq. roLOvroL£ epyoi? oipe Kal jjl6Xl<; -qcrvxLau rfj ^aoLXeia TTopLuag dvcTTavaaro rcov ottXluv. 99 (7) Tiverai 8e avrat TrdXii' dpx'q 6opv(Sa)v ^Avrioxo£ 6 Kal Alovvgos^ irriKXriOeis, I^rjjjuqrpiov fi€V d8eA<^os' ctJ^', reXeurdlog 8e rd)v djTO SeAeL'/cou. rovrov yap Setaa? arpareveGdaL inl rous "ApajSa? (LpijL-qpevov, ro fieu piera^v rrjg vrrep ^ AvriTrarpihos 7Tapojp€LOV Kal row 'Iottt^? alytaXcju SLara(f)p€V€L (f>dpayyL ^adela, Trpo 8e rrjg rd^pov relxos rjyeLpeu vip-qXov Kal ^vXivovs 7Tvpyov<^ iver^Kr-qvaro rd? ov fx-qv elp^al ye 100 eu/xapet? ip^oXdg d7TO(f)pdrr ojv. rov Avrioxov lgx^gcv ipLirp-qGas yap rovs TTvpyov? Kal r-qv rd(j>pov ;)^ajcra? hi-qXavve pLcrd ri]? Suvdpecos OepLevos 5' iv Sevrepqj rrjv Trpo? rov kwXv101 Gavra dpLvvav evdus cttI rov? "Apa^a? fjei. rcov S* d ^aoiXev? dvaxojpdJv €tV rd ;]^/)7]crt/.<.oSTepa rrj?
dirLoraoLaarwu

rwv

vvKra

(f>vy€LV

^

.

^

ins.
:

Herwerden.
for text
rf.

*

Aioi'vcnos Mss.

A.

xiii.

387.

«

In A.

xiii.

380 Bethome (unidentified).

JEWISH WAR,

I.

96-101

(

= ant.

xiii.

380-391)

until, after killing a very large number of them, he having subdued drove the rest into Bemeselis " this town, he brought them up to Jerusalem as prisoners. vSo furious was he that his savagery went He had eight hundred of to the length of impiety. his captives crucified in the midst of the city, and their wives and children butchered before their eyes, while he looked on, drinking, with his concubines reclining beside him. Such was the consternation of the people that, on the following night, eight thousand of the hostile faction fled beyond the pale of Judaea their exile was terminated only by Alexander's death. Having, by such deeds, at last with difficulty secured tranquillity for the realm, he rested from warfare. (7) A fresh cause of disturbance, however, arose in the person of Antiochus, surnamed Dionysus, brother of Demetrius and the last of the Seleucid hne.'' This prince having set out on a campaign against the Arabs, Alexander, in alarm, dug a deep dyke to intercept him, extending from the mountainside above Antipatris to the coast at Joppa, and in front of the trench erected a high wall with wooden towers inserted, in order to bar the routes where attack was easy. However, he failed to check Antiochus, who burnt the towers, levelled the trench and marched across with his army. Deferring his vengeance on the author of this obstruction he at once pushed on against the Arabs. The Arabian king began by retiring to territory more favourable
;

His

^^^^ewf

;

His

last

"

Antiochus XII Dionysus,

c.

86-85

b.c.

Thie last of the

Seleucid line, before Syria became a 64 B.C., was actually Antiochus XI 1 House of Seleucus, ii. 266 f.).

Roman
1

province in Asiaticus (Bevan,

49

JOSEPHUS
eVeira tt)v lttttov €^aL(f)vr]S tov apidfjiov, dra/^rot? €7TL7TL7TT€L TOtS" 776/31 TOV ^AuTLOXOV. KapTCpd? §€ fidxy)? ycvofievr}?, €w? yikv Trepirjv Avrioxos dvT€lx^^ V Swa/xi? avrov, KatTrep dveh-qv vtto twv 102 Wpd^ojv d>Ol'€v6/J.€l'OL' TT^GOVTOS §€, KOL ydp TTpOXci)pa? TTpos
ixdxr]v,

rqv

eTTiarpeipas,

jivpia

S*

tjv

*

€Kii'Svv€V€v

det

TOtS"

-qTrajpievois

Trapaf^o-qdojv,

iyKXivovoi^ rravreg, /cat to fieu rrXelaTov avTcov iiTL re TTjS TrapaTOL^eaj? kolv ttj (f>vyfj Sta^^etperat, Tovg Se XoLTTOvg KaTa(f>vy6vTa? et? ¥>.ava} kcjo/jlyji' Gndvei Tcou eVtrrySetcuy dvaXojdrjvai avue^r] TrX-qv oXiyujv arravras. ^03 (8) 'E/c TOVTOV AapLaGKTivoL hid to irpos IlroAefjLOLOV TOV ^Xevvaiov pXGOs WpeTav eTrdyovTai Koi

KadiGTWGLV kolXtj? Su/)ia? ^acriAea. GTpaT€V€TaL 8' OVT09 eVt Tr)v 'louSatW /cat f^'^XV ^'^^^crct?
104

AAe^ai/Spoi' /card

GvudT]Ka<;

d^'e;\;c(Spr]o€^'.

'AAe|--

avSpo? Se rieAAat' eAcoi^ eVi Fepacrai^ ^€t TT-CLAtf Tcoi' GcoScopov KTTifidTOJV yAt;\;o/.tei'os', /cat rpto-t TOV? (f)povpov? 7T€pi^6XoLs aTTOTCLX^croi? 8t;^a' f^(^XV^ 105 TO ;^ctjptov TrapaXaixj^dvec. KaTaGTp€(f)€TaL 8e /cat
FauAa'^T^i^
/cat

ZeAcL'/cetai^

/cat

tt^v

'Ap'rto;)(OL>

cf)dpayya KaXovfiiv-qv , 77-pd? ot? Fd/xaAav (jypovpLOV KapT€.p6v iXojv, TOV dpxovTa ^ruirjTpLov iv avTcp

TTapaXvGas* e'/c ttoXXcov iyKXrjfjLdTOJv, eTrdveiGLV els \ovhaiav, rpla rrX-qpcoGas eTiq Trjs GTpaTelasdo/Jievoj? 3' 1^770 TOV edvovg iSexOr] 8td ttjv €V^ '

Bekker;

(

KKXlvovaiiv) mss.

From

./. xiii.

391

:

'Avav or

Wuua

mss.
jj

Destinon: 5id mss.: rf. A. phrase 5ia fidxv^ B. iv. 372.
^ * -<4.
A'^o'"''
:

xiii.

393

anaxl-,

and

for the
(r/.

the

other mss. have

Tre/jtXi'traj

or TreptSiVaj

irepi45iaev),

50

JEWISH WAR,
for battle,

I.

101-105

(

= ant.

xiii.

391-394)

cavalry, ten thousand strong,

and then suddenly wheeling round his fell upon the troops of

Antiochus while in disorder. A hard fought battle ensued. So long as Antiochus Hved, his forces held When out, though mercilessly cut up by the Arabs. he fell, after constantly exposing himself in the front while rallying his worsted troops, the rout became general. The bulk of his army perished either on the field or in the flight the rest took refuge in the village of Gana, where all save a few succumbed to
;

starvation.
(8)

On

the death of Antiochus, the inhabitants of

Damascus, from hatred of Ptolemy, son of Mennaeus, brought in Aretas and made him king of CoeleSyria.^ The latter made an expedition into Judaea, defeated Alexander in battle, and after concluding
a treaty withdrew.

Alexander, for

his part,

captured

and proceeded against Gerasa, hankering once more after the treasures of Theodorus.^ Having blockaded the garrison by a triple line of walls, he
Pella

carried the place without a battle.

He

also con-

quered Gaulane and Seleuceia and took the so-called " Ravine of Antiochus," He further captured the strong fortress of Gamala and dismissed its commander, Demetrius, in consequence of numerous accusations. He then returned to Judaea after a campaign of three whole years. His successful career brought him a cordial welcome from the nation yet
;

trict in
"

Ptolemy was king of Chalcis and the surrounding disCoele-Syria (c. 85-40 B.C.) ; Aretas was king of the Nabataean Arabs.
°'

Cf.

§

86.

51

1

.

JOSEPHIS
TTpayiaVy Kal Xaf.L^dv€L ttjv avaTravoLV rov TroXe/JLEtv
106 dpxrjv

rerapraiaLS he nepLoSoig TTvperow SiaKpovoeadac^ ttjv voaov ttclXlv oupd/xei'o? TTpay/jbdrcov. Sio Srj aTpareiais dKalpoLS lavTOV imhibov? Kal ^lat^ojievos Trapd ovvai.Lii^ TO ooifia irpos ra? ivepyela? ciTTT^AAa^ei^. TeAeura yovv iv fjicaocs rot? dopv^OLS GTp€(f)6/x€uos
voGOV.
cvoxXov/JLeuo?
4^'^^'0

^acnXevaa?
107

eTTTOL Trpos

rots €ikoglu err].

tt^i' ^aaiXeiav ^AXc^dvSpa yvvatKL TTerreLGjjLevo? TavTfi (xdiXiOT^ av vrraKOVaai Tovg 'louSat'ofS', eVetSi] rrjg ojpior-qros avrov drroSeovaa Kal raZs Trapavoyiiais dvdfjLaKpdv Kal 108 iGrafievT] row SrjfjLoi' els evi'OLav TTpoorjydyero} ov hnj/jLaprev rijs eA77iSo?" CKpdr-qaev yap rrjs o.px^S TO yvvaiov hid ho^av eucre^eta?. rjKpl^ov yap Sr) fidXiora rov edvov?^ rd Ttdrpia Kal rovg TTXrjfjLfieXovvTas: eiV rov? t'epous' vopiovs i$ ^PXV^ 8vo S' avrfj Traihojv ovrojv i^ 'AAe^109 rrpoe^dXXero. dlSpOV, r6l> fjL€V 7Tp€G^VT€pOU 'YpKaVOV Sid T€ TTjV -qXiKiav d-oSeiKi'VGLv apxiepla Kal dXXcos ovra vojQeGrepov rj ctjore eVo;^Aeti^ Trepl rajv oXcov, rov Se vfojrepov WptGTo^ovXov 8ta depfio-r^ra Karelx^v

(v.

1)

KaraActWi Se

rfj

IhLCJTiqV
1

10

1

1

he avrijs els ttjv e^ovGiav (2) Wapa(j)Vovrai ^apiGaloL, Gvuraypid tl 'Iou8ata>y hoKovv evGe^eGTepov elvai rcov dXXojv Kal tovs vopLovs aKpt^earepov d<^i]yeZGdai. tovtois TrepiGGOv hr] tl TrpoGelxev r) 'AXe^dvhpa oeao^rnievr]^ nepl to
Oelov.

ol

he
*

TTjv

aTzAorr^ra

ttjs

di'dpcorrov
mss.

/card

Bekker: 5iaKpo0caa6ai

*
'

irporjydyfTo
fdfiov

AM

:

npoa*

PAM*.

M

supported by B. i. 153. margin: ce^onfi'-q the rest.
is

52

JEWISH WAR,
rest
Afflicted

I.

105-111

(

= ant.

xiii.

398-407)

from war proved but the beginning of disease. by a quartan ague, he hoped to shake off the malady by a return to active hfe. He, accordingly, plunged into ill-timed campaigns and, forcing himself to tasks beyond his strength, hastened his end. He died, at any rate, amid stress and turmoil, Hisdi '^ ^'^ after a reign of twenty-seven years. (v. 1) Alexander bequeathed the kingdom to his Queer wife Alexandra, being convinced that the Jews would ;^gt69 bow to her authority as they would to no other, because by her utter lack of his brutality and by her opposition to his crimes she had won the affections of the populace. Nor was he mistaken in these
expectations
reins of
;

for this frail

woman

firmly held the

government, thanks to her reputation for piety. She was, indeed, the very strictest observer of the national traditions and would deprive of office ^ any offenders against the sacred laws. Of the two sons whom she had by Alexander, she appointed the elder, Hyrcanus, high priest, out of consideration alike for his age and his disposition, which was too the lethargic to be troubled about public affairs younger, Aristobulus, as a hot-head, she confined to
;

a private life. (2) Beside Alexandra, and growing as she grew, Growi arose ^ the Pharisees, a body of Jews with the g^^S reputation of excelling the rest of their nation in the observances of religion, and as exact exponents of the laws. To them, being herself intensely religious, while they, she listened with too great deference gradually taking advantage of an ingenuous woman,
;

*
*

Or perhaps
Literally,
"

" banish
tree).

from the realm." grew up beside into her power "

(like

suckers round a

53

JOSEPHUS
fiLKpou

V7n6vT€S
Slojk€LV

^1^7]

Kal

8toiK'r/Tat

Tojv

oAojv

eyivovTOy

T€

Kal

Kardyetv ovs iSeXoiev,
8'

Xv€Lv re Kal heoyLelv.
(T6t?
Tcui'

KaOoXov
rrjs

at fikv airoXav-

^aaiXeiojv iKeivujv -qoav, ra S'

avaXojSeLur]

112/xaTa Kal at Bvax^peLat
S*
-^u

WXe^cii'Spa?.
re
del

ovyKporovaa hiTrXaoiova KarecrrrjGev Kal ^evLKrju avvI'lyayev ovk oXiyrju, clj? fJ-r] fiouow Kparvi^ecrdaL ro oLKelov edvo<;, <j)o^epdv Se Kal rolg e^wdev elvai eKpdrei he rojv fieu dXXcov ai3rr), Swdorai?.
TO.

fieiCco

hiOLKelv,

hvuafjLLv

Oapicjatot 5' avrrj?.
113
(3)

Aioyeurjv

yovi^

riva

rwv

eTnoTJpLOJV,

(f>iXov

KreivovoLV avroi,^ avfi^ovXov eyKaXovvreg yeyovevat neplrcjv duaorravpcoiwrjyoi' 8e devrojv v7t6 rod ^aoiXeajs OKraKooiajv.
'AAe^ai'Spoj y€y€vrjij.evov y
rrfv

WXe^duhpav eh to Kal
8'

rov^g

dXXovs hia^eLpi-

oaodai ru)V Trapo^vudvrojv
avhpou- evhibovor}?
vtto

eV

eKeli'Ovs rov

WXe^-

8eicri8at/xoi^ta? dvrjpovv

lUoUb

eSeXoiev
-<JL)V

avroi.

7TpoG(f)€vyovoL

oe

'Apioro'
8ta,

^ovXcp
d^LOjfia

Kivhvvev6vr(jjv ol Trpovxeiv BoKovureg,
ttjv p.T)repa

KaKeluo? veiOei
Tcou

4>€LoaodaL p-kv
8'

ro
p.r)

di'hpoJi',

eK-ep.ipaL

avrov?,

el

eK ri]? TToXecu?. ol p.ev ovv eoKebdodrjoaw di^d rrji/ )(copaw. 115 WXe^dvSpa de eKTrepupaoa e-rrl Sap-aoKov orpartdi^, 7Tp6(f>aoL^ 8' -qv n-oAe/Ltaios" aei dXi^ow rrju ttoXlu, ravrrju p.ev v-ebe^aro prjdeu d^LoXoyov ipyaoaTiypdu-qu 8e rou Wpp.evi(jjv ^aaiXea npoo\\Q pLevrfV Kade^opievov nToA€/Ltai8t Kat TToXiopKOvira KAeoVTrelXt-jclieu,

Kadapovg
hodelariq

dSeiag

*

o^T&i

Destinon,

54

JEWISH WAR,
became
bind,

I.

111-116

(

= ANT.

xiii.

409-419)

at length the real administrators of the state,

at Hberty to banish

and

to recall, to loose

and to

they would. In short, the enjoyments of royal authority were theirs its expenses and burthens fell to Alexandra. She proved, however, to be a wonderful administrator in larger affairs, and, by continual recruiting doubled her army, besides
;

whom

body of foreign troops so that she not only strengthened her own nation, but became a formidable foe to foreign potentates. But if she ruled the nation, the Pharisees ruled her.
collecting a considerable
;

(3) Thus they put to death Diogenes, a distinguished man who had been a friend of Alexander, accusing him of having advised the king to crucify They further urged his eight hundred victims." Alexandra to make away with the others who had and as instigated Alexander to punish those men she from superstitious motives always gave way, they proceeded to kill whomsoever they would. The most eminent of the citizens thus imperilled sought refuge with Aristobulus, who persuaded his mother to spare their lives in consideration of their rank, but, if she was not satisfied of their innocence, to expel them from the city. Their security being thus guaranteed, they dispersed about the country. Alexandra sent an army to Damascus, on the Aiexand pretext of the constant pressure put upon that city p^o'^iicy? by Ptolemy the troops, however, returned to her without having achieved anything remarkable. On the other hand, by means of treaties and presents, she won over Tigranes, king of Armenia, who was c 70-69
; ;

«

§97.

55

JOSEPHUS
Ttdrpav ovvdrjKais koI hojpoLS v7n]ydy€ro (f)ddu€L 5' cKelwos OLTTavaaTds Slol rd? oIkol rapa^ds c/jl^e^X-qKOTog etV rrjv WpfievLav A^vkoXXov. 117 Kdv rovrcp vooovarjs WXe^dvhpa? 6 veco(4') T€pos Tojv Traihojv ^ Apioro^ouXog top Katpov
.

dpTtdoas pLerd rdjv OLKeicvv,^ ^'^X^^ ^^ TroAAou? Kal Trdvrag €vvovs Sta Tr]v deppLonqra, Kparei pikv rdjv cpvpLdroju drrdi'Tajv, tols 8' eV tovtcuv xPVI^^^^^
pLLodo(f)6povg
\\% rrpos

ddpoLoas eavrov dTToh^LKWOi jSacriAea. obvpopLeuou rou *YpKav6u tj pL-qr-qp OLKTelpaoa riqv re yvvaiKa Kal rovg TratSa? 'Aptaro^ovXov KaQeipyvvoLV ei? rriv Avrcoviav (fjpovpuov S' rjv TO) ^opetcp KXipcari rod Upov 7TpooKeipi€vov, TrdXai pL€u, CO? ((fy-qv, Bapt? 6uop,ai,6pL€i^oi', avdig be ravTYj? rv^dv Trjg TTpooiqyoplag iiriKpaTqaavros WvTOJVLOV, KadaTTep drro re rod He^aorov Kal WyptTTTTa ^e^aoTTj Kal XypnrTnds TToAet? eV-

ravra

^

^

119 ojvopidod-qGav

.

irplv he

eTre^eXBelv

^

AXe^dvhpa rov
reXevra

WpLGTO^ovXov
hiOLK-qaaaa
120
(vi.
1) rrfv

rrj?

rd8eX(f)OV KaraXvuecos

dpx'qv ereotv evvea.

121

KXrjpoi^opLog p.ev tjv tojv dXojv 'YpKal tojoa r-qu ^aoiXeiav evexeipioev, hvvdpieL he Kal (l)pou-qpLaTi rrpoelxev 6 Wpiaro povXos yevopLevqs he avrolg nepl tcov dXcov ovpL ^oXrjg TTepl 'lepLXOvura KaTaXiTrovre? ol ttoXXoI rdi 'YpKai'OP p-era^aivovaLV Trpo? rou ^ Apioro^ovXov o he p.erd rujv avpLpLeii'dvrojv ^Sdvet ovpi(j>vy(jJi irrl r-qv Avrojviav Kal Kvptevaag tow rrpds oojriq

Kat

Kavog,

d)

.

^

^

olKeiwv

Herwerden

:

oIk€tC}v mss.

and Niese.

" Cleopatra or Selene (A. xiii. 430), daughter of Ptolemy Physcon, and married to several of the Seleucid kings. Wi

56

JEWISH WAR,

I.

116-121

(

= ANT.

xiii.

419-xiv.

5)

seated before Ptolemais, besieging Cleopatra." He, however, had to beat a hasty retreat, recalled by domestic troubles in Armenia, which Lucullus had invaded. (4) Alexandra now falling ill, her younger son Aristobulus seized his opportunity and with the aid oi his lollowers a numerous body, every one or whom was devoted to him because of his fiery nature took possession of all the fortresses and, with the money which he found there, recruited a mercenary force and proclaimed himself king. The complaints of Hyrcanus at these proceedings moved the compassion of his mother, who shut up the wife and children of Aristobulus in Antonia. This was a fortress adjoining the north side of the temple, which, as I said,'' was formerly called Baris, but afterwards took this new name under Antony's

Revolt of
'^^^

1°^

,

supremacy
their

Augustus and Agrippa gave ^ and Agrippias.** But before Alexandra could take action against
;

just as

names

to the cities of Sebaste

Aristobulus for his deposition of his brother, she Her expired, after a reign of nine years.
(vi.

death

his

1) Hyrcanus, to whom even in her lifetime hyrcanu: " abdicai mother had entrusted the kingdom, was sole heir '" favour to the throne, but m capacity and courage was aristosurpassed by Aristobulus. A battle for the crown JjJ.'^^gV.c. took place near Jericho, when most of the troops of Hyrcanus deserted him and went over to Aristobulus. Hyrcanus, with those who remained with him, hastily :ook refuge in Antonia and secured hostages for his
.

-1

Vom Syria
§

earn from Strabo. xvi. 749, that Tigranes on his retreat carried off Cleopatra as a prisoner and sublequently put her to death.
75.
§
*

Samaria.

Formerly Anthedon,

87.

57

,

JOSEPHUS
ptav oyiiqpow ravra
fjiera rojv 7€KV(x>v.

8'

-^v

r)

WpLoropovXov
fj,ev
^

yvvrj

d/xe'Aet

rrplv

dvrjKearov TrdOovg

ht€Xvdr)oau
122

,

ojore

^aaiXeveiv
Trj<;

Apioro^ovXov
TLfirj<;

'YpKavov be eKordvra

aAAr]? d7ToXav€LU

ojo-ep dd€X(i>6v ^aatAeco?. eVt tovtol? StaAAayeVT€^ ev Toj Upoj KOI Tov Xaov rrepieoTOJTos (f)iXo(f)p6i'cos dXXrjXovs doTraodfJLevoL SiT^/xei^at' rds otVt'as"

WpLGTofSovXos
8'
\2'^

IJL€V

ydp

et? TOL /SaatAeia,

'YpKavog

dvexojprjG€v elg ttjv ^ApLoroBovXov oiKLav. (2) Aeo? 8e rols re aAAot? toii^ WpLoro^ovXov
efJLTTLTTTCL 77ap' eArrt'Sa Kpar-qaavros kol WvTLTrdTpoj 77aAat hLapaoovpLevo). yivos

hiacbopojv

lidXiora
8'
T^y

'ISou/aaios-, TTpoyoioji' re

eVe/ca /cat ttAoutou

124 /<ai 717? aAAr^?

ovtos KOL TOV 'YpKapou Wpera 7Tpoo(f)vy6ura toj ^aoiXcL rijg Wpa^las dvaKTi^aaudaL rrjv /SaatAetay CTTet^cy, K^at TOV Wperav hi^aaOai re tov 'YpKavov KOI Karayayelv eVt tt^i- dpx'rjv, ttoAAq /zey tov ^ ApiOTof^ovXov etV TO 7)^0? hiaf^aXXajVy voXXd 8' €7raLva)v rov 'YpKavov [TraprjveL Se^aadai],^ Kal (Lg 7Tp€7Tov etrj tov ovtoj XapLrrpas TrpoeoTCJTa
dfia

lgxvo? TTpcorevcvv rod edvovs.

vrrepex^Lv X^^P^ '^V dhiKOvpLevcp^' dhiKetadai 8e tov 'YpKavov (jT€pr]d€VTa Trjg Kara to rrpoKara 125 TTp^a^elov avroj TrpoomKOVGiis apx^j?OKevdoag 8e dfKfiOTepovg, vvKTOjp dvaXa^ojv tov 'YpKavov (1770 TTjs TToX^ajs dTToSiSpdoKei Kal GVV Tovcp <l)vyfj xP^'^l^^^o? ^'V '^'Tjv KaXov/jLCvqu IleTpav hiaG(x>l,€TaL' ^aoiX^iOv avTrj ttjs 'Apa^ia? ioTLV. 12t) ev6a TOJ 'ApeVa tov 'YpKavov eyx^ipioag Kal
jSaCTtAcias"

TToAAci

fJLeV

KadofliX-qGaS,

TToXXolS

8€

ScopOLg

V7T

eXBojVy hovvaL hvvapav avroj TTcldeL ttjv
*

Kard^ovGav
Destinon.

cm. Bekker.

*

tCwv ddiKov/ji^vbju

58

JEWISH WAR,

I.

121-126 (-ant. xfv. 6-17;

safety in the persons of the wife and children of However, before any irreparable harm Aristobulus. was done, the brothers came to terms, to the effect that Aristobulus should be king and Hyrcanus, while abdicating the throne, should enjoy all his other honours as the king's brother. The reconciliation on these terms took place in the temple. In the presence of the surrounding crowd they cordially embraced each other, and then exchanged residences, Aristobulus repairing to the palace, Hyrcanus to the house of Aristobulus. (2) The unexpected triumph of Aristobulus alarmed his adversaries, and, in particular, Antipater, an old

Antipat*

aKf

of^*^^

and

bitterly hated foe.

An Idumaean by

race, his

Aretas,

ancestry, wealth, and other advantages put him in rdns\at( the front rank of his nation. It was he who now "yrcam persuaded Hyrcanus to seek refuge with Aretas, king of Arabia, with a view to recovering his kingdom, and at the same time urged Aretas to receive him and to reinstate him on the throne. Heaping aspersions on the character of Aristobulus and en-

comiums on Hyrcanus, he represented how becoming
it

would be in the sovereign of so brilliant a realm extend a protecting hand to the oppressed and such, he said, was Hyrcanus, robbed of the throne which by right of primogeniture belonged to him. Having thus prepared both parties for action, Antipater one night fled with Hyrcanus from the city, and, pushing on at full speed, safely reached the capital of the Arabian kingdom, called Petra. There he committed Hyrcanus into the hands of Aretas, and, by dint of conciliatory speeches and cajoling presents, induced the king to furnish an
to
;

59

JOSEPHUS
avTou'
aX\'
127
Tju

S'

avri]
tjv

TieCcou

re

Kal

LTTrretov

7T€1'T€

yLvpidheS'
eV

TTpo?
TT7

ovk avTeo^ev "ApLaro^ovXo?,
GVfx^oXfj

TrpcoTTj

AeKpdcls

€t?

'lepo^r]-

ooAvfia GVi'eXavverai.
<f)6€is
,

nav

€(f)drj

Kara Kpdros

€L

/JLT)

^Kavpos 6
pikv

'Poj/JLaLOW orpaT-qyog in-

avacrrds avrcbu rols KaLpol? eAucjc ttju TToXiopKLav
OS
i7T€p.(f)dri

€19

^vpcav

citto

'

nofiTrrjLOV

Mayt-ou

TToXep-ovvros

rrpos

Apfxevias vno Tiypdv-qv,

7Ta.pay€v6fieuo? Se etV

AafxaoKov eaXcvKvlav Trpoo-

Mer^AAou /cat AoXXlov Kal toutov? p.€TaGTrjaag eTrcLb-q rd Kara rrjv ^lovhaiav luvdero,
^drojs
V7t6
,

Kaddrrep €<f)^ epfiaiov rjTTelxdr]. 128 (3) riapeXOourog yovv et? rr)v \ojpav rrpio^eis evdiojg TjKOv napd row dbeAchow, eKarepov Seopiivov ^orjdelv avroj. yiverai S' iTTiTTpoaOev rov biKaiou rd rrapd ApiGro^ovAov rpiaKoota rdXavra'
'

roGovrov yap Xa^ow ^Kavpos eTTLKT] pvK€V€r ai rrpos T6 'YpKauov Kal rovs "Apa^a?, d—eiXcov 'Pajfiaiovg
€L XvG€Lav rrju TToXiopKiav. fJLT] €K rrjs '\ovhaias €tV OiAaSe'A^eiay 'Apera? KaraTrXayets, Kal TrdXtv eiV Aa/xaa/cov J30 I^Kavpos. WpLGro^ovXoj 8' ovk aTzexP'qGev ro /irj dXdJi'aL, TTaGav hk r-qv hvvapnv eVtauAAc'^as* etTxero Tois" TToXepLLOtg Kal rrepl rov KaXovfiei'OV ilanvpcova ovpL^aXuw avrols vrrep e^aKiGXf-Xlovs Krecvei, fieO^ ow Kal roi' ddeX(f)6u rov 'Avmrdrpov Oa^Xtajva. 131 Avrtnarpos rtov 'Apd^ojv (4) 'TpKauo? 8e Kal a(f>aip€6€vre? iJLere(j)€pov eVt rovg ivavriovs rr)V

Kal

riofiTT-qLov, 8'

129 dv€xojp€L

'

iX-niha,

Kairethq

WofXTT-qiog

iviojv

r-qv

"Lvpiav el?

*

A,

xiv,

19. "

50,000 cavalry besides infantry."

60

JEWISH WAR,
army,

I.

126-131

(

= ant.

xiv. 19-34)

fifty thousand strong, both cavalry and infantry ,<* to reinstate his ward. This force Aristobulus

was unable to resist. Defeated in the first encounter he was driven into Jerusalem, and would there have been speedily captured through the storming of the city, had not Scaurus the Roman general, intervening
at this critical

inteivt

had

raised the siege. been sent into Syria from Armenia

moment,

The latter by Pompey

gcTuru
in the

the Great, then at war with Tigranes. On reaching quarrel Damascus, which had recently been captured by 65 b.c. Metellus and Lolhus, he superseded those officers,'' and then, hearing of the position of affairs in Judaea, hastened thither to snatch what seemed a god-sent opportunity. (3) Sure enough, no sooner had he entered Jewish territory, than he received deputations from the brothers, each imploring his assistance. Three hundred talents offered by Aristobulus outweighed considerations of justice Scaurus, having obtained that sum, dispatched a herald to Hyrcanus and the Arabs, threatening them with a visitation from the Romans and Pompey if they did not raise the siege. Aretas, terror-struck, retired from Judaea to Philadelphia, and Scaurus returned to Damascus. Aristobulus, however, not content with having escaped capture, mustered all his forces, pursued the enemy, fought them in the neighbourhood of a place called Papyron, and killed upwards of six thousand. Among the slain was Phallion, Antipater's brother. (4) Deprived of their Arab allies, Hyrcanus and Both Antipater turned their hopes to the opposite party, appeal' and when Pompey entered Syria and reached pompe^
;

*

The meaning
is

(omitted in A.)

of the phrase uncertain.

kuI

tovtov^

ixtTaaT-qcrai

61

JOSEPHUS
AaixacTKOv rjK€v, eV avrov KaracjievyovuLV , Kcil hi^a hojpeojv, als Koi Trpo? rov Wperav St/catoXoylai? xP^H-^^^^y KariqvrL^oXovv fiLcrfjcrai fxev rrjv *ApLGTO^ovXov ^iav, Kardyeiv 8' eVt rr^v ^aoLXeiav Tov kol rpoTTco kol Kad^ rjXiKLau Trpoo-qKOvra. 132 ov pL-qv ouS' WpLGTo^ovXog VGripei TreTToidcjs rfj T.Kavpov 8copo8oKLa, Traprjv re kol avros co9 otov T€ ^aoiXiKcoTara KeKOGp^-qKajs iaDTOv. aho^-qoa? Se Trpos" ras depaTreias Kal pLTj (j)€pcov hovXe'ueiv rats ;\;peiai? TaireLvorepov rod oxripLaro? cltto \iov
TToX^ios^ Xcopl^eraL.
1^3

raur' dyat^a/crvjcras" YlopLTn]LO?, TToAAa 'Yp.Kauov LKerevovrcov (ZppL-qcreu eV WpLGTO^ovXov, duaXa^ojv rrjv re 'PojpLa'iKr^v Svva134 ^Li; Kal TToXXovs CK TTJ? Supta? CTU/u,/xa;(ou? iirel 8e TTapeXavvojv IleAAav Kal '^kvBottoXlv rJKev etV Kopea?, oOev rj ^lovSalcuv apxerai X^P^ Kara rrju pLeaoyeLOv dvLovrojv, OLKOvaa? ovp.7Te4>€vyevai rov WpiGTO^ovXov el? ^AXe^dpSpeiou, rovro 8' ecrrlv
(5)

ripos"

Kal

rcjjv

TTepl

,

.

(f)povpLov

TU)v TTavv <j>LXorip.ojs e^iiGKTjpievojv vrrep

6pov£ vip-qXov KeLpLevov, Trepupas Kara^aiveiv avrov 135 eKeXevGev raJ 8' tjv pLev oppLTj KaXovpLevcp SeGTTO.

TLKcorepov

hiaKivhvveveiv

pidXXov

-q

VTraKOVGat,

KaOecopa 8e ro TrXrjdo? dppojhovv, Kal TTaprjVovv ol 4)lXol GKenreGdat r-qv 'PojpLaLOJV lgxvv ovGav dvvTTOGrarov ols -neiGdel? KdreLGiv Trpos Yiop,TTrjLOv Kal TToXXd TTepl rod St/catco? dpx^LW ciTro136 Xoy-qdels VTreGrpeipev elg ro epvpLa. irdXiv re rdSeXchov TTpoKaXovpLevov Kara^ds Kal SiaXexOels
.

s

* At'oc TToXews Spanheira Atos i?\{oi' 7r6\ea;s (probably arising from a glossed text Ato? ^ Aiov tt.) or AioaTroXewj >iss.
:

62

JEWISH WAR,

I.

131-136

(

= ant.

xiv. 47-50)

Damascus, took refuge with him. Coming without presents and resorting to the same pleas which they had used with Aretas, they implored him to show his detestation of the violence of Aristobulus, and to restore to the throne the man whose character and seniority entitled him to it. Nor was Aristobulus behindhand relying on the fact that Scaurus was open to bribery, he too appeared, arrayed in the most regal style imaginable. But feeling it beneath his dignity to play the courtier, and scorning to further his ends by a servility that humiliated his magnificence, he, on reaching the city of Dium, took himself off, ^ (5) Indignant at this behaviour, and yielding to Aristobui the urgent entreaties of Hyrcanus and his friends, prepared Pompey started in pursuit of Aristobulus, with the war with Roman forces and a large contingent of Syrian auxiliaries. Passing Pella and Scy thopolis, he reached Coreae, at which point a traveller ascending through the interior enters the territory of Judaea. There he heard that Aristobulus had taken refuge in Alexandreion, one of the most lavishly equipped of fortresses, situated on a high mountain, and sent orders to him to come down. At this imperious mmmons Aristobulus felt disposed to brave the risk •ather than obey but he saw that the people were ;errified, and his friends urged him to reflect on the rresistible power of the Romans. He gave way, 'ame down to Pompey, and after making a long lefence in support of his claims to the throne, reurned to his stronghold. He descended again on lis brother's invitation, discussed the rights of his
; ;

" A. has " he went off (from Damascus) to hence to Judaea."

Dium and
63

JOSEPHUS
7T€pi

rujv

ScKalcDV
fjLeao?
S'

a7T€iGLV
rjv

/jLrj

YloijL7Tr)LOV.

iXTTtdo?

kojXvovtos rov Kal Seovs, ko.

Karrj€L
Tpe7T€LV
137 a*?
IJ-T]

fiev

cL?

aVTO),

SvacuTT-qacov YlofjLTT-qLov ttolvt* imTTaXlU 8' dv€^aLV€U et? TTjU O-Kpav

TTpoKaraXveiv ho^ei^v avrov. iiTei jjievroL i^icrraodai re rwv (f)povpiOjv eKeXevev aura) /cat, TrapdyyeXfia raju (f)povpdp)(Oji' i-)(ovTOj\
UofiTTTJio?

fjLovaLS

7T€L6apx€Lv

Tttt?

avT oyp6.(f)OLS

eTTiaroAat?

rjvdyKa^ev avTOv iKdcrroLg ypdcpeiv cV;(coperi^, Trote p.ev rd TTpooraxOeura, dyavaKTT]oa^ Se dvexd>priae\ els 'lepocToAu/xa /cat TTapeoKeud^ero noXe^ielv 7Tp6<:
13S
(6) '0 8', ov yap eSldou XP^^^^ rat? Trapa OKevals, evdeojg elrrerOy Kal TtpooeTreppcooev ttj opjjLTjv 6 yiidpiSdrov ddvaros dyyeXdels avrco irep '\epLXovvra, evda rrjg 'louSata? to moTarov (J)Olvlk re Trd/jLTToXvv Kal ^dXaafiov rpe(f)eL. rovro XidoL d^eoLv eTTirepiVOvres rd Trpepiva Gvvdyovoiv^ Kar Kal orparoTrehevodpievo 139 rds TOfids eKhaKpvov. ev TO) x^P^^ pLiav ioTTepav eojdev rjireiyero rrpc rd *IepoCToAu/i,a. KararrXayels he rr]v e<f)ohov 'Api GTO^ovXos LKeT-qs dnavTa, ;!^pi]/xaT6t>P' re VTroax^<^* Kal TO) pierd rrj? rroXecxjs eTTiTpeTTetv Kal eavrc

E:

140 x^XeTTaivovra
Tt rojv

KaraoreXXei rov

YlopLTrrjiOv.

ov

/xr

ojpLoXoyrjpevojv

KopLLhrjv rcov xP'^JP-drajv eKTrepi(f)devTa

eyevero' rov ydp enl rr Ta^lviov oil

j].

141

*ApLoro^ovXov (fypovovvres ovhe rfj TToXet hexovrai (vii. l) ripo? ravra dyavaKrijoas YlopLTrrju WpiOTo^ovXov pLev e(f)povpeL, mpos he rrfv ttoX
eXOojv
TTepLeoKorreL
ottoj?

•e!-.

Set

rrpoa^aXeZv,

rrjv

'

1-

oxvporrjra rajv retxo^v huaperaxetpLorov opdjv k
*

avKM^^ovai

VNC

64

JEWISH WAR,
case,

I.

136-141

(

= ant.

xiv. 51-57)

and withdrew, unimpeded by Pompey. Torn between hope and fear, he would come down determined by importunity to force Pompey to deliver everything to him, and as often ascend to his citadel, lest it should be thought that he was prematurely throwing up his case. In the end, Pompey commanded him to evacuate the fortresses and knowing that the governors had orders only to obey
instructions given in Aristobulus's

own hand,

insisted

on

writing to each of them a notice to quit. Aristobulus did what was required of him, but indignantly withdrew to Jerusalem and prepared for
his

war with Pompey.
(6)

parations, followed forthwith.

for these pre- Pompey further impetus to Jerusalem his pace was given by the death of Mithridates, news 3f which reached him near Jericho. (The soil here is the most fertile in Judaea and produces abundance the stems of the latter 3f palms and balsam-trees ire cut with sharp stones and the balsam is collected it the incisions, where it exudes drop by drop.) At :his spot Pompey encamped for an evening only and it daybreak pressed on to Jerusalem. Terrified at lis approach, Aristobulus went as a suppliant to neet him, and by the promise of money and of the lurrender of himself and the city pacified Pompey 's vrath. However, none of his undertakings was ful-

Pompey, allowing him no time

A

;

illed

)ver the

when Gabinius was dispatched to take promised sum, the partisans of Aristobulus efused even to admit him to the city. (vii. 1) Indignant at this treatment, Pompey kept Pompey \.ristobulus under arrest and, advancing to the city, jerus^alem
;

for

arefully considered the best

method of

attack.

He
65

^^ ^•^^

loted the solidity of the walls
VOL.
II

and the formidable

D

.

JOSEPHUS
Tr]v

7tp6

TovTOjv

cf)dpayya

(f)o^epa.v

to

re

Upov

evTo?

rrjg

(f)6.payyos

oxvpcorara

7eT€L\LG}xivoVy

ware

Kara(j)vyriv

U2

(2)

aareo? aXioKopiivov Bevrepav ehat tovto rol? rroXepiioLS XiaTTopovvro^ 8' erri ttoXvv xpovov ordoi?
rod
iix7TL7Tr€L,

TOt?

evhov

rwv

fjLev

WpLoro^ovXov

143

pveodai rov ^aotXea, rcov Se 70. 'TpKavoO (jypovovvrojv dvoLy€LU YloiJLTrrjLco ra? TTvXag' TToAAoi)? Se rovrov; irroUi to heo';, d<f>opcjura? ei? 7191^ rcov 'Pajfj-alcov evra^lav. rjrroj[XeVOU §€ TO WpLGTO^OvXoV jdCpog €1? TO UpOl' dv€XojpriO€V Kal ti]v Guvdrrrovoau drr^ avrov rfj TToXei y€(f)vpav dTTOKoif^avre^ dvTtax^^^ et? eoxarov
TToXefielu d^LOVuraju Kal

TTapeoK€vdl,ovTO.
fiaiovs
irrl

rcou Se iripojv SexofJieuojv 'Pcj/cat

rfj

TToXei

rd ^aoiXeia Trapahihovrajv,
eVa
TtDi^
u</)'

fieu

ravra

11 0/1777)10?

iavrco
toju
et?

orparrjywv
144
OS"

Yletocova

€i07T€jjL7T€L

fierd

arparidg'

BtaXa^ajv ^povpals rrjv ttoXlp,

eTTetSi]

TO

Upou

KaTa(f)vy6vT(jjv

ovfi^-quaLy

rd

exojv Tovs TTepl Kal rds VTTTjpeoias Trpodvfxov?.
145
(3)

Adyot? eTreideu evrpeTn^ev Trepi^ et? 77 poo^oXds rov *YpKai^6u e't? re rag emuoLas
KXifia rrjv
vXr]v
rju

ovSeva

Auto? Se Kard rd rrpoodpKTiov
exou
rrjg

re

rd(f)pov

Kal

ttjv

(f)dpayya

Trdoau,
3'
tojp'

ovfi(f)opovGr)s

Svvdfieojs.

;(aA€7rdi'

re

dvarrXripovv hid ^ddog aTreipou Kal
146 Trdvra
ejieivev

'louSaicui-

rporrov

elpyovrcov

dvojOev.

rolg 'Pco/xat'ot? d 7701^0?, el
Floft 771710?,

fj.dbas €7TLrr)pa)v 6

Kav dreXeGro^ fx-q tq? e/S8ocV af? 77at'Td? epyoi

Sid rrfv 6prjGK€Lav x^^P^^^ drTiGXOVGLV 'louSaioi, tc X^P-OL vifjov ri^s Kard X^^P^ GVjj.^oXrj<^ etpyatu rovs

Ob

JEWISH WAR,

I.

141-146

(

= ant.

xiv. 57-64)

task of their assault, the frightful ravine in front of them, and within the ravine the temple also so strongly fortified as to afford, after the capture of the town, a second Hne of defence to the enemy. (2) However, during his long period of indecision, sedition broke out within the walls the partisans of Aristobulus insisting on a battle and the rescue of the king, while those of Hyrcanus were for opening the gates to Pompey. The numbers of the latter were increased by the fear which the spectacle of
;

the perfect order of the Romans inspired. The party of Aristobulus, finding themselves beaten, retired into the temple, cut the bridge which connected it with the city, and prepared to hold out to the last. The others admitted the Romans to the city and delivered up the palace. Pompey sent a body of troops to occupy it under the command of Piso, one of his lieutenant-generals. That officer distributed sentries about the town and, failing to induce any of the refugees in the temple to listen to terms, prepared the surrounding ground for an assault. In this work the friends of Hyrcanus keenly assisted him with their advice and services. (3) Pompey himself was on the north side, engaged in banking up the fosse and the whole of the ravine with materials collected by the troops. The tremendous depth to be filled, and the impediments 3f every sort to which the work was exposed by the lews above, rendered this a difficult task. Indeed, ;he labours of the Romans would have been endless, lad not Pompey taken advantage of the seventh lay of the week, on which the Jews, from religious jcruples, refrain from all manual work, and then )roceeded to raise the earthworks, while forbidding

67

JOSEPHUS
orparLcora'i'
vrrep

jiovov

yap rod
rjh-r)

crco/xaro?

dftu-

147 vovTai^ rols aa/S/Sarot?.
TTJs

8'

dvaTT€7rXT^pojfJL€vr]?

TTvpyovg viIj7]Xov£ iTnor-qGa? ro) rrpoaayayajv rag €K Tvpov Koynodeioas ixrjxava.'g eTreipdro rod T€l)(ov?' dvecrreXXov Se at TTerpo^oXoL TOU'^ KadvTTepOev KcoXvoura?. dvTelxoi^ 8' eVt 7tX€lou ol Kara rovro to fiepog rrvpyoi
<f)a.payyos
;^c6^taTt /cat
iJLeyedec

re

/cat
87)

/caAAet Siacfjepovre?.

148

77oAAa rait' 'PcofialcDU KaKOiradovvrcov 6 IIo/xTTT^tos- rd re dXXa rrj^ Kaprepiag Tovg ^lovSaLOV? d7Tedavixat,ev, /cat pLaXLcrra rod
(4')

"Ei'^a

pL-qhev

TTapaXvcrai

rrjs

6priOKeia<^

ev

/xeaot?

rols

^eXeoLv dvetX-qpLevovs' ojorrep yap elp-i]vr]'g ^aOeta? Karexovo-qg rrjv noXtv at re Ovaiai Kad^ -qpiepai'
/cat ol

evayiopLol /cat
rep
Oeco.
TTepl

ndoa
/cat

deparreta

Kara

rd/cpt^es"
rrju

i^ereXelro

ovhe

/car'

avrrjv
rdjw

dXwoiv
r)f.Lepav

ro)

^a>pLa)

(fyoi'euop.evoL

/ca^'jf

vopi.ip.ojv

etV
rrjg

rrjV

dpi-jcrKeLav

dTreor-qGav.y

149 rpiro)

eva rfjji^ ro lepoi 6 he Trpoj-os v—ep^rji.'aL roXfMijoas ro rel^o? SuAAc Trat? Tjv Oaucrros" KopvrjXLOS /cat yLter* avrou e/carovrdpxoiL hvo Ooupio?^ /cat (^d^ios. etnero 8« eKaarcp ro lSlou orL(f)os, /cat Trepioxovres rravra^^ ro lepov eKreivov ovs pi€u rep vacp Tipoocfievyovras ovg he djxvvopievovs rrpos oXlyou.
p.i]vl

yap

TToXiopKLas

/xdAi?
els

TTijpyojv

Karapptipavre?

eloeTTLTrrov

^

+Kai
Lat.,

V'RNC
Heg.
:

Lat. (eliani).
4>pot'ptos

2

mss.

Military engines for flinging stones and other missiles A. xiv. 66 gives tiie precise year (Olympiad 179 an< the Roman consuls of 63 b.c.) and adds "on the day of th fast," i.e. probably the Day of Atonement (10th Tishr September-October). Dio Cassius, xxxvii. 16, says " on th
"
**

68

JEWISH WAR,

I.

146-149

(

= ant.
;

xiv.

64-70)

his troops to engage in hostilities for on the sabbaths the Jews fight only in self-defence. The ravine once filled up, he erected lofty towers on the earthworks, brought up the battering engines which had been conveyed from Tyre, and tried their effect upon the walls the ballistae," meanwhile, beating off However, the towers, which resistance from above. in this sector were extraordinarily massive and beautiful, long resisted the blows. (4) While the Romans were undergoing these severe hardships, Pompey was filled with admiration for the invariable fortitude of the Jews, and in particular for the way in which they carried on their religious services uncurtailed, though enveloped in a Just as if the city had been wrapt hail of missiles. in profound peace, the daily sacrifices, the expiations and all the ceremonies of worship were scrupulously performed to the honour of God. At the very hour when the temple was taken, when they were being capture o massacred about the altar, they never desisted from '^'iQTemp the religious rites for the day. It was the third month of the siege ^ when, having with difficulty succeeded in overthrowing one of the towers, the Romans burst into the temple. The first to venture across the wall was Faustus Cornelius, son of Sulla fter him came two centurions, Furius and Fabius. Followed by their respective companies, they formed 1 ring round the court of the temple and slew their victims, some flying to the sanctuary, others offering
; ;

i

brief resistance.

labbath " {^v rrj tov Kpouov n/j.^pa) ; and it has been held )y some that " the fast " named in Josephus's non-Jewish •ource meant the sabbath, according to a mistaken and widepread idea in the Graeco-Roman world that the Jews fasted )n the sabbath (Schiirer).

69

JOSEPHUS
150
(5)

"Kpda

77oAAot

TcJou

lepeoju

^t^r^pet?
IttI

rovs
Trj<i

TToXefJLLOV?

IvLovras ^Xenovrc? aOopv^oj?
efieivau,
a7T€.vhovre<^

6pr]GK€La?

he

d7T€G(f)dTTovTo

Kal dvjiiujvres [/cat] tt^? Tjpos to Belou 6epa7T€La<; iu Sevrepqj ttjv ocar-qpiav TiOefievoL. TrXeLGTOt 8* VTTO ro)v 6f.LO(f)vXoju aiT LOT aoLauTajv avrjpovvTO Kai Kara tlov Kpi-jjivow eppiTTTOV iavTovg aTTetpoL' Kal TO. rrepl to t€lxo? 8' eutoL iJ.avi6jvT€S €i> tols }o\ afjir])(^auLaLS UTTenpr^oav Kal ovyKaT€<j)XeyovTO 'lofSaicou ixkv ovv durjpedrjaav pLvpioi Kal hiG\iXLOL, ^PojfjLalow Se oXtyoL f-ih- irdw v€Kpoi, Tpaf/xartai 8' eyevovTO TrXeLOug. OVTOJ9 eV Tat? t6t€ GVfi(f)opaLg 152 (6) Ou8ej^ 8* KaOrjiliaTO tou edvovs oj? to Tecos dopaTov dyiov TTapeXdujv yovu €KKaXv(f)deu VTTO Tcjv dXXo(^vXcjjv ovv Tois" rrepl auTOU 6 YlofJiTnJLOS ei? tou vaou evda p.6va) QepnTOV rju TrapUvai to) dp)(^L€pel, to ei'hov ededoaTO, AL';^i'iav re Kal Xv^i^ov? Kal rpa TTel^au Kal onovBela Kal dvjxiaT-qpLa, oXoy^pvoo TrdvTa, TrXridos T€ dpajfJiaTcov oeacopevfjiei'ov Ka 153 Upojv xpripidTajv etV raAai^Ta 8(a;)(tAta. oirre 8» TOVTOjv ovT€ oAAou Tivos Tcov Upojv KeipnqXioj^ rjipaTo, dXXd Kal /JLerd fxiav ttjs dX<jjoea>s rjiiepai KadS^ai TO lepov rolg veojKopois TrpoaeTa^ev Ka Tag i^ edovs imTeXelv dvoias. avOi? 8' drroSet^a' 'YpKauou dpxi€p€a, Ta re aAAa TrpoOufioTaTO I lavTov eV Tji —oXiopKia TrapaaxovTa, Kal Sidrt t< h-ara ttjv x<^p<^^ rrXrjdo? d-niaT-quev ^ ApLorofiovXo djppLrjpievoVy €K tovtuju, onep rj ovfiTToXeixelv^ rrpoGrJKOu dyado) gt paTrjyo) , tov Xaov evvoia nXdo ev hk tols alxp-O-XcoTOt bdei npoG-qydyeTO. 154 Tj
.
.

70

JEWISH WAR.

I.

150-154

(

= ant.

xiv. 70-73)

(5) Then it was that many of the priests, seeing the enemy advancing sword in hand, calmly continued their sacred ministrations, and were butchered in the act of pouring libations and burning incense putting the worship of the Deity above their own preservation. Most of the slain perished by the hands of their countrymen of the opposite faction ; countless numbers flung themselves over the precisome, driven mad by their hopeless plight, pices set fire to the buildings around the wall and were consumed in the flames. Of the Jews twelve thouthe losses of the Romans in dead sand perished were trifling, in wounded considerable. (6) Of all the calamities of that time none so deeply affected the nation as the exposure to alien eyes of the Holy Place, hitherto screened from view Pompey indeed, along with his staff, penetrated to the sanctuary, entry to which was permitted to none but the the high priest, and beheld what it contained candelabrum and lamps, the table, the vessels for libation and censers, all of solid gold, an accumulation of spices and the store of sacred money amount; ;
;
:

ing to

two thousand

talents.

However, he touched

neither these nor any other of the sacred treasures ind, the very day after the capture of the temple, Tave orders to the custodians to cleanse it and to •esume the customary sacrifices. He reinstated Hyrcanus ^ ^yrcanus as high priest, in return for his enthusiastic If high upport shown during the siege, particularly in de- pnest. aching from Aristobulus large numbers of the rural opulation who were anxious to join his standard. ly these methods, in which goodwill played a larger lart than terrorism, he, like the able general he was, onciliated the people. Among the prisoners was
71

JOSEPHUS
iXr]4>d-q
•^u

KOL 6

WpLGTo^ovXov
/cat

TTCV^epOS", o 8'

Kal dcLO? avTO).
TTcAeVci

rovg atrtcuTarou?

fjLev

aVTO^ rov
tou?
'''^^^

TToXd/jLOV
fjL€T

KoAdCei,

OauCTTou
re

8e

/cat

avTov

yevvatajs

dya)VLoaiievov<;
rfj

Xajj-Trpots
'^^^

dpLOT€LOLs

ha>pr]odfji€vo?

X^V?

'JepoaoAu/xotj eTnrdoaeL (j)6pov.
155
(?)

'A(^e/\o/^evo? 8e

tou eduovg Kal rds
KaTarerayixivaj
TrepteVAetaei^.

€v kolXtj

ILvpia 77dAei?, a? €tAor, VTrera^ev roj /car' eKeluo
*Pa>ju,ata>P'

aTparrjyu)
tSiots"

kol

pLovoL^

avrovg rot?
Se
/cat

opoL<;

dvaKrit^ei

FctSapat'
tlvl

utto

'louSatcov
8'

KareaTpapLpteviqu,
Ar]p.rjTpLaj
/cat

TaSo-ptrr]

tcov

ISlojv

dTreXevdepojv
d??'
/i'J7

156 X'^P'-^^H'^^^^

"rjXevdepojaev

airraji-'

tols

eV TT^ pL€Ooy€Lcp
euKaijjaVy "Ittttov

TToAet?, oCTa?

</)^aaai-Te?

/ca--

2a/xapetav /cat 'la^vctai' 'Apedovoav, opLotojs /cat

HkvBottoXLv t€ /cat IleAAai^ /cat /cat Maptaai' "A^cDrot' re be Kal rag irapaXiovs

Tdtav
TTvpyov
re
157
V(f>^

^loTTTT-qv

KaXovpLei'rjv,

AdJpa Kal ttjv TrdXat p-ev JlTpdrcovo? vortpov he pLeTaKriodeladv 'Hpcu8ou jSacriAeoj? XapLTTpordroL^ Karaa?

GKevdapLaGLv Kal pLeTovop.aodelaav Kaiaapetai^.
TT7i^

Trdoas Tot? yviqoLOLS dTTohovs TToAtVat? /caTeTafe^
eis"

T€

/cat

TT]!^

^vpLaKTjv eTrapxiav. 'lof8atai/ /cat ra

TrapaSovg 8e ravrrji
/ze;^pt? Aiy^TT'Tou /cai

Ei)</)paTou Y.Kavpa) hUireiv Kal hvo rcbv raypidrcou

auTO? 8ta KtAi/cta? €tV 'PcupLrjv rjTTeiyero rov ^ApLoropovXov dyojv pterd rrjg yevedg alxp-dXcorov 158 hvo 8' i^aai^ avroj Ovyare'pe^ Kal hvo vU??, (hv c erepos p-ev WXe^aihpos e'/c rrjs ohov 8taSt8paCT/cet

Named Absalom

{A. xiv. 71

JEWISH WAR,
uncle.'*

I.

154-158

(

= ant.

xiv. 73-79)

the father-in-law of Aristobulus, who was also his Those upon whom lay the main responsibility Faustus and his brave for the war were executed. companions in arms were presented with splendid rewards. The country and Jerusalem were laid

Judaea
^^"^^

iributarj
^'^

under tribute.

which they had conquered in Coele-Syria, placing these under the authority of a Roman governor appointed for the purpose,^ and thus confined

(7) cities

Pompey, moreover, deprived the Jews of the

J^^^'q^^^'

territory

the nation within

its

own

boundaries.

To

gratify Demetrius, one of his freedmen, a Gadarene, he rebuilt Gadara, which had been destroyed by the Jews. He also liberated from their rule all the towns in the interior which they had not already razed to the ground, namely Hippos, Scythopolis,
Pella,''
;

Samaria, Jamnia, Marisa, Azotus, and Arethusa likewise the maritime towns of Gaza, Joppa, Dora, and the city formerly called Strato's Tower, which afterwards, when reconstructed by King Herod with magnificent buildings, took the name of Caesarea. All these towns he restored to their legitimate inhabitants and annexed to the province of Syria. That province, together with Judaea and the whole region extending as far as Egypt and the Euphrates, he entrusted, along with two legions, to the administration of Scaurus and then set out in haste across Cilicia for Rome, taking with him his prisoners, Aristobulus and his family. That prince Aristobu had two daughters and two sons. Of the latter, J^ptwe t one, Alexander, made his escape on the journey Rome.
; ;

/car' iKeluo, "ad hoc," or perhaps governor placed over that region." " A. adds Dium.
''

"of

the

Roman
73

VOL.

II

D 2

P

,

JOSEPH us
ovv he Tul? dheXchalg 6 vecjorepo? 'A^'Ttyo^'o?
'

ei?

ojfi T/V

eKOf-Liiero.
1)

159

(viii.

Kd^

efjL^aXdjv rrjs fiev

rovroj ^Kavpo? etV rr]v Wpa^lav Yierpag eipye-ro rat? hvax^pf-O-iS

eTTopdei hk TOL Trepi^ ttoXXo. kolu
iXifjLCjrrev

tovtw KaKOTradcov
rovro 'Yp/ca-

yap

rj

orrparLOL.

/cat rrpos

vos ine^orideL Bia *AvTL7Tdrpov rdTrtrrySeta TTefiTrajv, ov /cat KadlrjGL UKavpos ovra crvvrjOrj Trpo? Wperav, rov TToXe/iov. €7Ti StaAucraiTO OTTOJS y^pi'iixaoLV TTeiderai S' d "Apaip rpiaKOOia hovvai rdXavra,
KOLTTL

TOVTOig Z/cau/30?

i^Tjyev

tt]?

Wpa^la?

rrjv

Svi'afxtv.

IGO

{-2)

'0

6'

a.7To6pd<^

raJu

WpLorro^ovXov Traihmv

Y\op.7T-qLOv

WXe^avhpos XP^^'^ Gvvayayoju X^^P^

^apvs fjv 'YpKai^cp /cat rrju ^lovhalav Karerpex^Vy eSd/cet re dv KaraXvaac rax^oj? avrou, 09 y€ rjSi-} /cat to Karappi<^6ev vrro rio/xTTT^toi/ T€LXO? eV 'lepoaoXvijLOL^ dva/crt^eit^ iddppei rrpoGovx^T]^

Ta^uLog elg Hvptau 7T€fJL(f)d€L? €L firj ^Kavpoj SLaSoxo? rd re dAAa yevvaZov direheL^ev lavTov eV TToAAot? /cat eV ^ AXe^avhpov (Lpfi-qaev.
^XBojv,
161 d

8e Setca? tt/jos" tt^i^ €<f)oSou SuVa^tV re TrXeioj avveXeyev, yeviodai pLvpLOv? p-ku onXlra? a>? Xi-XLOvg Se /cat TrevraKoaiovg LTTTrelg, /cat rd eVtTT^Seia rdjp x^P^^^ ^'^^^X'-^^^' WXe^dvSpetov re
/cat

'Tp/cavtW

/cat

Ma;!^aipoL'VTa

77/30?

rot? 'Apa-

^toi9 opeoLv.
162
(3)

Mdp/coi^
^

Ya^iviog he fierd pLepovg rrjg orpar tag AvrojvLov TTpoTrepnlsag avrog etnero rrju
^

Niese (so

it is

called elsewhere): 'Tp/fd»'(e)tof

.mss.

Accordinj? to Appian, Syr. 51, there were two intermediate governors of Sjria between Scaurus and Gabinius,
"

<4

JEWISH WAR,
sisters to

T.

158-162

(

= ant.

xiv. 79-84)

Antigonus, the younger, was conducted with

his

Rome. (viii. 1) Meanwhile Scaurus had invaded Arabia. Antipate Being held up at Petra by the difficulties of the scSL
ground, he proceeded to lay waste the surrounding country, but here again suffered severely, his army being reduced to starvation. To relieve his wants Hyrcanus sent Antipater with supplies. Antipater being on intimate terms with Aretas, Scaurus dispatched him to the king to induce him to purchase release from hostilities. The Arab monarch consenting to pay three hundred talents, Scaurus on these conditions withdrew his troops from the
country.
against

(2) Alexander, son of Aristobulus, the one who Revolt o escaped from Pompey, in course of time mustered ^^^^^1^^ a considerable force and caused Hyrcanus serious Ariscoui; annoyance by his raids upon Judaea. Having already advanced to Jerusalem and had the audacity to begin rebuilding the wall which Pompey had destroyed, he would in all probability have soon deposed his rival, but for the arrival of Gabinius, who had been sent Govemn

Gabinius, whose valour had been proved on many other occasions, now marched against Alexander. The latter, alarmed at his approach, raised the strength of his army to ten thousand foot and fifteen hundred horse, and fortified the strategic positions of Alexandreion, Hyrcania, and Machaerus, adjacent to the Arabian
to Syria as successor to Scaurus."

j!,^!''^"

mountains. (3) Gabinius sent
division of his
viz.

Mark Antony ahead with a hq defe? army, following himself with the main Aiexand

Marcius Philippus (61-60 b.c, Schiirer) and Lentulus Marcellinus (59-58 b.c).

75

.

.

JOSEPHUS
oX-qv
€)(cov

BvvafjLLV

oi

6e

rrepi

roi

WvTLTTarpov

€7tl\€Ktoi

^IdXiXO? yidpKOV AvTCijVLOv rjyefjLOGLv vtttjvtojv *AAe^dvSpoj. Kal iJL€T* OX) TToXi) TTaprjv d/jLa rfj (f)dXayyL 163 Ta^ivLOS€i'0Vfi€vr]v Se rrjv toju TToXepiiojv SvvafiLV ovx L'770yu,€tVas' AAe'^avdpo? di'€xd>p€i Kal ttXtjoiov
,

Kal TO dXXo rdyixa tcou 'lovhaicou, wv ovfjifii^avre? TOt? rjpx^^ '<o.l YletdoXao?
^

TTepl

'

77817

'XepoGoXvpLCov

yevoi-LCvos
TrjU
fid^'^ji'

dvayKdlerat

ovfi-

^aXelv,
^aXcx)v,

Kal
d)v

Kara

i^aKioxiXiov? dnohe
ei?

TpLGX^XiOL
<f)€vy€L

itojyprjdiQGav,
^

eneuov Tptox^XiOL fj,€u gvv rolg KaraXetcf^OelGLV

164

AXe^dihpetou. (1) Va^u'Log §6 Trpo? to WXe^diSpeiou eXOdiV eVetSv) TToXXov^ evpev eoTpaTOTreSev/JLevov^, iiret-

pdro
fxevoju

Gvyyvo'jpLrj^

V7togx^G€l

TTepl

toju

rjpLapTr)/jLT^Seu

irpo

fidx'>]9

avrov? TrpoGayayeGdaf

Se jjLeTpLOv (f)pouovuTOJU aTTOKTeiua? 165 AotTTou? aTTeKXeiGev et? to epvfia.

TToXXovg Tovg

dpLGrevet ttjv pLdxrjv 6

rjye}.Ld>v

Md/DACO?

Kara Tavrrjv Wvtwvlo?,
ovSapiov
8'

navTaxov
ovrcog.

fieu

yevvalo'^

del

(f>aveL<s,

FgISlvlo^ Se tov? e^aiprjGOVTa? to (f>povpLOV

eTTijei Tag p.ev dTTopdrjTOV^ TToXei? KaOiGTaixevo^, ra? he KaTeGTpa}.ip.evas dvaKrit^ojv 166 ovverroXiGdiiGav yovv tovtov KeXevGaPTO£ TtKvdottoXls Te Kal Hafidpeia Kal ^Avdrjhdjv Kal 'A770AXojiia Kal ^Idfiveta Kal 'Pd(f)€La Ma/3tcra re Kal

KaTaXirrdjv avTO^

Whwpeog
TToXXai,

Kal
Tojv

Fd/jLaXa^

Kal

"A^coto?
icf)^

OLKrjTopojw

dofxei'Lo?

Kal d'AAai CKdoT-qu

GVvdeOVTQJV
167
(5)
77/30S"
^

Mera
TO
^

he ttjv tovtcov eTTLfxeXetav erraveXdayv
ti)u TToXtopKiau,
:

AXe^dvhpeLov eTTeppojoev
:

VC

1

d/iaXa the

ifcst

.

Gadara Lat.

Gaza

^.[j

76

JEWISH WAR,

I.

162-167

(

= ant.

xiv. 84-89)

body. Antipater's picked troops and the rest of the Jewish contingent under the command of Mahchus and Peitholaus joined forces with Antony's generals and proceeded against Alexander. Gabinius appeared before long with the heavy infantry. Alexander, unable to withstand the combined forces of the enemy, retired, but wlien approaching Jerusalem was forced into an engagement. In this battle he lost six thousand of his men, three thousand killed, and as many prisoners. With the remnant of his army he fled to Alexandreion. (4) Gabinius, following him thither, found many of
his

men camping outside

the walls.

Before attacking

them, he endeavoured, by promise of pardon for past offences, to bring them over to his side but, on their proudly refusing all terms, he killed a large number of them and confined the remainder in the The honours of this combat went to the fortress.
;

commanding

officer,

Mark Antony

;

his valour, dis-

played on every battlefield, was never so conspicuous Leaving the reduction of the fort to his as here. troops, Gabinius made a parade of the country, restoring order in the cities which had escaped devastation, and rebuilding those which he found in
ruins.
It

and

rest

country.

was,

for

instance,

by

his

orders

that

Scythopolis, Samaria, Anthedon, Apollonia, Jamnia,

Raphia, Marisa, Adoreus, Gamala, Azotus, and many other towns were repeopled, colonists gladly flocking to each of them. (5) After supervising these arrangements, Gabinius returned to Alexandreion and pressed the siege so
77

JOSEPHUS
'AAe'^aiSpo? aTToyvov? rrepl rojv oXojv im-pog avrou, ovyyvajodrjuat t€ tow r)iiaprr]fi€vajv S€6pL€vo? Koi ra ovfXfxivovTa^ (jypovpia TrapadLSov? 'TpKaviau Kal Maxatpovvra- avOis he 168 Kal TO WXe^6.vbp€LOv ivex^^pi-oeu. a rravra TajSato? €vayovar)g -rjg WAe^di^hpou p.r]Tp6? Kar<jj(jre

KripvK€V€rai

€(jrpei/j€v,

wg

p.r]

ttolXlv oppLTjTTjpLou

yivoiro devrepov

TToXe/jLOV TTaprjV he iieiXiGGOfxevri rou Faf^LULOU
heo<;

Kara
etV

Tojv

eTTL

rfis

'Pa)iJLr]<^

aix/jLaXojrow,

rov re

169 avhp6<; kol tojv

dXXow reKvow.

fxerd he

ravra

Fa^tVio? 'YpKavov Karayayojv kol rrju rov lepov Trapahov? KrjheyLOviav avro) KadtaraTo TTjv dXXrjv TioXireiav eTTL TipoGTaaia tcDi^ dpLGTow. I'O hielXev he Tidv to edvos el? Trevre Gvvohov?, to fiev ']epoooXv[jLOLS TrpoGTa^a?, to he FaSapot?, ol 8' Tra GVVTeXojGLV els WfiadouvTa, to he reTapTov els 'lepLXOvPTa KeKXrjpojTo, koi tco TrefXTrTco SeVFaAiAata?, da^eVoj? <f)a>pLS drreheLxOr] ttoXls rrjs he TTJs e^ eios eTJiKpaTeias eXevdeptodevTes to XoLTTOV dpLGTOKpaTLO. hLWKOUVTO. 171 (6) Mct' ov -roXv ye iirjv avTols dpx'q yiverai Oopv^ujv ^ApLGTO^ovXos aTTohpds €K 'PojjJirjS, OS avdis TToXXovs ^Jovhatajv eTTLGVviGTrj, tovs fJLev eTridvfiovvTas p.eTa^oXrjs, tovs S' dyajTcovTas avTOV Kal TO p.ev vpojTov KOTaXaf^opLevos to TTcUat. * AXe^dvhpeLov dvaTeixiteiv eVetparo' ws he Fa^ivLOS huO Hioevva Kal WvTOjvLcp Kal Yepouiauco
'lepoGoXviJLa
1

cxWri<p'^(UTa

PAM.

Reinach would read ciufopia, " councils," as in the parallel passage A. xiv. 91. * but we should rather read So the M5S. in B. and A. Gazara, i.e. the O.T. Gezer, about half-way between Jerusalem and Joppa. The Hellenistic town Gadara in N.

awooovi

;

:

78

;

JEWISH WAR,

I.

167-171

(

= ant.

xiv. 89-93)

vigorously that Alexander, despairing of success, sent him a herald with a petition for pardon for his offences and an offer to surrender the fortresses of Hyrcania and Machaerus, still in his possession

subsequently he gave up Alexandreion as well. All these places Gabinius demolished, to prevent their serving as a base of operations for another war. He was instigated to take this step by Alexander's mother, who had come to propitiate him, in her concern for her husband and remaining children, then prisoners in Rome. After this Gabinius reinstated Hyrcanus in Jerusalem and committed to him the custody of the Temple. The civil administration he reconstituted under the form of an aristocracy. He divided the whole nation into five unions ^ one of these he attached to Jerusalem, another to Gadara,*^ the third had Amathus as its centre of government, the fourth was allotted to Jericho, the fifth to Sepphoris, a city of Galilee. The Jews welcomed their release from the rule of an individual and were from that time forward governed
;

AHatocn
constitu

by an
(6)

aristocracy.

soon, however, involved in fresh through the escape of Aristobulus from ^ jjD Rome. r^ he Once more 1, succeeded in mustering a large body of Jews, some eager for revolution, others long since his devoted admirers. He began by seizing Alexandreion and attempting to restore the fortifications but on hearing that Gabinius had dispatched an army against him, under the command

They were

Fresh re
a"<^/®-

troubles

capture

I

Anstobu

;

Peraea had been severed from Jewish territory by Pompey. The names are elsewhere confused (Schiirer). Judaea proper is thus represented by three towns, Gahlee by one, and

Peraea by one (Amathus), a
the river Jabbok.

little

E. of Jordan, to the N. of

79

.

JOSEPHUS
172

OTpariav CTref-nfjeu eV avroi', yvov? a.V€X<-op€.L errl rov /leu axpi^crrov o^Xov Koi flaxen povvr o? imjyero rovg wttXld7T€(f>opTLGarOy fxovovs S' iv ols koi ofievovg, ovras etV oKTaKLUxt^^tov^
.

,

Yi^idoXaos

rjv

6

€^

'lepoGoAvfjLajv
;!^tAtaji^.

VTTOOTpaTrjyos
8'

avTOjJLoXijora?

fiera

'PajfiaToL

irr-qKO-

ttoXXov fiev ol TTepl rov ^ ApiOTo^ovXov ^iCKaprepovu y€vvaiojs ay(jjvLt,6iA€voi, riXos he ^laodevreg vtto tojv
yevojxii'iq^

Xovdovv,

Kal

uvi-L^oXtjs

fJ-^XP^

'Poj/J-aLOJU

TTLTTTOVGL

fXeV

TTeVTaKLGX^XtOL

,

TTepl

Se

bLGXiXlovs ave(j)vyov els

nva

X6(j)0Vy

ol he XolttoI

XlXlol ovv *ApLGTo^ovXoj hiaKoifjavTes rrjw <f)dXayya

Twv
173 eida

'Pajfialajv
hrj

el?

}^\axo.Lpovi-'Ta

ttjv

TTpcoriju

eoTrepav
ev

6

avveXavuovrai. ^aoiXevs rot?
fieu
rfv

epeiTTLOL?

ivavXiodjievos:

eXTriai

dXXr)v

avvaOpoLoeLv hvvafiLv, dvoxT]^' tou TToXefiov hthovros, Kal TO (fypovpLoi^ KaKOjg (Lxvpov TrpooTreoovTcuv he

vnep hvvafJLLV ^AvTiyovov rod Traihog, o? a7ro 'PcopL-qs avro) ovvaTrehpa, heopiojTiqs errl Ta^ivLov Kal dno Ta^iviov TrdXiv els 'Pcofi-qv. dvTjxOr] 174 TOVTOV fjiev ovv rj ovyKX-qros elp^ev, rd reKva 8* avTov hirfKev^ els ^\ovhaiav TajjLviov St' eTnaroXaJif hrjXcooavros rfj ^ApLOTO^ovXov yvvaiKL rovro dvTL
'PcjfjLaLOJW errl hijo -qfiepas avrtap^cov
/xer'

dXioKeTaL koi

,

rrjs

TTapahoaeojs raJu epvfjLdrojv cofioXoyrjKevaL
Po-^i-vioj

175

(~)

reveiv
orpei/jas
^

yiverai
d?:'

eirl Yldpdovs (Lpfirj/jLevoj orpaUToXepLalos ipLTTohiov, ov^ vttoRixhpdrov Karrjyev els AtyvTrrov,

5'

Si^Kev

Destinon (after
2

Lat.

;

rf.
:

dyrjKfv
5j

A.\.):

diiiyep

MS5.
"
'

Hudson

mss.

vServilius,

* Cf. A. xiv. 92, and many mss. of B. § 168. Ptolemy Auletes, driven from the throne of Egypt by

80

JEWISH WAR,

I.

171-175

(

= ant.

xiv.

92-98)

of Sisenna, Antony, and Servianus,** he retreated towards Machaeras. Disencumbering himself of his rabble of inefficient followers, he retained only those who were armed, numbering eight thousand among these was Peitholaus, the second in command at Jerusalem, who had deserted to him with a thousand
;

men. The Romans pursued and an engagement took place. Aristobulus and his men for long held their ground, fighting valiantly, but were ultimately overpowered by the Romans. Five thousand fell about two thousand took refuge on a hill Aristobulus and the remaining thousand cut their way through the Roman lines and flung themselves into Machaerus. There, as he camped among the ruins on that first evening, the king entertained hopes of raising another army, given but a respite from war, and proceeded to erect some weak fortifications but, when the Romans attacked the place, after holding out beyond his strength for two days, he was taken, and, with his son Antigonus, who had shared his flight from Rome, was conducted in chains to Gabinius, and by Gabinius was sent back once more to Rome. The Senate imprisoned the father, but allowed his children to return to Judaea, Gabinius having written to inform them that he had promised this favour to the wife of Aristobulus in return for the surrender of the fortresses.* (7) An expedition against the Parthians, on which Gabinius had already started, was cut short by Ptolemy," to effect whose restoration to Egypt the former returned from the banks of the Euphrates.
;
;

;

56b.c.

Further

^Vfeit o"

Aiexand*

his subjects, induced Gabinius bj' a large bribe to undertake his restoration (55 b.c). He had since his expulsion in 58 been working for this at and had obtained the influential support of Cicero.

Rome

81

JOSEPHUS
€7nrr]h€LOLg €tV aTrav-ra xpojixevog

Kara

rr]v

arpa-

1T>3

Teiav 'YpKauo) /cat Wutlttoltpoj' Kal yap -x^pi^fxara Kal oirXa Kal alrov Kal eTTiKovpovg Wi'TiTrarpo? Trpoarjyev, Kal rov? ravTrj ^lovSalov^ (f)povpovvras 7G.S Kara ro Hr^XovcrLOu e/x^oAa? napelvai Ta^ivLov €7T€LG€V. rTjS 8' aXXrjs ILvpiag rrpog rou Ta^iVLOV XOjpLGpLOV KLvr^deLGrjg Kal ^lovSalov? ttolXlv oltteorrjoev

WXe^avdpog

6

Wpioro^ouXov
ajpfxriro

,

ii^yLorrjV hk

GvyKpori]cag dvvapnv
177 TTju

rrdpra?
Trpo^

)(copav

'PajpLacovs

dveXelv.

o

rov? Kara Va^Lvtos
rot?
rfjhe

rj6r] 3e Traprjv oltt^ AlyvTrrov Sttcras", dopv^OLg TjneLypievos irrl rivas piev row
,
,

d(f)€orcor<jji>

^

^AvriTTarpov TrpoTrepufjag pLeri-eiaev ovvepi^vov hk AXe^dvhpoj rpelg p-vpid^es, KdK€LPO£ wppc-qro
ovrojs

TToXepelv.

e^doiv

rrpog

pidxriv.

virrjvrojv

Kal GvpL^aXovrojv nepl ro ^Ira^vpiov opog pLvpLOL p-kv dvaipovvraL, ro bk Xolttov ttXyjOos 17S cGK^hdodrj (f>vyi]. Kal Fa/ScVio? iX6d>i' eh '\epoo6Xvpia rrpos ro WvriTidrpov ^ovXrip.a KareGrrjaaro rrjv TToXireLav. evdev oppLT^oa^ ^a^araLOju re p-axf) Kparel Kal Midpthdrr^v Kal ^OpGavrjV (f)vyovra? eV YldpOajv Kpv(j)a p,kv d7T€7T€pnp€V, vapd hk roLS GrpariojraL? eXeyev dTTohpavai. 179 (8) \\dv rovr oj KpdGGOS avroj 8ia8o;^o? iXddjv napaXapL^dvei ^vpiav. ovros el? rrjv inl T\dp6ov9 Grpareiav rov re dXXov rod ev 'XepoGoXvpoiq vaov )(Pvg6v Trdvra irepielXev Kal rd SiGXiXta rdXavra rjpev, (hv d7ieG\ero Flo/x 777)10?. hia^ds
" Or " river-mouths." entrusted to the Jews cf.

8' ol 'JofSatOi,

For the charge of the

river Nile

Ap.

ii.

Q^.

'As Reinach remarks, this detail, which has no relevance tc Jewish history, shows that Josephus is abridging a genera history. The language, both here {Kpvcpa dw^TTfu-^ei') and
82

JEWISH WAR,
For
this

I.

175-179

(

= axt.

xiv. 99-105)

campaign Hyrcanus and Antipater put

services entirely at his disposal.

their In addition to pro-

viding money, arms, corn, and auxiliaries, Antipater further induced the local Jewish guardians of the frontiers ° at Pelusium to let Gabinius through. His departure, however, was the occasion for a general commotion in Syria and Alexander, son of Aristobulus, heading a new Jewish revolt, collected a vast army and proceeded to massacre all Romans in the country. Gabinius was alarmed. He was already on the spot, news of the local disturbances having hastened his return from Egypt. Sending Antipater in advance to address some of the rebels he brought them over to reason. Alexander, however, had still
;

thirty thousand left

and was burning

for

action.

Gabinius, accordingly, took the field, the Jews met him, and a battle was fought near Mount Tabor, in which they lost ten thousand men the remainder fled and dispersed. Gabinius then proceeded to Jerusalem, where he reorganized the government in accordance with Antipater 's wishes. From there he marched against the Nabataeans, whom he fought and defeated. Two fugitives from Parthia, Mithridates and Orsanes, he privily dismissed, giving out to his soldiers that they had made their escape.** (8) The government of Syria now passed into the Crassus hands of Crassus, who came to succeed Gabinius. thelemp To provide for his expedition against the Parthians, -^^-^s b.c Crassus stripped the temple at Jerusalem of all its ^old, his plunder including the two thousand talents left untouched by Pompey.'' He then crossed the
;

the parallel A. xiv. 103 (ry 8e \6yui d-rredpaaau avrou), ' §§ 152 f. oased on Thuc. i. 128.
in
'
'

is

83

i

JOSEPHUS
5^ Tov Kv(f)pdTrju av76<i re dnojX^To Ka 6 arparos avToO, Trepl d>v ov vvv Kacpos Xeyetv. Se fieTO. tov Kpdooov eVtSia80 (9) riap^ous"

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/lev eXdjv €ls rpels

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pivpidhas ^lovhaicov dvhpaVieiOoXaov rovs 'A/jictto-

^ovXov
181 8e
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182

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183

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rd

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8*

^

Hudson

:

KiiTf){.v

mss.

'
"

i.fi.

This promise

the Euphrates (^ 182). is not fulfilled; the corresponding phrase

84

JEWISH WAR,

I.

179-183

(

= ant.

xiv.

119-123)

Euphrates and perished with his whole army ; bur of those events this is not the occasion to speak. (9) After the death of Crassus the Parthians rushed Cassius ^^"^^ ^-"^ to cross the river" into Syria, but were repulsed by Cassius, who had made his escape to that province. Having secured Syria, he hastened towards Judaea, capturing Tarichaeae, where he reduced thirty thousand Jews to slavery and put to death Peitholaus, who was endeavouring to rally the partisans of Aristobulus. His execution was recommended by Antipater. Antipater had married a lady named Rise of ^^"^^''^ Gypros, of an illustrious Arabian family, by whom he had four sons Phasael, Herod afterwards king, Joseph, and Pheroras and a daughter, Salome. He had, by kind offices and hospitality, attached to himself persons of influence in every quarter above all, through this matrimonial alliance, he had won the friendship of the king of Arabia, and it was to him that he entrusted his children when embarking on war with Aristobulus. Gassius, having bound over Alexander by treaty to keep the peace, returned to the Euphrates to prevent the Parthians from crossing it. Of these events we shall speak elsewhere.'' (ix. 1) When Pompey fled with the Senate across Julius the Ionian Sea, Gaesar, now master of Rome and ^g^^c!^ the empire, set Aristobulus at liberty and, putting two legions at his service, dispatched him in haste

;

;

to Syria, hoping
in bringing over
in

by his means to have no difficulty both that province and Judaea with
Kal
vtt'

A. xiv. 122 is ws whether Josephus

aWwu

SeSTjXwrat.

It is

uncertain
re-

in this

and kindred phrases, mainly

lating to Parthia and the Seleucids, has thoughtlessly taken over a formula from his source, or whether he actually wrote, or contemplated writing, a work which has not come down
to us.

85

.

JOSEPHUS
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i&7

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veunepav the rest (perhaps rightly).

"

Q. CaeciUus Metellus Scipio, father-in-law of Pompey
;

defeated by JuHus Caesar and governor of Syria battle of Thapsus i6 b.c.

at the

86

JEWISH WAR,

I.

184-187

(

= ant.

xiv.

124-128)

the surrounding country to his side. But the zeal of Aristobulus and the hopes of Caesar were thwarted

by maHce.
;

Poisoned by Pompey's friends,

it

was

Death of

long before Aristobulus obtained even burial in his native land the corpse lay preserved in honey until it was sent to the Jews by Antony for interment in the royal sepulchres. under and of son Alexander also perished (2) His Pompey's orders, he was beheaded at Antioch by ^^°
;

^

which he was accused of the which he had caused to the Romans. Alexander's brother and sisters were taken under the roof of Ptolemy,^ son of Mennaeus, prince of Chalcis
Scipio," after a trial in injuries

Lebanon valley, who sent his son Philippion to Ascalon to fetch them. The latter succeeded in
in the

tearing Antigonus and his sisters from the arms of Aristobulus's widow and escorted them to his father. Becoming enamoured of one " of the princesses, the

young man married her, but was subsequently slain by his father on account of this same Alexandra,
Ptolemy, after murdering his son, married His marriage made him a more attentive guardian to her brother and sister. (3) Antipater, on the death of Pompey, went over When to his opponent and paid court to Caesar. Mithridates of Pergamus, with the army which he was leading to Egypt, was forbidden to pass the Pelusiac frontier^ and was held up at Ascalon, it was Antipater who induced his friends the Arabs to lend their assistance, and himself brought up an army of three
himself.

whom

Services

Antipatei

^^^^^^

48-47 b.c.

Another reading " the younger." of the Nile." The authorities at Pelusium must have sent early notice refusing him a passage; Ascalon was six days' march from that mouth of the Nile {B. iv. 361 ff.).
*

See

§

103.

"^

^

Or "arm

87

JOSEPHUS
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ayoji'

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188 TTapcopurjueu

8e

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avTuj.
190

TO riT^Aot'atoi-' fieu IdXoj, Trpoow 6 (4) Kat avTou lovTa elpyov avBi^ ol ttju ^Ovlov vpooayopevofievTju \<jjpav KaTexouTes' rjoav 8e 'louSato. AlyVTTTLOL. TOUTOU? WuTLTTaTpOS OV fJiOUOU fir KcoXveiP €7T€io€u, dXXd Kal TCiTrtTT^Seta tv} ^vvd/j.^ TTapaoxeli^' oBev ovh€ ol Kara Me/^<i>£i^ €tl el^

191

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^

"

Son of Sohemus {A.

xiv. 129), not the son of

Mennaeu

mentioned above (§ 185), though living in the same regior Nothing more is known of him and Jamblichus.

88

JEWISH WAR,

I.

187-192

(

= ant.

xiv. 128-135)

thousand Jewish infantry. It was he who roused in support of Mithridates persons so powerful in Syria
as Ptolemy,** in his

Lebanon home, and Jambhchua

through whose influence the cities in those parts readily took their share in the war. Emboldened by the reinforcements which Antipater had brought him, Mithridates now marched on Pelusium, and, being refused a passage, laid siege to the town. In the assault it was Antipater again who won the for he made a breach in greatest distinction ; the portion of the wall which faced him and was the first to plunge into the place at the head of his
troops.

but the conqueror's (4) Thus Pelusium was taken advance was again barred by the Egyptian Jews who occupied the district which took its name from Onias.* Antipater, however, prevailed on them not only to refrain from opposition, but even to furnish supplies with the result that no further refor the troops sistance was encountered even at Memphis, whose
;
;

inhabitants
latter,

voluntarily

joined

Mithridates.

The

having now rounded the Delta, gave battle to the rest of the Egyptians at a spot called " Jews' camp." In this engagement he, with the whole of his right wing, was in serious danger, when Antipater, victorious on the left where he was in command, wheeled round and came along the river bank to his Falling upon the Egyptians who were purrescue. suing Mithridates he killed a large number of them and pushed his pursuit of the remainder so far that he captured their camp. He lost only eighty of
'^

^ For the Jewish temple built in Egypt by Onias, a refugee from Jerusalem, see B. vii. 421 tf. « A. " fifty."

^9

.

JOSEPHUS
Be IjLOuov? tojv Iblcov aTre^aXev,
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/cat

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irpos

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90

JEWISH WAR,
his
;

I.

192-196

(

= ant.

xiv.

135-140)

men Mithridates in the rout had lost about eight hundred. Thus saved beyond all expectation, Mithridates bore to Caesar's ears ungrudging witness of Antipater's prowess. (5) The praise bestowed by Caesar at the time on Honours the hero of the day and the hopes which it excited A°i?ii*paie spurred Antipater to further ventures in his service. Showing himself on all occasions the most daring of fighters, and constantly wounded, he bore the marks of his valour on almost every part of his person. Later, when Caesar had settled affairs in Egypt and returned to Syria, he conferred on Antipater the privilege of Roman citizenship with exemption from taxes, and by other honours and marks of friendship made him an enviable man. It was to please him that Caesar confirmed the appointment of Hyrcanus to the office of high-priest. (x. 1) About this time Antigonus, son of Aristo- Antigonv bulus, waited upon Caesar and. contrary to his inten- I'ji^tipate tions, became the means of Antipater's further before promotion. Antigonus ought to have confined himself to lamentation over his father's fate, believed to have been poisoned on account of his differences with Pompey, and to complaints of Scipio's cruelty to his brother,'^ without mixing up with his plea for compassion any sentiments of jealousy. But, not content
with that, he came forward and accused Hyrcanus and Antipater. They had, he said, in utter defiance of justice, banished him and his brothers and sisters from their native land altogether they had, in their insolence, repeatedly done outrage to the nation they had sent supports into Egypt, not from any goodwill to Caesar, but from fear of the consequences
; ;
'^

§§

184

f.

91

.

JOSEPHUS
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or xao^f^oi'

ms-^.

Or "

procurator.'

92

JEWISH WAR,

I.

196-201

(

= ant.

xiv.

141-156)

of old quarrels and to obliterate the memory of their friendship for Pompey. (2) At these words Antipater stripped off his clothes and exposed his numerous scars. His loyalty to

Caesar needed, he said, no words from him his it aloud, were he to hold his peace. But the audacity of Antigonus astounded him. The son of an enemy of the Romans, son of a fugitive from Rome, one who inherited from his father a passion for revolution and sedition, presuming to accuse others in the presence of the Roman general and looking for favours when he ought to be thankful to be alive Indeed (said Antipater), his present ambition for power was not due to indigence he wanted it in order to sow sedition among the Jews and to employ his resources against those who had provided them. (3) After hearing both speakers, Caesar pronounced Hyrcanus to be the more deserving claimant to the high-priesthood, and left Antipater free choice of office. The latter, replying that it rested with him who conferred the honour to fix the measure of the honour, was then appointed viceroy ° of all Judaea, He was further authorized to rebuild the ruined walls of the metropolis. Orders were sent by Caesar to Rome for these honours to be graven in the Capitol, as a memorial of his own justice and of Antipater's
;

body cried

!

;

caesar

A^j^^patei

and makt
^J jy^'^ea

**

valour.
(4) After escorting Caesar across Syria, Antipater returned to Judaea. There his first act was to rebuild the wall of the capital which had been overthrown by Pompey. He then proceeded to traverse the country, quelling the local disturbances, and every^

Antipate

govermru

of Judaea
JJivn

ham

In A. xiv. 144 this permission

is

given to Hyrcanus.

93

.

JOSEPHUS
ovfjL^ovXo?
TCx)V

d)V

eKauTOLs,

OTL

ra

}i€u

'YpKavov
^Lojoovrai,

^povovvr€S eV oX^co kol Kad^
202 AauovTCS"

rjovxt-oa^

re Ihiojv KTrjixdrcov Kal kolvtjS €Lp-qvq<^ airoet he TTeidoLvro rats ipyxpal^ IXttlglv Tojv vecxjrepil^eLv IttI Kepheoiv olkclol? idcXovrojv,

CWS" aVTOV T€ 7T€Lpd(JOVGLV OLVTi K'i'jSeflOVOS SeCTTTOT^p Kal 'YpKavov dvrl ^acrtAecu? rvpavvov, 'Pco^atofS" yc fJL-qv Kal KaLuapa TToXepLLOV? dvd^ -qyejiovcov Kal (jyiXojv ov yap dve^eoOai pLeraKLVOvpLevov eK rry? 203 apxT]? ov avrol Karearrjaav a/xa Se ravra Xeyojv Kal 8t' avrov Kadlararo rrjv ^copav, opwv rov *YpKav6v vajd-fj T€ Kal ^aaiXelag drovwrepov ^aadriXov pL€i> Si], row TralScov rov Trpeo^vrarov, 'lepoGoXvp^ow Kal row rrept^ urpariqyov KaBiorii)OLV, rov he ftcr' avrov 'Wpojhiqv IttI rols 'looi^ eareiXev els FaAtAatai^ Kopihfj veov. (o) '0 he d)V (fivaei hpaomjpLO? vXr]v evBeoJS 204 evpluKeL ro) (f)povT]pLarL. KaraXa^ojv ovv ^KCeKiav rov dp)(LXrj(jrrjv rd Trpooex^ '^fj ^vpia Kararpexovra pLerd peyiorov orlcjiovg, avrov re ovX2u5 Xaj^ojv dTTOKreivei Kal ttoXXovs rojv Xrjcrrwv. 6 hi]
.

pdXiora roLS ^vpoLS rjydTrrjro^ Ke)(apLop,evov' vp,velro yovv dvd re rag Kcopca? Kal ev rats iroXeoLv
avrolg Kal rag Kri]oeig eK rovrov Kal ^e^rcp KataapL yvcopipiog ovri ovyyeveZ rov pLeydXov KatGapog Kal hiOLKOvvrL rrjv ^vplav. rrpog he top dheX(f>6v evhoKLpuovvra Kal ^aod-qXog e(f)iXorLp,elro r7]v dyadrjv epiv, rovg ev rolg 'lepoaoXvpLoig ev'\\pojhy]s
cog
.

elpi]vriv

avaoeoojKOjg

yU'erat

S'

2o>j

^

TjydirrjToconi. {c/.

A.

j

r)-fanr]aai')

:

qye'iTo

PAM

:

KarupduKi

the rest.

94

JEWISH WAR,

I.

201-206

(

= ant.

xiv.

156-161}

where combining menaces with advice. Their support of Hyrcanus, he told them, would ensure them a prosperous and tranquil existence, in the enjoyment of their own possessions and of the peace of the realm. If, on the contrary, they put faith in the vain expectations raised by persons who for personal profit desired revolution, they would find in himself a master instead of a protector, in Hyrcanus a tyrant instead of a king, in the Romans and Caesar enemies instead of rulers and friends for they would
;

never suffer their own nominee to be ousted from his office. But, while he spoke in this strain, he took the organization of the country into his own hands, finding Hyrcanus indolent and without the energy necessary to a king." He further appointed his eldest son, Phasael, governor of Jerusalem and the environs the second, Herod,'' he sent with equal
;

authority to Galilee, though a mere lad. (5) Herod, energetic by nature, at once found Youthful material to test his metal. Discovering that Ezekias, herod h a brigand-chief, at the head of a large horde, was Galilee. ravaging the district on the Syrian frontier, he caught him and put him and many of the brigands to death. This welcome achievement was immensely admired by the Syrians. Up and down the villages and in the towns the praises of Herod were sung, as the This exploit, restorer of their peace and possessions. noreover, brought him to the notice of Sextus Caesar, I kinsman of the great Caesar and governor of Syria, c 47 b.c. [Phasael, on his side, with a generous emulation, vied His broti A^ith his brother's reputation he increased his popu- go^^e^nm
I

;

incorrect term; Hyrcanus 'thnarch, A. xiv. 191, etc. " Herod the Great, whose history he remainder of this book.
"

An

had only the
fills

title

of

''^'^"**'^'

the greater part of

95

JOSEPHUS
vovcrrepovs Kadtardfjieuo?, Kal
rrjv ttoXlv fxrihkv
8*
8t*

avrov

/i,ev

excov

d77etpo«:aAtci? et? T-qv

i^ovulav
r^v

207 i^v^pitcxjv

.

evdev^ ^AwTLTrdrpco depaTreia re

€k

rov edwovg ^aaiXtKrj /cat rLjjbal Trapd ttclVtcov cos" beoTTorrj tujv oXcjv ov purju avro^ rrj? -npos 'Tp/ca208
(6)

WiJ.-q)(avov

8'

eV

evTrpayiais

(f)d6vov

8ia-

'\pKav6? yovv rjBrj fiev /cat /ca^' eauroi^ eSaKuero, Tyau;^,^ TT-po? TO /cAe'os' toji^ veavioKOJV fidXiGTa 8' iXv7T€L rd 'HpcoSov Karopdd>pLara Kal KTjpvK^s irtdXXiqXoi rrjc Kad^ €KaoTOV evSo^iag
(j)vy€LV.

7TpoGTpe)(ovre?.

ttoXXol 8e rcbv iv rols ^aoiXeioL^
of?
-q

^aoKdvLov
^

ripedit^ov,

to iQ>v nalhudv ^ to

209 ^ \vT\.-ndrpov oojf^poviKOV TTpooioTaro, Xeyovres ojs

AvTi-udrpuj

/cat

rot?

Riots'

avrov

Trapaxouprjoas

KaOetoLTO rovpopia p.6vov ^aacAe't/Jb €xojv ep-qpLOv i^ovatas. /cat p-^xpt- tov^ TrXavrjdy]oeraL /ca^' iavrov ^aatXeis €7TLTpe(f)wv ; ovSe
rcou

Trpaypidrajv

yap €.lp(jDV€V€odai rr^v iTTirpoTT-qv avrovg CTt, <f)av€povg 8* €LuaL heoTToras Trapojoapievovg eKelvov, € ye p.rjT€ ivroXds hovro'S P'TJre eTnoTeiXavros avroi Tooovrovg Trapd rov twv ^lovhaiojv vopiov di'TqprjKei
'Hpojdij'^- ov, et
TT^S",
p-i^

^aoLXevs ioTLv

dXX en

tStc6-

8€tt^

eVt

Si/cryv tJk€lu

diTohiooovTa Xoyov avra

T€ /cat TOl? TTOTptOt? VOpLOl?, OL Kr€iV€LV aKpiTOVS

OVK
210
/cat

€<f}ldoLU.

(7)

ToJtois"

Kard puKpov
T^Xevralov
6 8e
:

'YpKavo?
/cat

e'^e/caieTc

TTjv opyrjv

eKprj^ag
Destinon
aKpirua

e/caAet Kptdr)

oopevov Toy
^

Vipdjhrjv.
'

tou irarpos Trap
:

inTfitjiv p.
cLKpiTovs

irov mss.

Dindorf

3iss.

96

JEWISH WAR,
larity

I.

206-210

(

= ant

xiv.

161-169)

with the intiabitants of Jerusalem, and kept the city under control without any tactless abuse of Antipater, in consequence," was courted authority. by the nation as if he were king and universally honoured as lord of the realna. Notwithstanding

Hyrcanus and his loyalty to him underwent no change. (6) But it is impossible in prosperity to escape envy. The young men's fame already caused Hyrcanus a secret pang. He was vexed in particular by Herod's successes and by the arrival of messenger after messenger with news of each new honour that he had won. His resentment was further roused by a number of malicious persons at court, who had
this, his affection for
,

Hyrcanus

"gli'ifsV Herod anr his family

taken offence at the prudent behaviour either of Antipater or of his sons. Hyrcanus, they said, had abandoned to Antipater and his sons the direction of affairs, and rested content with the mere title, without the authority, of a king. How long would he be so mistaken as to rear kings to his own undoing ? No longer masquerading as viceroys, they had now openly declared themselves masters of the seeing that, without state, thrusting him aside either oral or written instructions from Hyrcanus, Herod, in violation of Jewish law, had put all this large number of people to death. If he is not king but still a commoner, he ought to appear in court and answer for his conduct to his king and to his country's laws, which do not permit anyone to be put to death without trial. (7) These words ffraduallv inflamed Hyrcanus \ ., c u J until at last, in an explosion or rage, he summoned Herod to trial. Herod, on his father's advice, and
; ;
.

Herod's
trial

1

,

.

^

and

acquittal.

«

Or

" Ihienceforth."

VOL.

II

E

97

JOSEPHUS
aivovvro? Kal tojv irpayiidrajv hthovrcov Trapp-qaiav FaAt(jypovpals hiaXa^cjv rrporepou rrjv
7J€L

dvT^ei,

Xaiau.

be /xerd Kaprepov^

ori(j)ov<;,

wg

piT]re

KaraXveiu ho^eieu 'YpKavov aBpau' dycov
211
{JL-qre

bvvafj.Lv

yvfxvo? efxTreooL to)
rrepl

cjidovo).
ixiq

Se'^ro? 8e Kattl

oap SeLoag
dpols

ro)

veavia,

Trapa Tolg e^'
77/30?

d77oXrj(j)deLS

Trddr],

77e/Li77et

'YpKavov
'Hpojcvpfx-q-

rovs TTapayyeXovvTag
S-qv
-717?

biapprjb-qi'
.

OLTToXveLV

(f)OVLKrj'i

Slktis

6

Se

Kal dXXa>g

p.€vos,

-qydTTa

yap 'Upcohijv,
VTroXafj-^Bdvajv
et?

d7T0iprj(j)LL,€raL.

212

(8)

Kat

o?

Xews

hLa(l)vy€LV

dKOvros rod ^aotAafxaaKOu dvexd)pr]oev 77 pos
oi35'

^e^TOv, rrapaoKeva^ofxevos
KaXovvTL.
Kal
TrdXiv

avdi?

vrraKovoai

ol

7rovT)pol

'YpKavov
Xeyovreg
OTevojv

kqt'
Kal

opyrjv

re

Trapw^vvov rov OL)(^eodaL rov 'Hpcobiqv

/car' avrov' ttl^aoiXevs ovk elxev 6 n xprj Spdv, a»s enel be vtto Sefrot 213 edjpa fieilova tov hid<f)opov. Kalaapos Kal orpariqyos dveheixdi) KoiXrjs Hvplas
8' o

TiapeoKevaofievov

Kal HapapeiaSy ov fiovov re Kar* evvoiav rr)v ck rov edvov? dXXd Kal Swdfj-ec (f)0^ep6? rjv, els
eaxo^^ov heovs Karerreaev

'YpKavos^,^ ooov ovttoj
ri]g

rrpoohoKwv
214
(9)

eV
ov

avrov

6pfn']GeLV fxerd orparids.
ol-qoeojs'
rrjv

Kat

bLYjfxaprev

6

yap
Kara-

'Wpd>hrj<£

Kar^ opyrjv rrjg
errl

rrepl

Slktjv dTTeiXi]?

arparidv ddpoiaas
Xvoojv

'lepoooXv/juxjv

rjyev

rov
*

'YpKavov.

Kav

e</)^>]

rovro

rroL-noas,

apK(7ov conj. Destinon {A.
XapLTrpaf

\\

dTroxpcDToy).

*

LVRC:

PAM.

»

ins.

P: om. the

rest.

98

JEWISH WAR,

I.

210-214

(

= ant.

xiv.

169-180)

with the confidence which his own conduct inspired, went up to the capital, after posting garrisons throughout Galilee. He went with a strong escort, calculated to avoid, on the one hand, the appearance of wishing to depose Hyrcanus by bringing an overwhelming force, and, on the other, the risk of falling unprotected a prey to envy. Sextus Caesar, however, fearing that the young man might* be isolated by his adversaries and meet with misfortune, sent express orders to Hyrcanus to clear Herod of the charge of manslaughter. Hyrcanus, being inclined to take that course on other grounds, for he loved Herod, acquitted him.<* (8) Herod, however, imagining that his escape was contrary to the king's wishes, retired to join Sextus it Damascus, and made ready to refuse compliance The knaves at court con:d a second summons. :inued to exasperate Hyrcanus, saying that Herod lad departed in anger and was prepared to attack The king believed them, but knew not what lim. ;o do, seeing his adversary to be more than a match But when Sextus Caesar proceeded to or himself. ippoint Herod governor of Coele-Syria and Samaria, md he was now doubly formidable owing to his )opularity with the nation and his own power, hyrcanus was reduced to consternation, expecting ivery moment to see him marching upon him at the lead of an army. Herod, (9) Nor was he mistaken in his surmise. urious at the threat which this trial had held over him, T toUected an army and advanced upon Jerusalem to lepose Hyrcanus. This object he would indeed have

His

11

1

1

"^I^"^2? retaliation

forestalled

«

idvises

In J. xiv. 177 Hyrcanus merely adjourns the Herod to escape.

trial

and

99

-r

'^

JOSEPHUS
€t
fiT]
77

poe^eXOour eg 6 re

-rrarrip

kol 6 dSeA^os

€K\aaav avrov rrju opfi-qv TrapaKoXovvreg [/cat] avTOv a7:€iXfi Koi avardaet pLOurj fxerprjoai tt^i dfjLwav, (f)€LGaa6aL Se rov ^acriAecu?, l-^' ov pi^xp
TOGavrrj? hwdpLetog TrporjXBev heiv re, et KXrjdeh €771 dLKrjV Trapoj^vvrai, Kal rrepl rijg d(f>eo€Ojg €V XapLarelv Kal pLrj -rrpog fieu to GKvBpojTTOv dTravTav el 8e 8? 215 77€pt 8e TTj? oojTi-jpia? d^dpiGrov etvai. XoyLGTeoi' ecr) Kal rroXefiov poTrds ^paBeveoda vrjg <6e(jj>, deojprjreov^ elvai Grpareias^ n dhiKOv. bid hrj Kal rrepl rrjc VLKrjS ov \prjvaL^ Kad dirav eveXiTLV elvai, GvpL^aXeZ iieX}\ovTd ye^ ^aGiXel Kal Gvi'TpoSco Kal TToXXdKig p.ev evepyerfi XO-XeTTcp be ovheiTOTe, -nXrjU ogov TTOvqpols GVpL ^ovXoLS ;^pt(S/xei'os' eTrtGeioeiev avroj GKLdv dSiKij fiaros. TTeideraL tovtols 'Wpojhrjig v7roXaf3dw ei rag iXTTiSag avrapKe? elvai Kal to ttjv lgxv eTTihei^aGdai to) eOvet. 216 (10) Kdv TOVTco yiveTai Trepl WTrdf-ieiav Tapax 'Pc/j/xatojv Kal TToXepiOS epL(j)vXLOS, Kat/ctAtou /x€ BaaaoLJ hid ttjv elg IlopLTT-qLOV evvoiav hoXo<hovi GavTos ^e'^TOv KaiGapa Kal ttju eKeivov SiVa^ii TrapaXa^ovTO? y tojv S* dXXojv KatGapog arparr
ycov
217 p,€Td
errl

TLpLOjpia
ttjs

tov

(f)6vov

Bacrcraj

Trdo-rj^

SvvdpLeojg.

olg Kal

GvpL^aXovTa bed tov di

tov TreptovTa KaiGapa, (hiXoi ijprjfji,evov Kal bid ovTag dp.(hoTepov£y 6 WvTLTTaTpog bid rcui/ Traiba eTTepLipev GvpLfj.axLO.viJ.rjKViop.evov be tov 77oA<
^

om. VC.
6eu,
dfuopriTfOi'
t\'.'iov

*

6iQ.
'

VC
:

*

Destinon xPl PAM.

conj. after Aldrich (assimilation to A. ). arpaTias mss.
\

:

deup-qriov

PAMLF

Bekker:

re .ms3.

100

JEWISH WAR,
gone out

I.

214-217

(

= ant.

xiv. 181 ff.-216f.)

had not his father and brother meet him and mollified his rage. They implored him to restrict his revenge to menaces and intimidation, and to spare the king under whom
speedily achieved, in time to

he had attained to such great power. Indignant as he might be at the summons to trial, he ought on tlie other hand to be thankful for his acquittal after facing the black prospect of condemnation," he ought not to be ungrateful for escaping with his life. Moreover, if we are to beheve that the fortunes of war are in the hands of God, the injustice of his present campaign ought to be taken into consideration. He should not, therefore, be altogether confident of success, when about to make war on his king and companion, frequently his benefactor, never his oppressor, save that, under the influence of evil counsellors, he had menaced him with a mere shadow Df injury. To this advice Herod yielded, thinking that he had satisfied his expectations for the future jy this exhibition of his strength before the eyes of
;
**

:he nation.

•.rouble

at Apamea the Romans had War of on their hands leading to civil war. Caecilius mur'rer^of 3assus, out of devotion to Pompey, assassinated f^^^^^ 5extus Caesar and took command of his army 46 b.o. vhereupon Caesar's other generals, to avenge the nurder, attacked Bassus with all their forces. \ntipater, for the sake of his two friends, the de;eased and the surviving Caesar, sent them rein(10)

Meanwhile

;

brcements

under

his

sons.

The

war

dragged

" For TO (TKvdpwirbv in this sense cf. A. ii. 156 (opposed o acquittal), and B. i. 542. * Or perhaps, with the other reading, " the injustice [of
lis

case]

might outweigh an army."

101

JOSEPHUS
fiov
218

MovpKO?

fieu

OLTTO

TT]S

'IraAia?

Witigt lov^

napayiverai 8taSo;(o?.
(xi. 1) TiVVLGraraL 8e 'Poj^atot? /caret tovtov Tov Kaipov 6 fieyas rroX^fio?, KaoGiov Kal BpovTov^ Kreivdvrcov So/\a> Kataapa, Kara^xoi^Ta rrju

^PXW
€77t

^*'^'

^^V

'^P^^

'^'ct^

piTJvas

imd.

TU)

<j)6vi^

yevofjuevov

KLvrjixaros
e/cacrros"

fieyioTov 8 Kal Siaora-

oiaoBevTUJv TUiv hvvarCjv
Ixojpei
TTpos

iXTrloiv olKelai^

Kal Stj Kal KdoGLO? €tV Hvpiav KaraXriipofievo? rag rrepi evOa BacrCTO) re "SlovpKOi 219 ^ At: d pie Lav hwdp^eisKal TO. SL€(jTa)Ta ray/xara SiaAAa^a? iXevOepo'i 8 ^ATrdpLeiav rrjs TToXiopKias y rjyovpbevos fjLcv
o
ovjjLcf^epeLV

VTreXdj^lSavev,

avTOs

rrjs

arparids

iTT'^et

(j>opoXoya)u rds

ttoXels

Kal TTapd Svi'apLiu ra? elorrpd^eL? 7TOLOvp,€vo?. elaeveyKeh 'louSatoi? 8e Kal (~) KeXevodev 220 eTTTaKooia rdXavra, 8eiaa? 'AvTiTTarpos" tt^i^ ciTrct At^j/ tov KaaoLov roTs re vlots SielXev eloTrpdrreu rd )(p-qfjLaTa Kai riaiv dXXoi? rcov iTTLT-qheiojv Kan rd)(o?, ev otg Kal ^laXl^^ tlvI tcov hia(j)6p(x>v TTpojTOS 8' diTepieiXi 221 OUTOJ? 7]7T€Ly€V Tj di'dyKT]
.

w

^aro KdooLov *HpojSr]? ttjv iavrov pLoXpav ck rrjTaXiXata? KopLtaas eKarov rdXavra, Kal hu Tovro iv roZs p^dXtora (f)lXo? rju. rous" 8e Xolttov ^pahvrfjra KaKiaas avracs idupLovro rat €tV yovv Kal 'A/^/xaow Kal Sv* 222 TToXeuLv. r6(f)i'a
€Tepas Tojv Ta7T€LVOT€pcov €^avhpa7TohLodp.€VOS ^X^ ^ Lat. Antistius Vetiis, who besieged Bassus ( = C. Apamea before the arrival of Murcus, Dio Cass, xlvii. 27) avri Kaaalov P: di'rt KeaTiou A "Li^Tov the rest (apparentl'
:

^

ii

«

from

./. I).
"

2

+6.<pi>u}

PAMC.

See

critical note.

102

JEWISH WAR,
on

I.

217-222

(

= ant.

xiv. 270-275)

and

Murcus
this

arrived

from
the

Italy

to

succeed
of

Antistius.**
(xi. 1) At Romans broke

time

great

war

the

Civil

war

out, arising out of the death of Caesar,

treacherously murdered by Cassius and Brutus after holding sovereign power for three years and seven months.^ This murder produced a tremendous upheaval leading men split up into factions each joined the party which he considered would best serve his personal ambitions. Cassius, for his part, went to Syria to take command of the armies con^entrated round Apamea. There he effected a reconciliation between Murcus and Bassus and the Dpposing legions, raised the siege of Apamea, and, Dutting himself at the head of the troops, went 'ound the towns levying tribute and exacting sums »vhich it was beyond their ability to pay. (2) The Jews received orders to contribute seven lundred talents. Antipater, alarmed at the threats )f Cassius, to expedite payment distributed the task )f collection between his sons and some of his icquaintance, including so urgent was the necessity )f the case one of his enemies named Malichus. Jerod was the first to bring his quota the sum
;

oKuihis"^^ Caesar

;

Cassius in
exactions?

from Galilee, thereby one hundred talents ppeasing Cassius and being regarded as one of his )est friends. The rest Cassius abused for dilatoriless and then vented his wrath on the cities themf elves.
ess

Gophna,
"

importance

Emmaus and two other places of he reduced to servitude. He was

" 3 years and 6 months," A. xiv. 270. From the battle Pharsalia (9 August 48) to 15 March 44 the period was jst over 3 years and 7 months. Lydda and Thamna, A. xiv. 275.
**

f

103

0^'

.

J0SEPHU5
p€L
fJL€v

cu?

Kal Ma/^t;^o^• dvaiprjoajv, otl
eVe'cr^'Ci'

fir)

07T€Vrr/i^

rovrov Ttuv aAAojv TToXeoju dTTivXetav WvrLTrarpo^ iKarov raXavroLs dcpa—evGag KdcjGLOi'.

aag €iG€77pa^ev,

Se

rr)u

/cat

ra)(€a)^

223

(3)
rrj^

Ov

p.r]v

MaAt;^o?

dvaxcop'^joavro?

Kacrcrtou

y^dpiTos

dTrejJLvrjijLovevaev

Se

70V

TToXXdKLS

ocurrjpo?

WvTiTTdrpa), Kara im^ovXriU iveaK€vd-

224

tov IpLTTohiov avrov roU WvTiTraTpos Se '^'rjv re ta;(t'i Kal TO TTavovpyov rdvhpo^ VTroSelaa? biaBaLvei rov ^lopbduTjU, orparou ddpoLGtoi' eh rr^v rr}? em^ovXrj^ dfivvav (^tupaOel? he WdXi^os dvaiheia TcJjp WvTLTrdrpov rratSajv -epiyiveraL- tov re yap 'lepoGoXvfiojv 4>povp6v ^aGdrjXov Kal 'Wpojhrji TreTTiGTevfjLevov rd orrXa rroXXalg dTToXoyiaLS Kat
Lero
G7T€vScov
dj-'eAeti^

dSiKTJpLaGLi'

ovTa-

.

opKotg

€Kyor]revGa5
Treidet

SiaAAa/cra?
rrdXiv

avroj

irpo?
vtt^

roi

varepa
rrdrpov
of?

yiveGdai.

yovv

Wvtl-

Gajterat

TreLGavrog

}>\ovpKOU

rov

ron

orpaTrjyovvra 'Lvplag, 6?
ecf)'

ojpp.rjTo Kreivai

}s\dXi-)(^o\

eveojTepiuev

225

tov vrpo? KdaGLOv Kal Bpov KaLGapi re toj veoj kol Wptowlo. KaGGLog Kal MovpKOS GTpaTidv ddpoiGavTeg eV T7)c Zt'pt'as-, eTTeihT] p-^ya pepo? els tq? XP^'-'^ Wpojhri^ edo^e, Tore p.ev avrou Supta? aTrdGrjempeXiQTrjP KadiGTaGiv hvvap.iv Treliju re Ka irrmKrjv SoVres", perd he rrjv rov rroXepov Kard
(4-)

T^vG-rdv-ro^ he

TOV

TToXefjLov

22t"^

XvGLV aTTohei^eLv KacTcrtos' vrreGxero Kal 'louSataBaaiXea. Gvve^-q 6' ^ AvTiTrdTpcv Trju re lgxvv toi TTaLdog Kal TTjv iXiriha alriav aTzcuAeia? yeveGdai
" Or perhaps *' out of consideration for the large par which H. had played in rendering assistance." The un

104

JEWISH WAR,

I.

222-226

(

= ant.

xiv. 276-280)

proceeding so far as to put Malichus to death for but Antipater tardiness in levying the tribute saved both his life and the other cities from destruction, by hastily propitiating Cassius with a gift of a
;

hundred talents. (3) However, on the departure of Cassius, Malichus, far from remembering this service of Antipater, concocted a plot against the man who had often saved his life, impatient to remove one who was an
Antipater, dreading the man's strength and cunning, crossed the Jordan to Malichus, :ollect an army to defeat the conspiracy. though detected, succeeded by effrontery in outvvitting Antipater's sons for Phasael, the warden of Jerusalem, and Herod, the custodian of the armoury, cajoled by a multitude of excuses and oaths, consented to act as mediators with their father. Once igain Antipater saved Malichus by his influence with Vlurcus, who when governor of Syria had determined put him to death as a revolutionary. (4) When the young Caesar and Antony declared var on Cassius and Brutus, Cassius and Murcus levied m army in Syria, and, regarding Herod's future issistance as a great asset," appointed him then and here prefect ^ of the whole of Syria, putting a force )f horse and foot at his disposal Cassius further )romising on the termination of the war to make lim king of Judaea. These powers and brilliant xpectations of the son proved in the end the occasion
Dbstacle to his malpractices.
;

Antipater

by Malichus.

;

1.

ertainty arises from the absence of a verb [yevrjaecrdai as in XV. 264, or 7ei^ecr^atas i6.307). The addition, avfx^€0\rj(T9oL:, n cod. C is a gloss, due to misunderstanding of the Latinism lagna pars. Or " procurator " A. says " governor of Coele-Syria,"
**

;

less

considerable and more probable appointment.
II

VOL.

e2

105

JOSEPHUS
ravra yap Setaa? d MaAi;^o?
hLa(l)deip€i Tti^a tojv

^aoiXiKoju oli'oxoow ;YpT7/xacrtv Sovi'ai (fxipfiaKov * AvTLTrdrpcp. kol 6 fxeu ayajvLopLa rrj? MaAt;i^0L' TrapavopLta? yevopievo? pLera to avpLrroGLOV dvrjOKei, rd T€ dXXa Spaar-qptog dvrjp Iv d(^riyiqo€L vpayfiarcou Kal rrjv dp)(rju dvaKrtiodpLevo? re 'YpKavco
/cat

hLa(j)vXd^a<g.

227

MaAt;^o? Se KaO^ VTrovotav rrj? cfiappLaKelag TO TrXrjdog dpi'ovpL€vo? ^Treidev /cat hviarwrepov iavrov KaT€GK€val€u ottXIt as ovyKpordjv ov yap r]p€p,i]G€LV 'HpcvSrjv vTreXdpi[3av€Vy Srj Itti Kal TTaprju avrtKa o-rparov dyow OS"
(5)

opyi^6pi€vov

228 TLpLcvpia

rod

Trarpos.

Oaaav^Aou Se
pLTj

rdS€X(f)ov

rov dvopa pLeriei'aL, hiaGraGidGeiv yap to ttXtjOos, Tore puev a7ToXoyovpL€v6v r€ TtpoGUrai rov MaAt;^ov /cat riis VTTovoias drroXveiv cvpLoXoyei, XapLTrpdv de TTOpLTrr^v
crupLpovXevGavTos
avrqj
(f)av€pa)S
€77t

rep

rrarpl

/crySeta?
8'

lreXeG€v.

229

(6) pLevrjv

Tpanelg
els

eVt 2a/xa/D£tav CTTaoet rerapay-

KareGTi'^oaro rrjv ttoXlw €7T€ira /ca^' iopr-qv

'lepoGoXvpLa rovs OTrXiras dyow. 'YpKavoSj evrjyev yap hehoiKOJS rr)V e(j)ohov MaAt;(os", eKOjXvev rovs dXXo<f>vXovs eiGayayelv e</)' dyveijovras rovg eTnxojpiovs 6 he TTjS 7Tpo(f)dG€OJS KaracfjpovTjGas /cat tol? TrpoGrdG230 CTOi^o? eloepxeraL Sta vvKrog. /cat 77aAtv MaAt;^o? TTpoGidw eKXaiev WvrLTrarpov dvdvTreKpivero he pLoXis 'Hpivhr]s rov dvpiov eTrexojv Kal KaGGLCo 8t* imGroXiov rrjv rov Trarpos dvaipeGiv dTTOjhvpero pLLGOvvrt Kal dXXojs MaAt;)^ov. d 5* avrco percevai
VTr€Grp€<f)€v
/cat

TrepLTTOJv

.

106

JEWISH WAR,

I.

226-230

(

= ant.

xiv. 281-288)

of his father's destruction. For Malichus, taking alarm, bribed one of the royal butlers to serve poison to Antipater. Thus, a victim of the villainy of Malichus, Antipater expired after leaving the banquet^a man of great energy in the conduct of affairs, whose crowning merit was that he recovered and preserved the kingdom for Hyrcanus. (5) Malichus, being suspected of poisoning him, appeased the indignant populace by denial, and

43 b.c.

Herod's

^janchu"'^

strengthened his position by mustering troops. For he never supposed that Herod would remain idle, and in fact the latter appeared forthwith at the head of an army to avenge his father. Phasael, however, advised his brother not to proceed to open vengeance on the scoundrel, for fear of exciting a popular riot. Herod, accordingly, for the moment accepted Malichus's defence and professed to clear him from suspicion. He then celebrated with splendid pomp the obsequies of his father. (6) Samaria being distracted by sedition, Herod betook himself thither, and, after restoring order in the city, set out on the return journey to Jerusalem, then keeping festival, at the head of his troops, [nstigated by Malichus, who was alarmed at his
approach, Hyrcanus sent orders forbidding him to ntrude aliens upon the country-folk during their Deriod of purification. Herod, scorning the subterfuge and the man from whom the order came, entered by night. Malichus again waited on him ind wept over Antipater's fate. Herod, scarce able At :o restrain his wrath, dissembled in his turn. :he same time he sent a letter to Cassius, deploring ;he murder of his father. Cassius, who had other grounds for hating Malichus, replied, " Have your

107

.

JOSEPHUS
rev (f)ou€a rov Trarpo? ayreTrtCTret'Aa? Kal Totb vcf) lavTov yLXtdpxoL? XdOpa Trpooera^eu 'l^pcoSrj ^orj f^elv €LS Trpd^LV hiKaiav 231 (7) Ka7retST7 AaoSiVetai' €.X6vto<s avrov avvfjaai' Gi 7TavTa\69€v hwaroi Scupea? re kol ore^dvov <f>€pour€g, 'Hpoj87]g fjLCU tovtou rf/ rifxajpia rou Kaipov d(f)(jjpLG€v, MdAt;^o? he VTro-Tevoas, cLs e Tipoj ytVeVai, tou re vlov ofjLTjpevovra Ttapd rol TvpioL? VTTe^ayayelv eyvoj XdOpa Kal avro? el 232 TT^v ^lovhaiau Trap aTTohpavai r:apeGKevdt,eTO. (L^vvev 5' avrov rj rijg otorripias drroyvojOLS evdv fieladaL Kal p.eilova- ro re yap edvo? eTravaori]aeiv 'PajpLacoLS TiXTnoeVy Ixaaoiov rcu rrpo? ^AvnovLcv TToXefiw TTepLOTTojyievov, Kal ^aatXevaeLV avros
233

'XpKavov KaraXvoag eu/xapcu?. 8' dpa re xpediv avrov rals (8) ^E.7T€yeXa eXTrioLV. 6 yovv ^Wpajh-qs TTpoLdofievog avrov rrji cpfirjv rov re 'YpKavov KaKeivov IttI helTrvov eKaXety

TTapearcora §' erretra
elueTTep^ipev
cLs

rwv

OLKerujv rivd 77p6c
rot? ;(tAtap;^ot9

avrov
234 eXQelv

eVt rrjv rov heiTTVOv Trapae'^-

OKevTjv, ro) be ovri TrpoeiTrelv
eirl

KaKelvoi rcov Kaooioi 77 poor ay iidra>v dvapLvrjaOevres errl rov npo rrji TToXecjs alyiaXov e^ijeoav ^L(t)ripeL<;, evBa Ttepiordvres rov y\dXi\ov ttoXXoIs rpavp-aoLV dvaipovoLV
rrjv

evehpav.

*^

pKavog he
6

Trapaxpyjp-o.

fxev

Xvdel?^

vri"

eKTrXvi-

^€01? eTreaev, (xoXig he dveveyKOJV 'lr{pa}hr]v hnqpajra
235
ri<;

Kreiva?
dpa,'

elrj

rLVog rojv ^^iXidp^cov

y\dXL)(Ov. drroKpaapLevov ht " to \\aooLOV TrpoGrayfxa,'

Kaccrio?
p.ov

^cjjrj,

" Ka/ie

Kal

rr)v

Ttarpiho
dveXcov.'

oojCei

rov

dii<i>orepa>v

€7tl(^ovXov

elre

he

<f)povujv

'YpKavo? ovroj^

eW^

vtto

heovi

108

JEWISH WAR,

I.

230-235

(

= ant.

xiv.

288-293)

revenge on the murderer." and gave secret orders to the tribunes under his command to lend Herod aid in a righteous deed. (7) When Cassius took Laodicea, and the grandees from all parts of the country flocked to him with gifts and crowns, Herod fixed on this as the moment MaHchus had his suspicions, and on for his revenge. reaching Tyre resolved to effect the secret escape of his son, then a hostage in that city, while he made tiis own preparations to fly to Judaea. Desperation he stimulated him to conceive yet grander schemes bad dreams of raising a national revolt against the Romans, while Cassius was preoccupied with the war against Antony, of deposing Hyrcanus without difficulty, and of mounting the throne himself. Herod, divin(8) But Destiny derided his hopes. ng his intention, invited him and Hyrcanus to supper, ind then dispatched one of his attendant menials :o his house, ostensibly to prepare the banquet, in
;

the tribunes to come out for the the orders of Cassius, :hey came out, sword in hand, to the sea-shore in Vont of the city, and there, surrounding Malichus, itabbed him through and through to death. Hyrcanus From sheer fright instantly swooned and fell when Drought, not without difficulty, to himself, he asked
'eaiity to instruct

imbuscade.

Remembering

;

Herod by

whom Malichus was killed. One of the " Then," rribunes replied " By Cassius's orders." ^aid Hyrcanus, " Cassius has saved both me and my
country, by destroying one who conspired against joth." Whether he expressed his real opinion or
»

iKKvOels C.

109

JOSEPHUS
dXXa ofjioae rfj Trpd^ei \ujpojv elrrev, aS'qXov "^v. yap WdXixov fikv ovtcos 'Wpojb-qs {.lerrjXdev. (xii. 1) Kaaalov Se dvaxcjopi^aavrog eV Supi'a?
TTaXiv
^

236

ordoig

iv

'lepocroXvfjLOL?

yiverai,

"EAt^os"
/cat

^erd (jrparidg iTravaordvros ^aua-qXco
TTjv

Kara

^\aXixov TLpuajpiav dpLVveadai deXovros 'HpwSrj^ Se ervx^v *}JpcuSrjv etV Tov dSeA^dv. fiev a)v Trapd Oa^t'oj tco arpanqyoj Kara Aa/xaGKou, ojppnqfiei'os ^o-qdelv vtto vogov KarSe 237 elx^ro. Kau rovrco ^aodrjXo? Kad^ eavrov "EAt/co? 7Tepiy€v6pLevos 'YpKavov cuvetSi^ev etV dxo-p^oriav a)v T€ "KXlkl av/jLTrpd^etev, /cat on rrepLopcor] roi^ dSeA(^ov' Tov yiaXixov rd <j)povpia Ka-raXapL^dvovra TToXXd yap Stj^ KarelX-qTrro /cat ro Trdvrwv dxvpojTarov MaCTCtSay. 238 TrpoT rrjv 'HpoSSou /3tai (2) Ov fjLrjv avroj rjpKecrev, o? dvappcoGdel? rd re dXXa rrapaXajJi^dv€L /cd/cetvov e/c rrj? MacrdSa? iKenqv d(f)rJK€V i^-qXauev he /cat e/c rrjs FaAtAata? Mapta>i^a roi Tvpiojv rvpawov tJSt) rpia KareGX'rjKora rcov epvfidrcoUy Tovg Se Xrj(f)devras Tvptovg eaojorei^ fiei Trdvra?, rjaav S* ov? /cat Sajprjudfxcvo? drreTref-Hpev evvotav lavTO) Trapd ri]? TroAeco? /cat toj rvpavva 239/At(TOS' 7rapaGK€val,6iJL€vo? 6 8e Maplajv tj^lcotc fjLev rrj? rvpavviSog vtto Kacro-iou rvpawiuLV Trduai StaAa/Sov'Tos" rrjv Hvpiav, Kara 8e to tt/jos" 'Hpo)Sr]v exOo? cruyKarrjyayev Avriyovov rov 'Aptcrro^ovXov, Kal TO TrXeov Std ^d^tov, ov ^Avrlyovos XP'rjpiaGiv TTpoGTroL-qodfJievo? ^orjdov etx^v ttjs KaOVTrkp

n

.

^

68ov x^PT/^^
/xatos"
^

^'

^^ aTidpTajv 6 K-qhear-q? IlroAe1

AvTLyovo).
^077

LVRC.

110

JEWISH WAR,

I.

235-239

(

= ant.

xiv. 293-298)

from fear acquiesced in the deed, was uncertain. Be that as it may, thus was Herod avenged on Mahchus. (xii. 1) The exit orCassius ironrSyria was followed 42 b.c. by a fresh outbreak at Jerusalem. A certain Helix, Revolt of ^^^^'^^ with a body of troops, attacked Phasael, wishing to punish Herod, through his brother, for the chastisement which he had inflicted on Malichus. Herod at the time was with Fabius the Roman general at Damascus, where, though impatient to lend his aid, he was detained by illness. Meanwhile Phasael, unassisted, defeated Helix and reproached Hyrcanus for ingratitude both in abetting the rebel and in allowing the brother of Malichus to take possession of the fortresses. Quite a large number of these had been taken, including Masada, the strongest of all. (2) But nothing could avail the captor against the Herod might of Herod. Once restored to health, he re- advTrsarie covered the other forts and ousted him from Masada, a supphant for mercy. He hkewise expelled from Galilee Marion, the despot of Tyre, already master of three of the strongholds. The Tyrians whom he took some he even sent prisoners, he spared to a man away with presents, to procure for himself the favour of the citizens and for the tyrant their hatred. Marion owed his position to Cassius, who had cut up the whole of Syria into principalities. Hatred of Herod had led to his taking part in bringing back the and in this he exiled Antigonus," son of Aristobulus was influenced still more by Fabius, whom Antigonus had induced by bribery to assist in his restoration. All the exile's expenses were met by his brother-inlaw,^ Ptolemy.
; ;

«

C/. §173.

*

§

186.

Ill

V

.

JOSFPHUS
240
(3)

ripo?

ous

'

V\ pojh-i-j<;

dvTi7TapaTa^diJi€VO<;

ctti

241

^lovdaia? Kparel tt) fJ-axj], Kal Tov Wuriyouoi- 6^eAacra? v-nerrrpeil^ev els 'lepo CToAu/xa rrdoiv dyairriroq wv errl roj KaTopdayfiari Kal yap oi p.r] npooexovre'S TrdXat rore ojKeicjvro hid rrjv 7Tp6<; 'YpKavov eTnyafilav avroj. Trporepov
ru)u efif^oAoJi'
rrjs

ovk a eyivvqaev Wvrl TTarpov rore 8e yrjfjLas rrju .We^dvbpou rod 'Apicrro^ovXov Svyarepa, duyarptBrji' 8e 'TpKavou, MapidfxiJL-qv OLK€LO<; roj ^auiXei ytVerat. KdoGiou rrepi ^lXlttttov^; dv 242 'ETTei be (4-) eXoures dve\ci)prioav et? p-kv ^XraXiav \\alaap em Wurcoviog rrpeo^evajxevoji' rcbv he ri]s 'Actios' dXXoju TToXeojv —pos Wvrajviop eis IjiOuulau tjkou Kai hwarol Kar-qyopovvreg ^aaarjXov *\ovhai(jji' ol Hpcohov, /3i'a [leu avrov^ Kparelv raw rrpayKai YpKauoj ripaov. p-drajv, 6uop.a he ^xovov rrepielvaL 77p6? a TTapdw 'Wpcohrf^ Kal Te6epa7TevK(jj<; ovk
^kv

ydp
,

rjKTO

yvvaiKa

row
e^

e7Ti)(ojpiajv

arj/jiou,

Aojplg

eKoXetro,

t]?

,

oXiyoLS
p.r)he

.\vr(jWLOv
rcov

xp-qp-aaiv

oirrajg

hieO-qKev,

cos"

Xoyov
\vdtq

exOpow
OL

duaax^'odaL.

Kal

rore

p.ev ovrtos hieXvOrjaav

243

(5)

he

ev

reXei

'louSatojf

eKarov

dvhpe<; rjKOV els rr)u rrpos 'Ai'Tio;^€tai^ I^d(f)vr]v eV*
^ AvTOjVLOv rjhr) rep KXeondrpas epojri p.evov ol TTpoarrjodpLeuoL rovs a^iojp.ari hvuara)rdrovs Karrjyopovv rojv 0(f)(jtju VTTiqvra ajToXoyovp-evog he WeoodXas Kal YpKavov hid ro Kijhos 244 eardjros
. '

hehovXojKal Xoyco
dheXcfxjju.

avpLrrap-

Wvrcji'LOS

L*VR:

TTji'

Affi'ac

the rest.
:

"

Or

rather,

apparentlw betrothed

the marriage

is

re-

corded

later in § 344.

112

JEWISH WAR,

I

240-244

(

= ant.

xiv.

299 ff-324)

(3) These enemies were opposed by Herod at the entry to the territory of Judaea, where a battle took place in which he was victorious. Antigonus being banished from the country, Herod returned to Jerusalem, where his success won him all men's hearts. Even those who had hitherto stood aloof were now reconciled by his marriage into the family of Hyrcanus. His first wife was a Jewess of some standing, named Doris, by whom he had a son, Antipater but now he married'^ Mariamme, daughter of Alexander, the son His of Aristobulus, and grand-daughter of Hyrcanus, and '^vuT^^ Mariam thus became kinsman of the king.^ (4) After the death of Cassius at Philippi, the M. Anti victors departed, Caesar going to Italy, Antony to f/JadnAsia. Embassies from the various states waited Jewish upon Antony in Bithynia, and among them came the against Jewish leaders, who accused Phasael and Herod of '^'^°''.^^' usurping the government and leaving to Hyrcanus H'Jm'di merely titular honours. Herod thereupon appeared ^\^l^^\ and by large bribes so wrought upon Antony that judaea he refused his adversaries a hearing. So for the time ^'^'"^^ ^^ being these enemies were dispersed. (5) But on a later occasion a hundred Jewish
;

approached Antony, now a slave to his passion for Cleopatra, at Daphne beside Antioch, and, putting forward the most eminent and eloquent of their number, laid accusations against the brothers. The defence was undertaken by Messala,^ Hyrcanus supporting him because of his marriage connexion
officials

with Herod.
*"

After hearing both parties, Antony
II,

incorrectly entitled " king," as in §203. Messalla Corvinus, c. 70-3 b.c, attached himself in the civil wars respectively to Cassius, Antony and Augustus author, orator and patron of literature, a friend

Hyrcanus

'^

M.

V^alerius

:

of Horace

and Tibullus.
113

JOSEPHUS
iKaripojv 'YpKavov BicTTVi'ddvero rovs ouras apxeiv rod he rovs Tiept Tov 'HpojSr]v TTpoKpivavTos,^ TjaSeis, rfv yap rjhrj Kal ^evos avrols Trarpojos, 8e;\;^£t? vtt^ 'AvrtTrdrpov (f)i\o(j)p6voJS ore eh tt^v 'louSatav avv Ta^Lvico TTape^aXXev, rerpdpxas^ aTToSeiKwaiv rovs dSeX<f)ovs Trdaav hioiKelv rrjv 'loi'SatW emrpeTTajv. 245 (6) YlpocrayavaKrovvrajv Se rojv rrpeG^eojV TrevreKaiheKa /xev avXXa^ojv elpyvvGLV, ov? /cat dvOLKovaag
eTTLTrjheLorepov?

eXelv cjpjx-qGeVy rovs he Xolttovs

fJ^ed*

v^peojs dir-

rjXauev

.

rrpos o fjiel^ojv ev rols 'lepocroXvpiOLS yive-

rai rapax-q- ^i-Xiovs yovv TrdXtv errefjupav Trpea^eLS els Tvpop, evda hierpt^ev ^Avrcovios eVt 'lepoGoXvpLcov eVt rovrovs KeKpayoras wpfjL-q/jievos.
eKTTefjLTreL rov TrpoGrd^as ovs

dp^ovra
oiv

rwv

Tvpicnv

KoXdL,eLV

Xd^rj, GvyKaraGKevdl,eiV re^ rrjv

246

vtt" avrov KaraGraOelGiv rerpdpxo.LS. Tlpo Be rovrov 77oAAa TTaprjveu rrpoeXdajv eTTL rov alyiaXov 'Wpojh-qs gvv 'YpKavco ixiqd^ eavrols aTTOjXeias alriovs p^'qre ri] rrarpihi noXeyiveGdai <f)LXoveiKovvras dKpiroJS- rcov he l-Lov

dpxrj^ TOLS
(7)

en

orrXiras
247 pLarlac
fj-vv

fidXXov dyavaKrovvrojv Avrojvios eKTrepiipas ttoXXovs piev dTzeKreivev , iroXXovs Be
^

erpojGev

(Lv

at re TreGovres

ra<f)rjs

depajreias

Tjitwdr^Gav

vtto

Kal ol rpav'YpKavov. ov

TToXiv
/cat

rjpeixovv, dXXd rd Kara rrjV GVvrapdGGOvres Trapoj^vvav ^AvrowLOV WGre rovs BeGjjLojras diroKrelvaL.

ol BLa(f)vy6vres

248

(xiii.

1)

Mcrd

Se

eriq

Bvo
2

Bapla(f)pdvov
5e

rod

^

vpoKpii'oi^Tos

PA.

MVC:

the rest.

114

JEWISH WAR,
ruler.

I.

244-248

(

= ant.

xiv. 325-330)

who was the best quahfied Hyrcanus pronouncing in favour of Herod and his brother, Antony was dehghted, because he had formerly been their father's guest and had been hospitably entertained by Antipater when he accompanied Gabinius on his Judaean campaign. He, acinquired of Hyrcanus

cordingly, created tlie brothers tetrarchs, entrusting to them the administ.-ation of the whole of Judaea. vent to indignation, and (6) The deputies giving Antony arrested and imprisoned fifteen of them, and "Jl^e^jew was even prepared to put them to death the rest deputie; he ignominiously dismissed. His action intensified the agitation in Jerusalem. A second embassy, numbering this time a thousand, was sent to Tyre, where Antony had broken the journey to Jerusalem. To check the clamour of this party he dispatched the governor of Tyre, with orders to chastise all whom he caught and to support the authority " of the tetrarchs whom he had appointed. (7) Before these orders were executed, Herod, accompanied by Hyrcanus, came out to the deputies on the shore, and strongly recommended them not to bring ruin upon themselves and war upon their country by injudicious strife. His words only increasing their fury, Antony ordered out troops, who killed or wounded a large number burial for the dead and medical attention for the wounded were
;
;

granted by Hyrcanus. Those who escaped were, even now, not silenced, and by the disturbance which they created in the city so exasperated Antony that he put his prisoners to death.
(xiii.
"

1)

Two

years later, Barzapharnes, the Parrrju

avyKaraaKevd^eLP

dpxw,

after

Thuc.

i.

93.

115

JOSEPHUS
ndpOojv GarpoLTTOV crvu UaKopu) rco ^auiXloJS Xvpiau Karaaxoi^TO? Avoavias StaSeSey/xcVo?^
rr]v
via)
7)67]

cipxV
8'
171^

''°^

Trarpo? 6

reXevrr^aavTos

,

OroAe-

^{ewaiov, TreiOei tov oarpaTTTqv u7roCT;^€cr€i \iXiujv raXdvrajv kol TrevraKoaiojv yvvaLKCJV Karayayelv iirl rd ^aalXeta tov 249 AvTLyouov, KaraXvaai 8e tov 'YpKavov. tovtol? VTTaxdel? YlaKopos avTos fiev fjet /caret ttjv Tiapd/xaio?

ovros

^

Xlov,

Bapl,a(f)pdvqv

he

Sia

€Ta^ev ifJi^aXelv. tojv ridKopov ovK ehe^avTO
^idcovLcou
8e8ey/i,eVajv.
ofiajvvfjLOJ

8'

fieaoyeiov TrpoaiTndaXaTTLCDV TvpLoi KaiToi riroAep-atcDv kol o 8' olvoxou) tlvI tojv
ti7S"

^aatXiKcov

jiolpav
el?

ttjs ttjv

TTpoeii^aXelv

CKeXevaev

'Iou8atai',

GKeipofxevov re
2o0

ra tcov

TToXefiLOJV

napaSov? KaTaKal irpos a 8eoi
lttttov

^OTjdrjcyovTa 'Avrtydvoj.
(2)

Twv

he

XrjlofJLevcov

tov
Trpos

KdpfirjXov

ttoXXol
rrpo.

^lovhaloi
dvfjLov?

ovrhpaf-LovTeg

WvTcyovov

eavTovg errl ttjv ela^oXr^v rrapelxov 6 he avTovs e-l tov KaXovfievov ApvpLOv 77poe77efnpev TO \ojpiov KaTaXafSelv ev (L yevofievrj'^ (jvpi^oXrjs cuGaixevoL tov? TroXefMLOv? Kal hioj^avreg inl
251 Tcov

eOeov, yevofievoi re TiXeiovs p^^XP^ ^aGiXeiiov TrporjXOov. 'YpKavov he Kal OaGaT]Xov he^apLevcov avTov? Kap-epcv GTL(f)eL pidxr]
'lepoGoXvfjLOJV
ttjv

p.evoL

dyopdv GvpprjyvvTaL, Kad^ tjv TpeipdTovg TroXepLiovs ot Trepl 'Wpcoh-qv KaTaKXeiovGLV el? to lepov Kal ^povpovg avTOjv dvhpa? l^-qKovTa rais" 7rXr]GL0v otVtats" iyKaTeGTr]Gav.
/cara

252

TovTovg fiev^ 6 OTaGidtojv rrpo? tovs dSeA^oi)? Aao? eireXdajv efXTTLTrprjGLV, *Hpojhr]£ he tov hijpLov
^

di^aSiSeyfieyos

PAMC.

^

PA

:

ijl€i>

oiv the rest.

]I6

JEWISH WAR,
Syria.

I.

248-252

(

= ant.

xiv. 330-336)

thian satrap, with Pacorus, the king's son, occupied Parthii Lysanias, who had inherited the principality oTsyH of his father Ptolemy, son of Mennaeus, induced the ^"^ ^^'
satrap, by the promise
five

" of a thousand talents and hundred women, to bring back Antigonus and raise him to the throne, after deposing Hyrcanus. Lured by this offer, Pacorus followed the coast route, directing Barzapharnes to advance through the interior. Of the maritime towns, Tyre closed its gates to Pacorus, Ptolemais and Sidon admitted him. Entrusting a squadron of horse to one of the royal cup-bearers who bore his own name, the prince ordered him to proceed in advance into Judaea, to reconnoitre the enemy's position and to lend Antigonus such aid as he might require. (2) While these troops were raiding Carmel, Jews Pacorus flocked to Antigonus in large numbers and volun- jei^sai teered for the invasion. These he sent forward with orders to capture a place called Drymus.^ Here they came into action, repulsed the enemy, rushed in pursuit to Jerusalem, and, with growing numbers, actually reached the palace. They were received by Hyrcanus and Phasael with a strong force, and a fierce battle ensued in the market-place. The Herodian party routed their adversaries, shut them up in the temple, and posted sixty men in the adjoining houses to keep guard over them. The section of the populace that was in league against the brothers attacked this garrison and burnt them to death, which so enraged Herod that he turned his
" In A. this promise 257 below.

is

§

given by Antig'onus himself; " Oak-coppice."
'•

cf.

H7

JOSEPHUS
77oAAoL'S'

ovfipaXcoi',
Aots"

kqt' opyrjv Koi Kad^

rwv
rjfjiepav
rjv

dTToXojXorajv eVe/c^eoyrcoy
7T€vr7]KOGTr]

aratpet
ciAArj-

/caret

Xoxovs

<f>6vog

a3iaAet77T09,
rj

253

(3)

'Evo-raar]? S' ioprrj?,

KaXel-

rat, TCL r€ Tiepl to lepou rravra Kal r] ttoXls oXr] TrXi'-jdovg ra)v oltto rrjg y^ujpas av air ipLTrXar at, to

ttXIov

OTrXirwv.
S'

Kal
fJL€Ta

OacTaTyAo?
TToXXoJV

pLCu

to
TO.

Tet;^o?,

'H/DCoSt]?

OU

i(f)pOVpeL

^aoL-

Xeia- Kal rolg TToXefiLotg iireKhpapiajv dauvTOLKTOLg Kara to TrpoduTeiov^ TrXeioTOV? fxev dvaipel, TpeTTcrai Se TrdvTas Kal Tovg fieu etV tyju ttoXlv, tou?

8e

254 CTuy/cAetet.'

tovs Se €iV to efco x'^pa.KojpLa tovtco SiaXXaKT-qv fi€v ^Avtlyovog TTapaKaXel YlaKopov eloa4)eZvai, ^aodi^Xos he 7T€iodels Tjj T€ TToAet Kal ^evLO. tow Yidpdoi^
etV

to

lepov,

/<:d^

elohex^Tai fjueTO. TrevraKooiajv LTTTrecov, 7Tpo(f)daeL fiev rjKovTa tov Travaai ttju oTdoiVy to S* dXrjdeg Oacrar^Aoi^ ivtov yovv ^orjdov. 255 'AvTtyop'OJ ehpevujv dve-ecGev irpos ^apl,a^pdvrjv TTpea^evoaodai TTepl KaTaXvaeoj? KatToi t€^ ttoXXo. aTTOTpeTTOvTog 'HpcoSou Kal TrapaivovvTos dvatpelv tov dXXd jjltj rat? eVt/^ouAat? iavTOv €KeTTi^ovXov hihovaL, <l)VG€L yap drriOTOv? ^Ivai tov? ^ap^dpov^, Kal YlaKopog, co? e^etoiv 'YpKavov TiapaXa^ojv KaTaXlTTOW 77ap' 'HpCtj8r^ V7T07TT6VOLTO, TjTTOV
,

y

.

TLvd?
256
(4)
»

Tojv

KaXovjjievojv

^Y^Xevdepajv
/caret

l7T7T€(jov

toX?

AotTTOts"

7Tpo€7T€iJLipev

Oaoav^Aoi^.
ttjv

'O?
^

S'

iyevovTO

TaXtXaiav, tovs

PA Lat (so iyKXeiei PAM.
.

A.

II):

TrpoaapKTiov the rest. ' re Niese : -y€ mss.

" Probal the cup-bearer, not the prince, fur, as Pteinach remarks, tlie latter would have been in a position to treat

118

JEWISH WAR,

I.

252-256

(

= ant.

xiv. 336-342)

arms against the citizens and slew many of them. Every day small companies sallied out against each other, and slaughter was incessant.
(3) When the feast called Pentecost came round, the whole neighbourhood of the temple and the entire city were crowded with country-folk, for the most part in arms. Phasael defended the walls ; Herod, with a small force, the palace. With this he descended upon the enemy's disordered ranks in the suburb, killed large numbers of them, put the rest to flight and shut them up, some in the city, others in the temple, others in the entrenched camp outside the walls. Thereupon, Antigonus petitioned for as mediator. Phasael the admission of Pacorus consented, and received into the city and offered hospitality to the Parthian, who, with five hundred
**

horsemen, had come ostensibly to put an end to strife, in reality to support Antigonus. With this object, Pacorus insidiously induced Phasael to go on Phasael an embassy to Barzapharnes with a view to the ^e^nX cessation of hostilities. So, notwithstanding the to leave strong dissuasion of Herod, who urged his brother to on aiV embassy kill the schemer and not to abandon himself to his to tJie schemes, barbarians being (he said) by nature per- satrap fidious, Phasael left the city, accompanied by Hyrcanus. To allay suspicions, Pacorus left with

Herod some of the cavalry called by the Parthians " Freemen " * with the remainder he escorted
;

Phasael on his way.
(4)

On

their arrival in

Galilee they found the

directly with Phasael and there woiikl have been no need for the subsequent embassy. * More precisely 200 cavalry and 10 " freemen " (A, xiv. 342). Most of the Parthian soldiers were slaves (Justin,
xli. 2. 5,

quoted by Reinach).

119

,

JOSEPHUS
roJ aarpdvr] d' €V€Tvy)(auov KaraXayi^dvovoLv vavovpyco^ o<f)66pa /cat rat? (f)LXo4>povrioeoLV ttjv Soi)? avToU eriL^OhXriv KaXvTrrovri' ScZpa yovv
,

257

677-617'

dva)(OjpcvvTas
tt^?

iXoxoi-

Tolg

8'

aiodiqoLS
tl

ylve-ai

Ittl^ovXtj^

TrapadaXaoaicou

KaraxOelGtv )(^P^^^> ^ KaXelraL

^t?
'

tCjv

Ek^Si 7777 cop*

€KeL yap rxiv re V7T6ox^<yi-v rcuv ;;^tAtaji^ rjKovoav 7aXdvrcov Kal to? Wvriyovo? rdg TrXeiora^ rcuu Trap* avTol^ yvvaiKajv iv ralg TrevTaKOGiat^ KaO258 oGLCooetei^'

VldpOoLi, otl re TrpoXox^ioiuro iilv avTOig at vvKT€? 1)770 Tojv ^apSdpcuv del, TrdXai 8' du Kal GVveXrj(l>drjGav, et fxrj Trepieiievov iv 'lepoCToAu/xot? 'Hpcudr^p TrpoTepov Xa^elu, cu? firj rrpokqt' avTov^ <j)vXd^ai.To. tqCt' Tci 7Tv66^€uo<^ ovKCTL Aoyo? t)!^ jjiovov dXXd Kal (f)vXaKdg Tjd-i] TToppcudeu^ €avTd)V e^Xerrov. KaiTOL ToXXd nap^aGdr]Xo<i 259 (0) Ov iiTfi' atuovuTOs '0(/)6AAiof <f)€vy€Li', TreTTVGTO yap ovro^ rrapd Sapa/^dAAa tov TrXovGicvrdrov Tore T.vpoju Tr/p Gvvra^u' ttj^ i—L^ovXrj^ dXrjv, KajaXi-elv 'YpKapoi' v7TefxeLi'€v, dXXd toj Garpdnr) TTpoGeXOdjv duTLKpvg cLveidiCev tyju iTn^ovXi)v Kal /uaAicr^' ort yevoLTO roLOvro? \piqpLdTujv ev€K€V' TrXeico ye PlTjv
,

,

airro? i;77ep Gojrrjpias ScoGeiv 260 ^acriAeia^
\\dp6o<,-

wv

^

Avriyovos

vrrep

v—^ax^ro.
drroXoyiaLg
ttjv

rrpos

ravra

Travovpycxj?

6
ev-

re

Kal

dpKOi?

d770GK€va.

odp.euo<;

vTroiplav

cox^ro rrpos

WdKopov

WdpOcjv olg rrpoGereraKTo (t>aodrjX6u re Kal 'YpKaiou GVveXdfx^avov
^ecu?

5e

Twv

KaraXeL(l)devTOjv

'

AM

:

7^a^oly7ws the rest.

^

baud procul Lat.

120

JEWISH WAR,

1.

256-260

(

inhabitants in revolt and up in arms The satrap,^ and are with whom they had an audience, was a very crafty th?^'^'^^^ individual who disguised his plot under a show ofP''^rthian benevolence he gave them presents, and then laid an ambush to catch them on their departure. They discovered the conspiracy at a maritime town, where they halted, named Ekdippa.*" There they heard of the promise of the thousand talents,^ and that the
:

devoted most of their own that the barbarians invariably kept a watch upon them and that they would long since have been at night arrested, had not the conspirators been waiting till Herod was caught at Jerusalem, fearing that the news of their capture would put him on his guard. This was now no mere idle gossip for already they
five

hundred women

whom Antigonus had

to the Parthians included

;

;

;

could see the sentries posted in the distance. (5) Phasael, however, notwithstanding the urgent exhortations to flee made to him by a certain Ophellius, who had learnt the whole plan of the conspiracy from Saramalla, the wealthiest Syrian of his time, could not bring himself to desert Hyrcanus. Instead, he went to the satrap and frankly reproached him for the plot, and in particular for acting as he had done from mercenary motives undertaking, for his part, to give him a larger sum for his life than Antigonus had promised for a kingdom. To this the Parthian made a wily reply, clearing himself of suspicion by protestations and oaths, and went off to join Pacorus.** Immediately after, certain Parthians who had been left behind, with orders to do so,
;

Barzapharnes.

Achzib (ez Zib). half way promontory of Carmel.
*^

between

Tyre and

the

'

§

248.

<*

Apparently the prince.
J2I

.

JOSEPHUS
TToAAa^ 77^0?
261
'rrjv

iTTLopKcav Kal to aTnarov avTol?

Karapco/jLevovg
(6) 'Ei^ be rovTOj Kal rov 'llpojdrjv 6 7T€fJLcf)6€L? olvoxoos iTTe^ovXeve GvXXrj.^eZv, e^co rov relxovs aTTarrjaa? irpoeXdeZv, ojuTrep ivroXas ^Ix^^' ^ §6 OLTT^ a.pXV'^ VTTOTTrevojv rov? ^ap^dpov^ Kal Tore TTeTTVcrfievos ets" rov9 TToXe/JLLOvg eixrrerrrojKevaL ra fjL7]vvovra rrjv eTTL^ovXrjv avroj ypdfjLiiara, rrpoeXdelv ovK rj^ovXero, Kairoi /xciAa d^iorrLGra>s rod YlaKopov (hdoKovros heZv avrov VTravrrjaai rols rds eTTLGToXds Kopbitovoiv ovre yap eaXojKevat avTcis Kal TTepuexeiv ovk IttlToZs TToXepLLOLS 2Cy2^ovX'qv, dAA' 0770cra hieTrpd^aro OacraT^Aos'. ervx^v Se Trap' dXXatv TTpoaKrjKodjg rov ddeXcjyov cruveiX-q/jifievoVj Kal TrpoafjeL 'YpKavov dvydrrjp [MapidfjUpLri
fxr)

/

(jvverojrdrrj

yvvaiKow,

Karavri^oXovoa
rjSrj

rrpoCevai pifjh^ eiLTTLGreveiv eavrov

(f)avepios

eTTLxeipovGL roZs ^ap^dpois.
263

"Ert Se rojv rrepl YldKopov GKeTrro/JLevwu, dv Kpv(f)a rrjv eTTL^ovXrjV dnapriGeLav, ov yap eK (f>avepov olov t' rjv dvSpog ovroj Svvarov^ rrepiyeveoBai, rrpoXa^ajv 'HpojSrj? fierd row olKeiordrojv rrpoGOJTTOJV vvKrojp IttI 'ISou/xata? ex(x>pei aLGOofievoL S' ol IldpdoL 264 Xddpa rojv TToXepiiojv KdKeZvos ttjv jj,ev jJL-qrepa Kal rds KarehiojKOV dSeX(l)ds^ Kal rrjv KadaJixoXoyrjpLev'qv TratSa fJLerd
(~)
TTCus
.
.

TToWd Destinon (with A. ''): rd re dWa MSS. Perhajis a gloss (Niese), or read MapidMM^s 5f /j-vtvp ^ awerov LVR Lat. (Destinon), cf. A. xiv. 3ol.
1
»
*

rds dbe\<pas Nlese,

cf.

A.

\\

d5eX07ji'

:

rovs ddeXipovs MSS.

"

Pacorus

249)

:

A.

incorrectly has evvovxos instead of

oivoxooi»

122

JEWISH WAR,

I.

260-264

(

= ant.

xiv. 348-353)

arrested Phasael and Hyrcanus, the prisoners cursing them bitterly for their perjury and breach of faith. (6) Meanwhile a plot to arrest Herod also was in Plot to progress, and the cup-bearer " who had been sent to Herod. execute it was, in accordance with instructions, endeavouring to lure him to come outside the walls. Herod, how^ever, having suspected the barbarians from the first, had now learnt that letters informing him of the conspiracy had fallen into the enemy's hands. He, therefore, refused to come out, notwithstanding the highly plausible assertions of Pacorus that he ought to meet the bearers of the documents, which, he said, had neither been intercepted by his enemies, nor contained any mention of a plot but a But Herod had full report of Phasael's proceedings. already heard from another source of his brother's Moreover, Mariamme, the daughter ^ of arrest. Hyrcanus, most sagacious of women, came and implored him not to venture out or trust himself to the barbarians, who were now openly planning
his ruin.

While Pacorus and his accomplices were still by what stealthy means they might achieve their design, as it was impossible openly to triumph over so powerful an adversary, Herod forestalled them and, unobserved by his enemies, set out by night, with the nearest and dearest of his family, The Parthians, discovering his flight, for Idumaea. started in pursuit. Herod, thereupon, directed his mother and sisters, the young girl who was betrothed
(7)

Herod's
^'j^a^iJia,^

deliberating

* Strictly grand-daughter (§ 241) ; but A. xiv. 351 is here probably correct in mentioning " the daughter of Hyrcanus, the mother of his betrothed." His bride would hardly be referred to in this way.

123

JOSEPHUS
r-qs fi'q'rpc? xrat

TCL^a?
TTOvrojv

oheveix'

rov veajrarov rcov a8cA<^cui' irpooauro? acr(/>aAai? jxera. tojv depa-

Kara.
265

dv€K07TT€ rov<; ^ap^dpov<;- Kal ttoXXov? Trdaau Trpoa^oXrju aTTOKreivag et? MaaaSap"

TO (hpovpiov rj7T€Lyero.
(8)

Bapurepou?
8'

Se

Kara,

rriv

(f)vyrju

IldpOaju
Trapaavdi'^

'iouSatofs- er:eipaG€v, ivoxXrjoavra^ p.kv hiViveKajg,
QTTO

l^rjKOVTa rijg TrdAeoj? crraStait'
/cat

/cat

ra^a/LteVous" €7TL€LKcig ttoXvv )^p6vov.

evda Kparrioa?
)(ojplov

'HpcoSr/s
€LS
/cat

7roAAoi)9

aCrcui^

aTTOKreiva^

fivrjix-qv

rod KavopdcvpLaro^ €ktlo€1' to

eKooyLrjoev, Kal ^ao-tAetot? TroAuTeAecr-aTotb aKpoTroXiv oxvpojrdrrjv dveheipLaro , 'WpojbeLOv re 266 eKdXeaeu a6' iaurov. rrjuLKavrd ye /xt^p' </)cJyofTt /ca^' Tiixepav avrco TrpooeyivovTO ttoXXol, Kal

Kara 'Prjaau
dSeAt^o?

yeuofievcu^ rrj?

^ISovfiaia^ ^laxjrjTro?
tol'?

VTTaur-qaa^

avue^ovXevcv
,

770AA01)?
di'

ran/ iTTOjxivtov drrochoprLuaadai

firj

yap

rocrov-

rov 6)(\ov Se^aadat 261 rov? ivvaKLGXiMovg
.

rrjv

MacraSaf
[ovv^"^

rioav S' VTrkp

TreLodeU
;)^p6ta?

^HpdoSr]? rov^
di'd
rrju

fiev

^apvrepovs

rrjg

biacjyrJKey

bovg ifhohia, jjLerd he rdjv dvayKaiordrcov rovg dXKifiojrdrov^ Karao\dju eiV to <f)pouKaraXiTrdju 8' evravOa. raU piovh Lao cuter ai. yvuai^lv oKraKOOLOV? (f)vXaKa^ Kal SiapKrj raTTiTT^Seta 77/30? TToXiopKiav avro^ eU rrjv ApaBiKTj'j
^]8ovp.alau
^

Werpav
263
(9)

rjTreLyero.
8'

riap^oi

ev

'lepoaoXvpLOL?

i(f)^

dpTrayrju
eia-

rpaTTOfiei^OL
*

rwv

(jivyomwv
Niese
:

eh to?
-^(uofxhu

oi/cta?
5'

Kara. 'P. "/(vofi^vu}

jrap-^crai'

eVi

PAM

:

/rara (ttjv) Qpr^;jav
»

the rest,

r/. .-/. xiv.

361

(fV Qprj<Tf.).

om. PA.

12i

JEWISH WAR,

I.

264-268

(

= ant.

xiv.

353-363)

to him, with her mother, and his youngest brother to continue their journey, and then, aided by his attendants, secured their retreat, holding the barbarians at bay. In every encounter he slew large numbers of them, and then pressed on to the fortress of Masada.** (8) But he found in this flight the Jews even more troublesome than the Parthians, for they perpetually harassed him, and at a distance of sixty furlongs from the city brought on a regular action which was prolonged for a considerable time. Here Herod eventually defeated them with great slaughter ; and here subsequently, to commemorate his victory, he founded a city, adorned it with the most costly palaces, erected a citadel of commanding strength, and called it after his own name Herodion.^ Thenceforward the fugitive was joined daily by many others, and on reaching Rhesa in Idumaea was advised by his brother Joseph, who met him there, to disencumber himself of the bulk of his followers, Masada being unable to accommodate such a crowd, numbering upwards of nine thousand. Herod, acting on his advice, dispersed throughout Idumaea those who

were more an encumbrance than an assistance, after supplying them with provisions and retaining the most stalwart of them together with his cherished kinsfolk reached the fortress ° in safety. Leaving there a guard of eight hundred to protect the women, with sufficient supplies to stand a siege, he himself pushed on to Petra in Arabia. (9) In Jerusalem, meanwhile, the Parthians gave themselves up to pillage, breaking into the houses " Above the west coast of the Dead Sea, near its lower
;

extremity. * A description
*

is

given

later, §§

419

ff.

Masada.

125

JOSEPHUS
eTTLTTTOv
,

Kal TO ^aoiXeLQv a7T€x6iJL€VO(, fiovwv rcov 'YpKai'ov )(prjfjLdTCDV' rjv 8' ou TrAetco rpLaKOOLOJV TaXdvTow. €77 €TvyxoLi^ov Se /cat rcov dXXojv ovx OGOtg TjXTTLaav' 6 yap ^Wpwh-qs eV ttoXXov rr]v dTiLGriav tojv ^ap^dpcxjv i)(j>optoii€vo? eU ttjv 'I8ouXajXTrpoTara tojv Kenxr^Xicov Trpoavpiaiav Tct eoKevaaro, /cat rayv avrco 77/Docre;^oi'raji^ o/xotctj?
.

jr

WdpOoi he fxerd rag dpTrayci? eVt roooveKaoTos Tov v^peojs exojprjoav cog eixTTXrjoai p,kv dKrjpvKTOv TToXefiov rr]v ;^a>pav aTtaoav, dvdoTarov he TTOtijaai TTjv Maptaatojy ttoXlu, pur) piovov he KaraoTrjaaL ^aaiXea Avriyovov, dXXd /cat Trapahovvai avrco Oacrar/AoV re /cat 'YpKavov heapLOjrag aiKioaodai. 270 o he 'YpKavov p.ev TrpooTreGovros^ avrog rd cora
269
^

ii

I

ii

Xco^drai rols ohovoLV, cog
TTOTe

pLrjhe

hvi^acTO

TTju

dpxiepojGvurjP

avdtg ev pLera^oXfj aTToXa^elv hel

yap oXoKX-qpovs apxiepdodai.
271

(lO)

Tvy? Oacra7]Aou he dperrjg vorepit^ei (f>8dGav-

Tog TTerpa TrpoGprj^at ttjv Kecj^aX-qv, (Lg Kal GLhijpov Kal x^'-pdJi^ e'lpyero. KaKelvog piev, 'Hpojhov yvqGLOv eavTov aTTohei^ag dheX(f)6u Kal 'YpKavov dyevveGrarov dvhpeLorara durjGKeL, TTOiTjGdpLevog TTjv KaTaGTpo<prju rolg Kara tov ^iov epyoig k 272 TTperrovGav. Karexei he Kal dXXog Xoyog, cog dveveyKat jxev e/c T-qg roTe TrXrjyrjg, 7Tep,<j)d€lg S' taTpog V7T^ WvTLyovov OepaTTevGai hrjOeu avTou epLTrX-qGeiev to Tpavpua h-qXi-jTrjplcov (f)appidKCxJV Kal
,

^ irpo<jTr(abvTos MLVR om. Lat. TrpoaTiaCjv the " Antigonus personally assaulted H."
:

:

rest,

i.e.

"

high-priest, or

Whether from sacrilej^ious scruples, because H. was more probably as reserved for Antigonus, does

not appear.

126

JEWISH WAR,

I.

268-272

(

= ant.
;

xiv. 363-368)

refraining only The of the fugitives and into the palace from the funds of Hyrcanus," which, however, J^fa?te,*^"oJ amounted to no more than three hundred talents. Jerusalem
;

Elsewhere they found less than they had expected for AnUgc onus »" the Herod, long since suspecting the barbarians of per- tlirone. fidy, had taken the precaution of removing the most precious of his treasures to Idumaea, and each of his After the pillage, the friends had done likewise. insolence of the Parthians proceeded to extremes. They let loose on the whole country the horrors of implacable ^ war, laid the city of Marisa ^ in ruins, and, not content with raising Antigonus to the throne, delivered up to him Phasael and Hyrcanus, in chains, for torture. Hyrcanus threw himself at the feet of
Antigonus,

who with

his

own

teeth

'^

lacerated his

suppliant's ears, in order to disqualify

him

for ever,

under any change of circumstances, from resuming the high priesthood since freedom from physical
;

defect

is

essential to the holder of that office.^

(10) Phasael, on the other hand, courageously Death of p^^^^*^^forestalled the king's malice by dashing his head

apon a rock, being deprived of the use of hands or iteel. Thus showing himself to be a true brother of tierod, and Hyrcanus the most ignoble of men, he iied a hero's death an end in keeping with his life's career. According to another account, Phasael re'overed from his self-inflicted blow, and a physician :ent by Antigonus, ostensibly to attend him, injected loxious drugs into the wound and so killed him.

*

Or

" undeclared."

Mareshah {Khurhet Mer*ash), some 25 miles S.W. of erusalem, in Idumaea (§ 63). ^ A. xiv. 366 omits this detail, saying merely " docked
* is
*

ears." C/. Lev. xxi. 17-23.

127

JOSEPHUS
Bia(f)6€ip€L€v
TTji^

avrou.

OTTorepou

5'

au

dXrjOes

fj,

(ipXV^

^X^*-

'^Ci/u.Trpai'.

6olglv

rplv

€K7TV€V(jai

TTvdofievoi^

yovv avrov /cat —apa yvvaiov tlvos
rov^

oj? *Wp(xihrj<;
aT7eifj,L

6La—€(pevyoL, " vvv," elrrelv, " evOvfjLO?
ixereXevaofJLeuov

Tou

i\6pov?

Kara-

Xlttojv

iojvTa.'

273

ndpdoL Be (11) '0 fxev GLV ovrcog rcAeura. KairoL htr^jjLaprr^KOTc? cbv /xdAtcrra irreOvfiovv yvlaLKOjv KaOiuTacnv p.kv iv 'lepoGoXvpiOLS WvTLyouco rd TTpdy/xara, hecrpLco-rjv 8' 'YpKavov dvdyovGiv
et?

nqv riapdvrjurjv.
!xiv.

274

1) 'HpcoS-qs 8e avvrovcorcpov rjXavvev et? zrv Wpa^iav ws ert rdheX(f)ov lwvtos e—eiyofjievo^; Xpri/jLara Trapd rov ^acriAcco? Xa^elv, ols ijlovoi? TTeiGeiv VTTep OaaaijXov rrjv rcov ^ap^dpojv riXmt,€v TrXeove^iav. eXoyi^^ero ydp, el rrjs Trarpcvas (juXia^ dpLvrfpLOveuTepos 6 "Apaip yevoiro Koi rov Sovuai hojpedv fxiKpoXoyayrepo? , haveiGCLcrdai Trap' avroi TO. Xvrpa pvGLOv dels rov rod Xurpoufxeuov rralSa ydp eTTrjyeTO rov ddeXcfiLSovv dura ircoi 275 Kal iurd- rdXaura 8' rjv eroifios rpiaKOGia hovvai -poGrrjGdfieuos Tvpiovs rrapa/caAowra? to \pedjv b dpa TTjv avTOV GTTOvSrju ecfiOdKei Kal Oaaar^Aoi TeOvqKorog els Kevov 'Hpcodrjs ^iAa8eA(/)0? rjv ox 276 p-')i^ ovde Trapd "Apaipiv evpiGKec (j>LXiav ovGav} yovv BaGiXevs avrow MaA;^os" TrpoTre/jupas eK rij' \(jjpas Kard rd^os rrpoGeraGGev dvaorpecheiv
.

(

7rpo6dGeL

fxeu

;(pc;j/i,ei^o?

TidpOots,
'

eTTLKTjpvKev

oaGOat ydp avrovs eKJ^aXelu Hpojdrju rrjs 'Apa ^tas, roj be outl KaTaG\eLV TrpoaLpov/xeuos rd Trap AuTinaTpov XP^^ ^^^^ p^rjSeu els rds eKeivov hojped
'

^

^ii'oicTai'

LVRC

(perhaps rightly).

i2S

JEWISH WAR,

I.

272-276

(

= ant.

xiv

368-372)

But whichever account be true, the initial act redounds to his glorious credit. It is said, moreover, that before he expired, being informed by a woman

^

of Herod's escape, he exclaimed, " Now I shall depart happy, since I leave one behind me who will have vengeance on my foes," The Parthians, (11) Such was Phasael's end. though disappointed of their most coveted prize, the women, none the less installed Antigonus as Hyrcanus master in Jerusalem, and carried off Hyrcanus ^ ^ P"^oner prisoner to Parthia. (xiv. 1) Herod, in the belief that his brother was Herod, still ahve, was now accelerating his march to Arabia, Mai^hus hastening to obtain from its king the money by king of which alone he hoped to move the avaricious barbarians on behalf of Phasael. For, should the Arab prove unduly forgetful of the ties of friendship with bis (Herod's) father and too mean to make him a present, he counted on borrowing from him the amount of the ransom and leaving in pledge the son of the prisoner whom he wished to redeem for he had with him his nephew, a lad of seven years old. He was, moreover, prepared to give three hundred talents, offering as his sureties the Tyrians who had i^olunteered their services. Fate, however, proved to have outstripped his zeal Phasael was dead and Herod's fraternal affection was all in vain. He found, too, that the Arabs were no longer his friends. For their king, Malchus, forwarded peremptory orders to him instantly to quit his territory, pretending to lave received formal notice from the Parthians to ;xpel Herod from Arabia in reality, he was deter'

;

:

,

;

nined not to repay
VOL.

his

debts to Antipater, nor to be
F

II

129

JOSEPHUS
dvTiTTapaax^h- xpfl^ovaiu rols t€kvols hvoajTrelodai. ov/jL^ovXoLg b' exprjTO ri]^ dvaiheLa^ rot? ofioiajg OLTTOGTepeLi^ rd? Wv-LTrdrpov TrapaKarad-qKas 64XovOLV Tjoav he rcov 7T€pl avrou ol SwarcoTaroL. 277 (2) *Hpa)Sr)<; fxev hrj TToXe/XLOV? rovs "ApajSa? evpojv hC d <f)LXrdrovs rjXm^ev Kal toi? dyye'Aot?
dTTOKpLudfjL€i'o<;^ (hs VTr-qyopeve
€77

to nddos

VTrecrrpeipei^

AiyvTrTou.
T(jjv

Kai TTjv ixev

TL

€.7TL\ojpiojv

dei'ras

dvaXaj^o'jv
Tct

,

TrpoeXdovTL
27S yeXXerat.
(f)povrihojv
*"

TTepl

Kard Upov avXit^erai rovs VTroXeKJ)t^ 8' ^^17? els 'PivoKopovpa TTjv rdheXcfjov reXevrrjv dnayTTpcorrji/

eoTrepau

npooXa^dju he Trevdovs^ ouov dTTe6i]Karo

Trpocojrepaj. Kal hrj ^pahecos 6 f/eL \paih p.eravo-qaas e—efj-ipei' hid rd^ovs rovs dvaKaXeoovras rov v^piGfievou e<f)daiev he Kal rovrovs 'Hpcohrjs els Y\rjXovGLOv d(l>LK6pLevos evda rrjs TTapohov fjL-q rvyxdvwv vtto rwv e<f>oppiOVvrojv^ rols\ KdKelvot rrjv re (j)-qp.-qu Kai TjyeiJLOOLi' evrvy\dveL ro d^LCofjLa rduhpos alheodevres irponeinrovoa 279 avrov els AXe^dvhpeiav. 6 he TrapeXOdw els rrji ttoXlu ehexOrj /xeu XafXTrpcus vtto HAeorrdrpas or pa r-qyou e^eiu eX~LCovoris a rrapeoKevdCero els hiaKpovodaevos he rds TrapaKXi^oeLS rrjs ^aotXlhos Kal (irire -tjv aKfirju rod x^i-f^^^os VTToheioas ^f7Tf rovs Kara rrjV ^{raXiav Bopv^ovs eVt 'Ptu/xT^s
.

,

^

enXei.
*

nroKpifOfxivos
*

PLV.
Spanheim
:

*

vivBo'i

PA.

((popfj-cvfTuv

(ci^opuwuTuji/ mss.

Or Rhinocolura {el- Arxsh), the maritime town on th( Egypt and Palestine. * Such seems to be the meaning of the text of the besl MS9., literally Having taken as much of grief as he laic 130
"

frontiers of

**

JEWISH WAR,
forced

I.

276-279

(

= ant.

xiv. 372--376)

by any sense of shame into making the he had received from the His father, to his children in their hour of need. advisers in this shameless conduct were the most
slightest return, for all

powerful
to

men

embezzle

at his court, the moneys

who

like himself desired entrusted to them by

Antipater.

(2) Herod, finding the Arabs hostile to him for the makes hi very reasons which had made him look for their warm ^';y ^'^ friendship, gave the messengers the reply which his feelings dictated and turned back towards Egypt. The first evening he encamped in one of the temples of the country, where he picked up those of his men who had been left in the rear. The next day he advanced to Rhinocorura,'^ where he received the news of his brother's death. His load of anxiety thus replaced by as heavy a burden of grief,^ he resumed his march. The Arab king, now tardily repenting his conduct, dispatched messengers in but Herod outhaste to recall his insulted suitor stripped them, having already readied Pelusium. Here, being refused a passage by the fleet stationed in that port, he applied to the authorities, who, out of respect for his fame and rank, escorted him to Alexandria. On entering the city he had a magnificent reception from Cleopatra, who hoped to entrust him with the command of an expedition which she was preparing but he eluded the queen's 1 solicitations, and, deterred neither by the perils of mid-winter nor by the disturbances in Italy, set sail
; ;

for

Rome.
of care."
Traill, followinjr

down
"

an inferior

text,

renders

Having indulged such sorrow as became the occasion, he similarly Whiston and Reinach. dismissed his grief "
;

131

v^:a.

JOSEPHUS
280
(3)

<j>6prov

Ku'Svi-cvaa? Se Trepl ro nXelov eV/SaAojt'

owleraL, o(f>6hpa
\(jjp.4vr]v,

rw

Oa^^uAiai' Kal rov €iV 'PdSov 5taTrpo? KdooLOV TToXefjLCo rerpv/xdAis"

TLOV

hexdels^ vtto flroAe/zat'ou Koi ^a7T<f)LVLOV KaL7T€p 8' wv cV CLTTopia ;^p7]^aT6ov (j)iX(XiV.
Tpn-jp-q

281 vav7Tr]yelraL
(j>iXcjjv

fieyiaTriV,

iv
,

fj

pLera

tojv

eiV

Bpei^re'criop'

Kara-Xevoas
/cat

KOLKeWep €t?
/cat

'PojpL-qv €7TeLxd€LS, TTpojTw Sid TT^v TTarpcpav (^aXiav

ivervyxavev
yeVoys"

Avtojulco,

ra? re aurou

tou
Sta

avfjL(f>opa?

€Kh(.-qyelTo ,

on

re toi)? oIk€lo-

rdrovg eV
X^Lfjicovos

(f)povpicp KaraXiTrajv TToXiopKOvpiivovs

TrXevoeiev

Itt^

avrov

LKerrjg.
rrju

282

(•i')

'At^rajytou

8e

rJ7TT€TO

rrpos

pL€Ta^oXr)V

Kal Kara pvrjpLiqv jxeu rrj? ^AvTLTrdrpov ^evia^y TO 8e oXov /cat hid rrjv rov TrapouTog dp^Trjv, eyvoj Kal t6t€ ^acriXea KaOiurdv ^lovhaiojv ov TTporepou aurds" €7TOLrjG€V reTpdp\riv. eurjyev Se ovK eXarrov rrjg etV 'HpcoS-qv (f)iXoTLpiias rj rrpos ^ \vTiyovov hiachopd' rovrov yap hrj GraaLojSrj re 283 /cat 'PcofiaLotv exOpop VTreXdfi^ai'ev Kataap^ ptev ovv €1X^1^ iroLporepov avrov rag WurLTrdrpov orpareias^ dvaveovpi^.vo'; ,* a? /car' Alyvrrrov avrov rep rrarpl crvvhiiqveyKev, ri]v re ^eviav Kal rrjv iv aTTaoLv evvoLav, opujvrd ye pr]v Kal ro *\{pd>hov 284 hpaarrjpLOV Gwqyayev de rijv ^ovXrjv eV Mecrfj aaAas" /cat ^er* atrrdt' ^ Arparlvog rrapaorrjadpievoL rov 'Wpajd-qv rdg re Trarpcoag evepyeoiag Kal rr]u avrov Trpos 'PajpLalovg evuoiav dtefr^eaai^, aTTO^eiKvvureg a/xa /cat noXepLLOv rov Wvriyovov ov
OLKTO?,
.

,

1

4-5e

and om.

5'
:

'

Kalaaf)

PAM
P:
:

below MLVR. Kaiaapa the rest,

* <xTpaT»77taj

CTfjaTias

most »ss.

PM

di'ayeovfievoi'

the rest.

132

JEWISH WAR,
(3)

I

280-284
off

(

= ant.

xiv,

377-384)

Nearly shipwrecked

Pamphylia, after throw-

and Rhoc

ing overboard the bulk of the cargo, he with difficulty came safe to Rhodes, which had suffered severely from the war with Cassius. Here he was welcomed by his friends Ptolemy and Sapphinius, and, notwithstanding his lack of funds, procured the construction of an immense trireme, which carried him and his
friends to Brundisium,

whence he sped

to

Rome.
to

and him the story of his own and his family's misfortunes, and how he had left his nearest relatives besieged in a fortress and crossed the sea in the depth
waited
first

He

on Antony, as

his father's friend,

Rome.

told

of winter to implore his aid.

(4) Antony was moved with compassion at his By Antor and influenced by the recoUec- l"e^sen?t reverse of fortune tion of Antipater's hospitality, but above all by declare the heroic qualities of the man in front of him, of j^e Je determined then and there to make him king of the Jews whom he had himself previously appointed Besides admiration for Herod, he had as tetrarch.'* strong an incentive in his aversion for Antigonus, whom he regarded as a promoter of sedition and an enemy of Rome. Caesar proved a yet more ready champion than Antony, as his memory recalled the part which Antipater had borne with his own father in the Egyptian campaigns,'' his hospitality and invariable loyalty, while his eyes rested on Herod and read his enterprising character. So he convened the Senate, to which Messala, seconded by Atratinus, presented Herod and dwelt on the services rendered by his father and his own goodwill towards demonstrating at the same time the Roman people that Antigonus M'as their enemy, not only from the
; ;

»

§244.

*

§§

187

ff.

133

.

JOSEPHUS
e^ cor hn]V€xOr] rax^ov, dAA' on kol rore hia YlapBojv Xd^oL T-qv dpx'Qv 'PojjJLaLovs virepihajv rrj£ be ov/kXtjtov Trpos" ravra KCKLvrj/jteur^s, co? TTapeXdojv WvTcovLO? Kal rrpos tov Kara Yldpdojv TToXefiou ^aGiXeveLU 'HpcuSrju ovp.(l)ipeLv eXeyev,
jiovov
285 €Tn\l)-q(f>it,ovTaL

Travres

.

XvdeLarjs
fj-doow

Be

rrjs

jSouAr^^

^xovres 'Wpcohriv i^Tjeoav, Trporjyov Se avv ralg aAAat? apxcls ol vrraroL dvoovris re Kal to Soy/xa dvaQ-qaovTes €t? TTjv he TTpojrrjV 'Wpo'jhr} ri]? ^aaiTO \\a7TeTojXLOv ^ Aeta? r]p,epav Avtojvlo'S eloTia airrov]}
.

Wi'TcovLO? fiev Kal

Kacoap

286

(xv.

l)

Wapa
rovs

he tov xpoi^'ou tovtov ^AvrLyovos
ev

enoXiopKet

MaaaSa,

Tots"

fJ^ev

aXXoL<^

vharo^' hio Kal ^laxjTjTTO? dheXcjyog 'Hpojhov ovv hiaKooioL? Ta)v olKeiojv hpacr/jiov e^ovXevero el? "Apa/Sa?, OLK-qKoajs Tcov els ^Wpajhrjv dfjLapri'jpLdTCxju MaA;;^a> kolv ecpOr] KaraXiTTow rd (hpovpiov, el 287 pcera/JLeXeLV.
eTTLTrjheLOL? hiapKOVfJuevov?, aTravt^ovTa? he
p,rj

rrepl

rrjv

voaf
TTepl

TCOV

vvKra rrjs e^ohov avve^rj TrXeZurov yap eKhox€ia>v vharo? dvaTrXirjadevrajv

ovKer^ exP'Q'^^y </»i^y^?, ciAA' erre^rjeGav rjhr] tols rdv \^VTLyovov, Kal rd fiev (f)av€pdj? avp,TTXeKOjJLevoL, rd he Xoxojvre? orvxvov? hiecfideLpov. ov iJLTjv ev drrauLV evaroxovv eonv 8' ottt]^ Kal avrol TTTaiovres dveaTpe(l>ov. (-) Kdv rovTcp Bevrlhio? 6 'Pajfiaiajv arpa288 TT)yds 77eiJL<f)delg Ik Hvplas YldpOovg dveipyetv /xct' CKelvovg etV ^lovhalav Trape^aXev, Xoyoj jxev ojs ^orjOrjGOJV TOt? rrepl ^Xojgi-jttov, epyco 8' Wvriyovov
,

^

om. Niese with C.

*

birov

PAM.

13 +

JEWISH WAR,
earlier

I.

284-288

(

= ant.

xiv. 384-392)

quarrel which they had had with him, but because he had also just been guilty of contempt of Rome in accepting his crown from Parthian hands. These words stirred the Senate, and when Antony came forward and said that with a view to the war with Parthia it was expedient that Herod should be The king, the proposal was carried unanimously. meeting was dissolved and Antony and Caesar left the senate-house with Herod between them, preceded by the consuls and the other magistrates, as they went to offer sacrifice and to lay up the decree
in the Capitol.

On this, the first day of Herod was given a banquet by Antony.

his reign,

40 b.c.

(e

(xv. 1) All this time AntigonuJ was besieging the Aniisom occupants of Masada, who, though well supplied with ^^j^H^^l Iniamiiyin all other necessaries, were in want of water. these straits Joseph, Herod's brother, with two hundred of his men resolved to escape to Arabia, having heard that Malchus had repented of his criminal He was on the point of leaving treatment of Herod the fortress, when on the very night fixed for his the reservoirs departure, rain fell in abundance were replenished and Joseph saw no further need
;

for flight.

Instead, the garrison

now began

to sally

out against the forces of Antigonus and partly in open combat, partly by ambuscades, destroyed a considerable number. They were not, however, uniformly successful, meeting with occasional reverses themselves and being forced to retire. (2) Meanwhile V^entidius, the Roman general dispatched from Syria to hold the Parthians in check, had in his pursuit of them advanced into Judaea, nominally to relieve Joseph and his friends, but in
135

ventidiuj

^aHyrm.

JOSEPHUS
289 apyvpiovyievos.

odfMevog,
dv€X<^p^t,

oj?
fj-erd

iveTrXi^ad-q
ttJs"

ey/Lora yovv 'lepoGoXvfjLcov avXiXPVH-^'^^* avro? fikv
7:X€LGTr]s
hvi^dfieojs,

'LlXajva

Se

ovu

pLepei

Xijfifia

KariXnrev,^ d)? p-r} KaTd<j><jjpov ro dTTavacrr-qaas *AvtlTrdvras 7TOL-qa€L€v
.

yovo? 8e TrdXiv
TTjS

iXTrit^ajv

WdpOovs

iTrapiVveiv

/cat

Zi'Aojva 7 ecu? idepdrrevev, cog pr]h€v ivoxXoirj -npd
1X77 iho<;.^

290

"Hdf] be 'Upojbr]? Kara-eTrXevKOJS dtro rrjq 'IraAta? ei? riToAe/^atSa Kal Gvvayqoxdj? Svvapiu OVK oXlyrju ^Ivojv re /cat 6po(f)vXojv rjXavvev 8ia
^3)

Wi'TLyovov, ovXXapifiavovrojv AeAAto? vtt^ ^ Ps.vTOjviov ervy291 7T€p,(f)6€Lg 'Hpcobqu ovyKarayayelv eVeiaev. XO.i^ei' Se Bei^Tt'Stos" p^ev iv rat? iroXeaLV ra? hid YldpBov? Tapaxd? Kadiardpei'o?, HlXojv 8' eV *IoL'8ata ;\;pr]/xaCTtP' i;??' 'Avrr/oi^ou hL€(j)6app4.vos. ov pirjv 'Wpcohrj^ loxdos rjTTopeL, Trpoiovn 8' avru) Kad^ rjpLepau -qv^eiTO rd rrj? Svvdpeoj?, Kal ttXtjv 292 dAiyoii' Trdaa rj FaAtAata Trpooedero. TrpovKeLTO pikv ovv TO dvayKaiorarov dyujVLopa MaCTa8a /cat TO pvoaodai Tipcarov tovs olk€lov? e'/c rijs TToXiopKtas, yiverai 8' ep—ohiov ^\67T7Tiy ravTTjv yap exprjv
rij?

FaAtAat'a?

eV

Bei^TtSt'ou /cat StAceji^o?, ovs

TToXepLiav
€7TL

ovaav e^eXelv

-rrporepov, ojg

p,rj

x<^povuT05
e;(^/Dot?

'\epOGoXvilOJV
rrjs

/CaTO,

VOJTOV

TL

TOl?

epup.a

KaraXeLTTOLTO.
^\ovhaLOL

ovvrjTtrev

hk

Kal
€77t

lLiXa)v
<1>

dop.€vojg

dnavaordoeoj?

7rp6(j}aoiv

evpojv,

7TpoO€K€LVrO

bLd)KOVT€9.^

ZOVTOVS

'HpojSrjg iKdpajidjv p,€r^ dXiyov arL<f)Ovg rpeirerai rax^ojs Kal HlXajva 8iaaoj^et /ca/coj? dpvvofxevou,
^

Destinon

:

A.araXAotTrfi' .mss.
^

*

TTpos

rdj (\Tri5as C.

TrpoffrjKOifTts

PA.

136

'

JEWISH WAR,
reality to extort

I.

289-292-

(

= ANT.

xiv.

392-397)

money from Antigonus.
in the

He

accord-

ingly

encamped

immediate

vicinity of Jeru-

salem and, after glutting his avarice, retired with the bulk of his troops leaving, however, a detachment under the command of Silo, to prevent the detection of his mercenary proceedings which might ensue from the withdra\val of the entire force. Antigonus, on his side, hoping for renewed assistance from the Parthians, meanwhile paid court to Silo, as he had to Ventidius, to prevent any trouble from him before his expectations were realized. (3) But already Herod, having sailed from Italy Herod to Ptolemais and collected a considerable army of Cf V"""? Palestine ^ n loreign and native troops, was advancmg through 39 b.c. Galilee u^^on Antigonus. Ventidius and Silo, induced by Dellius, Antony's emissary, to assist in reinstating Herod, w ere co-operating. But Ventidius was occupied in quelling local disturbances arising out of the Parthian invasion, while Silo, corrupted by the bribes of Antigonus, lingered in Judaea. Herod, however, had no lack of support new recruits added daily to his strength as he advanced, and, with few exceptions, all Galilee went over to him. The most urgent task ahead of him was Masada and, above all, the liberation of his relatives from the siege. But Joppa was a preliminary obstacle. For that town being hostile had first to be reduced, in order that there might be no stronghold left in enemy hands in his rear when he marched against Jerusalem. Silo, glad of an excuse for quitting Jerusalem, now proceeded to join him, hotly pursued by the Jews. Herod with a small party flew out upon them and soon routed them, rescuing Silo, who was making but a poor defence.
;
.

1-11
:

VOL.

II

F 2

1

37

,

.

JOSEPHUS
293
(4)

*'E77etTa

^loTT-rju

eXojv

irpos

rr^v

MaaaSat^

pvGOfxevo? Tovg OLKelovg rj-etyeTO. /cat rcop eVt^ojpLOJv ov? iJL€u TTarpcva (jiiXia rrpoGt'jyev, ovg 8e to avTOV kMos, ov^ d€ rfi? e^ a.fjL(t)OLU evcpyeoia^ dfiOL^Tj, TrXeLGTovs >'€ firju e'ATTts" tu? eV ^aatMoj^ ^e^aiou, SvciVLKrjr6<;* re 77817 Svi^afiig yjdpoLGTO.
294 rrpoLOura
S'

Wv-iyovo?
,

evi'-jbpeveu

TOLTTLTi^BeLa

tcou

-poXox^Ccvv eV olg ov6ev r) puKpa rov? 'Hpa»8i7? 8e tou? €/<• iMaTToXeiJLLOvg k^XaTt-ev aa8a? olk€lovs TrapaXa^ojv paSt'cu? /cat 'Pr^o-av* to \epoo6Xvfxa- GvurjrrTe 5' (f)povpLOu fJ€i Trpo^ TO. avTcp TO pL^Ta Y^iXcovog oTpaTicoTiKOv /cat 77oAAot TUiV €K T-qg TToXeojg Ti]v LG)(vu /caraTTAayeVre?. (5) T^TpaTO—eSevGafievovg 8e /caret to rrpog Bvglu 295 €t6^€v6v re /cAi/Lta Tov dGT€o<; ol TavTr) (f)vXaKe<; /cat i^rjKovTil^ov aurou?, dAAoi 8e K'ara gtl(J}0<; €k6€oi^t€<; d7T€77€ipon'To TCOU TT poT€Taypiivo}v 'Hpd>hri<^ hk TO p.kv TipojTov KrjpvGGeiv Trepl to T€L)(o<; e/ce'Aeuei/ a>9 eV dyadoj t€ Trapeit) tov S'qpiou Kal eTTL oojTripia. rr]<; ttoXcoj^ fir]Sev firjhe^ roi)?
TrapoSojv
'

,

(f>av€povs
'^'ii'o

ex^povs diivuGvpLcvog
dfjLvrjGTcau.

,

ho'jooju 8e /cat rot?

^ia(f>op(jL>-dTOLS

eVet

5e

dvTLTrap-qyo-

povfTes
tcl)u

OL

nepl

tou

WvTcyouou ovt€ KaTaKOveiv
Tiud? ovre /xera/SaAAeCT^ai,
tov<;

KrjpvypidTCjju

eioju

TO

XoLTtOv

dpLVveGBai

drro

tov Teixovg

€tt-

e~p€7Tev Tot? G(f)€T€poL9
297

OL Sf Ta)(e(jL>?

uTTavTa? dno

Toju TTvpyoju eTpdipavTO tol? fjeX^GLv.
(6) "Ef^a hrj /cat HlXojv dTreKaXvipaTO ttjv SojpoooKLaw €7TLOK€vaGdfi€vog ydp TToAAou? Tcov GTpa-

^

Naber:
xviii. 23.

5i'(r/<if77T05

ms3.

:

the

same confusion occurs
*

in

A.
*

Qprjaav

M\'C:

cf. § 2o(>.

Bckker

:

tx-qre

mS3.

138

JFAVISH WAR,
(4)

I.

293-297

(

=

ANT. xiv. 397-406)

Then, after taking Joppa, he
to

hastened

to He

takes

rescue his friends. The country - folk ffi^e^ves' rallied to him, some drawn by old aflfection for his Masada. father, others by his own renown some in return for benefits conferred by both father and son, but the majority attracted by their expectations from one whose claim to the throne seemed assured so that by now he had assembled a formidable army. Antigonus sought to obstruct his advance by posting
;
;

Masada

ambuscades in suitable passes, but caused little or no injury to the enemy. Herod without difficulty rescued his friends in Masada, recovered the fortress of Rhesa," and then marched against Jerusalem where he was joined by Silo's troops and by many of the citizens, who were alarmed at the strength of his army. (5) Having encamped on the west side of the town, his forces were assailed by showers of arrows and javelins from the guards posted at that quarter, while others sallying out in companies made attacks on his outposts. At the outset, Herod ordered heralds to patrol the walls and proclaim that he had come for the good of the people and the salvation of the city, that he had no intention of punishing even avowed enemies and would grant an amnesty to his bitterest foes. But when Antigonus issued counter-exhortations forbidding any to listen to these proclamations or to go over to the enemy, Herod at once gave his men permission to retaliate on their assailants on the ramparts, and with their missiles
;

Herod
jerusaie

they soon drove them
(6)

And now

tion.

all out of the towers. Silos conduct betrayed his corrupFor he induced a large number of his soldiers
«

In

Idumaea, §266.

139

V'

-

JOSEPHUS
TLOjTOju
€tV

OTrduLW

€77 LTTjbeLOJv

avapodv KOL

')(prjiiara

re G(f)d? x€Lii€pLovvrag €19 TOi)? €7n~ri6eiovs^ tottovs , €.7T€ihr] rd Tiept T-qv ttoXlv Tju eprjfxa rraura row rrepL Aunyovov Trpoav€OK€VaafJL€U(JJU
,

rpo^a?

OLTTaLTelu, dTTdy€LV

€KLl'€L

T€ TO OTpar07T€00U Kai

ai'tt

298

'HpajSr/9 S' Ivrvyxdvojv rolg re X^P^^^ V7t6 tov Li'AcuP'a -qyefiooLv Kal Kara TrXrjdos rolg orpaTicorais eSelro firj KaraXiTrelv airrov vtto re
e77€i/3aTO.

Avrojviov Kal rrjs crvyKX-qrov TrpoXvoen^ yap av6i-]ix€p6v avrojv rds 299 duopias. Kal fxerd rrju hir^oiv evOeojs^ oppufjoas avro^ ets" Trjv "x^ojpav roaavrrju avrolg emriqheicjjv aTTOKOipaL Trdoa? d(j}9ovLav ojg rag eKOfjLLoeu, ^lXojuos 7Tpo(f)doeL<; et? re rag ^^rj? rj/JLepag fXTj btaXi—elu rrjv \opriyiav 77 povoo'uixevog erreoreXXev rolg 77€pt Ha/xdpeiau, (JjKeiojro 6' 77 TroXtg avrat, olrov Kal olvov Kal eXaiov Kal ^ooKrjfj.ara Kardyeiv ravr' dKOVoag ^Avriyovog 8t300 et? '\epLXOVvra. eTTefxipeu rrepl r-qv xojpav eXpyeLV kol Xo-)(dv rovg OLrrjycvg KeXevcov. ol 8* VTT-qKOVov, Kal ttoXv
'

Kataapo? kol

TTep.cjydei'ra

,

ttXtjOos OTrXLrdjv

vnep
errl

rrju

'\epLXOvvra ovvrjOpoiadrj'
pLTjv

huKadetovro he
30J TOL'9
rjpefjieL,

row opwv 7rapa<^vXdooovreg
'HpoSSr^?
cbv Trevre fiev

rdmrrideLa eKKO/jLil^oprag. ov beKa be OTreipag dvaXa^cov,
TTevre
8'
'loudai'oji/

'PaifjaLOJu

IJ.Lo9o(f)6povs pttyaSas Trpog olg
€7tI

rrjv

'XipLxovvra

rjoav, exovoat Kal oXiyovg rojv LTTTrecuv, Tiapayiverai., Kal rrjv fjLev

302

evpioKei, nevraKooiovg he rd aKpa KareiXrjC^oras ovv yvvai^lv Kal yeveaZg. avrovg fiev ovv dTToXvet Xa^ojv, 'Pto/zatot S*
ttoXlu

KaraXeXeLfxfjieprjv

'

iOt'ois

PA.
om.

*

iidfwi

PA

A.\\ (e^^i>$); iidiu% is the

Lat. Heg., but probably not a gloss from normal form of the adverb in B.

140

JEWISH WAR,
to raise

I.

297-302

(

= a\t.

xiv.

406-410)

an outcry about a lack of supplies and to for the purchase of provisions and to be marched to suitable wniter quarters, as the troops of Antigonus had already completely cleared the neighbourhood of the city and reduced it to a desert. He, therefore, broke up his camp and attempted to retire. Herod, however, interviewed first the officers of Silo's staff and then the assembled troops, and besought them not to desert him, holding, as he did, a commission from Caesar, Antony, and tiie senate; "for," said he, "this very day I will relieve your wants." After making this appeal he instantly set off in person into the country and brought back such an abundance of supplies as to cut away all Silo's excuses while, to ensure that there should be no shortage in the immediate future, he instructed the inhabitants of the district of Samaria, that city having declared in his favour, to bring corn, wine, oil, and

demand money

**

;

cattle dov^^n to Jericho.

Hearing of

this,

Antigonus

issued orders throughout the country to hold-up and waylay the convoys. Acting on these orders, large

bodies of men in arms assembled above Jericho and took up positions on the hills, on the look-out for Herod, however, was the conveyors of the supplies. on the alert, and with ten cohorts, of which five were Roman, and five Jewish with mercenaries intermixed, and a small body of horse, proceeded to Jericho. He found the city deserted and the heights ^ occupied by five hundred persons with their wives and children. These he made prisoners and then released while
;

"

Or

" interceded with."

* rd aKpa here and in A.i not rV aKpay ("the citadel") which might have been expected.
/

141

. y

JOSEPHUS
ciOTrejovre?

>

ro Xoittov aorv SirjprraGav 7TAr]p€LS KaraXafi^dvoures ras" otVt'a? -avroitov K€L}i-qXiojv ovv <f)povpai> 6 ^aatXeus Kara* itpi\ovvTOS fJLeu
XiTTOju vTTecrrpeipeu,

Kal )(ei}xepiovrjav rrjv 'Pojfxaiojv
7TpooK€XOjprjKVta<;^
/cat

orpa-iav els *I8ouaatav Kal
€TVX€i' be Kal
^

to.-;

StacfyrJKeu
iir-

FaAtAatat'

Haixapeiav.

AiTlyouo? Trapa ttj^ HlXwvo? hojpoSoActa? vTTohe^audaL rod orparov polpav ev AJSSot?
OepaTTeuojv Wvtoji'lou.
303
(xvi.
1)

dueLfjLeuoL

Kat rwv
}xev

'PojfjLaLOL

fxev

ev acbBoi^ois dtij-yov
3'

ottXojv,

^Hpcohr)?

ovk

rfpefxeL,

dXXd

T-qv

^Xhovpiaiav

hLox^-XioLS

'nel.ols
77e/x(/'a?

Kal

rerpaKoaiOLS
dheXfhov

l7t-€Vgiv
ojs

hiaXapif^dvei
fxrj

rov
rrpos
e/c

^IcoarjTTOv,

tl

veiorepLadeirj

^Avrr/ouov^- avro? 8e Tr)^

fx-qrepa

Kal ooovs
el?

MacraSa? oiKecov? i^Tjyayev fierayayajv

Sa/za-

peiav Kal KaTaGTrjadpLevo? docfyaXws ry'et rd XotTrd TTjS FaAtAata? Karaarpeipofxeuos Kal rd? *Ai^Tt-

yovov <j)povpd? e^eXdacov.
304
(2)

Hpo?

he

rrjv

SeTT^coptv

eu

vLc^ercp

G(f)0-

hpordrcp hiavvoas dKovirl napaXapL^dweL
7Tp6 rrJ£
e<j)6hov tojv

rr^v ttoXlv,
.

(f)vXdKCov eK(i>vy6vr cjv

rovs eTTOjxevovs vtto dvaXa^ojv ttoXXtj S'
,

tou
rjv

xeipicovos

evda KaKcoBevras
err Lrrjheictjv

dcfiOoula

rtov

omqXaloL? (LppL-qro XrjGrds, ol TToXXrjv rrjg ^^cupa? KaraTpe)(ovTe? ovk iXdrroj KaKa TrpoTrepupas 305 TToXefjLOu hierideaav rovg eTTixcopLOU?.
irrl

Tovs

ev

rols

he

TreCojv

rpla reXrj
^

Kal pblau

iXrjV

LTT-ecou

Trpd?

C (adding

7rc>\rt5): irf/onfx-

the rest.

-

'At'Tiydi'Ov

VC

•'

on the part of A." (perhaps rightly).

14^^

JEWISH WAR,

I

302-305

(

= ant.

xiv. 410-415)

the Romans fell upon and rifled the rest of the town, where they found the houses full of treasures of every sort. Leaving a garrison in Jericho, the king returned and dismissed his Roman army to winter quarters in the districts which had joined his standard, Idumaea, Galilee, and Samaria. Antigonus, on his side, to ingratiate himself with Antony, induced
Silo

Winter

(

by a bribe to Lydda."
(xvi. 1) W^hile

billet a

division of his troops in

thus hving on the Herod's from arms, Herod, never idle, campaig occupied Idumaea with two thousand foot and four ^dumaec hundred horse, which he sent thither under his brother Joseph, to prevent any insurrection in favour of Antigonus. His own care was the removal of his mother and other relations, whom he had rescued having safely installed from Masada, to Samaria them there, he set out to reduce the remaining strongholds of Galilee and to expel the garrisons of and Gaii Antigonus. (2) He pushed on to Sepphoris through a very heavy snowstorm and took possession of the city without a contest, the garrison having fled before Here, provisions being abundant, he his assault. refreshed his troops, sorely tried by the tempest, and then started on a campaign aeainst the cave- ^^ ^^f^' the bri"( dwelling brigands, who were infesting a wide area at Arbli and inflicting on the inhabitants evils no less than those of war. Having sent in advance three battalions of infantry and a squadron of cavalry to the village
the
fat of the land, at rest
;

Romans were

" On the west frontier of Judaea an action in the enemy's favour apparently intended to weaken the allegiance of the
;

Roman

troops.

143

l;.dLiK

JOSEPHUS
"ApprjXa
rrju
KcofJLrjv,

eTTrjXOev fiera rrjg Aoltttjs Sui^a/xecus".

avro? fxera reoaapaKOvra rjiiepa? ov iir]v 7Tp6?
ol
TToXefiLoi,
/i-ero.

e<^ohov

eSetaau

8e

rwv

OTtXoJV dTTrjVTOJV, ifJL7T€LpLaV fXeV TToXeflLKTjV €XOVT€S,

306 TO

crvfi^aXovres yovv rw Opdao? XrjOTpLKov Se^uo ro evcovvfjiov Kepa? row 'HpcuSou Tperrovrai. TrepceXOajv Se Ta^e'cD? 'HpcuSr^? eV toO Kad' iavTOV Se^tou rrpooeBoi^det, Kal to p.kv olk€lou

Se

.

a(f>erepcp

i7T€aTp€(f)€U
ifXTTLTTTOJV

€.K

TYJS

4>VyT]?

,

TOL?

Sc

StaJKOVOLU
"^^^

dv€K07TT€V TrjV
pLrj

OpfJLTJv ,

p^^XP^

KaTOL

orofxa TTpoa^oXds 307 (3) '0 Se ecD?
TToXv
pL€V

6epovreg i^eKXiuav. 'lophdvov KTelvoju €lt7€to
hi€<fid€Lp€V,

Kal
5'

avrow

p,€pOS

OL

XoLTTol

VTTep rov 7TOTap,6v ioKehdodrjcrau, ojore 7r]v FaAt-

Xalav eKK^Kaddpdai (ho^ojv,
308 eSet
SLarpL^i]^.

rrXrju

KaBooov

ol tol9

OTTYjXaLOL? ep,(f)OjXevovr€? vTreXetTTovTO- Kdrrl tovtols

Slo

br]

Trpujrov rots

GrparicoTaLg
drTeSlBou,

rds

€K

Tojv

7T€7Tovr]pL€vajv

inLKapTTLas

eKdoTcu ^paxp^d? eKarou TrevrrjKOVTa dpyvptov Kal rot? -qyepcooLV TToXvTrXaaioua, <Kal>^ Oe/OCOpOl hL€7T€p.lp€V €tV OV? €X€LpepLL,OV GTa6pOV£. Be TO) veajrarcx) raJv dSeXi^cov iTTeareXXev rrjg re dyopd? avTols -OLelodai Trpovoiav Kal retx^^^LU ^AXe3dvSp€L0i'. KdKelvog dp:(j)0Tep<jDV iTTepeXrjdrj. 309 Adiqvag hLrjyeu 8e rovTcp Trepl pkv (4) 'Ei^ WvTcovLog, Sevrihiog 8' eVt rou Trpog Yidpdovs
hiavepiojv
^

voXepLOV

ILiXujvd

re

Ka\

Wpujhiqv

pi€r€7T€pL7T€TO,
jrepi

KaraorrjoaadaL Trporepov i—LGTeXXcvv rd ^lovhaiav. 'HpwSrjg 8* aa/xeVco? TtXajva

npog

^ I have inserted the conjunction which seems necessary. Without it the sense would be "and sent much larger sums

to the officers in their various winter quarters."

U4

JEWISH WAR,
rest of his

I.

305-309

(

= ant.

xiv. 415-421;

them forty days later with the Nothing daunted by his approach, the enemy, who combined the experience of seasoned warriors with the daring of brigands, went armed to meet him, and, coming into action, routed Herod's Herod instantly wheeling left wing with their right. round his troops from the right wing, where he was in command, came to the relief, and not only checked the flight of his own men, but falling upon their pursuers broke their charge, until, overpowered by his frontal attacks, they in turn gave way. (3) Herod pursued them, with slaughter, to the Jordan and destroyed large numbers of them the rest fled across the river and dispersed. Thus was Galilee purged of its terrors, save for the remnant still lurking in the caves, and their extirpation required time. So, before proceeding further, Herod awarded
of Arbela," he joined

army.

;

to his soldiers the fruits of their labours, distributing to each man a hundred and fifty drachmas of silver and to their officers much larger sums, and then dismissed them to their various winter quarters. He instructed Pheroras, his youngest brother, to take

charge of the commissariat department^ and to fortify Alexandrion both tasks received his brother's
;

attention.
(4) At this time Antony was residing in the neighbourhood of Athens, and Silo and Herod were summoned by Ventidius for the war with Parthia, being Herod instructed first to settle affairs in Judaea. gladly dismissed Silo to Ventidius, and set out him" Irbid, near the Lake of Gennesaret, N.W. of Tiberias.

and exter minates t
cavedwellers.

In A. xiv. 418 it is not Herod's troops which Pheroras is instructed to provision, but Silo and the Romans, whose supplies Antigonus at the end of a month had cut short (see § 302).
''

145

r

JOSEPHUS
Bev'TLSiou oLTToXvaag avro?
IttI

rov? Iv roTg

otttj-

310 Aatoi?

iarpdrevcjev.

ra be
rjv

GTr-qXaia

ravra
.

Trpog

ovhapioOev Trpoond, rrXayta? rj 8e Kara Be dvoSov? pLOvou e^ovTa crrevordTag jjieTCxJTTOU a-ura)v irirpa Karereivev et? ^advrdra? €7nppiTT0vaa ral? ;;^apaSpais', <t>dpayya? opBios cjCTxe Tov ^aoiXda p.^xp'- ttoXXov p.eu dvopeli^ irpos ro dpLrjxavov rod tottov, reXevralov 8' iTnvoia yovv dXKipLov? 311 )(p-qaaGBaL roi)? o<f>aX€pajrdTr). Kadipicov eV Xdpva^Lv eVtet TOiS- urop^LOt^, ol Se aTTeoc^aTTOV re avrovg ovv yeveal^ kol irvp evieaav Tols dp.vvop,evoLS. ^ovX-i)dcls 8' e^ avrojv kol
CLTTOKp'q/jLvoL?

opeoLV

TTepLGCJoaL
77/30?

TLvag
rctJi'

'HpojSvyS"

eK')]pv^€v

dvaxojp^^^^

avrov.
/cat

rcov he ideXovalajs p-ev ou8et? Trpoo-

edero,
TiSy

^ialop.eva>v Se ttoXXol rrj? al^P-aTrarrjp,

312 Xcooias TrpoeiXovro Sdvarov.

eTnd

TTaihcov

p-erd

evBa Kal rcov yrjpaLOJV Trj? p.7]Tp6s BeoG(f)LGLu

p,€vov<;

Tov? TratSa? eTTiTpeihai
KTeivei
rpoTTco

Se^ta

roLcoBe
irrl

kgB^

KeXevGGs auTO? loraro del TTpoLOvra tojv vlwv

to

l^eXdelv enl eva Trpo'Cevai GTop-tou^ /cat rov
e^ aTTOTtrov
/cat

d77eG(f)a'r7ev.

he 'HpcoSr]? eTrSXeTTOjv to* re TrdOei GvvexeZTO^
313 TTapaKaXojv
pLevojv,

Toj rrpeG^VTTj he^idv ojpeyeu (^eLGaodat tojv jeKvojv

ovhev evhov^ tcDi' Xeyorov 'Hpwhr^v elg TaveivorrjTa, errl toI? TraiGlv avaipel Kal rr^v yvvalKa, Kal Kara^aXdjv /cara tov Kprjp.vov toi)? feKpov^ reXevralov eavrov eppupev.
,

6

he

rrpos

dXXd

/cat

TrpoGOvethiGag

'

PA

:

dTroxupflf

the rest.

'

Niese from the parallel passage in u4. So most Mss.. r/. B. vii. 300: CLudxfTo Niese with C.
2

Tci' arotxiov

"

Or

chests.'

146

JEWISH WAR,

I.

309-313

(

= axt.

xiv. 421-430)

self on a campaign against the bandits in the caves. These caves, opening on to mountain precipices, were inaccessible from any quarter, except by some tortuous and extremely narrow paths leading up to the cliff in front of them dropped sheer them
;

into ravines far below, with water-courses at the bottom. The king was, consequently, for long baffled by the impracticable nature of the ground, but at length had recourse to a most hazardous scheme. By means of ropes he lowered the most stalwart of his men in cradles " and so gave them these then massacred access to the cavern-mouths the brigands and their families, hurling in fire-brands upon those who resisted. Anxious to save some of them, Herod, by word of herald, summoned them to Not one of them voluntarily surhis presence. rendered,'' and of those taken by force many preferred death to captivity. It was then that one old man, the father of seven children, being asked by them and their mother permission to leave under Herod's pledge, killed them in the following manner. Ordering them to come forward one by one, he stood at the entrance and slew each son as he advanced. Herod, watching this spectacle from a conspicuous" spot, was profoundly affected and, extending his hand to the old man, implored him to spare his children but he, unmoved by any word of Herod, and even upbraiding him as a low-born upstart,*^ followed up the slaughter of his sons by that of his wife, and, having flung their corpses down the precipice, finally threw himself over after them.
;

down

,

;

^

Jnt. 427, on the contrary, mentions
'^

surrender.
^

Cf.

§

478

;

many cases of Or " commanding." " for his abject spirit." perhaps
147

^

JOSEPHUS
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The bracketed words only
:

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omitted, probabb

hrough horaoioteleuton, by the P T\iQi' the rest.
*

148

JEWISH WAR,
(5) \ y

I.

314-S18

(

= ant.

xiv. 430-435)

Herod having thus mastered the caves and o inhabitants, leaving behind him under the command of Ptolemy a contingent sufficient, in his
their

Fi'esh ^is

,n Galilei

queued.

opinion, to repress insurrection, returned towards Samaria, bringing to meet Antigonus a force of three thousand heavy infantry and six hundred cavalry. Thereupon, emboldened by his departure, the usual promoters of disturbance in Galilee made a surprise attack on his general Ptolemy and slew him, and proceeded to ravage the country, finding refuge in the marshes and other places difficult to search. Apprised of the revolt, Herod returned in haste to the rehef, killed a large number of the rebels, besieged and destroyed all their fortresses, and imposed on the towns, as the penalty for their defection,

a fine of a hundred talents.
(6) The Parthians having now at last been expelled and Pacorus slain, Ventidius, under instructions from Antony, dispatched a thousand horse with two legions to support Herod in opposing Antigonus, the officer in command being Machaeras. To this general Antigonus wrote, imploring him instead to come to his own assistance, complaining bitterly of Herod's high-handed and abusive treatment of the realm," and adding a promise of money. Machaeras, not being prepared for such contempt of his superior's orders, especially as Herod was offering him a larger sum, declined the temptation to treason, but, feigning amity, went off to spy out the position of Antigonus,
^entidins Parthians

Machaera
his
"

^^

atutud?'

*

Or perhaps

" the throne."

U9

JOSEPHUS
6'

avTOV

TTjv

(iTTeKXeicrev

hidvoiav Wvriyovo? ttju Kal aTTO rcov tci^cDv tu?

re

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320
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77

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p-kv
TCx)v
^

T€pL6p.evog Xeiav, cjore

JEWISH WAR,

I

319-323

(

= a>jt.

xiv. 435-448)

without listening to Herod, who tried to dissuade him. Antigonus, divining his intention, refused him admittance to the city, and repulsed him from the until at length Machaeras, for walls as an enemy very shame, was forced to retire to Emmaus and Infuriated by his discomfiture, he rejoin Herod. killed all the Jews whom he met on his march, not even sparing the Herodians, but treating all alike as friends of Antigonus. (7) At this Herod, in indignation, hastened to Herod attack Machaeras as an enemy, but, restraining his A^,"^[on^y anger, set out instead to lay before Antony an>nthe Machaeras, reflecting samosata accusation of his enormities. on his errors, pursued after the king and by dint of entreaties succeeded in pacifying him. Herod, notwithstanding, continued his march to join Antony ; the receipt of intelligence that the latter with a large army was assaulting Samosata, a strong city near the Euphrates, quickened his pace, as he saw in this a favourable opportunity for displaying his courage and strengthening his hold upon Antony's affection. His arrival, in fact, brought the siege to He killed numbers of the barbarians a conclusion. and secured booty in abundance, with the result that Antony, who had long admired his valour, now held it in even higher respect, and largely increased both his honours and his high expectations of sovewhile King Antiochus was compelled to reignty surrender Samosata. (xvii. 1) Meanwhile Herod's cause had suffered a Defeat an grave reverse in Judaea. He had left his brother nTrod? ner Joseph in charge of the realm, with injunctions to broth Joseph. take no action against Antigonus until his return,
;
j

I

;

151

JOSEPHUS
Kivelv rrpo?

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St)

/Se^atov elvat

GvpLfiaxov e^ d>v eSpaoev. 6 Se cog rJKOuaev ovra TToppaj-droj rov dheXcjiou, a/xeATJaaj TcDv TTapayyeXjiaTajv eVt '\€pLXOvvros ixcopet fierd
MaxcH'pa.i^
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OTreipciiV,

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p.dxij (f)av€Lg,

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325

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(;2)

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fiere^dXXero
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327 KaAetrat.
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fjLev

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etV
^

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dvex^jprjoev,
:

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^

Niese. with Lat.
ovotv oiiru}

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tt

poa ay ov res
:

>iss.

M

:

ovbiiru)

LVR

:

oviru)

PA

ovbh

iru

Bckker.

*

Of Gennesaret.

152

JEWISH WAR,
him

I.

323-327

(

= ant.

xiv. 448-450)

because the previous conduct of Machaeras proved No sooner, howto be an untrustworthy ally. ever, did Joseph hear that his brother was at a safe distance, than, disregarding instructions, he marched towards Jericho with five cohorts sent to him by Machaeras, with the object of carrying off the corn- Summer ^^^•^• crop in its midsummer prime. On the way he \vas attacked by his adversaries on difficult ground in the after displaying great gallantry in the battle hills he fell, and the whole Roman force was cut to pieces. For the cohorts had been recently levied in Syria and had no leavening of the so-called " veterans " to support these raw recruits. (2) Not content with his victory, Antigonus was Further so far carried away by rage as actually to do outrage Qaiuee ^ Being in possession of the bodies idumaea, to Joseph's corpse. of the slain, he had his head cut off, notwithstanding the ransom of fifty talents with which Pheroras, the brother of the deceased, offered to redeem it. In Galilee this victory of Antigonus led to so serious a revolution that his partisans dragged out of their houses the men of rank who were in favour of Herod and drowned them in the lake."* There was defection also in many parts of Idumaea,^ where Machaeras
;

was rebuilding the walls of

a fortress called Gittha.

Of
the

all

this

Herod

capture of Sossius governor of Syria, with orders to support

knew nothing. T'or after Samosata Antony had appointed
as yet

Herod in opposing Antigonus, and had then taken his departure for Egypt.^ Sossius, thereupon, sent on
^ A. has Judaea the position of the fort is uncertain. Smith and Bartholomew {Hist. Atlas of Holy Land, map 44) place it S.W. of Hebron. " This, as Reinach points out, is an error. Antony passed the winter of 38-37 b.c. at Athens (Plut. Ant. 34).
;

153

.

JOSEPHUS
ray/xara
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,

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tuj

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329 y^TO, TTOiovfievos^ ttjv

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Siavvaas eVt tov Xij^avov oKraKoatov^ p,kv rwv —epl TO 6po<; 77 poaXafj..3di'€L ovixjxdxovs, ^Pajfialojv 8e ev Tdyfia TavTV crvvrjiljev. fxeO' d)v ov TrepLpLeluas rjfiepav et? T-qv FaAiAatav eve^aXev, tol'? re TroAei.dovs VTravTidaavTa? ctV o KaTaXeXoirreaav x^P^ou 330 -peTTCTaL, Kal Trpoae^aXXev fxeu ouvexdj? toj (f)povOicp, TTplv 8e eXelv ;!^et/xa>i^t ^taa^et? p^aAeTTcurdTOJ irrel 8' rat? ttXtjolov ivGTpaTOTTeSeveTaL KcopiaLS avTO) ixeT^ oAtya? rjpLepa? Kal to Sevrepov Trapd WvTOjVLOV^ TdyfjLa cruvepLL^ev, Setcrayre? T-qv lox^v ol 77oXep,LOL Sid vvKTOS i^eXiTTov TO epvjxa. »^31 Kat TO XoLTTov Sid '\epLXOVVTOs jjet 07T€v8ajV (J.) Tdx^crra Tovg TabeX^ov (hovel? pLeTeXdelv evda* fj Kal SaLpLovLov TL avTO) (jvpL^aiveL Tepag, e^ ov Trap* eArrt'Sa uojdel? diSpog deoSiXeaTdTov 86$au dirr^veyKaTo. TToXXol p,€v ydp avTO) tCjv iv reAet uvveLGTidOrjaav Kar' eKeivrju ttjv lorrepav, hiaXvOevTos he TOV ovpLTTooLov pLeTa TO TrdvTas e^eXdelv 6 oIkos
.

1

Destinon

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* *

3

M

:

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+ oe L\'RC. +5^ LVRC.

154

JEWISH WAR,

I.

327-331

(

= ant.

xiv. 451-455)

two legions into Judaea to assist Herod, and followed himself close behind with the rest of his troops. (3) But while Herod was at Daphne, near Antioch, Herod he had a dream distinctly warning him of his brother's paie^tfue death, and springing in horror from his bed was met by the messengers bringing news of the catastrophe. After brief lamentation for his loss, he deferred further mourning for another season and set out in haste to meet his foes. By forced marches he pushed on to Lebanon, where he received a reinforcement of eight hundred of the mountaineers and was joined by one of the Roman legions. With these allies, without waiting for daylight,^ he invaded Galilee ; he was met by the enemy, but drove them back to the position which they had just left. He made repeated attacks upon their fortress, but before he could capture it was compelled by a terrific storm to encamp in the neighbouring villages. A few days later he was joined by the second of Antony's legions.'' whereupon the enemy, alarmed at his strength, under cover of night evacuated their stronghold. (4) His subsequent march, accelerated by the de- His sire for speedy vengeance on his brother's murderers, escTp^at' took him through Jericho. Here he had a pro- Jericho. vidential and miraculous escape, the surprising nature of which won him the reputation of a special favourite of heaven. A large company of magistrates had dined with him that evening, and no sooner had the banquet ended and all the guests departed, than the
" The Greek might mean " without a day's delay " ; but the rendering above seems fixed by the parallel hi A. xiv. 452 {uvKTos duaards); TrepifxtueLu \n Josephus usually means "to wait for.'' But the narrative is here abbreviated ; in A. the night march starts not from Lebanon, but from Ptolemais.
"

§327.

155

V.^c'

JOSEPHUS
332 €U^€'a)? avveTTeGev. rovro Kal KLvbvvwv Kal ocdtt]pias KOLVou eVi ro) fieXXovri TToXefiw Kpivas elvai
arjfjLeiov

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TiaTTTTOV

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.

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'

Hudson;
:

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*

'

I'A
*

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:

the rest. aur^j mss.

*

Destinon

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:

/xr}vn>

LVRC.

156

JEWISH WAR,
building collapsed.
perils

I.

33^-336

(

= a\t.

xiv. 455-458)

Seeing in this an omen alike of and of preservation during the coming campaign, he at daybreak put his troops in motion. Some six thousand of the enemy rushed down from the hills and assailed his vanguard they had not
;

come to close quarters with the Romans, but pelted them from a distance with stones and darts, wounding many of them. On this occasion Herod himself, while riding along the lines,
the courage
to

was struck by a javelin in the side. (5) Antigonus, wishing to create an impression of
the superiority of his men, not only in enterprise but in numbers, dispatched an army to Samaria under one of his comrades named Pappus, whose

commission was to oppose Machaeras. Herod, meanwhile, ravaged the enemy's territory, subdued five small towns, slew two thousand of their inhabitants, set fire to the houses, and returned to his camp. His present headquarters were in the neighbourhood of a village called Cana." (6) Multitudes of Jews now joined him daily from He defeat Jericho and elsewhere, some drawn by hatred of cre7ieJ-a?'of Antigonus, others by his own successes, the majority ^'^I'igonus Herod was burning for by a blind love of change a fight, and Pappus, undeterred either by the number or the ardour of his adversaries, advanced with alacrity to meet them. On coming into action the

enemy made
but Herod,
"

a brief stand in other parts of the line with his memories of his murdered
;

should doubtless read, as in the parallel account, due north of Jerusalem near the frontier of Judaea and Samaria.

We

A.

xiv. 458, Isana, a place

157

JOSEPHUS
rod <l)ov€vdevTO^ 6.he\6ov Trapa^aXXofxevos cog au TLoano rovg alrLOug rov (i)6vov, ra\€.w<; rcxiv KaO' iavTOv eKparei Kal fxer' €K€lvov? eVt to crvvearo^
,

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7]g

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Kal

avve^codoufievajv ef 77pO(JK€Lp,€VOV TOt? UCTTaTOts
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etaoj,

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vivaKTO, ra reyrj
338 rrXea.
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rwv

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ra? OLK-qoeig

OTTapdrroju €IXk€v rov? evhoOev. Kal rol? fieu TToXXolg i—LKaraa€LCOv rov? opocbov? ddpoov?^ dvfipei, rov? vrro^evyoura? Se rcou ipeLTTLOjv ol orpanajrai ^idi-qpei? dveSexovro, Kal roaovrov iacjopevdrj veKpoJv ttXtjOo?, ware ra? oSov? cltto
339 <f)payfjuai

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VLKT]

redapprjKO)?
el
(xi)

lepoaoXv/j.coi'

rjXaaev,

y^eifXcoi^L

BteKOjXvdr)

o(f)oSpordraj

rovr^ epLTToSiov eKeu'co re TraureXov? Karopdajfiaro? Kal Tirrrj? ^AvrLyouq) Karearr], ^ovXevojjLeuco KaraXi—elu rjSrj rrjv ttoXlv. 8e TTpo? ioTrepav rov? (T) 'Hpcobr]? [rj^r^Y 340 4)lXov? KeKfjLrjKora? errl SepaTreia rov ocop-aro^ Sta^et? Kal avro? oj? tjv en 6epp.6? eK rojv orrXcji Xovoo/jLevo? fjeL orparicorLKcorepow el? yovv avro. TTal? eLTTero. Kal rrplv el? ro ^aXaveZov eloeXdeiv ivavriov avrov ri? eKrpe\eL rojv TToXefjLtwv ^i(j)rjpri?
1

dei P.
'

2

pM
Lat.

.

d^p^t^s

the rest.

ora.

PAM

158

JEWISH WAR,

I.

S36-340

(

= a\t.

xiv. 458-463)

brother, hazarding all to be avenged on his murderers, quickly overcame the troops in front of him, and then, successively directing his attacks upon any that still held together, routed the whole body. scene of carnage ensued, the enemy driven pell-mell back into the village from which they had issued, Herod pressing upon their rear and massacring unRushing with his foes into the village, told numbers.

A

he found every house packed with soldiers and the thronged with others who attacked him from above. After defeating his enemies in the open, he pulled the buildings to pieces and dragged out those within. Many perished in a mass under the roofs which he brought down upon their heads, while those who escaped from beneath the ruins were met by the soldiers with drawn swords and there was such a heap of corpses that the streets were impassable This blow was too much for the to the victors. enemy those of them who rallied after the battle, when they saw the village strewn with dead, dispersed and fled. WMth the confidence of his victory, Herod would instantly have marched upon Jerusalem, had he not been detained by a storm of exceptional severity. This accident impeded the completion Df his success and the defeat of Antigonus, who was by now meditating the abandonment of the
roofs
;
;

capital.
(7) That evening. Herod having dismissed his :ompanions to refresh themselves after their fatigues, ft-ent himself just as he was, yet hot from the fight, -O take a bath, like any common soldier, for only a •ingle slave attended him. Before he entered the 3ath-house one of the enemy ran out in front of lim, sword in hand, then a second and a third,

Another
ScTpe.
.

*^"'

159
\

A
1^

JOSEPHUS
341 e7T€LTa Seurepos" Kal Tpiro?, i^rjg Se TrAetou?.

ovroi
et?

Kara7Te(f)€vyeaav

fxev

eV

rrj?

Trapard^eoj?

ro

^aXavelov
devre^

coTrAta/xeVot, reoj? 8' V7T07T€Trrrj)(6T€? Kal
ct»9

ededaavro row ^aatAea, Auavrov fjLeu iraperp^xov yvfivou ovra rpefMOures, ettl 8e rd? €^66ovs ixo^povv. toim /xei' ovu dXXojv ouSet? Traprju Kara Tvxr]u 6 ovXX-qipofievo? TOV9 di>hpa9, 'H/dcoSt] 8' drte^P'^ to
BiaXai'ddi'ovTe?,
vtt" iKTrX-q^eco?
fjLTjSev

TTaOelu, (Lore Siacf^evyovGLV Trdvres.

342

(8)

Tt^ 8'

vorepaia WdTTTTOv
KapaTOpL-qua?,
,

/lep

rou ^AvTLyouov
8'

GTparTjyov
TTapard^eojs
343

dvfiprjro
K€(f)aXr}v

eVt

tt^s"

7T€pi7T€L

tyju

^epwpa rd.

rou (I>ov€v6€vto? avrcov d8eX<f)ou- Kal XcjL)<f)T^ovros rjv 6 tov ^Icvar^TTOV aveXojv aavTOS 8e rov ;^et/xajj/o? -qXavveu inl 'lepoaoXvpLUJU Kal P'^xpi' TOV T€LXOvs dyaydfV rr^v 8uVaatP', ovvTjyero 8' avrw rpirov ero? i^ ov ^aaiXev'S eV 'PcvfMrj rrpo rod Upov orparoTT^heveraL dneSeSeLKTo, ravrrj yap r)u eirifjiaxov, KaS^ o Kal nplu etAeiSeXcfjo) TTOLurjv

yap

344 YiofjLTrrjLOS

rr]u

ttoXlv.

SieXdtv

8e

et?

^pyo-

Tr)i

rd Trpodoreia, rpia fxei eyetpetv ;(cu/xaTa Kal —vpyovg eTTOLKohofJielv avTols KcAeJet, KaraXiTTOJi^ 8e rov^ dvvTLKOjraTovg rwi iraipuiv irrl rwv epyojv avrds et? ^afjidpetau fjei TTjv WXe^di'Spou rod Wptaro^ovXou pLeriajv dvyae(j>ayi€V, re pa KaOojfxoXoyrjiJLevrjv cog avrco /ca^
urpaTidv
Kal
Tep-cov
,

rrdpepyov
qSr]

7roLOViJLevo<;^

rrjs

TToXiopKias rov ydpLOv
inl

yap

V7r€pr)(f)dv€L

rovg TToXepLLOV?.
'lepoooXvfjLOj].

345

(9)

rT^/xa?

8e
*

VTrearpcipev

PA:

woielrai the rest,

l60

JEWISH WAR,

I.

341-S4.5

(

= ant.

xiv.

463-468)

followed by more. These were men who had escaped from the combat and taken refuge, fully armed, in the baths. There for a while they had remained lurking and concealed but when they saw the king,
;

they were panic-stricken and ran trembling past him, unarmed though he was, and made for the exits. By chance not a man was there to lay hands on them but Herod was content to have come off unscathed, and so they all escaped. (8) On the following day he cut off the head of He besie^ Pappus, Antigonus's general, who had been killed in sprin^^or the combat, and sent it to his brother Pheroras in ^^^•"' retribution for the r^urder of their brother for it was Pappus who had slain Joseph." When the tempest abated, he advanced upon Jerusalem and marched his army up to the walls, it being now just three years since he had been proclaimed king in Rome." He encamped opposite the Temple, for from that quarter the city was open to attack and had on a previous occasion been captured by Pompey." He then appointed his army their several tasks, cut down the trees in the suburbs, and gave orders to raise three lines of earth-works and to erect towers upon them. Leaving his most efficient lieutenants to superintend these works, he went off himself to Samaria to fetch the daughter of Alexander, son of His Aristobulus, who, as we have said, was betrothed to wfth'*^^ him/^ Thus, so contemptuous was he already of the Manamm
; ;

enemy, he made
siege.
(9)

his

wedding an interlude of the

After his marriage he returned with a larger

<'§§323f.

"§284.
Q

«

§

U5.

VOL

II

"§241. l6l

.

JOSEPHUS
fi€7a jielt,ovo<s^ Suudfieoj?' avvfJTTTe S' avro) HooGLO'; /iera TrXeiorr]? orpaTid'^ l7T7T€Coi> re
7T€<^a)u,
7^1/

Kat
/cat

TTpoeKTrefjupa?
Slol

Slo.

rrjg

346 7Top€Lai>

avTO?

^oh'ckt)?

fxeooyeiov Trjv ovvinoL-qoaTO.

adpoLodelor]? 8e rrj? oX-qg Swdfieoj? eh evSeKa fieu TeXrj TTetoJv, LTrTrels Se l^aKLG-^LXlovs S'^^ "^^^ ^^^
TiVpias ovfipLdxajv, ol fdepos ovk oMyou rjoau, KaTaajpaTO-nebevovrai rod f^opeiov r€i)(Ovs TrX-qoiov, avro? fxeu rreTTOLdoj? rol? rrj<^ ovyKXijrov Soyfiaoii', St' Su ^aoiXevg drreSeSeLKro, Hoooio? 8e ^Aurcovioj ro) vefupavri rrjv utt' avrco orparidv 'HpcoSj]
o-vp.pLa\ov.

347

dvd rrjv ttoXli' ^louSatoju ro IrerdpaKro' Kat ydp nepl rov vaov ddpoitojLevov ro dodeviorepov eSaifj-Ovia Kal 77oAy\d deaohiorepou irpos rovs Kaipovs iXoyortoiei, Kal rcJav roXp.riporepa>v Kara. orL(f)0£ -qoau Xrjarelai TToXvrpoTTOL, fidXiora rd Tiepl rrju ttoXlu dprrat,6vrajv eVtrr^Seta K-ai ix-qTe lttttols p-ijre dvbpdoii 348 vrroXeLTTO/jLevoju rpo(f)T]u. rod ye jj-tju p.axip-ov re evroKrorepov e-eraKro rrpos dpivvav rrj? ttoXlopKLa?, rov? re ;;^cyi^vwTa? elpyov otto rod reixovs Kal rots dpydvoL? dvrLixri-)(aviop.evov dei n kcjoXv/jlo Kaivorepov ev ovhevl hi* ovruj? cu? ev rat? fxeraX(xviii.
1)

Toii^ 8*

rrXrjdo?

ttolklXoj?

Xeiais TTepLYJoau
349
(2)

rwu

TToXepLLCov

To) he ^aoiXel irpd? p.ev rds Xxjortias dvreTiei'o-qdijoav XoxoL 8t' d>u dveareXAew rds hieKhpop-d?,
77/30?

he rr]v

rwv

eTtLrrjh^iojv drroplap at TroppojOei
rfj

ovyKOjjLihaL, rcjv he ixa\op.evojv Trepirju
^

'PajfjLaLwi

7r\e/ffT/js

PAM
«

:

TrXft'oi'OS tt/s

Destinon.

C/.

§

327.

62

JEWISH WAR,

I.

845-S49

(

=

ant. xiv

468-474)
sossius
EJ^o're

Here too he was joined by force to Jerusalem. Sossius " with an imposing army of horse and foot, which that general had sent on ahead through the interior, while he himself took the route by Phoenicia,

^

'«rusaie

The

total strength of the united armies amounted to eleven battalions of infantry and six thousand cavalry, not including the Syrian auxiliaries, who

no inconsiderable contingent. The two Herod with generals encamped near the north wail the confidence inspired by the senatorial decrees, Sossius relying on which had proclaimed him king Antony, who had dispatched the army under his command in support of Herod.

formed

:

;

(xviii. 1)

Throughout the

city the agitation of the The

siea

Jewish populace showed itself in various forms. The feebler folk, congregating round the Temple, indulged in transports of frenzy and fabricated numerous oracular utterances to fit the crisis. The more daring went out in companies on marauding expeditions of all kinds, their main object being to seize all provisions in the neighbourhood of the city and to Of the military leave no sustenance for horse or man the more disciplined men were employed in repelling the besiegers, from their position on the ramparts beating off the excavators of the earth-works and constantly contriving some new means of parrying but it was above all in their the enemy's engines mining operations that they showed their superiority. (2) To stop the raiders the king arranged ambuscades, by which he succeeded in checking their incursions ; to meet the shortage of provisions he while as for had supplies brought from a distance the combatants, the military experience of the
.

;

capture

^,^j"^^''

whoiesa

'"^^^^'^'

;

163

JOSEPHUS
€fiv€Lpia,

xaiTOL
€7tI

T6Xfirj<^

ovSefilav
TO)

350 VT:€pfio\riv
Poj/^atOtS"
VTTOuofjLOJU

(fjaiepoj? /xeV ye ou^

TTpOVTTTCp

KaraXLTTOvToju ovpeppr^yuvvro rots' 6aV€LV 6ia hk TCOU
,

eV

peootg

avTols
tl

i^anivriq

i<^aivovro,

351

reixovs erepov dvTajx^povv KadoXov re €L7T€lvY ovre xepalu ovr^ €Kap.vov et? eoxarov avTiox^lv StimvoiaLS aj-teX^i nqXiKavr-qs SvudfjLeo)? nepLKadeyvojK6r€S -€UT€ fxriGLV SirjueyKau rqu noALopKLau, €l,op.€.vri'^ eojg ToJu Wpcodou nveg eTnAeKTOJV €7n^'fjvaL rou Teixov? Oaparjaaure? eLOTTLTrrovoLV els ttju ttoXlu, ^oooiov. npojTa Sc rd nepl €(f>' oh iKaTovrdpxo-i TO Upou rjMoKero, Kal rrjs Sum/uecu? eneLOKal
-npiv

KaraoiLodrji'ai

tov

Xvdeiorjg
'

—ai'raxov
rfi

(pouo?
rrjs

tju

fxvpLos,

tojv

fiev

PajpLatoju

I'ojv,

noXiopKLag TOV Se ~epl 'HpwSr^u ^lovbalKOV
Tpt^fj

3ict>pytCT/x€-

purjSey vtto-

352 XiTriadaL oirovhdl^oi^Tos dvrirraXov.
TTapnTXrjOels

io(f)drrovTO 8e

ot€Voj7ToIs Kal Kara rd? Kal rd) vao) 'TTpoo(j>€vyovT€<;' Tjv T€ ovT€ vqTTLOJV ovT€ yqpcxjs cAeo? OL>r€ doOeveias yvvaiKajv, dXXd KairoL 77€pi~€ix7TovTO£ tov ^aauAe'oj? Kal (j)€iheadaL TrapaKaXovvro? ovhels CKpdrrj(j€v rrjg 6€^Ld<;, aAA' ojonep /xc/jurjuoTe? Trdoav €.vda Kal WvT [yOVOS f^'QT^ '^^'i 353 TjXLKLaV €7T€^7]€CTaV. ndXai fJiTJT€ TTJ? roTC Tdx^]? evvoiav Xa^djv KdTeioiv p.iv diTO TTjs jSapecus", TTpooniTTTeL Se rot? SooCTtou vooiv. KdKelvo<s fJLriSev avTOv oiKreipa<s Trpo? ttjv p.€TalioXi)v iTteyeXaoiv re dKpaTdjs Kal ^ Ai/TLyoi^rjv
€U
re
rots'

otKt'a?

avvajdovfjievoL

*

uef >e

oi/

M

:

Mf" ve
«

PA

:

Mf" ovv ov the rest.

oni.

PA.

" Or (omitting the negative with themselves."

PA)

**

They openly tlung

164

JEWISH WAR,

I

349-353 (-ant. xiv

474-481)

Romans gave him the advantage over them, although If they did not their audacity knew no bounds.
openly
fling

themselves against" the Roman lines, death, they would through their underground passages appear suddenly in the and before one portion of the wall enemy's midst was overthrown they were erecting another in its In a word, neither in action nor ingenuity stead. did they ever flag, fully resolving to hold out to the In fact, notwithstanding the strength of the last. beleaguering army, they sustained the siege into the fifth month ^ until some of Herod's picked men ventured to scale the wall and leapt into the city, The environs of the followed by Sossius's centurions Temple were first secured, and, when the troops Summei ^^' poured in, a scene of wholesale massacre ensued for the Romans were infuriated by the length of the siege, and the Jews of Herod's army were determined to leave none of their opponents alive. Masses were butchered in the alleys, crowded together in No quarter the houses, and flying to the sanctuary was given to infancy, to age, or to helpless womanNay, though the king sent messengers in hood. every direction, entreating them to spare, none stayed his hand, but like madmen they wreaked their rage In this scene Antigonus, on all ages indiscriminately regardless alike of his former fortune and that which now was his, came down from the castle and threw himself at the feet of Sossius. The latter, far from pitying his changed condition, burst into uncontrollto face

certain

;

[I

;

'^

;

A. xlv. 487 appears to state, on the contrary, that Jerusalem was taken " in the third month " or even in less. the first wall being captured in 40 days, the second in 15
''

{ih.

476).

165

.

,

JOSEPHUS
yvvaiKa ye Kai (ppovpas a>? aAA' o fiev bedels e(f)vXdTT€TO KpaTovvrt rcov ^u HpcvSr] S' 3o4 (3) UpouoLa -ore KparrjaaL Kai rwv dX\o(f)vXctJv TToAef-Lioju ovixp.dxojv wppuriTO yap to ^euiKOU nX-qdos errl Beav rod re lepov Kai rcov Kara rou uaou dyicjv.
eVaAeact''

ov

yn^v

eAevdepou

d(f)-qK€u,

6 he

jSaatAei)?

rov<i

p.ev

napaKaAow,
ulktjv

rols 8' anel

eiAovfievoSt eariv S' ou? ^-at rots ottAoi? dveoreiAev
Tjrrris

^aXeTrajrepav

rr]u

VTToAafx^dvoju

,

dOedrcou Trap* avrcou 6(f)deir]. hLeKcvXvaev 6e 77877 Kol rds Kara r-qu ttoAlu dprrayds, noXXd hLareivop.evo'^ TTp6<; Hooulov, el xprjiidrcov re Kai dvhpojv rr)u ttoXlv 'PojfxaloL Kevujoavres KaraXeiipovGLU avroi' epyyxLa<; fSaoiXea, Kai cu? €77t rooovrwv ttoXltwu (f)6vaj f^pa^v k^iI tyju rrj? olkovrou 8e duTi Z56 p.evrj<; riyep.oviav dvrdXXayp.a KpivoL. rrj<; TjoXLopKias rd? dpTrayds SiKalw? rots orpaTtojTQt^ eTTLTperreLV ^a/ueVof, avros e<f)ri hiavefielv eK TOW Ihiow )(pyip.drojv tov<; fxiodous eKaorois. ovroj<; re ttju Xotn-qv e'^cxjurjadij.ei'og TrarpiSa rag VTrooxeaeiS eTtXi)pa>Gev XajiTrpoji fxev yap eKaarov OTpariojT-qv, duaXoyajg be rous riyepbovag, /SaatAtKcljrara Se avrou eSojprjoaro ^ogolou, cu? /nrySeVa "Looolos 8e xpvoovv 357 )(^piip.dra>v dTreXBelv he6p.evov
355 TL raju
.

di^atfels

Ttp

8eaj

are(f)avov
6ea(ia)rr]u

dvel,ev^ev

dTTO
'

Xepo-

uoXvfjLOjv,

dyojv
eXTTLbo<;

Wi^rlyovov

Aurwvlcp.

rovrov
iljvxpd<i

p.ev

ovu <f)LXoipvxT]oaura p.expi<; eoxdrou bid dyevveia^ rreXeKvs rrjs aftoj
be
'Hpo')br)<;

eKbexerai.
358
(4^)

SaaiXeus

8ia«:p(Va?

ro

Kara

TYji'

tioXlv TrArjOo'^

rods p.ev rd avrou (^poi^rjoai^ras

l6fi

JEWISH WAR,

I

35S-358

(

=

ant. xiv. 481-xv.

2)

able laughter and called him Antigone. ° He did not, however, treat him as a woman and leave him
at liberty
strict
(3)
:

no,

he was put

in irons

and kept under
,

guard.

master of his enemies, Herod's next task was to gain the mastery over his foreign allies for this crowd of aliens rushed to see the Temple and the holy contents of the sanctuary. The king expostulated, threatened, sometimes even had recourse to weapons to keep them back, deeming victory more grievous than defeat, if these people should set eyes on any objects not open to public view. Now too he put a stop to the pillage of the town,
;

Now

^erod

piofanai

"[j^'^'J'P

of city.

forcibly representing to Sossius that,

if

the

Romans

emptied the city of money and men, they would leave him king of a desert, and that he would count the empire of the world itself too dearly bought with
the slaughter of so many citizens. Sossius replying that he was justified in permitting the soldiers to pillage in return for their labours in the siege, Herod promised to distribute rewards to each man out of his private resources. Having thus redeemed what remained of his country, he duly fulfilled his engagement, remunerating each soldier liberally, the officers in proportion, and Sossius himself with truly royal munificence so that none went unprovided. Sossius, after dedicating to God a crown of gold, withdrew from Jerusalem, taking with him to Antony Antigonus in chains. This prisoner, to the last clinging with forlorn hope to life, fell beneath the axe, a
*,

Antigon
^'^lih.

end to his ignominious career. King Herod, discriminating between the two classes of the city population, by the award of
fitting
(4)
"

Or

in

the general's Latin " Antigona."
Jfi?

JOSEPHUS
€ViovaT€poi"^
lidrcov 359 rtovio)

rat?

Tn^ifu<;

KaSlaraTO,

rov^
rjoi]

5'

Ai^TLyovetous^ dirjpet.

anav^
*

XPV' ooov ilx^v Koofxov KaravofiLOTevGa<i WvKai rots nepl avrou di'€7T€iJHp€v. ov firjv eis yjSrj i^wvqoaro ro fxijSei^ naBelv yap
Tip

kuI Kara arTdvw

A.VT<jjVLO<;
rju

KAeoTTcfrpa?

h'pcori
,

8te^^ap/xeVo?

3f)U

ndoLV ri^s €Tn6vpia<; KAeoTrarpa he Sie^eXOoCaa r-qv yevedv rrjv iavrris OJS pirjSeva rojv d(f> at/iaTO? vnoXeiTreoBaL, ro Xolttov €7tl tov; e^ojdev i<f>6va, Kal rous €u riXei ^vpwv hia^dXXovaa Tipos Tov ^ \vTojuLOV dvatpelv eTreiBev, cu? dv rwv KT-qaeajv endoTov pa6ta>9 yivop-durj heoTToris, en6' iK-eivovoa rrju TrXeoue^iau inL '\ovSaiov<^ Kal " Apa^a? v-eipydCero tov<; CKarcpcoi' /^acriAet?
rjrrojv

iv

'\\pojSr]i^
3f3l

Kal

MdXxov
yovv

duaipedijvai.
Ttjov

(5)

'Ei^ fJ-€p€L

TTpooraypLarajv €7TLvi]ipag

TO Krelvai p,kv dvhpa<; dyaOoug /cat r-qXiKOVTOVs dvooLOv riyrjoaro, to Se f^aaiXeLS rovTiov eyyiou ^iXov;^ hL€Kpovoaro- TroAAa he rrj^ Kal hi] Kal rov ev Xd)pa<; avTcbu dnorepoixeuog IdpiXouvTi (f)OLVLKa)ua, eu c5 yevvdrai ro ^dXaapov, bibuDOLV avrfj rroXet? re ttAt^p- Tvpov Kal ^ihcouos 3b2 xds €ur6<; 'KXevdepou TTorapov Trdoa?. (Lu yeuopevT) Kvpia Kal TrpoTrep^ipaoa pexpis E,V(f)pdrov rov Avrwvioi^ eniorparevoira Ilap^ot? r)XBev els '\ovbaiav 8i' ArrapLeias Kal !\a^aaKOV Kdvravda
AuTcui^LO';
,
'

'

^

.

'

Msnrrai

LVRC.
:
'

» fjiXcij h^A fclxc. Lat. 0i\o<i fhai the rest. Text and nieaninu uncertain. 1 follow the Latin quod autem his iiiOtte ptopius est, inter amicos non habuit." Perhaps ^leadlng ^./Aoj iltra^) " but of any closer fnendslup he showed

no

sign.

08


JEWISH WAR,
I.

358-362

(

= ant.

xv. 2-5, 88-96)

honours attached more closely to himself those who had espoused his cause, while he exterminated the Finding his funds now repartisans of Antigonus. duced, he converted all the valuables in his possession into money, which he then transmitted to Antony and his staff. Yet even at this price he failed to secure for himself complete exemption from injury for Antony, already demoraMzed by his love for Cleopatra, was becoming wholly enslaved to his passion, and Cleopatra, after killing oft' her own family, one after another, till not a single relative remained, was now thirsting for the blood of foreigners. Laying before Antony calumnious charges against high officials in Syria, she urged him to put them to death, in the belief that she would have no
;

Cleopatra
^

Herod°

difficulty

in

appropriating their possessions

;

and

now, her ambitions extending to Judaea and Arabia, she was secretly contriving the ruin of their respective kings, Herod and Malchus. (5) One part, at any rate, of her orders brought anci Antony to his sober senses he held it sacrilege to ^r'^o^mhu^ take the lives of innocent men and kings of such realm. eminence. But what touched them more nearly he threw over his friends. He cut oft^ large tracts of their territory including, in particular, the palm- 34 b c. ^'^"^^'^^ grove of Jericho where the balsam grows and pre- ^ sented them to Cleopatra, together with all the towns to the south of" the river Eleutherus,'' Tyre and
:

— —

Sidon excepted. Now mistress of all this land, she escorted Antony, who was starting on a campaign against the Parthians, as far as the Euphrates, and then, by way of Apamea and Damascus, came into
**

Greek

" within,"
"

VOL.

II

i.e. " on this North of Tyre. G 2

side of."

169

JOSEPHUS
'HpcfjS)]9
jSaatAet'a?
eis"

cV^eiAtaaerai, fjiiadoGrai Se Kal ra

ttjs

anoppayivra xtopia hLaKoaum^ TaXduTwu eKaoTOu ii'tauroi', Trpu7T€fji7T€L S' amrju fxexpiTrdor)

363

n

/^Aouaiou

depaTreia

KaTOXpcjop-ci^os

.

Kal

/lxct'

ov ttoXu 7Tapi]u €K ndptioji' WinojULOS dyojv alxpdXojTou \pra^d(^r]u tov Ttypduov rraTSa hwpov
'

KAeoTxctTpa
Aeias"

pLerd

dndcrris 6

yap rcou XPVH-^'''^^ UdpUos evdus exo.piodr].

'^"'

"^V^

364

l) 1 oO 6' 'AxTtaKoO TToXepiov ovveppu)7Tap€OK€vaoTo p.kv 'Wp(j)6i']<; Avtojuloj ovve^yoTos

(xix.

*

dAAcjw rcbv Kara "^lovhaiau Kal K€Kparr)Kd><s 'Vp/caWa?, o Sr] x^P'-^^ V '-^^TLyovov Karelx^u dBeXcf)T). 365 Si€KX€LoUri ye f.iTju rravovpycxj^ vtto rrjs KAeoTrdrpas avixf-ieraax^li' rcou Kivbwcoi' * Avrujvicp- rot^
opp.dv,
rjhrj

ruiv

re

dTn]\\aypL€vo<;

dopvf^cov

ydp ^aoiXevoLv

^

d>s

€(f)apev,

em^ovXevovoa

rreidei

rdu WvrcxjVLOv *\\pd)hri SLamorevoai roi^ Trpog "ApajSa? TToXepLOi'j Iv' rj Kpanqoauros 'Apa^ta? rj Kparrjdevros 'lofSaia? yevrjrac SeaTroTt? Kal darepep rdjv SuuaGrciju KaraXvar) rov erepou. p.evroL KaO' 'HpojSrji' ro pou366 (2) "Eppeipeu Xevp-a- Trpcorou p.ev ydp pvoia ^Kard\^ rcbv iroXep.iojv dywv Kal ttoXv ovyKporr^oa^ lttttlkoi' cVa^LTjOLi- avroLS rrepl AloottoXli^, eKpar-qoev re Kairoi
'

oni. F.

This Artabazes (Artavasdes) was not a Parthian, but Antony in an attack Media, deserted him and was subsequently taken captive by Antony (Phit. Ant. Josephus or his source appears to have confused the 50).
"

kincr of Armenia, who, having joined on his namesake Artavasdes, king of

170

JEWISH WAR,
Judaea.
her
ill

r.

362-366

(

= ant.

xv.

103-111)

There, by large bounties, Herod appeased and agreed to take on lease for an annual sum of two hundred talents the lands which had been detached from his realm. He then escorted her to Pelusium, treating her with every mark of respect. Not long after Antony returned from Parthia bringing, as a present for Cleopatra, his for upon her, prisoner Artabazes, son of Tigranes together with the money and all the spoils of war, the Parthian " was instantly bestowed.
will,
;

(xix. 1) On the outbreak of the war of Actium Herod prepared to join forces with Antony for he was now rid of disturbances in Judaea and had captured the fortress of Hyrcania, hitherto held by the sister of Antigonus. The craft of Cleopatra, however, precluded him from sharing Antony's perils. For, as we have stated,^ she had designs on the
;

Herods
32 a.c.

uieVrai

kings,

in

pursuance

of

which

she

now induced

Antony to entrust the war against the Arabs to Herod, hoping, if he were successful, to become mistress of Arabia, if unsuccessful, of Judaea, and by means of one of the two potentates to overthrow
the other.
(2) Her scheme, however, turned to Herod's adFor, beginning with raids upon the vantage enemy's territory, he mustered a large body of cavalry, flung them at the foe in the neighbourhood of Diospolis*^ and, though he met with a stubborn
'^

victor at ^'o-mjou:

two namesakes (Reinach).
104, he
"

is

in the parallel account, A. xv. not called a Parthian.
"

§

not (as stated in Shilleto's Whiston) Lydda, which only received the name Diospolis at a later date it has been mentioned in § 132.
;

*

360. In Coele-Syria,

Or

" reprisals."

171

JOSEPHUS
Trpos 8e ttjv rJTrav Kaprepojs avTiTTapara^afxevajv yiverat Kivrjfjia rojv ^Apd^ojv, /cat orvpadpoLoOivres eiV \\dvada rrjs KoiX-qs ILvpias aTreipoL 'JouSatous" €p,€VOV. evda /jlctcl 3G7 TO TrXrjdos tov? eTreXddw iTreipdro TTporfjs SvvdjjLeojg 'HpojSrjg p-rjOeorepov dt^riyelodat rod TToXeaov xrat arparovehov eKcXeve Tetp^t^etv. ov p.'qv VTT-qKovoev to dXXd rf] Trporepa vlkj) redapp-qKores TrXrjdos, wpjiTjoav €7TL rov£ "Apa^a?. Kal Trpos p^€V rrju TTpojT-qv ipL^oXrjv TparrevTas ihiojKov, iTTi^ovXeverai he 'Wpojhrjs ev rfj 8loj^€i, rov? eV tcju Kai^aOujp i7TL)(OjpLOV? dvevros W9-qvLOJVOs, o? rjv avTot 368 Toji'' KXeoTrdrpa? OTparrjycov alel Sia(/>o/3os" Trpos* yap rrjv tovtow iTridecLV dvadapprjoavre? ol "Apa^€s €77 LOT pecfiour at Kal ovvdijjavTe^ to ttXtjOos rtepl TreTpcohrj Kal hvo^ara )(Ojpia rovs 'Wpojhov rpeTTovTai TrXeloTOv re aurtDt' (f>6vov elpydoavTo. ol 8e hiaoajdivTeg eV tt^s" p-dxTj^ €ls "Opp.it,a Kara<f)€vyovoLv, 07T0V Kal TO OTpaTOTTcSou avrojv TrepLGxdvTes avTavhpov elXov ol "Apa/Ses". 3^59 (3) Mer' ov ttoXv he ttjs (jv{jL(f)opdg ^orjdetav dyojv 'Vipwhrjg TtaprjV ttjS ^^pela? vuTepav. ravTT)? rrj^ TrXriyfj'g a'tTLov avroj to ra)V ra^idpxojv aTTeides KaTeoT-q- pir) yap e^aTnvaiov rrjg ovp.poXrjs yeuofjLevrj^ ou8' ay Wdi^vuov evpev Kaipov e-LpojprjaaTO /xeVroi rov^ "Apa^ag i—L^ovXri^. avdtg del T'qv xo'jpav KaTaTpe^ajVy cog dvaKaXeS70 oaodai ttju piiav avTotg VLK-qv TToXXdKis. dpLVVopLevw he Tovs exOpovg eViTTtTTTet avpL(f)opd haijxovLOS dXXrjy /car' eVo? pev rrjg ^aoiXeias e^hofiov,
.

pLeya

'

" Canata or (ana Unidentihed the name
;

in ./. xv. IIJ.
is

not mentioned

in

A.

172

JEWISH WAR,

I.

366-370

(

= a\t.

xv. 11U12I)

resistance, defeated them.

This defeat occasioned a great commotion among the Arabs, who assembled in vast numbers at Canatha ^ in Coele-Syria and there awaited the Jews. Herod, arriving with his troops, endeavoured to conduct operations with due caution and ordered the camp to be fortified. His orders, however, were defied by the rank and file, who, flushed with their recent victory, rushed upon the

I'e is

at Catfati

Arabs. With their first charge they routed them and followed at their heels but during the pursuit a snare was laid for Herod by Athenion, one of Cleopatra's generals, who had always been hostile to him, and now let loose upon him the natives of Canatha. Encouraged by their allies' attack, the Arabs faced about and, after uniting their forces on rocky and difficult ground, routed Herod's troops with immense slaughter. Those who escaped from the battle took refuge in Ormiza,^ where, however, the Arabs surrounded and captured their camp with all its defenders. (3) Shortly after this disaster Herod arrived with reinforcements, too late to be of use. This calamity was brought upon him by the insubordination of the divisional officers for, had they not precipitated an engagement, Athenion would have found no opportunity for a ruse. However, Herod subsequently avenged himself on the Arabs by constantly raiding their territory, so that they had frequent occasion to rue ^ their single victory. But while he was punishing his foes, he was visited by another calamity an act of God which occurred in the seventh ^ year of
;

;

Such, or " regretfully recall," seems to be the meaning. Reckoning from the year of the taking of Jerusalem, 37 B.C., as the effective beginning of Herod's reign.
"
<^

173 J

0^

JOSEPHUS
aKfid^ovTog Se rod
/xeVou yap^ eapog
r)

Trepl
yrj

"Aktlov rroXep.ov. apx^' oeLaOelaa ^OGKruxarajv {jlcv
Se
rpels
hie(j}deLp€v

aireLpov

TrX-qdog

avdpLOTTOjv

371

^vpidSag, TO Be crTpariajTiKou efieivev d^Xa^es' vnaidpov yap r]vXl^€TO. kolv tovtco tovs "Apa/Sa? erri /xet^oi' dpdoo<i -qpev 7] ^17/^17 TrpooXoyoiTOLovoa TOL? OKvdpojTTOLS del Ti ;\;aAe776urepoi'* ojg yovv
aTrdoris 'louSata? /careppt/xjiteVr^? oliqQivTes cp-qfjLov
rrjs

xujpas Kpari^oew wpprjuau €ls aur/^p', rrpoOvadfievoL rovs Trpeo^eis ot Trapd ^lovSaicvv ervxov
Trpos he r-qv ifji^oXrjv

372 -rJKOvre'g 77po? avrovs.

Karain-

irXayev to ttXtjOos^
aXXrjXajv

kcA

fieyeOei

GVfJL(f)opa)i'

'Wpojh-qs CTreLpdro TTapopiidu 677t rrji' dfivvav Xeyow rotdSe' 373 (i) " YlapaXoycorard pLOt SoKel to irapov vpLwu

eKXvrov

avvayayajv

KaddTTjeoOaL beos' rrpos /J-eV ye to.? haipioviovs TrX-qyds ddvpelv eiKos 7)1% to 8' airro Kal 77/56? dvBptoTT iviqv e(f>ohov Trdoxeiv avdvhpojv.^ eydj ydp rooovTov dnoheco KareTrrrixevai rov? TToXefiiovs fierd Tov oeiopLOV, a)o6^ VTToXapL^dveiv rov Seov "Apaijjiv heXeap rovro KadeiKevai rod hovvai 8tVa? rjpLlv ov ydp rooovrov ottXois tj xepoiv TreTroiBores doov rats avrofjidr as rjfjLcoi' Gvp.4)opals 'Qkov aSaXepd 8' eXTrlg ovk e^ OLKetag lgx^os dAA' e^ dXXoovre 8e to Svg374 rpias rjpTrjpLevrj KaKOTrpayiasrvxe'LU ovTe Tovvavriov ev dvOpojTTOis ^e^aiov, dXX
eoTLv
^

ISe'LV

e7TaiieLpopieu7]v el?

eKdrepa
the rest
:

rrjv rvxrjv.
kol -yap apx-

^PX- y°-P
idvos

C

:

Kara yap

a.pxoiJ-(vov
'

Destinon.
2

LVRC.

avavbpov

?\M

Lat.

Cf. B. iii. 433 ; Josephus may have known Virgil's description of rumour (Fama), Aen. iv. 173 ff. * This speech is quite independent of that contained in
"

174

JEWISH WAR.
his reign,

I.

370-374

(

= avt.

xv. 121-127).,

when the war of Actium was at its height. In the early spring an earthquake destroyed cattle Eartbq' innumerable and thirty thousand souls; but the army, springe being quartered in the open, escaped injury. At ^^ "•^• the same moment the confidence of the Arabs rose, stimulated by rumour which always exaggerates the Imagining that the whole of horrors of a tragedy." Judaea was in ruins and that they had only to take possession of an abandoned country, they hastened to invade it, after massacring the envoys whom the Jews had sent to them. So dismayed were the people at this invasion, and so demorahzcd by the magnitude of these successive disasters, that Hero d called them together and endeavoured to rouse them f f-*^ to resistance by the following speech.* " This alarm which has now laid hold of you Herods (4) seems to me most unreasonable. To be disheartened l^%l~^ by the visitations of heaven was natural but to be cIhccdso ^^°'^^^similarly despondent at the attack of a human foe
;

unmanly, f'or my part, far from being intimidated by the enemy's invasion following the earthquake, 1 regard that catastrophe as a snare which God has laid to decoy the Arabs and deliver them up to our vengeance. It is not because they have confidence in their weapons or their might that they are here, but because they count on our accidental calamities but hopes are fallacious which are dependent not on one's own strength, but on the misadventures of Moreover, with mankind fortune is never another. permanently either adverse or favourable one sees her veering from one mood to the other. Of this you
is
; ;

A.

XV. 127.

It

in

some

Thuc. ii. 60 ff. (the earthquake heaven," as the plague is there).

respects recalls that of Pericles in is here a " visitation of

1

75

-

JOSEPHUS
Kal
rfj

Kparovvroju iKpoLTt-joau rjpLCJU ol TToXe/JLLOL, Kal Kara to eiVos- i^vv aXix)GOVTai KpaTTjoeLv SoKovi^res. ro fikv yap ayav ttc 7Toi66<; d(f)vXaKTOu ol <f)6^oL Se SlSogkovoiu rrpo' firjdeiav c5are e/xoiye kolk tov SeSotKoro? Vficov^ ore yap edpaovveode iripa 375 TTapioraraL Bappelv. rov Seovro^ Kal Kara roju i)(6pa)u rrapd rrju e/xiju Katpov eoycv r) ' Adr]UL(jjuo<^ yviofiTjv i^ajpfxyjaare ivebpa vvul be 6 okvo^ viiow Kal ro Sokovu dOvfiou 376 ao(f)dXeLav e/ioL uLKr]<; iyyvdrai. )(prj [leuroL ye P-expi rov fxeXXeiv'' ovtcos €)(eLu, iv he rols epyoL<; iyelpai rd (l)povr)pLara Kal rreloai rovg doe^eordrovs, <^? ovr^ dvBpojTTeiov ri KaKov ovre 8ai//o VLOV raTTeLVtooei TTore rrjv ^\ovhaiojv dvhpayaBiav, e(^' ooov rds ipv^ds exovoii', oube TrepLoiperai ris "ApajSa rujv eavrov dyadow heoTTorrjv yevofievou, 6u 77ap' oXlyou^ rtoXXdKLS aixi^'dXonov eXa^ev. vp-dg rapaaoeroi rd rcov dipv^ajv Kivrjfiara, 377 /-^^S prjB^ vnoXai-L^duere rov oeiopidv irepas avp.(J)opd^ repas yeyovevaf (f)Vf7LKd yap rd rojv (TToi\eiojv rrddn) Kal ovbev dvdpojTTOL^ rrXeov -q rrjf ev eavrolg Xoipov p.ev ydp Kal Xifiou Kal f^Xd^rjV eTTLcjieperai. row ;!^^op'icuj^ ^paG/j.dju Trpoyeuoir* du ri aqi^Lelov ^pa^vrepov avrd he ravra rrepiypa(f)-qv ex€L ro fieyedog. errel ri hvvarai pelt,oi> r](ids rov oeifSXddfai Kal Kparrjoas 6 7T6XefJLO<;*; repas" 37 S opLOV
IJ-O-XD
y
,

TOVTO ildOoLT^ yovv vporipa

oiv

€^

OLK^LOJV

VTrohciyfiOLTOju-

,

^

^(doiK^fxi ifxds

PAiM.

'

ante proelium Lat., reading m^XP' ^"'' iro\eix(iv. * iro\(uio<: Cocceius. napn 'Xu-fOu LVR.
2

'

'

ing
*

if

During the period of waiting " seems to be the meanthe text is right. Cy. Arisiot. Meteor, ii. 8 for premonitions of earthquakes.

176

JEWISH WAR,
might

I.

371.-378 (c/ ant. xv. 127-146;
:

find an illustration in your own experiences conquerors in the first battle you were then conquered by our enemies, who in all probability, expecting a For excessive convictory, will now be defeated. fidence throws men off their guard, whereas fear teaches precaution so that your very timidity is to me reassuring. When you displayed uncalled for temerity and, disdaining my advice, dashed out upon the foe, Athenion had his opportunity for a ruse but now your hesitation and apparent despondency are to me a sure pledge of victory. Appropriate, however, as are such feelings before an impending battle," when once in action your spirits must be roused and you must teach these scoundrels that no disaster, whether inflicted by God or man, will ever reduce the valour of Jews, so long as they have breath in their bodies, and that not one of them will consent to see his property pass into the hands of an Arab, who has often so narrowly escaped
; ;

becoming

his prisoner.

not let the convulsions of inanimate nature disturb you or imagine that the earthquake is a portent of a further disaster. These accidents to which the elements are subject have physical causes, and beyond the immediate injury inflicted bring no further consequences to mankind. A pestilence, a famine, subterranean commotions may possibly be preceded by some slighter premonition,^ but these catastrophes themselves are limited by their very magnitude to their instant effects. I ask you, can war,'' even if we are defeated, do us more harm than the earthquake ? " Our adversaries, on the other hand, have one
'^

Do

Or, with the conjectural reading, " the enemy."

177

JOSEPHUS
f.Ui'TOL

f.UyLGTOV aXcoaecog yiyov€v to'l<^ e^'^pots" avTOixdrco? ovSe Sta x^tpog aAAorpta?, ol TTpeo^ei? r)fi€Tepovs Trapa tov 7t6.vtow dvOpomoiV vopiov ojfJLCJS dneKTeivav Kal roiavra toj deoj Ovj-Lara rrepl rod TToXefjLov KareoTeipav .^ aAA' ov

OVK

SLa(f)€V^ovrai rov ixeyav

6(l>Ba\ii6v
8'

dvLK-qrov
379 poL
Tcoi'

he^idv,

hojoovoLV

rnxiv

avTov Kal rrji^ avriKa SiVas",
rifjico.

dv TOV TTarpiov

(f)povi]iJLaro? -qSrj

OTidoavT^s
reKViov
ouS'

rrapedTTOvSrjjjievojv

dvaorcajx^v

ltcj

ng
VTrkp

ovx

VTTep

yvvaLKOs

oi5S'

virkp

KLvhvv^vovcrqs TrarplSos, oAA' VTrep
d/jLVvofievo?'
T'tJjV

rwv

Trpeopeoji'

eKeZvoi arparr^yi'^aovoLV

tov r^oXifxov

^OWTOJV TjfjLCVl'/ dfl€LVOV. TTpOKLvSvveVGCO §€ Kdyd> xpajfievo? vfiZv TTeidi-jVLOL?' ev yap lgt€ ttjv iavTCJV dvhpeiav dvvTTOOTaTov, idi> pirj TrpoTreTeia
TLVL ^Xa^rJT€.
(5)

380

TovTOL?

TTapaKpoT-qoas
'd6v€v

tov
Beep

OTpo/rov

c6?
tt]!*

iojpa
Ovoiai'

TTpodviJLOv?,

TOJ

Kal

/lera

bU^awev tov

^lophdviqv TTOTafiov /xera Trjg

381

OiATrepl 8e iyyvg tojv TroXcpLiajv Trepl tov /xera^i) (fjpovpiov TTpos avTOVs riKpo^oXil,€TO ^OvX6lJL€VO? iv Td^^L GVfjL^aXeLV eTv^ov yap KaKelvoi TLvas 7Tpo7Te7TOfjL(f)6T€s Tov£ KaTaXr]ipop.€vov? TO epvfxa. TOVTOVS fJ.€V OVV d7T€KpOVGaVTO TaX^OJ? OL 7T€fJi<f)6eVT€S VTTO TOV ^aGlXioJS Kal TOV X6(f)OV KaT€GXOV, avTOS 8e Ka6^ r^fiepav Trpodywv ttjv hvvapnv els f^^XW '^o.peTaGGeTo Kal TrpovKaXeiTo tovs "ApaSwdpicoj?.

OTpaTOTT^hevodfievos

abeX^eLav

jSa?.

(L?

S'

ovSeU

iTTe^rjCL,

beLvrj

ydp
2

rts"

avToifS

KaTdTrXvi^LS etyc Kal
*

npo tov

TrXrjdovg 6 GTparrjyos
Qrp^ p.\.

C

:

KaTiaTfc^av the rest.

"

Rabbath Ammon, the ancient

capital of the

Ammonites.

178

JEWISH WAR,

I.

37S-381

(

= ant

xv. 147

150)

grave portent of impending disaster in a recent incident, due neither to natural causes nor to the Contrary to the universal law of action of others. mankind they have brutally murdered our ambassadors ; such are the garlanded victims which

But they have offered to God to obtain success they will not escape his mighty eye, his invincible right hand and to us they will soon answer for their crimes if, with some vestige of the spirit of our fathers, we now arise to avenge this violation of Let us each go into action not to defend treaties. wife or children or country at stake, but to avenge our envoys. They will conduct the campaign better than we who are alive. I myself will bear the brunt of the battle, if I have you obedient at my back for, be assured, your courage is irresistible, if you do not by some reckless action bring injury upon your!

;

;

selves."

(5) Having by this speech reanimated his army. Herod Herod, observing their ardour, offered sacrifice to '^^Sg^ God, and then proceeded to cross the Jordan with PhiiEncamping in the neighbourhood of^'®^' his troops. Philadelphia,*^ close to the enemy, and anxious to force on an engagement, he began skirmishing with them for the possession of a fort which lay between the opposing lines. The enemy on their side had sent forward a detachment to occupy this post the party sent by the king promptly beat them off and secured the hill. Daily Herod marched out his troops, formed them in battle array, and challenged the Arabs to combat. But when none came out to oppose him for a dire consternation had seized them and, even more than the rank and file,^ their
;

"

Or perhaps

" in presence of his troops."

179

JOSEPHUS
"KXOef-Log avos
382 avr(2>v
rji'

rto Sect, TrpoaeXdojp
.

icndparrev
crvvavayKa/cat

to

;^apa/<:ajju.a
Ittl

Kav

rovro)

odevre? i^laoLV
(f>VpfJL€VOi

rrjv

f-Ldx'r]v

draKTOL
8e

ire-

Tols iTTTTeVOLV OL TTetoL.
Trepi-fjaaw,

TrXrjdei fJLev

ovv

rwu ^lovSaiow
dvpLLaLg,

iXeiTTOvro

rat? rrporrjg

Kairoi

8ta

Trjv

aTToyvojoiv

vlkt)^

ovTes Kal avrol Trapd^oXoi.
383
(6)
(f)6vos,

Ato p^xpL
(Jjs

fJi^u

dvr€lxov ov ttoXvs
vtto
acfywu

tjv

avrwv
ov/jl-

8'

VTTeSei^av to, vujra, ttoXXol fiev vtto

Tcuv

^lovSaLajv 77oAAot Se

avrwv
€.(j)dri

7TaTovp.€voL hiecjid^ipovro' TrevraKLOXiXLOi yovv k-ne(jov iv rfj TpoTTTJ,

TO 8e XoLTTOv ttXtjOo?

avv-

ojudev

TO x^pdK(jjp.a. tovtovs -rrepLoxdjv IttoXl6pK€L, Kal fjieXXovTag dXojueodaL rot? ottXols rrpoKar-qneLyev
r)

eh

Scipa

ra)v

vhdrwv
6

iTnXeLTrovrajv.

384

V7T€prj(f)di'€L

8e

TTpea^evoyiivovs

^aoiXevs

Kai

Xvrpa
€K€LTo.
TrXridos

SlSoi'TCvv

rdXavra fiaXXov errod 8e hlifjovg eKKaiovros i$i6vT€S Kara 6V€\'etptfov' o(^ds avrovs rolg ^lovSaloLS
TrevraKoaia
ct»s"

eKOvreg,
SedrjvaL,

TreVre
8'

/xev

rjixepaig

rerpaKiax^Xiovs
TrXrjBo?
vtt*

rfj

^kttj

to
eVt

XeiTTop-^vov

aTToyvcoaeci)?

i^eXdelv

fidxr]v

oh

crvpu^aXajv
rr^At-

385

'

Hpcu8T7S"

TrdXiv

eh
rrjv

eTTraKLOXf-Xiovs /cretVet.
^

KavTTj

TrX-qyfj

Apa^iav
ra

d^ivvdp.€vos^

Kal

o^eoas
u)(jT€

Tcbv

dvhpujv

^povyy/zara
8e

TrpovKoipei'

Kal TTpooTdr-qs vtto tov eSvovs alpeO-qvac.
1)

386

(xx.
TTepl
*

yieraXapPdvei
<f)LXiav,
^

avrov

evdew?

r)

rci)v

oXojv TTpayiiarcov <j)povrh 8ta rrjv Trpos
\\aLoapo<; Trepl "Aktlov vevLKt]diLiiv6iJ.€vos .ms9.

AvrojvLOV

Bekker:

180

JEWISH WAR,

I.

381-386

(

= ant.

xv. 150-161)

general Elthemus was paralysed" with fright the king advanced and proceeded to tear up their Thereupon, impelled by necessity, the palisades. enemy at length emerged for action, in disorder, Superior in infantry and cavalry intermingled. numbers to the Jews, they had less stomach for a fight, though despair of success rendered even them
reckless.
(6)

casualties

Consequently, so long as they held out, their were slight but when they turned their backs multitudes were slain by the Jews, and many others were trodden to death by their own men. the rest of the crowd Five thousand fell in the rout succeeded in forcing their way into their entrenched camp. There Herod surrounded and besieged them, and they must have succumbed to an assault, had not the failure of their water-supply and thirst precipitated their capitulation. The king treated their envoys with scorn, and, although they offered a ransom of five hundred talents, only pressed his attack the harder. Parched with thirst, the Arabs came out in crowds and willingly surrendered to the Jews, so that in five days four thousand were made prisoners. On the sixth the remnant in desperation came forth to battle these Herod engaged, killing some seven thousand more. Having, by this crushing blow, punished Arabia and broken the spirit of its and bec( people, he gained such a reputation with them that y[e Ara nation. the nation chose him for its Protector. (xx. 1) But, this peril surmounted, Herod was instantly plunged into anxiety about the security of He was Antony's friend, and Antony his position. had been defeated by Caesar ^ at Actium. (In reality,
; ; ;

^

Literally

''

dry."

**

Oetavius.

181

JOSEPHUS
KOTOS'
ovTtto

napelxeu jxevTOL

6eov<;

TiXiov

t}

e7Taa)(ev'

Xvtowlov eKpivev Kalcrap o ye fJLr]u ^O-OiXevs oixooe 387'Ilpai8ou ivfifj-dvovTos Xvjprjoai roj kluSvuco Sidyvoj, Kal rrXevoas et? 'Vohov, evda hUrpi^ev \\aloap, TrpooeiOLV avrco hi\a BiaSrifiaTos, rrju p.€v eodiJTa Kal ro o\rnxa fJirjSei' yovv iSicoT-qs, TO 6e (f)p6uripLa ^aaiXevs. elTtev VTrooTeiXapievos avTiKpvs Try? dXrjdeias 3HS"dyco, KatCTap, vtto P^vtcovLov ^aotXev?^ yevoyeyovivai XRV^'-H-^'^ iv irdatv ofjioXoyco fxeuog ^ tout AvTOJvicp. Kal ovok av VTTOOTeiXaifxr^u €L7T€lw, on TidvTOJS dv /Ltc /Lterd T(2)v ottXojv inetpaoa^ dxojpf-OTOv,^ et pLTj hieKcoXvoav "Apa^e?. Kal aviip.a\Lav fieuroL ye avTco Kara to SuvaToiKal GLTOV TToAAds" enefjupa pLvpidhas, dAA' ovhe /Lterd 7171^ ev Wktlo) TrXrjyrjv KaTeXiTTOi' tov ev389 epyeTTjV, eyevofx-qv he avfi^ovXo? dpLcrros, cog ovKeTi )(prj(7L{xog '']ixrjv (jv/^/^ap^o?, fj-iau eiuat Xeyojv tcov TTTaioBevTojv hi6p0a>uiv tov KAeoTTaTpa? ddvaTov ^v dveXovTL Kal ;(pr]/xaTa Kal Tei)(ri Trpos do(j)dXetav Kal OTpaTidv Kal ifxavTOv VTTiaxuovpL'qv 390 KOLva>u6u tov 77 pog oe TToXepLOV. tov 8' dpa Tct? aKodg d7Te(f)pa^av ol \\Xeo7TaTpas If-upoL Kal deog 6 ool TO KpaTelv ^apit^opievog ovvqTTqpiaL 6' AuTOJVLO) Kal TeOetKa fxeTa Tijg eKeivov Tvy'qg to

yap

eaAco/ceVat

.

^

.

pog oe 8e rjXdop exojv ttju dpeT-qv tt^? Kal TrpoXa^dw e^eTaoOi'iaeadat, ." TTOTarro? (fiiXos, ov Tiuog, eyeuof-iriv " dAAd ocol^ov ye," Kaloap 391 (2) Upog Tavra
hidhrjiia.
77

owTTipias

eXTTiha

P Lat. Ti^v 'lov5aiu)v j3a(Tt\ei>s the rest. ax^picTou Havercamp from a Leyden >i3. (vxapiarop (" a grateful ally ') Lat. cm. the rest.
^

PaoiXcjs

:

*

:

PAM

:

18^2

JEWISH WAR,
, , I
.

I.

386-391

(

= ant.

xv.

187-193)

for Oaesar Battle oi lie inspired more fear than he felt himself Actiuni considered his victory to be incomplete so long as septemt Herod remained Antony's ally)." The king, never- ^' ^*^* theless, resolved to confront the danger and, having sailed to Rhodes, where Caesar was sojourning, Herod presented himself before him without a diadem, a peaceVi commoner in dress and demeanour, but with the J^ 3^^"^' proud spirit of a king. His speech was direct ; he told the truth without reserve. " Caesar," he said, " I was made king by Antony, and I acknowledge that I have in all things devoted my services to him. Nor will 1 shrink from saying that, had not the Arabs detained me, you would assuredly have found me in arms inseparable from his side. I sent him, however, such auxihary troops as I could and many thousand measures of corn ; nor even after his defeat at Actium did 1 desert my benefactor. When no longer useful as an ally, I became his best counsellor I told him the one remedy for his disasters the death of Cleopatra.
;
. I
.

1

I

;

Would he but

to protect him, an

J promised him money, walls army, and myself as his brother But his ears, it in arms in the war against you. seems, were stopped by his infatuation for Cleopatra and by God who has granted you the mastery. 1 share Antony's defeat and with his downfall lay down my diadem. 1 am come to you resting my hope of safety upon my integrity, and presuming that the subject of inquiry will be not whose friend, but how loyal a friend, 1 have been. ** Nay, be assured of (2) To this Caesar replied

kill

her,

'

:

<*

An exaggerated

statement, absent from A.

183

JOSEPHUS
i(f)r],

" Kal ^aoiXeue vvv ^(^riLorepov
ap)(€iv

a^ios yap

€1

TToXXojv

ovTco

(j)tXias

TTpo'iardixevos.

Kal rot? evTVxeoTepoug hiajjiiveiv ttlcjtos, eyojye Xap^TTpoTaras vrrcp rod gov (j^pov-qp^aros iXTtihas ^X^KaXcbs p.€vroi ye iTTOirjaev 'AvTcjVLO^ KXeoTTarpa TTeLodeis p,a.XXov rj ooi' Kal 392 yap ok KeK€pbi]Kap.€u e'/c rrjg dvoia? avrov. Karapx^L? S\ 6US" €OLK€v, evTTOuas 6t' ihv p,OL ypd(f>ei KvLVTOS At'Sios"^ ovp.pLa\iav ere 77e77o/i.^eVa( irpos rovs pi.ovop.d)(ovs avrw. vvv /xev ovv hoypLan to /Se'jSatov ooL ri]? ^aoiXeias e^ayydXXoj, rreipdoop-OL Se Kal avdi'i dyaOov rt oe rroielv, tu? pirj t^TjToirj^ \vTtbvLOv 393 (3) TovTOLS (f)iXo(i)poi'rjodp€vo'S rov jSacrtAe'a Kal —eptdel'S avroj to SiaSvy/ua Soy/xart 8i€orjp.aLV€v TijV Sojpedv, 6v cij TToXXd p.eyaXo(f)p6vujs et? enaivov
7T€ipd> be
cus"
'

.

Tavhpos eCjiOey^aTO. 6 he oojpois eTripLeiXi^dp.evog avTOV e^rjTetTO rtra tojv Wvtojvlov (fyiXojv 'AAe^dv LK€Trjv yevopevov evtKa 8e rj KoLoapos opyrj TToXXd Kal xaXerrd p.ep.(j)0}xevov tov e^aiTovpievov /Ltera he tovto tto394 ot's" SieKpovooTO ttjv herjOLV. pevopLevov eV AlyvTTTOV hid ^vpla? Kaloapa ttovtI TO) ^oolXikoj ttXovtco he^dp-evog 'Hpcohrj^ t6t€
TTpojTov

Kal ovviTTTTaoaTO TTOLOVpievoj TTepl TItoXep,atha tyj^ hvvdpLecos e^eTaoiv eloTiaoev re ovv dnaoLV tol£ </»tAot?' p.e6^ ov? Kal ttj Xolttj] OTpaTTpos
Kl'-u'tos

395 Tta
*

evoj^iai'

rrdvTa

hiehojKev.

Trpovvoiqoev
li.

At5tos conj. Hudson from Dio Cass. yi.biQ% \iese: ko.I Bevriotos or heinioLOs MSS.

7:

hoi

" After the battle of Actium Cleopatra, seeking aid in all directions, sent for some gladiators who were being trained for Antony at Trapezus; the gladiators started but were intercepted.

184

JEWISH WAR,

I.

391-395

(

= ANT.

XV. 194-199)
i

your safety, and reiern henceforth more securely than and ""^ So staunch a champion of the claims of J.5*" before. ing, friendship deserves to be ruler over many subjects. Endeavour to remain as loyal to those who have been more fortunate since, for my part, I entertain
;

the most brilliant hopes for your high spirit. Antony, however, did well in obeying Cleopatra's behests rather than yours ; for through his folly we have gained you. But you have already, it seems, done me a service for Quintus Didius writes to me that you have sent a force to assist him against the I therefore now confirm your kingdom gladiators." and hereafter I shall endeavour to you by decree to confer upon you some further benefit, that you may not feel the loss of Antony." (3) Having thus graciously addressed the king, he placed the diadem on his head, and publicly notified this award by a decree, in which he expressed his commendation of the honoured man in ample and generous terms. Herod, after propitiating Caesar with presents, then sought to obtain pardon for Alexas, one of Antony's friends, who had come to but here Caesar's resentment was sue for mercy too strong for him, and with many bitter complaints against Herod's client the emperor rejected his Subsequently, when Caesar passed through Herod'.'^ petition. Syria on his way to Egypt, Herod entertained h un Octavius for the first time with all the resources of his realm in his he accompanied the emperor on horseback when he campaign he entertained ^^ ^•^• reviewed his troops at Ptolemais him and all his friends at a banquet and he followed this up by making ample provision for the good cheer of the rest of the army. Then, for the march
; ; ;
;
;

;

185

.

JOSEPHUS
Se Kal Sta
)^ovoiov
6iioLOJ<;,
rfj
rrj<;

avvhpov Tropeuo/xeVoi?

l^^XP'-

Hryre

Tzapaax^'^i^

vSwp

dcf)dovou

irravLOvai

ovhk €cm\> 6 tl tcou iTrniqheiajv iveSerjoeu So^a yovv avro) re Katcrapt Kal rols 8vvdfi€i.
—apeorrj ttoXXoj ^pa^vrepav
Upcohrj
Sia tovto,

arpartcuTai?

396 7T€pLelvaL ^aocXeiav 7Tp6<; d Trapiux^^d)S

^K€v

els

AtyvTTToi' ,

-rjS-q

KAeoTrarpa?

Kal

*AvTa)PLOV redvewTOji',
Xats
TLpLals,

ov
rfj

(jlovov

avrov rals dXTrpoGedrjKev

dXXd

Kal

^aoLXeia

Tr)v re

vtto

KAeoTrarpa? dTTorixriBelaav )(d)paw Kal

e^codeu

he
397 Kal
6'

TOUTOt?

rdbapa Kal "Ittttou Kal ^ajj-dpeiau, Trpos TOW TrapaXiojv Tdl,av Kal Avd-qhova Hrpdrowog rrvpyov ehajprjoaro ^loTTTT-qu Kal
^

avro) Kal rrpos

(f)vXaKr)v

rod aojfiaro? rerpa-

Koaiovs VaXdr as, ol Trporepov ihopv<f)6povu KAcoovhev he ovrcos evrjyeu avrou els rds rrdrpai'.
ha)peds ojs ro p.eyaX6(f)pou rov XapL^dvovros
39S
(4-)

Mera
rfj

he r-qv npcvr-qu ^AKridha rrpoorid-qoLV

avrov

Kal rrjv Xojpav i^ air las rotdohe 'Z.-qvohtopos 6 rov Avoaviov p.epiiodojfievos olkov ov hLeXeLrrev eVac^etS

^aoLXeia rov re TpdxcDi'a KaXovfievov rrpooex^ ^aravaiav re Kal rrju Avpavinv

rovs cV rod Tpa;^cuvos" XrjGr as Aap-aoK-qvols. oi 6' e-nl Ovdppojva rov -qyepLOva rijs ^vplas Kara(j)vy6vres eheTjdrjGav hrjXdjaaL rrjv ovp.<^opdv avrojv

Kai'aapr

Kalcrap

he
.

yvovs

dvreTreareXXev

e^-

399 aiped'fjvaL ro Xr]GriqpLov
»
'

urparevaas ovv Ovdppojv
"

§§ 361
'*

f.

The

later Caesarea.

The games

at

Actium were celebrated

for the

first

186

JEWISH WAR, 1.395-399 ( = ANT. XV

200

f.

,217,343

ff.)

to Pelusium across the arid desert, and likewise for the return, he took care to furnish the troops with abundance of water in short, there were no necesThe thought could saries which the army lacked. not but occur both to Caesar himself and to his soldiers that Herod s realm was far too restricted, in comparison with the services which he had rendered Accordingly, when Caesar reached Egypt, them after the death of Cleopatra and Antony, he not only conferred new honours upon him, but also annexed to his kingdom the territory which Cleopatra Annexatij had appropriated," with the addition of Gadara, kJu^ay^. Hippos and Samaria and the maritime towns of Gaza, Anthedon, Joppa, and Strato's Tower.'' He further presented him, as a bodyguard, with four hundred Gauls, who had formerly served Cleopatra And nothing so strongly in the same capacity. moved the emperor to this liberality as the generous spirit of him who was the object of it. period of the Actian era,^ Subseque (4) After the first Caesar added to Herod's realm the country called ^^^Ijl^J^. Trachonitis, with the adjacent districts of Batanaea etc) ^* ^' and Auranitis. The occasion of this grant was as had taken on lease the follows. Zenodorus, who domain of Lysanias, was perpetually setting the brigands of Trachonitis to molest the inhabitants of Damascus. The latter fled for protection to Varro, the governor of Syria, and besought him to report on learning the facts their sufferings to Caesar Caesar sent back orders to exterminate the bandits. Varro, accordingly, led out his troops, cleared the time in 28 b.c, then in the years 24, 20, 16 B.C., etc. That after the enlargement of territory therefore took place course of the tirst Actiad had run,' i.e. in the end of 24, b.c. " (SchUrer). or beginning of 23 b.c. 187
;
'"^^
**

;

*

JOSEPHUS
Kafiaipec

re

7(")t'

dvSpan' rrjv yrju Kal a(jiaipelTai

7^r)v6hix)pov'

r)v

vorepov

Kataap,

a>?

/xr)

yevoiro

ttolXlu opfJLrjr-qpLOi'

TOt? Ar^arats" eVt r-qv AafiaoKou,

'HpcuSfj SlScjjglu. Kareorrjoev Se avrow Kal Hupia? oAt7? iTrirpoTTOv erei SeKarco uaXiv iXdojv els TTju enapxiav, oj? yL-qhev l^elvai Si^a rrj? €K€lvov iinrpoTroLS SioiKcti^. cVet he 400 ovfj-^ovXla? ToU

TeXevra

Z,rjv6Scopo^ ,

TrpoaeVei/xev

avrw

/cat

Tr)v

fiera^u I pdxioi'o<i Kal 717? FaAiAai'a? yr^i/ aTraaav. o 8e TOi^cji' 'HpoS5)7 ixeltov tju, vtto fieu Kaioapos
€</nA€tTO
/xer'

'Aypt7777aj',
errl

utt'

Wypimra
fieu

he yierd

Kalaapa.
TTpovKoiJjei',

evOev

TrXeov rrfs
401

evhanxovias €tV (JLelCov 8' e^rjpdi-j (f)p6vrjfjia Kal re p-eyaXovoias eTrereivev els evoe^eiav.

TrXelorov

(xxi.

1)

Xelas

avroi'

WevreKaLheKara) yovv erei re rov vaov eireoKevaoev
)(^cx>pav

rrjs

^aoLrrepi

Kal

avTOV di'ereixloaro
dfierpoLS
p-ev

rrj?

ova-qs hiTiXaoiova

\p-qodiievos

TOt?

dvaXcofiaGiw

dv-

VTrepPXi^TO) he rfj TToXvTeXeia. reKp-qptoi^ he -qoai at jieydXai aroal rrepl to lepov Kal to ^opeiou en

auToJ

(f>povpLov asT pLev yap duojKohopLrjoei' ih depieXiojv , o 8' eTnoKevdaas rrXovTOj haiptXel KaT

ovhev Tcjv ^aoiXeiojv eXaTTOv
402 els
TTji^

WvTOWLOV

TiiL-qi>.

* AuTcovlau eVa'Accrei TO ye pirjv eavToi

i:

/cara Tr]v dvoj heqxdpevos ttoXlv, hvc Tovs i-ieyioTovs Kal TTepLKaXXeoTd-ovs o'lkovs, ots
^acriXeLov

M. \'ipsaniii.s Agrippa (63-12 b.c). the devoted friend minister and presumptive successor to Augustus, builder 01 Pantheon and organizer of the Roman nav\'. the " Or thanks to this favoured position." « According to A. xv. 380 " the eighteenth year" ; th(
•'

li

188

JEWISH
tenure.

WAR,I.399-402(=A>srT. xv.360f.,

380, 318

and deprived Zenodorus of his This was the territory which Caesar subsequently presented to Herod, to prevent it from again being used by the brigands as a base for raids upon Damascus. When ten years after his first visit Caesar returned to the province, he, moreover, gave Herod the position of procurator of all Syria, for the (Roman) procurators were forbidden to talce any measures without his concurrence. Finally, on the death of Zenodorus, he further assigned to him all the territory between Trachonitis and Galilee. But what Herod valued more than all these privileges was that in Caesar's affection he stood next after Agrippa,* in Agrippa's next after Caesar. Thencehis forth ^ he advanced to the utmost prosperity noble spirit rose to greater heights, and his lofty ambition was mainly directed to works of piety.
district of these pests
;

e.

20 b.c.

he restored the

Thus, in the fifteenth year'' of his reign, Temple and, by erecting new foundation-walls, enlarged the surrounding area to double ts former extent. The expenditure devoted to this work was incalculable, its magnificence never surpassed as evidence one would have pointed to the great colonnades around the Temple courts and to The the fortress which dominated it on the north. colonnades Herod reconstructed from the foundations the fortress he restored at a lavish cost in a style no way inferior to that of a palace, and called His own palace. it Antonia in honour of Antony. which he erected in the upper city, comprised two most spacious and beautiful buildings, with which
1)
;
;

(XXI.

Herod's

reconstfm tionoftiw

beg'm^
<^-

20-19 ^

The
""^

fortre ^"^°''''

The royal
p^^^^^^-

latter

work (Schurer), which was not completed [Gospel of S. John ii. 20).

appears to be the correct date of the beginning of the till c. a.d. 28

189

.

JOSEPHUS
ovS' 6^ vao?
TOJV
403
(fiiXoW 7T€L0V.
TTTj

<jvv€Kpivero, TrpoGrj-yopevaev
fjL€V

oltto

TOV

KaLodp€LOV TOV Sc *AypL7T-

fjivrjiirjv

yap ovk oIkois fiovov avTOJV rrjv Koi ra? €7TLKXrjO€is rrepUypaijjev, Ste^t] Se et? oAa? TToAet? avrco to (f>LX6rLixov eV fxiv ye rfj HapLapeLTihi ttoXlv KaXXiorco TTepi^oXcp T€ix^od{"2)
.

'AAAa

fjL€V09

eVt araSlovs €lkogl
XLTrapojrdTrjv,
/cat

/cat

Karayayojv
fieaco

efa/ctcr-

Xt-Xiovs €tV avTTju OLKiJTopag, yi]v Se tovtols
veLfjLag

npoa-

iv

rco

KrlcrfJiaTL

re/xevOb

fieyiorov /cat Trepl avrov Kaloapc rpLcov rjpLLGrahiojv TO aaTf Ze^aorryi^ cVaAeaev i^atperov 8e Tot? cv^

vaov T€

iviSpvadfieuos

drroSet^as' toj

axno) 7Tapeox€v evvojiiav
(3) 'ETTt TOUTOtS" hcxipqaapiivov rod Kaluapos avrov irepas TTpoodioei x^P^^> ^ ^^ Kavravda vaov avTO) XevKrjs fiappidpov KaOidpuaaro Tiapa rds ^lophdvov Tiiqyds- KaXeZrai 8e Wdveiov c 405 TOTTO?. evda Kopv(f)rj fxev ns opovs els drreLpoi vipo? dvareiverai, Trapd Se ttjv VTTopetov Xayovc ovvrjpe(j)es avrpov viravoiyei, 8t* ov ^apadpcoSrji aTTOppojya ^aOvperat Kp-qp.v6s dfjLerpTjTov els TrXrjdei re vharos doaXeijrov /cat Tots" KadifMcoou 406 Tt TTpos epevvav yrjs ovhev /jlt^kos e^apKel. roi Se dvrpov Kara rds e^codev pitas dvareXXovoiv a

404

Kal yeveoLS p-^u, (Ls evtoi Sokouglv, evOe) ^Xophdvov, TO S' aKpi^es ev tols ^^17? SrjXcoaofjiev 407 Se ^aoiXevs /cat ev 'lepixol pLera^i (4) *0
Tr-qyai'

Kvrrpov
^

rod
i

<j)povpiov

/cat

rojv
ms.
:

rrporepojv

^aat

oi'o

Bekker from a Leyden
For
a

ovbk the rest.

"

Mount Hermon.

description

of

Paneion

o

190

JEWISH WAR,I.402-407( = ANT. xv.318,296fr., 363 f.)
;

the Temple itself bore no comparison these he named after his friends, the one Caesareum, the other Agrippeum. (2) He was not content, however, to commemorate Foundatu his patrons' names by palaces only his munificence fn gamari extended to the creation of whole cities. In the district of Samaria he built a town enclosed within magnificent walls twenty furlongs in length, intro;

duced into

it six

thousand

colonists,

and gave them

allotments of highly productive land. In the centre of this settlement he erected a massive temple, enclosed in ground, a furlong and a half in length, consecrated to Caesar while he named the town itself Sebaste. The inhabitants were given a privileged
;

constitution.

(3) When, later on, through Caesar's bounty he riie Temp received additional territory, Herod there too dedi-^[ p^J^J, cated to him a temple of white marble near the sources of the Jordan, at a place called Paneion. At this spot a mountain ^ rears its summit to an immense height aloft at the base of the cliff is an opening into an overgrown cavern ; within this, plunging down to an immeasurable depth, is a yawning chasm, enclosing a volume of still water, the bottom of which no sounding-line has been found long enough to reach. Outside and from beneath the cavern well up the springs from which, as some think, the Jordan takes its rise but we will tell the true story of this in the sequel.^ (4) At Jericho, again, between the fortress of Cypros ^ and the former palace, the king constructed
;

;

Faneas, later Caesarea Philippi, mod. Banias, see G. A. Smith, Hist. Geog. of Holy Land, 473. " See iii. 509 ff. * Built by Herod in honour of his mother, § 417.

191

JOSEPHUS
dXXa KaraoKevdaas d/xetVco nal ;^pr]ai/xctjT€pa Trpo? rds iTnhrjiJiia<; aTTO tcZu avTOJU wuofiaaeu <f>iXojv. KadoXov hk ovk €otlv €l7t^Iv ovTiva TTJ9 PaaiXeiag iTnrijSeLOv tottov tyjs Trpo? Katcrapa
Xeicov
ri/jLrjg

yvyLvov

€lao€v.
etV

inel
rrjv

Be

ttjv

IStav

€7TX-qpa)G€v
rifjids

vacbi^,

e7Tap)(Lav

avrov

^topav rag

V7Tep€^€X€€v

Kal

iroXXalg

TToXeoLU

eVtSpu-

oaTO KaLodpeta.
408

KaTiSdju Se Kav rols vapaXiots ttoXiv rjSri Kap-vovoaVy Hrpdrcovo? eKaXelro 7Tvpyo<;, hid he €V(j>viav rov ;(tupiou Se^aadai Bvvap.dvr]u to (piXoTijJLOu avTov, Ttdoav dveKTLoeu XevKco Xidcp Kal XapLTTpordroLS eKOop-Tjaev ^aoiXeioi^; iv fj 4ij9 {idXiora to (f)vaeL p,€yaX6povv eVeSei'^aro. (lera^v yap Atupojv Kal 'Jottttt^S-, (Lu tj 770A19 P-^or] Kelrai, TTdoav elvai ovp.3€^r]K€V rrjv TrapaXiov dXipLevov, ojs TrdvTa tov rrjv (t>OLVLKrjv irr^ AlyvTrrov napaTrXeovra oaXevetv ev TreXdycL Sid ttjv cV Ai/So? dneiXTJv, (I) Kal /xerptcus" ivavpil^ovri, r-qXiKovrou cVeyetperat^ Kvp.a vpog rals Trerpais, ojore rrjV v7:ooTpo<f>rjv tov Kvp.aTos irrl TrXeiOTOi' i^aypiovv 410 Tr)i' BdXaoGav* dAA* o ^aoiXevg rots' dvaXojpiaoLV Kal Trj (f)iXoTipiia I'lKijoa? rrju (f>voLV fxeil^ova pikv
(5)

pikv

,

rov
411
(6)

Vieipaicjjs

Xip.€va
8'

KaTeoK€vao€V,

iv

he

rots'

p.vxoi^ avTov ^adels opptovs erepov?.

KaOdrrav

e^^JV avTirrpdooovTa rov tottou

ttju hvax^peiau, cLs ttjv p.ev oxvpoTTjra rrj? hopLiqoeojs hvodXixjTOV etvai ttj daXdoGTj, TO he KaXXos ojs eirl p.r]hevL hvoKoXco KeKOopLfjoOai. ovp.pLeTp-qadp.evos ydp ooov ft'pT^-

ecfuXoveiKrioev

rrpos

^

iwe',(ifjtTo P.\I

:

eytlpeTai the rest.

.

JEWISH WAR,

I.

407-411 (=ANT. XV. 331-334)

new buildings, finer and more commodious for the other reception of guests, and named them after the same Sjonour^o^f friends." In short, one can mention no suitable spot Augustus, within his realm, which he left destitute of some mark of homage to Caesar. And then, after filling his own territory with temples, he let the memorials of his esteem overflow into the province and erected in numerous cities monuments to Caesar. (5) His notice was attracted by a town on the Caesarea coast, called Strato's Tower, which, though then harbour. dilapidated, was, from its advantageous situation, suited for the exercise of his liberality. This he entirely rebuilt with white stone, and adorned with the most magnificent palaces, displaying here, as nowhere else, the innate grandeur of his character. For the whole sea-board from Dora to Joppa, midway between which the city lies, was without a harbour, so that vessels bound for Egypt along the coast of Phoenicia had to ride at anchor in the open when menaced by the south-west wind for even a moderate breeze from this quarter dashes the waves to such a height against the cliffs, that their reflux spreads a wild commotion far out to sea. However, by dint of expenditure and enterprise, the king triumphed over nature and constructed a harbour larger than the Piraeus, including other deep roadsteads within its recesses. (6) Notwithstanding the totally recalcitrant nature 3f the site, he grappled with the difficulties so successfully, that the solidity of his masonry defied the sea, while its beauty was such as if no obstacle had existed Having determined upon the comparative size ^ of
;

" "
i.e.

Augustus and Agrippa.

" larger than the Piraeus "

410),

VOL.

U

H

193

JOSEPHUS
KaBUt Xidovs eV opyvias CLKOGLV etV TO TTeXayos , (hv rjaav ot TrXeloTOL fxrJKOs TToSoju TTevT-qKOvra, ^ddo? evvea, evpo? 8eVa, nines' 412 8e Koi jieil^ovs. eVct 8e dv€7TXr]pcu6rj to v<^aXov,^ ovrcus 7]Srj to vrrepexov rod rreXdyovs Telxo? eVt
/ca/xev roj At/xeVt yLe'y€dos

TToSas TjvpvueTO' (Lu OL fikv eKarov TTpohehop-qvTO Trpos ~r]v dvaKOTrrjV rod KVfiaro?,

SiaKOGLOvg
TTpoKVpLta
TO)

yovv

iKXrjO-q,

to

8e

Xolttov

VTTOKeiTaL
Tfupyois

TrepideovTL

XlOlvco

t€l)(€l.

tovto

Se

T€ hieiXrjTTTaL ixeyioTOLS , (x)V 6 7Tpov)(^U)v kol rrepiKaXXecrraro? d—o tov Kaloapos Trpoyovov ApouOLOv KeKXrjTaL.
413

TTVKval rrpos Karayojyrjv tCjv Kal to rrpo avTow irdv kvkXco vdyfia Tols dTTO^aivovaiv TrXaTvs nepLTTaTOS. 6 8' €lo7tXovs ^6p€Log, aWpLOjTaros yap dveficvv rep TOTTw /Sopea?, Kal eVt tov oTOjjLaTo? koXooool rpels eKaTepojdev VTreoT-qpLyfievoL kloglv, d>v tovs
(7)
4:'aAt5es"

re

ivopfiLCofjLei'cov,

eV Aaid? x^'-P^^ eloTrXeovraji^ Tivpyos raoTOS Tovs Be €k Se^iov Svo opdol XiSoi ovv €^€vyiJL€VOL TOV KaTa ddrepov ;;^erAos' TTvpyov fiei414 l,OVeS. TTpOOeX^L? 8' OLKiaC TO) XipLeVL, XevKov Kal avral XiOov, Kal KaTaTeivovres err^ avTOV ol
p.€v

dvex^L,

orevojTTol
Tpr)fi€voL.

tov
Kal

.

doreo? rrpos €v hidoTripia /xe/x€TOV GTOfjiaTo? dvTLKpv vaos KatxraAAet
:

oapos
*

€7tI

yrjX6(f)ov

Kal jxeyedeL Sta^opo?"

Destinon from Lat.

v\^r)\6v

PA

:

^dOos the rest.

" not less than eighteen," A. " A. adds " who died young." Nero Claudius Drusus (38-9 B.C.), son of Livia, afterwards wife of Augustus, and father of Germanicus. * Or " vaulted chambers," " crypts." * Strictly a temple of Rome and Augustus, as Reinach
*

194

JEWISH WAR,
the harbour as
let

I.

411-414

(

= ant.

xv. 334-339)

we have stated, he had blocks of stone down into twenty fathoms of water, most of them measuring fifty feet in length by nine in depth and ten " in breadth, some being even larger. Upon
the submarine foundation thus laid he constructed above the surface a mole two hundred feet broad ; of which one hundred were built out to break the surge, w^hence this portion was called the breakwater, while the remainder supported a stone wall encircling the harbour. From this wall arose, at intervals, massive towers, the loftiest and most magnificent of which was called Drusion after the step-son of Caesar.^ ^ in the wall provided landing(7) Numerous inlets places for mariners putting in to harbour, while the whole circular terrace fronting these channels served as a broad promenade for disembarking passengers. The entrance to the port faced northwards, because in these latitudes the north wind is the most favourable of all. At the harbour-mouth stood colossal statues, three on either side, resting on columns the columns on the left of vessels entering port were supported by a massive tower, those on the right by tw^o upright blocks of stone clamped together, whose height exceeded that of the tower on the opposite side. Abutting on the harbour were houses, also of white stone, and upon it converged the streets of the town, laid at equal distances apart. On an eminence facing the harbour-mouth stood Caesar's temple,'* remarkable for its beauty and grand pro;

referring- to Suet. Aug. 52 " templa ... in nulla provincia nisi communi suo Romaeque nomine recepit." This is indicated in Josephus by the mention of the two

remarks,

statues.

195

JOSEPHUS
eV 6'

avrcp koXgooos
!Si6^
rfj
,

Kaloapo? ovk
Kal

OLTTobeajv

rod
rfj

^OXvimiaoLV
be
fiev

co

TrpoaeiKacrTai,

'Ptb/ji-qg

taos

'Hpa

Kar'

'Apyog.

dvdd-qKev Be

eTTapxta ttjv ttoXlv, rot? TavTfj Se ttAoI'^o^evoLg rov Xip-eva, Kai'aapi he ttjv Tip.riv jov KTiupLarog- KatadpeLav yovv ojv6p.aoev avTiqv.
(8)

415

Tcf

ye

pLTju

Xoltto.

tcov

epyojv,
tyjs

dyL4)i.deaTpov

dearpov Kal evLSpvGaro. Kal
Kal
crrriadp.evos

dyopds,

afta

TTpoorjyopias

rrevTaerripLKovs

opuoiajs

dydtvaq KaraeKdXeaev d—o rov Kat'aapo?,

auTOi ddXa peyiara Trpodelg enl rrjg eKaToarrjg evevTfKourrjs Sevrepas oXvpLTTtdBog, eu oU ov pLOVov ol wtKcovTeg, dXXd Kal ol p.er' avrovs Kal ol TpiToi Tov ^aoiXiKov vXovTov p.ereXdp.dvaKTLoas Be Kal Wvdrjdoua ttji' rrapa416 ^avov. Xlov KaTappL(f)delaav ev TroXepLw AypLTnreiov rrpootov 5' airrov (J)lXov Bl' vrrep^oXrjv Tjyopeuoe evvoias Kal e-nl rrji; rruAry? exdpa^ev to 6wop.a, t]v avTOs ev TO) I'aoj KaTeuKevaoeu. 417 (9) OtAoTraTojp ye p.T]v, el Kai Tig eTepos' Kal yap TO) TTaTpl pLurip,eLOu KaTe9r]Keu voXtu, r]v ev Tw KaXXioTcp TYJs ^aaiXeias TreBiw KTicras TTOTapLols Te Kal BevBpeuLV TrXovoiav wvopLaaev AvTinaTpiBa, VTTep ^povpiov oxvpoTrjTL Kal TO 'lepLXOv^TOi Kal KdXAeL Bidi^opov T6t;^taa9 dvedrjKev ttj p.rjTpl KvTrpov. Oaaav^Aoj Be TdBeX(f)a) tov 418 T:poGei-djv ev 'lepoGoXvpLOLS 6p.a)vvp,ov rrvpyov, ov to Te
rrpojTOS
'

'

ox^P-o. Kal T-qv ev toj pLeyedei iroXvTeXeiav Bid Kal ttoXlv dX\r]v KTioas Ttup €^^7? BrjXcoaopLev.

"

Or Agrippias. A.
At Jerusalem
;

xiii. 357 ; the town was close to Gaza. the particular gate so called is unknown.

i9tJ

JEWISH WAR, 1. 414-418 ( = ANT. XV. 339,xvi. 136-145)
portions ; it contained a colossal statue of the emperor, not inferior to the Olympian Zeus, which

its model, and another of Rome, rivalling that of Hera at Argos. The city Herod dedicated to the province, the harbour to navigators in these waters, to Caesar the glory of this new foundation, to which he accordingly gave the name of Caesarea. buildings— amphitheatre, Quinrest of the (8) The were constructed in a style gamerat theatre, public places worthy of the name which the city bore. He further Caesaiea instituted quinquennial games, hkewise named after Caesar, and inaugurated them himself, in the hundred io-9 b.c. and ninety-second Olympiad, offering prizes of the [f/the*^^'^ highest value at these games not the victors only, Olympian but also those who obtained second and third places, participated in the royal bounty.

served for

;

Another maritime town, which had been destroyed war-time, namely Anthedon, he rebuilt and renamed Agrippium ^ and so great was his affection for this same friend Agrippa, that he engraved his name upon the gate which he erected in the Temple.^ (9) No man ever showed greater filial affection, As a memorial to his father he founded a city in the fairest plain in his realm, rich in rivers and trees, and named it Antipatris.'' Above Jericho he built the walls of a fortress, remarkable alike for solidity and beauty, which he dedicated to his mother under the name of Cypros. To his brother Phasael he erected the tower in Jerusalem called by his name, the appearance and splendid proportions of which He also gave the we shall describe in the sequel
in
;
.'^

Foundat

?A^°pl^^ pium);

of Anti-

gypjos

a Piiasaeii!

Ras
pa,

el 'Ain, some 10 miles inland from and N.E. of on the road from Jerusalem to Caesarea.

V. 166-169.

197

.

JOSEPHUS
Kara
rov
arro

'lepuxov^

Iovtojv

ai5Aa;i/a

Tipo?

^opeau (^aaa-qXtda ojvopiao^v. 419 (lO) Ylapahov? 8' alayvi rovs re olk€lovs Kal aWa (f>iXovs ovhk rrjs iavrov pLvqpi-qs r^jiiXqaev
,

imTeLXLcrag rep Trpog Wpa^lau opei TrpoarjyopevGev 'HpajBeiov a(j>* iavrov, rov hk pLaaroeiBi] koXojvov ovra y€Lpo7Toirirov e^iqKovra drrcodev Grahiojv 'lepoaoXvpiow, iKoXeoev p,€U
(fypovpLOv iiev
,

420 ofjiOLOJS,

€^riGKr]G€v

he

(fnXonp.orepoi'.

orpoyyveVAry-

Xois p^ev

yap

rrjv

aKpav Trvpyois

Trepieu-x^ev,

paxjev 8e rov Trepi^oXov ^aaiXeLOLs TToXvreXeardroL?, oj? prj pLOVOV rrjv evSov raJv OLKrjpLarwv oiptv ehac XafiTTpdv, dXXd Kal rols efcu^ei^ roixois Kal dpiyKols Kal ureyaLS TrepiKexvadai rov rrXovrov
haijjiXrj.

TToppojdev 8e pieyioTois dvaXo'j}JiauLV vBd-

eiG-qyayev Kal ^aSpiols hiaKooiois XevKordrrjs papfidpov rrjv dvoSov hieXa^ev t^v yap br] ro yi^Xo(j}OV emeiKios vipr]X6v Kal rrdv ;)(eipo421 TTOL-qrov. KareoKevaaev he Kal rrepl rds pit>a.s dXXa ^aoiXeia riqv re aTTOGKevrjv Kal rov£ (^lXovs he^aadai hvvdpLeva, ojore rep pev rrdvra exetv ttoXlv eivat, hoKelv ro epvpa, rfj TrepLypacjifj he ^aoiXeiov 422 avyKrlaa? rrXeLGrai? Kal row (11 ) Too-aura e^o) TToXeojv ro fieyaXoipvxov eTrehet^aro, YptTToXei pLev ydp j^ Kal AapLauKoj Kal YlroXepLatht yvpivdat,a, Bu^Ao) he relxos, e^ehpag he Kal arods Kal vaovs Kal dyopds Br]pvra) KarauKevdoas Kal Tvpcp, T.LhdjVL ye pLTjv Kal AapiaGKoj dear pa, Aaorcov
ttXtjOos
^

om. Bekker.

'

Literally " in the

form of a breast."

IQ.S

JEWISH WAR, I. M8

422( = ANT.xvi.l45f.,xv.323ff.)

name of Phasaelis to another city which he built in the valley to the north of Jericho. (10) But while he thus perpetuated the memory The two of his family and his friends, he did not neglect to caUell"^^ leave memorials of himself. Thus he built a fortress Herodiun in the hills on the Arabian frontier and called it after himself Herodium. An artificial rounded^ hill, sixty furlongs from Jerusalem, was given the same name, but more elaborate embellishment.^ The crest he crowned with a ring of round towers the enclosure was filled with gorgeous palaces, the magnificent appearance of which was not confined to the interior of the apartments, but outer walls, battlements, and roofs, all had wealth lavished upon them in profusion. He had, at immense expense, an abundant supply of water brought into it from a distance, and provided an easy ascent by two hundred steps of the purest white marble the mound, though entirely artificial, being of a considerable height. Around the base he erected other palaces for the accommodation of his furniture and his friends. Thus, in the amplitude of its resources this stronghold resembled a town, in its restricted area a simple
;
;

palace.
(11) After
his realm.

founding

all

to display his generosity to

these places, he proceeded numerous cities outside

Herod's
bounties
to foreigr

Thus, he provided gymnasia for Tripolis, Damascus and Ptolemais, a wall for Byblus, halls, porticoes, temples, and market-places for Berytus and Tyre, theatres for Sidon and Damascus, an aqueduct
^ Built in memory of his victory over the Jewish alHes of the Parthians, §265; modern Jehel Fereidis (" Hill of Paradise " or Frank mountain), some 4 miles S.E. of Bethlehem. The site of the other Herodium is unidentified.

199

,

JOSEPHUS
SiKevGL
^

Be

TotS"

TTapaXiOL?

7;8aTaji'

cloaycuyrju

423

^aXavela kol Kp-qvag ttoXuTeAet?, 77po? he TrepiorvXa daufiaGra ttjv re epyaoiav KOL TO fieyeOo?' elal d' ot? aAcn^ Kal XeificjI'CL? avedrjKev. voXXal he TroXei? warrep koivojvol r-fjg ^aoiXeias Kal ;\;ojpai^ eXa^ov nap* avrovyv}ivaoiapxLai<; 8' aAAa? eTreT-qoioLS re /cat 8t-qveKeoiv ihajp-qaaro -npooohov? narara^a?, (ZoTrep
AuKa}'(jL)viraLS

Se

424 Kc/joi?,
fiTju

ti'a

fj.rjhe77ore

eKXeL-rj ro yepag.
rots
heoyievois,

TTaoiv

exopriy-qoev

oltou ye Kal rfj

*P6hcp xpTjixara p,ev els vavriKOV KaraoKevqu Ttapeaxev 7:oXXa-)(OV^ Kal ttoXXcikls, epLvprjodev he TO YYvdiov IhioLS avaXcofiaoLV dfiewov dveheifiaTO. 425 Kal TL Set Xeyeiv ra? els AvkLovs rj Y.ap,iovs hojpeds Tj TTjv St' oX-qg TTJs *Iajvta?, cV oh eheijOijoav €KaOTOL, haifjcXeLav; dXX WO-qvaloL Kal AaKehai/jLoVLOL iSixoTToAiTat T€ Kal TO Kara }^\vGLav Ylepyafiov
S'

ov Tojv 'Wpojhov yejJLOVoiv dvaOrjfxdrojv; ttjv AvTiO^eajv Tcjv ev Supi'a TrAaretat' ov <f)evKTrjv ovoav VTTO ^op^opov KaTeaTpojoeu t€, GTahicov eLKOoL TO fjLTJKos ovoav, ^eoTfj fiapfjidpcp Kal Ttpos
^

TCI?

Td)V

veTOJV
jiev

d770(f)vyds

eKOGpL-qoev

lGop.rjKei

GToa;
426
(12)

Tavra

dv tls elnOi Ihia tojv ev TraT7)S

dovTOJV^ hrji^ajv eKdGrov, to he 'HAet'oi? xapLodev

ov

fJLOVOV

KOLVOV

'EAActSoS",
tj

dAA'

oXtjS

TrfS

olKOVfjLevrjS hojpop, els tjv

427 dycvvojv
1

hLLKvelraL.

ho^a tojv ^OXvfXTTLaGLv rovrovs yap hrj KaraXvo(c/.

TToWd Destinon: ."s-oXXax^
*

Plato, Rep. 539 d).
.ms.

evTradouuTwv
^

PLV

and a Leipzig

Bekker:

tCjv iv 'OXiv-TTLaaiv .mss.

"

Keeper of the gymnasium, responsible for the conduct

200

JEWISH WAR,

I.

422-427

(

= ant.

xvi.

147-149)

for Laodicea on sea, baths, sumptuous fountains and colonnades, admirable alike for their architecture and their proportions, for Ascalon to other communities he dedicated groves and meadovv-Iand. Many cities, as though they had been associated with his realm, received from him grants of land others, like Cos, were endowed with revenues to maintain the annual office of gymnasiarch ° to perpetuity, to ensure that this honourable post should never lapse. Corn he supplied to all applicants ^ to the people of Rhodes he made contributions again and again for shipbuilding,^ and when their Pythian temple was burnt down he rebuilt it on a grander scale at his own expense. Need I allude to his donations to the people of Lycia or Samos, or to his hberahty, extended to every district of Ionia, to meet its needs ? Nay, are not Athenians and Lacedaemonians, the inhabitants of NicopoHs and of Pergamum in Mysia, laden with Herod's offerings ? And that broad street in Syrian Antioch, once shunned on account of the mud was it not he who paved its twenty furlongs with polished marble, and, as a protection from the rain, adorned it with a colonnade of equal length ? (12) In these cases, it may be said, the individual eis communities concerned were the sole beneficiaries gj'jjj'" his bounty to the people of Elis, on the other hand, oiynjpic "^'^'^^^• was a gift not only to Hellas at large but to the whole world, wherever the fame of the Olympic games penetrates. For, observing that these were
;

;

;

'^

;

of festal games and for the maintenance trainers and training-masters. " Or " to all in need of it."
<=

and payment of

C/.

§280
II

for his shipbuilding
<*

at

Rhodes
A.

in

humbler
201

circumstances.

Cf.

xvi. 147.

VOL.

H 2

,

JOSFPHUS
fievovs OLTTopLa ;)^p>y/xaroji' opcoi' Kal ro p.6vov Aetipavov rrjs dp)(aLag 'EAAado? VTToppeov, ov fjLOvov

dycovoderrj?
fjLTjv

t)?

eTrervx^v

TrevTaeTrjpiho^

els

'PcoSt-

TrapaTrXeajv

iyevero, dXXd kol

rrpos

ro

xPVf^^'^^ OLTTeSeL^ei' , COS firj^eTTore 428 dyojvoBeTOvaav avTov rrjv pLvripiiyj eVtAtTrea'. dvijvVTOv ai/ etrj )(pea}W StaAJcret? ^ (f)6pcoi^ CTre^teVat,
KadoLTTep
TTepl
TTjv

7]V€Kes TTopovs

OaCTvyAtVats"

kol

BaAaveturais"

kol

tols

rds ir-qcrlovs ctcri7r€^€Kov<i>LG€v. rrXeioTov ye p.T)v avrov (f>opa.s rrjs pLeyaXovoias edpavaeu 6 (j>6^os, d>s pLrj S6^€L€i^ n dripdadaL pLeiLov, evepyeroJv rds €TrL<f)dovos
IxiXiKiav
ttoXlx^lols
'/}'

ttoXels irXeov rcav ixdvrcov.

429

(13) ^KxprjCJCLTO 8e /cat CTco/xart 77/309 rrjV ijjvx'i]i' dvaXoycp, Kvvrjyerrjs p^kv dpioros del yevopievos ev oj pLaXiara St' epiTreipiav iTTTTLKrjs eTrervyxo-vev /xta yovv r/piepa TTore TeaaapaKOVTa 6rjptojv eKpdTqGev, eon he Kal (tvot p6(f>os pLev r) x^P^> '^^ rrXeov S' eXd<j)OJV Kal dvdypojv evTTopos' noXe430 pLLcrrrjs 8' dwrroararos 77oAAot yovu Kdv rat? yvpLvaaiais avrov KareTrXdyqaav dKOvrLGri'-jV re WvBoXojrarov^ Kal ro^6rr]v €i>Grox<^TO.rov ISovres. rrpos Se rotS" iJjvxi-koIs Kal rots ocopLarLKols Trporepi'ipiaoLv exp'^]oaro Kal Sefta tvx^]' Kal yap OTTavLov eTTraioev ev TToXepLcp, Kal roJv Trratcr/xara>v ovK avros atrLOs, dXX rj Trpohouia rivchv tj TTpoTTereia crrparLa>rdjv eyevero.
.

1

(vdv^oXibraTOV
visit

PA.M Exo.
{\2 b.c.) or his third

" (c.

Either his second

to

Rome

8 B.C.) (Schiirer).
''

maritime town of Lycia. the Syrian coast opposite Cyprus, between Eaodicea and Aradus.
^

A

On

"202

JEWISH WAR,

I.

V27-4.30

declining for want of funds and that this soUtary rehc of ancient Greece was sinking into decay, he not only accepted the post of president for the quadrennial celebration which coincided with his visit " on his voyage to Rome, but he endowed them for all time with revenues, which should preserve an unfading memory of his term as president. The enumeration of the debts and taxes discharged by himself would be endless it was thus, for instance, that he lightened the burden of their annual taxes for the inhabitants of Phaselis,^ Balanea ^ and Often, however, his various minor towns in Cilicia. noble generosity was thwarted by the fear of exciting either jealousy or the suspicion of entertaining some higher ambition, in conferring upon states greater benefits than they received from their own masters. (13)^ Herod's genius was matched by his physical Hisph; constitution. Always foremost in the chase, in which P™wes he distinguished himself above all by his skill in horsemanship, he on one occasion brought down forty wild beasts in a single day for the country breeds boars and, in greater abundance, stags and wild asses. and at As a fighter he was irresistible practice spectators were often struck with astonishment at the precision with which he threw the javelin, the unerring aim with which he bent the bow. But besides these pre-eminent gifts of soul and body, he was blessed by good fortune ^ he rarely met with a reverse in war, and, when he did, this was due not to his own fault, but either to treachery or to the recklessness of his troops.
; ;
;

;

^

Cf.

This paragraph has no parallel in A. and contrast the estimate in A. xvii. 191

f.

203

JOSEPHUS
431
TV)(rj

Ta? y£ firju vTraldpoug evTrpayla? rj Kar^ oIkov aviapol? eVe/xecn^aei', kol KaKohaii^Lovelv iK yvvaiKO? rjp^aro Trepl vv fxaXi(xxii.
1)

rot?

432 crra io7To\jhau€v
TjXdev,

.

eTreihr]
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etV rrjv

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ovofxa,

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8t*

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dvyarepa,
oIkov,
433 'PcvpLrj?

WXe^dvSpov rou 'AptCTTO^ouAou avrw oraGLaoOrjvai avve^rj rou
piev,

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dcjiL^LV.

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pL€i'

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Bap^a4)pdprjg KaraSpapLcuv Suptav, e^r^njaauro Se kol et 434 Kar^ oIktov ol virkp Kvcppdrrjv opioedvel? ye TovToig eTTeiaOrj TiapaLvovoLV p.j) Sta^rjvai irpos 'Wpcoh-qv, ovK dv TrapaTTCoXero' SeXeap S' aural Bavdrov rrjs vlojvrjs 6 ydpLOs Kariarr]' rovrcp yap 7T€7TOLdoj£ Kal TTepiGGOV TL TTJg TTaTpiSo? i(f)iepi€VOS TjKev. TTapcv^vvev Se 'HpcoSrjp ovk avrds avri7Toiovpi€vo^ ^aGiXela^, dXX' inel to jSaaiAeuetv irre^aXXeu avrco. Tcov Se eK Mapta/x/XT^S" ttcVtc reKva>v aurco 435 {'2}
.

yevopiivojv hvo piev dvyarepes, Tpels S' 'qoau uiew.
pL€vos
*

Kal rovTOJV 6 vecoraro^ peu eV ^Pcoptr] TratSevoreXevra, Svo Se rous" Trpeo^vrdrovs ^aaii<piU

Exc. (the usual verb
"

in

Josephus): d0eis the
»

rest.

C/. §241.
**

%

im.
i. 1

*

For

his resijo-nation of the

throne see B.

20

tf.

Salampsio and Cyprus.

204

JEWISH WAR,

I.

431-4.35

{cf.

ant. xv.

14,

164

ff.)

(xxii.l) But, in revenge for his public prosperity, Herods fortune visited Herod with troubles at home his l^^i"f^^' ill-fated career originated with a woman to whom he was passionately attached. For, on ascending the throne, he had dismissed the wife whom he had taken when he was still a commoner, a native of Jerusalem named Doris, and married Mariamme, daughter of Alexander, the son of Aristobulus.*^ It was she who brought into his house the discord, which, beginning at an earlier date, was greatly aggravated after his return from Rome. For, in the first place, in the interests of his children by Mariamme, he banished from the capital the son Banishr whom he had had by Doris, namely Antipater, Antlpat allowing him to visit it on the festivals only. Next he put to death, on suspicion of conspiracy, Hyrcanus, Executi Mariamme's grandfather, who had come back from ^^g^^g^ Parthia to Herod's court. Hyrcanus had been taken prisoner by Barzapharnes when the latter overran Syria,^ but had been liberated through the intercession of his compassionate countrymen living beyond the Euphrates. And had he but followed their advice not to cross the river to join Herod, he would have escaped his tragic fate but the marriage of his grand-daughter lured him to his death. He came relying upon that and impelled by an ardent longing for his native land, and roused Herod's resentment not by making any claim to the throne, but because
;

;

it

him by right.'' Herod had five children by Mariamme, two daughters and three sons. The voungest son died
actually belonged to
(2)
'^

Herod

s

cji'idrei

in

elder sons

the course or his trainmg in Rome to the two ^ he gave a princely education, both out
;

*

Alexander and Aristobulus.

205

JOSEPHUS
XiKcog
rjyei'

did re rrjv fir^rpcoav evyiveiav Kal

on

to he tovtojv loxvporepov 6 Mapta/x/Ltr^b epoj? ovvqpyei, Kad^ rjfjiepai' CKKaicov 'Hpcodrjv Xa^porepos, w? ixrjhevo? Tujv hia rrjv orepyoiieviqv XvTrrjpwv aladdveoOai' 70G0VT0V yap tjv filoog etV avrov rrjg Mapia/XjUi]?, 437 OGO? eK€LPOv rrpos avrrjv epojg. e)(ovaa Se rr^u
436 ^acriXevovrL

iyeyoveioav

avrco.

drrey^OeLav Ik tojv Trpayfidrcov evXoyov, ttjv he TTapprjcriav eV rod (hiXeladaL, (fyavepwg (LvelhiLev avTO) rd Kara tov TrdrTTTOv '\pKav6v koL tov
f.L€v

abeX(j)6v ^Yojvddrjv
TratSos"

ovhe yap tovtov Kainep ovros
Sovg
fxev
airro)
ttjv

i<l>€Laaro,

dpxi-^pco-

cruvqv eTTrafcatSe/ceVei, /xerd Se rr]v rcfMr^v Krelvag

evdeojg,
rd)

eTreLhrj

rrjv

lepdv

ioOqra

^cofio)

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Kad^

eopTTjv

eSd.KpvGev rd ttXtjOos.
Sid

77e/x7rerat.

Xa^ovri ddpovv p^ev ovv 6

Kal enTrai?

vvKro? ecV 'lepLXovvra, eKel he Kar^ ivroXrjv VTTO rd)v YaXardiv ^aTrrtco/xeros" ev KoXvi-i^t^dpa reXevra. (3) Aid ravO^ 'Hpcoh-qv p^ev <l>veihLt,ev r) Ma438 pLdp,fLr], Kal rrjV dheX(f)rjV avrov Kal rrjv pnqrepa heivals i^v^pL^ev AotSopiats*. ciAA' o /xev rre^ifiajro roXg IpiepoLg, heivrj he rd? yuvatxra? dyavdKrrjGL? elurjei, Kal rrpog o pidXiara KLViqaeiv rdv 'Wpujhrjv ep,eXXov, €tV /xot;^etap hie^aXXov avrrjVy 439 dAAa re rroXXd vpog ro TTidavov evaKevat^opevaiy Kal Kar-qyopovcjai Siort rr^v eiKova rrjv iavrrjs
* Called Aristobulus (probablj^ his second name) in the narrative in A. (xv. 51, etc.). ^ A detail not in A. and, as Reinach points out, an anachronism, as Herod only received his guard of Gauls

206

JEWISH WAR,

I.

435-439

{cf.

ant. xv. 41

ff.,

27)

of respect for their mother's ilhistrious parentage, and because they had been born after his accession to

the throne. But a still stronger influence in their favour was Herod's passion for Mariamme, the con- His pai suming ardour of which increased from day to day, Jj^rian so that he was insensible to the troubles of which his beloved one was the cause for Mariamme 's hatred of him was as great as was his love for her. As the events of the past gave her just reason for aversion, and her husband's love enabled her to speak plainly, she openly upbraided him with the fate of her grandfather Hyrcanus and her brother Jonathan.* For Herod had not spared even this He mu poor lad he had bestowed upon him in his seven- 1^^^!^^^° teenth year the office of high-priest, and then im- Jonath mediately after conferring this honour had put him buius)° to death, because, on the occasion of a festival, when ^^ b.c the lad approached the altar, clad in the priestly vestments, the multitude with one accord burst into tears. He was, consequently, sent by night to Jericho, and there, in accordance with instructions, plunged into a swimming-bath by the Gauls * and
;

;

drowned. (3) It was on these grounds that Mariamme upbraided Herod, and then proceeded violently to abuse his mother and sister. He was paralyzed but the women, seething with by his infatuation indignation, brought against her the charge which was bound in their opinion to touch Herod most nearly, that of adultery. Among much else which they invented to convince him, they accused Mariamme of having sent her portrait to Antony in
;

and
"

his

^^'^"

after the death of Cleopatra in

30

b.c.

{A xv. 217
.

||

;

B.'i. 397).

Aristobulus was murdered live years earlier.

207

JOSEPHUS
TTeinpeiev

eh

.ViyvTrrov

Wvrajvtcp

Kal

St*

vrrep-

^oXr)u dcreAyetas"
440 yvvaLKOfiaiovuTL

dnovGau
Kal

hei^eiev eavrrjv avOpojirco
Swafjievaj.
'

jSta^ca^at
epcxjra

rovd^
€;j^ovTa,

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l-LaXiGTa

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top
ttji'

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XoyL/^ofievov he /cat

KAeoTrarpa? SetroTr^ra, St' Avaavia? re 6 ^aotXev? dvfip-qro Kal MaA;^o;> 1^1^ o "Apaip' ov yap a0atpecr6t yajjieTrjg ep-erpei rov
KLvBvpov, dXAd davdrqj. ovv dTrohiiix-queLV (4) yieXXojv
ai^Spt
SaAco/LiT]?
TTjs
dheX(f)r]^
'IcucTT^Trcu

441

rep

avroO, ttlotos Se tjv Kal Sta TO KTiho? evvovs, TrapariOeraL r-qv yvvalKa, Kpvcf)a Sou? euToXds duaipelv avrt^v, el KdKeluov
^Ai'TowLO?.
6

Se

'Ia>CT77770?

ourt KaKoijOcog,

dXXd

rou epa>ra rov ^aaiXeo)? Trapaari^aaL rfj yvvaiKl ^ovXofievo?, wg ovSe drroOavdjv avrrj? V7Top.evoi 442 hiaL^evx^^vo.L, to d—opp-qrov eK(f)aivei. KdKeivq TTpos enav-qKOura rou 'HpcoS-qu TToXXd re rrepl rov avrrjv GVfXTTadoO? ev rats ojutAtat? errop^vv' 77 po? jjLevov,^ cu? oi3S' epaadel-q nore yuvaiKOS dXX-qs, " rrdvv yovv," elrrev, " rat? Trpo? [rovY ^lcL)ar)7TOV euroXaT? erreSei^co rou rrpog rjpid? epwra Kreluai ." [le Trpoara^ab 443 (o) "KKchpoju e'udeco? a/<oJaa? to diropp-qrou rju, Kal ovK du TTore rou ^\ojGiqTrou e^ayyelXac ri-ju
evroX-qv
(^a/xero?
el
pLX]

hca^deipeLev
ri]?

avrrjU,

eue-

Oovoia
dveSrju
'LaXajpnq

ro)
ev
-q

uddeL
rolg
r-qv
dSeX(j)r]

Kal

Kolrrj?

e^aXopteuo?'^

/SaaiAetot?

dpirdoaoa
1

dt'ciAetTO. /cat rovrov rou Kaipdu etV to? Sta^oAd? ^IcoaqTTOU erre^e^alcuaeu els rou
2

+/cai

C

Lat.
'

p. on, the

rest.

Destinon:

t^aXXo^tet'os >iss.

208

JEWISH WAR,

I.

439-443

(c/.

ant. xv. 65

ff.,

85, 240)

Egypt and of carrying wantonness so far as to exhibit herself, though at a distance, to a man with a madness for her sex and powerful enough to resort This accusation struck Herod Hke a to violence. His love intensified his jealousy he thunderbolt. reflected on Cleopatra's craft which had brought both King Lysanias " and the Arab Malchus to their end lie was menaced, he reckoned, with the loss not merely of his consort but of his hfe. (4) So, being on the eve of departure from his realm, he entrusted his wife to Joseph, the husband of his sister Salome, a faithful friend whose loyalty was assured by this marriage connexion, giving him private injunctions to kill her, should Antony kill him. Joseph, not with any malicious intention, but from a desire to convince her of the love which the king bore her, since even in death he could not bear to be separated from her, betrayed the secret. When Herod, on his return, in familiar intercourse was protesting with many oaths his affection for her and that he had never loved any other woman, " A fine exhibition you gave," she replied, " of your love for me by your orders to Joseph to put me to death " (5) He was beside himself, the moment he heard the secret was out. Joseph, he exclaimed, would never have disclosed his orders, had he not seduced and, frenzied with passion, he leapt from the her bed and paced the palace to and fro in his distracHis sister Salome, seizing this opportunity to tion. slander Mariamme, confirmed his suspicion of Joseph.
; ;
!

;

at Cleopatra's instigation he is not named in the general reference to plots against high officials in Syria in B. i. 360. Malchus is named in the last passage as an intended victim of Cleopatra, but there is no further allusion to his end.
"
;

King of Chalcis

his

murder

is

mentioned in A. xv. 92

;

209

JOSEPHUS
VTToiJjLav.

6 8'

utt'

cLKpdrov

U]Xorv7TLas cV/xai'ei?

444 -apaxprfixa Krelveiv TTpoaera^ev d/M(f)OT€pov?. iierdI'OLa 8' evOeojs elrrero roj Trddei, kol rod dvfiov
TTeorovTog
8'
Tjv

6

epojs

TrdXiv

are^cuTrupetro.
co? fi^jSe

rooaimi
reOi'dvai

(jiXeypiovT]

rrj?

eTTi^u/.iias',

SoKelv avrt]P, vtto he KaKcooecos cos XaXelv, l^^XP^ '^^ XP^^V Sihaxdels

t(x>Gr)

rrpooTrdSos^

to

dvdXoyov
hiadeaei.
44.5

rrjv

Xvttt^v

€0-)(€V

rfj

rrpos

rrepLovoav^
/xT^rpojas"

(xxiii.

l)

\\.XripovopiovGL

Se

ttJs"

ol

rralbe? opyrjs Kal
C'Js

rod

fivorovs evvoiav

TToXepiLOV
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'louSatav

Xdov Tov KaTTTTaSoKwv ^amXeojs OvyaTepa, Trpou447

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Kal

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Ik hi hia^dXXovTes tw ^aGiXel hi.

Twes cos €77 L^ovXevouro fiev vtt' dfJLcf>oTepojv Twv VLOJV, 6 he ^ApxeXdco Krjhevaas /ca.
eXiyovTO
<f)vyr]v

445

Vt
dels

Kalaapos

TTapauKevdi^oiTO toj Trevdepw rreTTOidcos, iv avrov KaT-qyop-queLev dvanXriohe Tojv hia^oXajv ' 11 pcohrjs woTrep eVtret.

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TOLS VIOLS KaTayei tov AvTLTTaTpov Kal Trdvra Tporrov
^ '

eV

ttjs

Acupt8os

TrpoTCfjidv

apxerai

Conj. from Lat. " funere cognito'":

irev6os mss.

Hudson from

Lat.

:

irepLoifflav .mss.

° The narrative of Mariamme's death in A. xv. is differently told. There are there two episodes, curiously similar.

210

JEWISH WAR, 1. 443-4 i8(r/^. ANT. xv.240ff.,xvi. 66

ff.)

Mad with sheer jealousy, he ordered that both should instantly be put to death. But remorse followed hard upon rage his wrath subsided, his love revived. So consuming, indeed, was the flame of his passion that he believed she was not dead, and in his affliction would address her as though she Mere alive until time taught him the reality of his loss, when his grief was as profound as the love which he bore her while she was alive." (xxiii, 1) The sons inherited their mother's resent- Hostility ment, and, reflecting on their father's abominable |,^sTmis\ crimes, eyed him as an enemy, even in the early ^i ariamm Alexandei days of their education in Rome, and still more on a Aristobuli their return to Judaea. The antagonism grew with c. their years and when, on reaching an age to marry, one espoused the daughter of his aunt Salome, their mother's accuser, and the other ^ the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, their hatred found vent in open speech. Their rashness lent a handle to slanderers, and from this time certain persons threw out plainer hints to the king that both his sons were conspiring against him, and that the sonin-law of Archelaus, counting on his father-in-law's influence, was preparing to fly, in order to lay an accusation against his father before the emperor. Herod, drugged with these calumnies, recalled Recall of Antipater, his son by Doris, to serve as a bulwark f "^^^^^^^ against his other sons, and began to honour him with every mark of his special esteem.
;
;

;

''

Joseph during a voyage of Herod to 34 b.c.) leads to the execution of Joseph and the imprisonment of Mariamme. A similar indiscretion of Soemus during a voyage of Herod to Augustus (c. 29 b.c.) leads to her trial, condemnation, and death. ^ Aristobulus. Alexander.
indiscretion of
(c.

An

Antony

<=

211

.

JOSEPHUS
449
(2)

ToF?
eavrojv

S'

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Kal tov TrpoKovrovray hia
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450 iidWov, 6 S'

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kol

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avrov iorrov-

Bdl,€TO, SeLUoraro?

fJL€i> (x}V eV rat? 7rp6? rov irarepa KoXaKeiais, hia^oXds 8e Kara rcoi' dSeX(f)<jiJu ttolKiXag ivoK€ua^6fj.€vos Kal to, /xev' avrog Xoyo-

rroLcJjv,

rd Se tovs
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KaOieis,

TOV? aScA^o?)? d-nepp-q^^v ttjs Kal yap iv ralg htad-qKais 451 ^auiXiKTis iX-TTlSos. Kal (f)ap€pa)s ai^ro? tjv rjSr] htdSoxos' w? j^aocXevs yovv i7T€fJL(f)d'q Kal Trpos Kaloapa rw re Koafico Kal rat? dXXats OeparreiaLS TrXrjv Siahrjiiaro? XP^^' ^' €(^GXVG€i' eloayayelv irrl rrji fjL€vog. XP^^'^.^ SvgI S' ottXols MapLafJLfJbrj? Koir-qv rrjv fx-qrepa. Kara tcjv dSeXcfxjJv ;(p6o/.teyos-, KoXaKeia Kal 8ia ^oXfj, TOV ^auiXea Kal -nepl davaTov twv vlojv vtt€LpydaaTo (3) Tdv yovv ^AXe^avSpov avpa? jLte;^pt 'Poj/xt^j 452 o TTaTTjp TTJg i<f>* iavTO) 6apfiaK€Las eKpLvev en KaLGapos. d 8' evpojv pLoXis 6Xo<f)vppiov Trapprj Giav Kal SiKaGT-qv epLTreipoTaTOV ^AvTCTraTpov /ca 'HpcoSov (f)povLii(jL)T€pov, Ta fjLEV dfiapTiqiJiaTa toi TraTpog alh-qpLOvo)? vrreGTelXaTO, Tdg 8' auroj 453 Sta^oXas LGXvpojg dTreAuWro .^ KaOapov he Ka
/J-^XP^
^

(Kaarov
^

2 PAMV. Bekker: ws 5(e) MSS. Xiese and Naber: dveovaaro mss. , cf. B. ii. 92.

" From the narrative in A. xvi. it appears that both th< sons were taken to Italy and that the case was heard not a Rome but at Aquileia (xvi. 91).

212

JEWISH WAR,
(2)

I.

449-453

(

= ant.

xvi.

81

ff.)

the younff men this new departure was Antipate At the sight of the promotion of this son of a woman of no standing, they in their pride of birth could not restrain their indignation, and on every fresh occasion for annoyance openly displayed The result was that, while each suctheir wrath. ceeding day saw them in greater disfavour, Antipater was now gaining respect on his own merits. Showing remarkable adroitness in flattering his father, he concocted various calumnies upon his half-brothers, some of whicn he set in motion himself, while others were, at his instigation, circulated by his confidants, until he completely wrecked his brothers' prospects of the throne. For both in his father's will and by pubHc acts he was now declared to be the heir He is declared thus, when he was sent on an embassy to Caesar, he Je?r to tl went as a prince, with the robes and all the cere- throne ^' monial of royalty except the diadem. Eventually his influence was strong enough to bring back his

To

Intolerable.

:

mother

to

Mariamme's bed

;

and by employing

against his brothers the two weapons of flattery and slander, he stealthily so wrought upon the king's

mind

as to

make him even contemplate putting

his

sons to death. (3) One of them, at any rate, namely Alexander, Aiexande as dragged by his father to Rome and there accused Aifglastus at Caesar's tribunal of attempting to poison him." whoeffec ^ The young man, finding himself at last at hberty to tion ^^ "•*^' vent his grievances and in the presence of a judge with far more experience than Antipater, more sagacity than Herod, modestly threw a veil over his father's faults, but forcibly exposed the calumnies directed against himself. He next proved that his
'^-

213

JOSEPHUS
rov abeXSov aTTohei^as KOLVojvovvra rcou klvSuvojv, OVTOJ? ijdi'j TO re WvTLTrdrpov Travovpyov kol ttju (jvvqpyei 8' avro) avTOJV drt/xtap' aTrtuSupero Kadapov rod ovveLSoro? rj Trepl Xoyov^ lgxv?' fxera koL ro reXevTolov 454 ^71^ yap St] Setvoraro? €L7T€lv. ^dfievo? CO? TO) TTarpl KrelveLV avrov? eorrtv "fet Stj^ KOL TTpoaUraL'f ^ ro eyKXrjiJia, Trpo-qyayev fxkv et? SoLKpva TTavraSy rov Se Kaiaapa hUOrjKev ovrojg, cog OLTToyvajvaL fiev avrcov rd Kanqyopiqpiiva, 8taXXd^ai he 'Wpojhiqv evdeojg. at StaAAayat S* errt rovroL^ Tjoav, ojore eKeivovs fJ-ev rw irarpl Trdvra TTeLdapx^LV, r6i> Se r-qu ^aoiXeiav KaraXiTrelv a)
.

^ovXer ai.
455
(4)

Mera ravra
rcou
p.ev

8'

drro

'Poj/xt]?

vrreorpe^ev 6
a</>teVat^

^aoiXev?,

eyKXi'ifjidraju

rovs

vlov^ hoKCxjv, rrjs S' VTTOVoia? ovk dTrrjXXaypLivo'S'
TTaprjKoXovdeL
VTTodeoL?,

yap
etV

WvTLTrarpog

r)

rod

pbtaovs

ye ro (fiavepdv ttjv drrexOeLav 456 OVK e^e(f)epev rov biaXXaKrrjv alhovjxevos. co? hk rrjv KiXiKiav irapaTrXeajv Karrjpev et's" ^KXaiovaav,' eana pcev avrov (f)iXo(^p6voj? Wpx^Xao^, vnep rrj^ rov yafi^pov ocori^plas ev^oipLoraJv kol rat? hiaXXayals e(f)rjh6ixevo<^, co? dv /cat rd)(LOv yeypacjxjj^ roLS eVt 'PojiJLrj<^ ^lAot? ovXAa/JL^dveadat irepl rrji
dAA'

457

WXe^dvhpcp- TTpoTrefiTreL he pLe^pi Zecpvploi I^^XP'' TptdKovra raXdvrojv. (5) 'Qs" S* els 'lepoGoXvpa 'llpajhijg d(l)LKveLrat, avvayayojv rov Xaov /cat rovs rpeZs vlovs
hiK-qv

hcopa hov?

TTapaorrjodpevos aTreXoyetro
2

rrepl
(et 5e)

rrjg
:
:

dTTohrjpLLas^

conj. after Aldrich TTfjoaierai Holwerda : TrpoaTidfrai
^

et Hr)

MVR
:

i]5u >iss.

-rrpoTWfTaL the rest.

3

d(p(iK€vaL
*

soluisse Lat. 'EXiouaav or 'EXeoOaaf .>JS3.
(-rjKti'ai.)

\KC

2U

JEWISH WAR,

I,

453-457 (=ant.

xvi. 122, 129

ff.)

brother, his partner in peril, was equally innocent, and then proceeded bitterly to complain of Antipater's villainy and of the ignominy to which he and his brother were exposed. He was assisted not only by a clear conscience but by his powerful oratory, for he was an extremely able speaker. Concluding with the remark that it was open to their father to put them to death, if he really bf'lieved the charge to be true, " to tears, and so he v-^^ vd a]} h^'" ',
'

aff-

^^

0.3^

viOT

MOV-

.,e^

^l,e

accr

na

^ vnTNC^lj^e agreement were thatVf.^ sons "'-ic Luat tne ? conuiiioxT^i:«;+. _i J. ^'^^^^ obedience to their father, and should render im], ^' ^"^ bequeath the kingdom that he should be at hbeK^
-

he would, After this the king left Rome o.:*^ his homeward journey, apparently dismissing his chargcb^" against his sons, though not abandoning his suspicions. iVr^r he was accompanied by Antipater, the cause of all this hatred, who, however, was withheld by awe of the author of the reconciliation from openly displaySkirting the coast of Cilicia, ing his animosity. Herod put in at Elaeusa and received friendly entertainment at the table of Archelaus, who congratulated bim on his son-in-law's acquittal and w^as delighted at the reconciliation for he had previously written to
to
(4)
;

whom

Herod

cal^^^

lis

friends in

Rome

to assist

Alexander on

his trial.

He accompanied his guests as far as Zephyrion and Tiade them presents amounting in value to thirty
ralents.

reaching Jerusalem, Herod assembled the them his three sons, made his excuses for his absence, and rendered profuse thanks
(5)

On

Herod's

people, presented to

?hepem)i
Jerusaier

^15

JOSEPHUS
Kal
TToXXa
jxkv

€vxapicrr€L

tco

Oeoj,

ttoXAol

be

458

Kaiaapi KaraoTrjaafievco tov oikov avrov rerapayix4vov Kal fxellou tl rots' vlolg ^aaiAeta? napaG)(6irL TTju ofjLOi'Oiap, " t]u avros €^-7, " (JvvappLOOoj fxaXXov 6 /xev yap efie Kvpiou rrj? dpx^^ Kal hiKaGrrjV hiahoxov Karior-qaev iyoj 8e /xerd Tov ovpL(t)epovros ifxavrat KCLKelvou apLti^oyLai} Tovohe 70VS rpels TratSa? aTToheiKWiiL ^aoiXels,
,'
, ,

TT7?

yvcofjL-q?

TTC

"

rov

tov

6e6v

ovfjup-qcpov,

1^''

^ Kal VfjLo^^ 7Ta'

Vr, -'cveaOat-

roj fxev

yap

TO y€ P'^v
^^ic

Se

p.€yedos r-qs P^"„--. apKei Kat vAeLOKatcrap y-^'r)va>G€v Kadlor-noLv Be
,
V

^nrrio TTaii fj>
•^
.^ uaAou?

f\

vaels r^^aare /iv^re f adt/cou? ^7?t€ avcor ' 5 ? ^ rLiia? OL00VT€5, eKaoTO) oe Kara tc .'
5^
'
\ ^
<

^^KiLOV

,^ ov yap
V

rooovrou
pirjv

'/'

-

evcppavei

rig

toi

Trap*

TjXLKLav

OeparrevopLevov ,

460 CLTLiJLOVfjLevov.

ov? ye

ooov ohwrioei roi eKaoroj ovvelvai herioe

45 J

Gvyyevels Kal (f)LXov?, eycb SiavepLO) Kal Trjg ofio voias eyyvTjTag eKeivov? /caraarryCTop-at, aacfxjj eTnordpLeuo? on rds" Grdoei? Kal rag ^iXoveiKia yevvojoiv al tojv ovvbLarpi^ovrajv KaKorideiaL, ko. d^U iLoiv ovTOL xprjOToi, TiqpovoLV rds" OTopyds. 3' ov p.6vov Tovrovs dXXd Kal toi)? ev rij orparu fjLOV ra^idpxovg ev epLol fiovov rd? eA77i.'5a? exei errl tov rrapovTOS' ov yap ^acnXeiav, dXXd TLp.r) ^aoiXeias toi? vloI? TrapahlSajfiL, Kal tcov fie Tjheojv a»S" dpxovTes drroXavoovoLVy to ^dpo<s S
^

dfjLei.^6/ij.evos

Havercamp on

ms. authority.

Greek " uneven."

2)6

JEWISH WAR,
to

1.

457-461

{cf.

ant. xvi.

132

ff.)

less to Caesar, who had re-estabhshed disordered household and had given his sons a greater boon than a kingdom, namely concord. " The ties of that concord," he continued, " I shall for Caesar has appointed bind more closely myself me lord of the realm and arbiter of the succession, and I, in consulting my own advantage, also repay my debt to him. I now declare these my three He decia sons kings, and I beseech first God, and then you, to sons heu They are entitled to the succes- the throi ratify my decision. sion, this one by his age, the others by their noble indeed the extent of my kingdom would birth Those, therefore, suffice for even a greater number. whom Caesar has united and their father now let the honours you nominates, do you uphold award them be neither undeserved nor unequal," but for in paying proportioned to the rank of each deference to any beyond the deserts of his age, you gratify him less than you grieve the one whom you myself shall select the advisers and atI slight. tendants ^ who are to consort with each of my sons, and shall hold them responsible for keeping the peace, being well aware that factions and rivalries among princes are produced by the malign influence of associates, while virtuous companions promote natural

God, and no

his

;

;

;

;

affection. " I must require these persons,

however, and not
;

them only but

also the officers of

present to rest their hopes on not the kingdom, but the mere honours of royalty, which^I am now delivering over to my sons. They will enjoy the pleasures of power, as if actual rulers,
""

my army, for the me alone for it is

terms

avy-^eviU and 0iXoi are, as Reinach points out, technical in the hierarchy of a Hellenistic court.

217

JOSEPHUS
462 Ta)u TTpayfJidraJv cfxov iariv,

Kav fi-q OcXco. ok€7teKaaros nqv re -qXiKLav fiov kol rrji^ dycoy-qv rod f^Lov Kal rrjv evocj^eiav ovrc yap ovrojs €ifJLL yepojv, oiOT dv dTTcXTriGdrji'aL raxews,
readco
8'

ovT€

€LS

rpv(t)rjv

€KhiaLTci}jJL€VOS ,

Tj

Kal

vlovs
,

im-

TO §6 dcLOV OVTOJS TeOepaTTeVKafMCl' COCTT* 463 dv eirl pnqKLarov ^iov TrpocXdelv. 6 Srj rovs e/xoi)? rralSa? depaTrevojv iirl rfj ipifj KaraXvoeL bcvGet fMOi Kal rrepl eKeivojv 8t/ca?' ov yap iyoj (fidovojv
T€fJLV€TaL,

TOL?

i^

i/iov

yeyevqfJLevoLS

dvaKOTrroj
8e

ttjv

els
i^eot?

avTovg
464 yiveadai
firji'

^iXorLjJLLav,

iTnardfjievos

rots'

€t y€ Tas orrovhas dpdaovg l^ohiov. eKaaros ivOviiriQelr] rojv TrpoGLOvrojv, on XRV

GTOS
r]des

p-^v CUV Trap" e/xou X-qiper ai rrjv dpLOL^-qv, crra-

GLaCwv Se Kal rrapd
G€LV, TovreGTLv TO.

toj

depaTrevopLevqj
olpLat

to KaKo-

dvovrjTov e^ei, irdvr as

rd

e/xa <f>povq-

Tcvv ipiojv vlojv

Kal yap rov-

Tois
465 voeZv
.

GVfjL(f)€p€L

Kparelv
Se,
c5

epe

KdpLol

rovrovs^
Trparrov

6p.op,€V

vp.€is

TralBes

dyaOoi,
rjs

ivdvp,ovp.€voL T7]V lepdv <j)VGLVy

Kal Trapd drjpiois

GTopyal pcevovGLv, eVetra rov TTOLrjodpievov rds StaXXayds Kai'crapa, rpirov e/xe rdv iv €^€GTLv eTTLraGGeLV TrapaKaXovvra, fieLvan ols
at
7)p,ci>v

dSeA^ot.
depaireiav
46C)

StSc/j/xt

he

vpuv

eGdrjra
Se

[rcY
Kal

t'jSr)

Kal

^aGiXiKrjv
ipLrjv

irrevxopLaL

toj

dew
raOr*

TrjprJGaL
€L7T(JJV

Trjv

KpiGLV,

dv

opLOvorJTe."

Kal

(f>LXo(hp6viX)S

UTTaodpLevos
*

€KaGTOV TCOV VL(l)V KaTaSteXvoev to ttXtjOos, tovs p^v auv:

So the corrector of A tovtois the * LRC om. the rest.
:

rest.

218

JEWISH WAR,

I.

462-466

(cf.

ant. xvi. 135)

but upon me, however unwilling, will fall the burden of office. Consider, each one of you, my age, my manner of life, my piety. I am not so old that my life may soon be past praying for, nor given over to the pleasures of luxury, which cut short the lives even I have served the deity so faithfully of the young
:

term of life. Whosons to bring about my downfall shall be punished by me for their sakes For it is not jealousy of my as well as my own. offspring which causes me to restrict the homage it is the knowledge that such to be paid them flattering attentions foster recklessness in the young. If everyone who is brought into contact with my sons
that
I

may hope

for the longest

ever, then, pays court to

my

;

but remember that, if he acts honourably he win his reward from me, whereas if he promotes discord his malicious conduct will bring him no benefit even from the object of his flattery, then I think that all will have my interests, in other words my sons' interest, at heart for it is to their advantage that I should govern, and to mine that they should live in harmony. " As for you, my good children, think first of the sacred ties of nature and the constancy of affection which she instils even into the beasts think of Caesar, who brought about our reconciliation think, lastly, of me, who entreat you, when I might command, and continue as brothers. I present you, from this moment, with the robes and retinue of and I pray God to uphold my decision, if royalty you live in unity." With these words he tenderly embraced each of his sons and then dismissed the multitude. Of these
will will
;
; ; ;

219

.

JOSEPHUS
€vxoiJL€vov? rot? €lpr]fjL€V0Lg, OGOL 8' eTTedvfiovv fiera^oXij?,
467
fJLTjb'

OLKrjKoevai TrpooTTOLOv^evovg

(xxiv,

1)

^vva7TT^€L he

TOL<i

dSeA^ot?
fiev

r)

cttcicti?,

Kal

)(€Lpov?

ra?

cV

aAAT^Aois-

VTTovola?

OLTTrjXXdyrjCTav,

'AAcfay5/30?
6e

Kal

exovre? 'Aptaro-

jSouAo?

6Bvvd)iJL€i^OL

KeKvpoji-Levov

Trpea^eiov,

WvTLTrar po?
e;)(€/uu^eti^

Kal

WyTLTTdrpco TOV rov Seurepeuett'

468 vefxeoow rolg dSeA^otS".
CUV

dAA' d jiev TTOLKLXcoraros
T^'Set

TO Tjdos

re

/cat ttoAAoj ro) Trav-

ovpyo) TO TTpos avrovs €KdXv7TTe puoo<s, rols he hC €vy€V€Lav Trdv to vo-qBkv rjv irrl yXojooris' Kal
napo^vvovT€<;
469 TcDi^
Trap'
<f)iXojv
^

fxev

€1'€K€lvto

ttoAAoi,

TrAetou?
Trdv
Trap*

Se

rrapehvovTo KaTduKOTTOi.
rjv

he

to

AXe^dvhpcp XaXrjOev evdeco?
TTpos

*Avtl-

TidTpuj, Kal i-LeTa TrpoodrjK-qs fieTe^aLvev

dno *Avtl<f>dey-

TrdTpov
^dfievos

6

veavias

'Wpojh-qv ovre yap dvvTrevdvvo?
/JLeyioTa
*

aTrAd;?
tjv,

dAAd

els

hia^oXrjV TO p-qdev e(TTpe(f)eTOy
prjGLaoafjLevov

Kal [leTplaJS

470 eTrXaTTeTO.

Kadiei S'

aovTas, OTTOJs
dXrjdeLS'

rot? eXaxioTois AvTiTraTpos del tovs epediavTco to ipevhos e^ot Tas d(jiopiJ.ds
<l>r]pLLtop.evojv

napvpoo-

Kal tojv
ttlotlv

ev

tl

hieXey^Bev
fxev

aTraoLV
<l)iXcjjv
ri

eTreTidei.

Kal
rjv

tcov

avrov

(f)VGeL

oreyai/turaro?

eKaoTos, ^ Kare-

GKevd^eTO hajpeais, cu? fir^hev eK(j)epeodaL tojv drropKal tov ^AvTnrdTpov ^iov ovk dv rj/Laprev Tts" eLTTOjv KaKias fxvanjpLov tovs he ^AXe^dvSpo) uvvovTas XPVP-^^^^ hia(t)deLpajv r) KoXaKetaLS vttlojv.
prjTa>v,
*
TTji

C/. the N.T. phrase "
dvofxia^} in 2

mystery of lawlessness "
7,

{fxvcr-qpiov

Thess.

ii.

220

)

JEWISH WAR,

I.

466-470 (c/ ant.
;

xvi.

189

ff

some joined in his prayer while those who hankered for change pretended that they had not even heard
him.

But the brothers on parting carried with Renewed discord in their hearts. They separated more fostered b suspicious of each other than before Alexander and Antipater ^° '^'^"^^• Aristobulus aggrieved at the confirmation of Antipater's right of primogeniture, Antipater resenting the rank accorded to his brothers, even though second to his own. The latter, however, with the extreme subtlety of his character, knew how to hold his tongue and, with much adroitness, dissembled his hatred of his brothers while they, from their pride of birth, had all their thoughts upon their lips. They were, moreover, beset by many persons trying to excite them, while a still larger number insinuated themselves into their friendship to spy upon them.
(xxiv. 1)

them

:

;

Every word spoken

in Alexander's circle

was

in-

stantly in the possession of Antipater and passed from Antipater to Herod, with amplifications. The young

man

could not make the simplest remark without becoming incriminated, so distorted were his words
for the

purposes of slander if he spoke with a httle freedom, the merest trifles were magnified into enormities. Antipater was constantly setting his agents on to irritate him, in order that his lies might have some basis of truth and if among the speeches reported one item was established, that was sufficient warrant for the rest. His own friends were all either of a very secretive nature or were induced by presents to divulge no secrets so that Antipater 's hfe might have been not incorrectly described as a mystery of iniquity." Alexander's associates, on the other hand, either by bribery or by that seductive
;

;

;

221

2

,

JOSEPHUS
at? rravra Kar^Lpydoraro, 7T€TroL-qK€L
471 Toiv

npohoras

/cat

TTparroi-Uuajv

rj

XaXovpievcxJV

(fxjjpas-

Trdvra

8e

7T€pL€GK€iJifjL€i'oj£

SpajxaTOvpycov

ras" Trpo?

'Hpt6-

Sr]v

oSovs rat? Sta^oAai? iTTOiecro TexviKcordras avTOs pikv dheX(j>ov TrpoaajTrelou eTTLK^ipLevo?, KadL€LS

Se pLiqvvrds irepovs.

KaTreihav

aTTayyeXdeLTj

n
^€v
47

Kar

WX^^dvhpov,

TrapeXdojv

vTreKpivero

kol

hiacrupeiv to p-qdev ap^a/xevo?, eneira KarecjKevarjcrvx^

Kal npos dyavdKTTjGLV e^eKaXelro tov
Trdvra S' et? em^ovXrjv dvtjyeTO
o(f)ayfj
/cat

/SacrtAea.

to

SoK€LP

TTJ

TOV TTaTpos

i(f)€Bpev€iv

'AAe^-

avBpov ovhev yap ovtojs
^oXals, cos d7ToXoyOTJpL€VOS
473
(2)
T]p€L

ttlotlv exoprp/et rat? 8ta^

AvTlTTaTpOS V7T€p aVTOV.

TouTot?
^

'Hpci)Sr]s
rrjs

i^ayptovpievos

ooov

V(j)-

Kad^ rjpLepav

vpo? rd pLeipdKta OTopyrjg,
TTpoGeTidei.

TooovTov
8'

XvTLTrdTpoj

avvaireKXivav

Se Kal Tcjv e^

Kara to ^aalXeiov
(ZaTrep
(jyiXajv,

ol pueu eKovTes, ol

in-LTdypiaTos,

rTroAe/xatos"

o

ri/xtc

raros tojv
Trdcra
rj

ol re dheXchol tov ^aatAeoj? Kal
rjv,
rj

yeved' rrdvTa yap WvTLTraTpog
^

Kal to
'Ai^rt-

TTLKpoTaTov
irdrpov

XXe^dvhpcp,
ovpi^ovXos

TrdvTa
/car'

rjv

pii]T7]p,

avTchv pLrjTpvLa? )(a-

XtTTOJTepa Kal irXelov tl rrpoyovatv
474 /SaatAtSos".

pnoovoa tovs
8*

e/c

irdvTes

i^tev

ovv

iirl

rat? eAyftcrtv idcpd-

irevov

^

AuTirraTpov

yjSr],

crui'a</>t(Tra

€Ka(jTov ra

"

Mentioned as
(i.

his executor
*

entertainiiiir Herod at Ptliodes (i. 280), as 667), as befriending Archelaus (ii. 14), etc.

Doris.

225i

JEWISH WAR,
flattery,

I.

470-474

{cf.

ant. xvi. 190

f.)

which Antipater invariably found effective, had been converted by the latter into traitors and detectives to report all that was said or done by his With a careful eye to every detail in the brother. staging of the play, he would plan with consummate

modes of bringing these calumnies to the ears of Herod, himself assuming the role of a devoted brother, and leaving that of informer to others. Then, when any word was spoken against Alexander, he would come forward and play his part, and, beginning by ridiculing the allegation, would afterwards quietly proceed to confirm it and so call forth
art the

Everything was interpreted and made to produce the impression that Alexander was watching his opportunity to murder and nothing lent more credit to these his father
the king's indignation.
as a plot
;

calumnies than Antipater's pleading in
defence.
(2)

his brother's

affection

These insinuations exasperating Herod, his for the young princes diminished daily,

Antipatei
po^yerfui.

while his regard for Antipater proportionately increased. The king's alienation from the lads was shared by people at court, some acting of their own accord, others under orders, such as Ptolemy ,** the most honoured of his friends, the king's brothers and For Antipater was all-powerful, and all his family. all-powerful this was Alexander's bitterest blow too was Antipater's mother,'' who was in league with him against the two and harsher than a stepmother, with a hatred for these sons of a princess greater than for ordinary stepchildren. All persons, accordingly, now paid court to Antipater, because of the expectations which he inspired everyone was further instigated to desert his rivals by the orders

;

223

JOSEPHUy
70V ^acnXeoj? Trpocrrdyiiara, TrapayyeiXavros toIs
7LiiLOjTaroi<;
TTcpl
fJirJTe

Trpooiivai
<f)o^€p6g

ijLTjTe

npooexeiv rots
ov
jjlouov

WXe^ai^Spov.
^aaiXeia?,

S'

tjv

tols

475

dXXa Kal tols e^codev </)tAot?* ovSevl yap ^aatXecov Kaloap roaavr-qv eSojKcv e^ovGiav, ware rov oltt^ avrov (ftvyoura Kal firj TTpoGTjKovcrqs TTo'Aecu? i^ayayclv. rd 8c pLeipaKia
€K
ttJs"

rds

iikv

hia^oXds riyvoovv,^ rrapo
€V€7Ti7Trov

/cat

/xdAAov dchv-

XaKTios
(^avepws

avTal?'
avviei

ovSei^^

d7T€iJLepL(f)€T0'

yap 6 Trarrjp Se Kara fiLKpov dno
rd Xvttovv pidXXov

rod

ijjvyfjLaros

Kal <6rL

>^ rrpos

irpa\vv€ro.

SiedrjKev Se

npd? avrd Kal rou Oelov

^epujpav ^Am-Lvarpos €x6pajSa)S Kal r-qv rrjOlSa "ZaXcofiTjv, d)£ dv yapLerrfV^ ovoav, KadoinXcuu del 470 Kal Trapo^vvojv. GWi^pyei 8e Kal rtpog rrjv ravrrjs

AXe^duBpov yvvrj TXacjivpa yeveadnixOeLav r) Xoyouoa rr)v eavrrjg evyiveiav, Kal c6? Traacou rcov Kara ro ^aoiXeiov elr) SeaTTori?, Kara rrarepa fxev (1770 T-qfidvov, Kara ixqrepa he dird Aapelov rod
*

ill 'TaracTTTeoJS"
r-qv
(Jju

ovoa.
Sl^

77oAAa Se ajvelStCei^ et? dyeveiav

re

dSeX(f)r]u

r-qv

'Hpc^Sou Kal
i(f)€LfJL€vov

ras"

yvvalKas,
fjpeOrj.

iKaarr]

evyiop^iav ovk

dno yevovs

TToXXal S* rjGav,

w? du

re Trarpicog 'lou-

SaloLS yafieXv TrXetovs Kal rov ^aaiXeajs rjSofieuov
TrXetoGLv,
(f)vpas

at

Trdaai

Sia

to pLeydXav^ov ro

FXa-

Kal ras Xoihopias ifxioovv \AXe^af Spov.
1

PA.M

:

'
*

PA

:

ovdeui the rest.

nyi'oa the re^t. " Ins.
avi'€Tr]i>,

Text suspected: Naber reads

Casaubon. Destinon xo-XtTi;*'.

JEWISH WAR,

I.

474-477

{cf.

ant. xvi. 193

f.)

of the king, who had forbidden those highest in his favour to approach or pay any attention to Alexander Herod's formidable influence exor his brother. tended, moreover, beyond his realm to his friends abroad for no other sovereign had been empowered by Caesar, as he had, to reclaim a fugitive subject even from a state outside his jurisdiction. The young men, meanwhile, as their father had never openly reproached them, were ignorant of these calumnies, and being, consequently, off their guard, laid them;

more open to them but httle by Httle were opened by his coldness and increased asperity whenever anything annoyed him. Antipater further roused against them the enmity of their uncle Pheroras and their aunt Salome, perpetually coaxing and working upon his aunt's feelings, as though she had been his wife. Salome's hostility was aggravated by Glaphyra, Alexander's wife," who boasted of her Arroganc noble ancestry and claimed to be mistress of all the pro^oS ladies at court, because she was descended on her the ladies father's side from Temenus,^ on her mother's from courr° Darius, son of Hystaspes. On the other hand, she was constantly taunting with their low birth Herod's sister and his wives, all of whom had been chosen His wives for their beauty and not for their family. were numerous, since polygamy was permitted by Jewish custom and the king gladly availed himself of the privilege. All these, on account of Glaphyra's arrogance and abuse, hated Alexander.
selves
still
;

their eyes

"
^

And daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia One of the Heracleidae, who gave his name
ii.

446). to the

Temenid kings of Macedonia (Thuc.
Archelaus claimed to be descended.
VOL.
II

99),

from

whom
225

I

.

,

JOSEPHUS
478
(3)
"^771^

Se

877

HaXcoix-qi^

,

/catVot

Trevdepav

ovoav, avTO? 'ApioTo/SouAo? iavro) hLearaoiaaev (hpyiGiievriv kol Trpoodev irrl ral? e/c TXa(f)vpas p\ao(j)-qpLiaLS' (hv^ihil^ev yap rfj yvvaLKL avvexoj? rrjv TaTTeLVor-qra, koI ojs avros /^ev IhiayrLV, 6 8 rov479 aSeA^os" avrov AXe^avhpos yrjfiai /SaatAtSa. ro KXaiovoa rfj HaXajfifj SLrjyyeiXev "q dvydr-qp,
^

TTpooeridei 8' otl /cat
fiTjrepas
OLTTeLXolev

7601^

aAAcov' d8eA(/>ajv to.?

/xei'

ol

rrepl

WXe^avhpov,

eireihav

TTapaXd^ojOLV ttju /SacnAetW, larovpyov? a/xa rat? hovXaLS 7T0Li]G€LU, avTOV? he KOjfjLoju ypafjifxareL?,
eTTLOKcoTTTOvreg
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(Ls

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d

TTju 6pyr)u

ov Karaaxovaa

HaXaj/jLTj

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hiTiyyeiXev 'Hpco6-n-

o^ohpa

8' -qv

d^LOTTLGTo? Kara

/cat ng irepa hta^oXrj aw480 yafx^pov Xeyouaa. ebpafieu rj rou dvjJLOv VTreKKavoaoa rod ^aaLXeco?

TjKOvaev
rrjv

yap

axrrovs
/cat

dvaKoXeXodai

/xev

avv€.yGi't>

pL-qrepa

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aural.

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avrov hiahthovros rwv

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rcov
cos

nvd
durl
€/c

rcjv

rals fierayevearepais yvvai^lv dTTeiXelv ^aatAt/caJt' eV rd)(€L TrepLBiqoovGa
rpv^dyv"^
77 eTTOL-qpiev

avrals
481
(4>)

as

Ata raura Kairoi rd <f)p6vqp.a rcov veaviOKOJV VTToheioas dp,a>s ovk aTTCKOTrre rrju iXTTiSc rrjs SiopdcuG€a>s, dXXd TrpoGKaXeodpieuos avrovs /cat ydp els 'PcopL'qv eKTrXevoeiv epLeXXeu, ^pa\ec fxev rjTTeiX-qGev co? ^aoiXevSy rd TroAAa 8* evov,

derrjoev (Ls Trarijp, /cat
€/caAet

<t>LXelv

rovs dheX(j)ovs Trapdcfyeotu,
e

SlSovs

rd)v

7Tporip,apr-qpLeva>v

482 rrpos ro fxeXXov dpieivovs yevoivro.
*

ol he

rds

pLei

M

:

Tat5eL'OMe'»'oi'5
:

'

Niese

the rest. rpix^f "hair-cloth" m33.

The

parallel passagt

226

JEWISH WAR,
(3)

I.

478-482

{cf.

ant. xvi. 201-205)

Aristobulus himself alienated Salome, his saiome mother-in-law, furious as she was already at the pr?n for he was continually up- to Hem Glaphyra's scurrility braiding his wife for her low origin, saying that he had married a woman of the people and his brother Alexander a princess. Salome's daughter reported she added that this, with tears, to her mother Alexander and Aristobulus had threatened, when they came to the throne, to set the mothers of their other brothers to work at the loom along with the slave-girls, and to make the princes themselves village clerks, sarcastically referring to the careful education which they had received. At that Salome, unable to control her indignation, reported the whole as she was accusing her own son-in-law, to Herod her evidence carried very great weight. Another calumny came simultaneously to inflame the king's wrath. He was told that the young princes had their mother's name perpetually on their lips, cursing him while they bemoaned her, and that when he distributed, as he often did, some of Mariamme's apparel to his more recent wives, they would threaten that they would ere long strip them of these royal robes and clothe them in rags. (4) Herod, though he had learnt through such Herod reports to fear these high-spirited young men, did' ^^"1"°'"^ not abandon hopes of their reformation. Just before setting sail for Rome he sent for them, and delivered some curt threats as sovereign, followed by a long paternal admonition, exhorting them to love their brothers and promising to pardon their past offences if they would amend their ways for the

own

;

;

;

A.
of

xvi.

204 has

Tpix^ai-v

which appears

to

be a corruption

TpVX^<JI-Vt

227

JOSEPHUS
Sta^oXas
GKOu- Selu
TTOLtag
Aet0eti^

aveoKevdlovro

TTLOTOJoeoOai 8e ttjv
TO)

ipevSel? €LvaL Xdyovre?, arroXoyiav rols epyot? e<^a-

jJiivToi KOLKeZvov a7T0(f)pdTT€iv
fxT)

rd? Xoyo-

TTLGTeveLv

paStco?'

o^u

yap
ecu?

iin-

rovs
fj.

KaraipevGopiivov? avrcou,

du

6

7r€Ld6(l€VOS

483

(5)

TovTOL?

(1)9

TTarepa 7T€LcauT€? rax^oj? rou
S'

fi€v

ev x^pulv (f>6^ov SieKpovcjauro, ttjv

ct?

rd

fxeXAoura Xvtttju irpooeXa^ov eyvojoav ydp ttjv re
^aXcvfi-qu

€x6pdv
Ob

/cat

rov

delov

^epojpav.

rjcrau

8e papels

jJ-ev]^ dp-cjiOTepoL

Kal ;(aAe7rot, Oepcupa?
tSt'a?

8e

p.eiL.ojv,'^

Trdorjs

fJikv

eKOLUcovet rrj? jSacriAeta?

TrX-qu

SLaBijpLaTO?, TrpoaoSov?^ 8e
ttjv

el^^u eVa-

Tou rdXavTa,
7T0VT0

Be iripav ^lophdvov Trdoav eVapTTapd
TdB6X(l)ov

x^P^^ Xa^ojv
€7T0Lr](j€V

Bcopov,

o?

avrov
KLoas
eKetv-qs

KaiCTapOb,

Kal rerpdpx'rju alT-qadp,€PO? rrapd ^aGiXiKajv re ydjioju rj^iojaev ovvolTrj?

d6€X(f>-qv

IBlag

yvvaiKos' p.€rd he
rrjv
IttI

ttju

TeXevrrjV

KadojOLOjae
d-nehpa

TTpeo^vrdrinv

rojv

eavTov
.

BvyaTepojv
dAA'
epojra
fieu

TrpoLKL

rpiaKooioLS
;^aAe7TrJt'as

484 TaXdvTOLS

Oepcvpag tov ^aoiXiKOv
c<^'

ydpov

TTpos
rrju

BovXi-js ,

w

^HpcvBrjs

dvyarepa
om. PAM.

tlo

irpos

YldpBcov

vcrrepov dvaipeOevri ovvetev^ev
1

dBeX(f)ih(l)'

Oepojpa

Destinon.
Trpoa65ov

PVC.

"
'
"

Name unknown.

Salampsio, dauerhter of Mariamme I. i.e. to the son of his brother Phasael (A. xvi. 196), also called Phasael {A. xvii. 22). Nothing is known of the fate

228

JEWISH WAR,
future.

I.

482-484

{cf.

ant. xvi. 194-196)

For their part, they repudiated the charges, declaring that they were false, and assured their father that their actions would vindicate their statement he ought, however (they added), on his side to stop the mouths of these tale-bearers by refusing for there would never so readily to believe them be wanting persons ready to calumniate them, so long as they found anyone to listen to them. (5) The father's heart was quickly reassured by ph^roras " their words; but if the youths thus dispelled their disfavour 1th Her( immediate anxiety, the thought of the future brought them new apprehensions, knowing, as they did, the hostility of Salome and their uncle Pheroras. Both were formidable and dangerous, but the more redoubtable was Pheroras, who shared with Herod all the honours of royalty, except the diadem. He had a private income of a hundred talents, exclusive of the revenue derived from the whole of the transJordanic region, a gift from his brother, who had also, after requesting Caesar's permission, appointed him tetrarch. Herod had conferred upon him the further honour of marrying one of the royal family, by uniting him to the sister of his own wife.*^ On her death, he had pledged to him the eldest of his own daughters,* with a dowry of three hundred talents but Pheroras rejected the royal wedding to run after a slave-girl of whom he was enamoured. Herod, indignant at this slight, married his daughter to one of his nephews,^ who was subsequently killed by the Parthians his resentment, however, subsided
; ;
j[,^

;

;

of this youth, and Reinach suggests that in the following words there has been some confusion or corruption of text, and that Josephus intended to say " son of Phasael who had been previously killed by the Parthians " (see B. i. 271).

229

JOSEPHUS
he
'^^S
/Lter'

o-u

ttoAu

ttjv

opy-qv

dvUi

hihovg

ovy-

yvojfxrjv ri] vooqj.
(5) Ate^aAA^TO be Kal TrdXai fiev en t,0JGr}5 rrjs ^aoiXlSos eTTLfSovXeveiv ainoj (j)apixdKois rore he KaiTrep ^iXTrXelaroL fir^vvral Trpoorieoav, ojs
,

aheX(j)6TaTov

ovra

tov

'

H pcvh-qv

els

ttlotlv

vtt-

o-X^W^f- TtDi^ Xeyop^eviov kol heog. ttoXXov? he rojv ev VTTOVoia ^aoaviaas reXevralov '^Xdev errl rovs
486

s
^

^epojpov
adfievos

<f)LXov£.

wv
ore

em^ovXr^v
he
rrjv

p,ev

dvriKpvs
dpTra-

(LfJLoXoyrjGev
els

ovhelg,

epojfievrjv

Hdpdovs drrohpavaL TrapeoKevd^ero,
^
[\

he rov GKeiifiaro? avroj Kal rrjs KooTofiapos 6 ^aXojpirjs dvrjp, cL awojKLoev avrriv 6 ^aoiXevs eirl pLOLX^LO. tov rrporepou 487 hLa(f)dapivTos rju 8' iXevOepa StajSoArj? ovhe SaXwpLT]- Kal yap avri^s ^epcopas dheX(f)6? Karrjyopei ovvdrjKas rrepl ydpLov rrpos ^vXXaiov rov ^O^dha TOV ^Apd^ojv ^aaiXeajs eTTirpoTTOv, o? rjv exOpdraros 'Hpcohrj. SteAeyjj^^etcra he Kal tovto
(jvfifJLerexoL^

(f>vy^s

.

Kal TrdvB^ ooa ^epaypas eveKdXei GvyyivojoKeraiy

Kal avrdv he ^epojpav 6 ^aoiXevg dneXvaev row
eyKX-qpidrajv.

488

(7)

Mere^atyev he
OLKias
.

e-n

^

hXe^avhpov o x^^H-^^
eKeivov
Ke(f)aXr]V

rijs

Kal

rrepl

rrjv

oAo?
pLev

dirripeioaro

rpel?
hrjXov

rjaav

evvovxoL ripLLwraroL toj

^aGiXel,
6

Kal
S'

e^

d)v

eXeLTovpyovv rqj

yap olvoxoelv -npooereTaKTo,
(fiepeiv,
^

ro) he helTTVov Trpoor-

avrov KareKoip.Ll,ev re Kal ovyKarDestinon
"
:

ffi/uueVoxoi mss.
I.

Mariarame

230

JEWISH WAR,

I.

484-488

{cf.

ant. xvi. 219

f.,

229

f.)

ere long and he made allowance for his love-sick brother. (6) Long before, while the queen " was still alive, Pheroras had been accused of a plot to poison Herod but at the period now reached informers came forward in such numbers that Herod, though the most affectionate of brothers, was led to believe their statements and to take alarm. After putting many suspected persons to the torture he came last of all to the friends of Pheroras. None of these admitted outright that there was such a plot, though they said that Pheroras was preparing to fly to Parthia, carrying off his mistress with him, and that his
;

and'

of plotting J^jQ^g^^^'

accomplice in this design and partner in his intended was Costobarus, Salome's husband, to whom the king had given his sister, when her former husband was put to death on a charge of adultery. Even Salome herself did not escape calumny she was accused by her brother Pheroras of signing a contract to marry Syllaeus, the procurator * of Obadas, king of Arabia, and Herod's bitterest enemy. However, though convicted of this and of everything else of which she was accused by Pheroras, she was Herod while Pheroras himself was acquitted by ^^^ ^nd pardoned Salome. the king of the charges against him. (7) The tempest lowering over Herod's house thus Alexander veered round to Alexander and burst in full force by^Herod' about his devoted head. There were three eunuchs eunuchs who held a special place in the king's esteem, as is indicated by the services with which they were one poured out his wine, another served charged him his supper, and the third put him to bed and
flight
: ; :

^ Or " viceroy " ; see A. xvi. 220 (Syllaeus administers the realm of the indolent Obadas).

231

.

JOSEPHUS
4S9 €KXiV€TO.

Tovrovg
6

€LS

ra

77at8tK:a SaSpot? fieyaXoig

fjLTjuvdeu 8e roi ^aaiXel hirjXeyxovTo ^acrarot?, /cat rrjv fikv avvovoiav evdecu? ojfJLoXoyovi', l^e(f)epov he kol ras etV ainrju

V7rrjydy€T0

'AAe^ai'Spo?.

VTTOGX^cr^Lg,

ov

Tpoirov

drrarriOeicv

vtto

'AAefai^-

490 hpov XeyovTos, co?

ovk iv ^HpojSr] Seot rag iXTrlSa? ex^w, dvaiSel yepovri kol PaTrropLeuco rag KOfj.a'i,
jjLYj

Sid TOVT* avTOL' olovTai Kal viov, auTw 8e OS Kal irapd aKovro? StaSc^erat rrjv ^aaiXeiav, ovk elg fxaKpdv re rov? p.ev Ixdpovs
€L

TTpoGex^LV,
dfxvv€LTai,

Tov?
,

(I>lXov?

8'

evSatfjiovag TTOLYjaet Kal

aurous" elvai 8e /cat rov ^AXe^auSpou XaBpaiav, rovs "re rfyepLOva? rod GrpaTtcuTiKOV Kal rovs Ta^idpxovs Kpv(f)a rrpog avrov ovvUvai. 492 (8) Taura rov ^Wpojhiqv ovrcos i^e(j>6^-qo€V ws ra? firjuvceLS €KfJ-rjSe roXfirjoai TTapaxprjfia <f>€p€iv, dXXd KaracKOTTOvg V7T07T€fji7TOjp vvKrojp Kal fied^ rjfxepav e/cacrra roju TTparrofxivajv tj Xeyofjievcjv hi-qpe'uva Kal rovg Iv rats VTroi/jLatg evdeojs 493 dvTjpei. heivris 8e^ dvofxlag IveTrXrjod-q ro jSaat491 fiaKapiovs

Trpo

TrdvTOjv

8e

depaTTeiav

tcuv

huvarow

rrepl

,

Xeiov

Kara yap ex^pav ^

filaos

lScov

eKaoros

e-nXaaaev ra? hia^oXd?, Kal ttoXXoI Trpos rovs 8ta4>6povs (^ovcJvrL rcx) ^aoiXiKO) dvjjLO) KarexpcovTO Kal ro fjL€v ipevBos €lx€u napaxp'rjfJ'CL TTLGriv, at KoXdo€LS hk rcjv Sia^oXojv rjaav ojK'urepai' Kar-

494

yovv rt? aprt Karrjyop-qaas Kal ro) avrov SieXeyxOevrt ovvaTT-qyero, rds yap €^€rd(j€i9 rov ^aotXiajs d 7T€pl ri]s ^vx^js klvhvvos VTTerefjLvero^ npov^rj 8' els rooovrov ttlKpias, (1)S P-i]hk rcuv dKaraLridrojv nvl rtpoo^Xeiqyopelro

npos

'

577

A

:

itaque Lat.

*

^wer^/xveTo

AM.

232

JEWISH WAR,

I.

489-494

{cf.

ant. xvi. 231-239)

Alexander by large presents slept in his chamber. corrupted these menials for criminal ends on being informed of which the king submitted them to trial by torture. They at once confessed their relations with Alexander, and then went on to reveal the promises which had brought them about. Alexander, " You they said, had inveigled them by saying ought not to place your hopes on Herod, a shameless old man who dyes his hair, unless this disguise has actually made you take him for a youngster it is to me, Alexander, that you should look, to me, who am to inherit the throne, whether he will or no, and shall ere long be avenged on my enemies and bring fortune and bliss to my friends, and above all to you." They added that persons of rank secretly paid court to Alexander and that the generals and officers of the army had clandestine interviews with him. (8) These disclosures so terrified Herod that at the but, time he did not even dare to divulge them sending out spies night and day, he scrutinized all that was done or said, and at once put to death any who fell under suspicion. The palace was given over to frightful anarchy. Everyone, to gratify some personal enmity or hatred, invented calumnies many turned to base account against their adversaries the murderous mood of wrathful royalty. Lies found instant credit, but chastisement was even swifter than calumny the accuser of a moment ago found himself accused and led off to death with him whose for the grave peril to conviction he had obtained
; : ;

^J?^^g|.g(j

;

;

:

;

his life cut short the king's inquiries.

He grew

so

embittered that he had no gentle looks even for
VOL.

II

I

2

233

JOSEPHUS
7T€LU rjfiepojg, eluaL

8e

/cat

rol?

(/)tAoi? OLTT-qveaTaTO^'

TToAAoi? yovv avTOJV a-nelTrev ro ^aoiXeiov koI rrpos

ovs ovK
495
171^.

€1X^1^

;^€tpos'

ovveiri^-q

he

^

i^ovoiav rw Xoyco xaXenog AvrLTrarpos iv rat? avficj^opalg

^AXeidpSpcp Kal orL(j>og TToirjaas rujv ovyyeuwv OVK €07 LV -^vTLva hia^oXr]v TrapeXiTrev. rrpoT^x^V yd TOL TTpos TOOovTou ^€0? c ^acTiXev? V7t6 rrjs
repareias axrrov eorduat SoKelu
496 GvXXa^ojv

Kal

rojv

ovvrayp.dTcov, oj9
^

e(f)-

avrw rov

AXi^avhpov

^L(l)-qpr).

^doavov

avrov i^anLvrj? eS-qaev Kal rrpos otytovre? 8e rcov (^lXojv avrov. d-nedviTjOKOv ttoXXoI Kal fjirjSev vrrep to oui^€lS6^
ovu^
i)(cop€L

elrrovres'

ol

S*

vtto

tcjv

dXyrihovojv

tpevuaadai

^Laadevres eXeyov, (Ls im^ovXevoL re avro) fxero WpiOTo^ovXov rov dSeA</>ou Kal 7Tapa(j>vXdrre^ rov497 KVVTjyovvra Kreivas els 'Pcojjltjv dnohpavai. roL? Kairrep ov mdavols ovglv dXX vtto rrjs dvdy
KTjs
ecr;^eStaa/xeVots'

o ^aauXevs eTriarevaev rjhecos

rrapafivdiav Xapi^dva>v rov hrjoai rov vlov ro pn

498

hoKelv dhiKOJS. (xxv. 1) '0
p-erarreideLV

S'

WXe^avBpos
ecopa,

e-nel
roiS"

rov narept
opLoa

dpLi^xavov

Setvols

Xojpelv

Sieyvo),

Kal

reaoapas Kara rojv ex^po)

^l^Xovs avvra^dfxevos rrpooajfioXoyei fiev rrjv eVt ^ovXtjv, kolvojvovs 8* drreSeLKwev rovs rtXeiorov avrojv, TTpo 8e irdvrojv ^epujpav Kal ^aXaj/jirjp
ravrrjv
'Hpcjhrj

yap
etV

Srj

Kal fjnyTjval TTore avroj
.

pLrj

deXovr
raJ

499 vvKrojp elo^Lauafiev-qv
;!(€t/)a?

at re ovv ^l^Xol Traprjoa

77oAAa
yoif

Kal

Seii^d

Kara

»

LTRC.

234

JEWISH WAR,
those
friends with the

I.

494-499

{cf.

ANT. xvi. 241-259)

who were not accused and
:

treated his

own

utmost harshness many of these he refused to admit to court, while those who were beyond the reach of his arm came under the lash of his tongue. To add to Alexander's misfortunes, Antipater returned to the charge and, raising a band of kindred spirits, had recourse to every conceivable form of calumny. By his portentous fictions and fabrications the king was, in fact, reduced to such a state of alarm, that he fancied he saw Alexander coming upon him sword in hand. He, accordingly had the prince suddenly arrested and imprisoned, and tlien proceeded to put his friends to the torture. Many died silent, Avithout saying anything beyond what they knew but some were driven by their sufferings to falsehood and declared that Alexander and his brother Aristobulus were conspiring against him and were w^atching for an opportunity to kill him, while out hunting, meaning then to escape to Rome. This statement, improbable as it was and invented off-hand under the pressure of torment, the king nevertheless found satisfaction in believing, consoling himself for having imprisoned his son with the thought that his action had been justified. (xxv. 1) Alexander, perceiving the impossibility of shaking his father's belief, resolved boldly to conHe, therefore, front the perils that menaced him. composed four books directed against his enemies, in which he avowed the conspiracy, but denounced most of them as accomplices, above all Pheroras and Salome the latter, he declared, had one night even
,

;

Aiexandei

g^tatement

;

way into his chamber and, against his will, had immoral relations with him. These documents --a mass of shocking accusations incriminating perforced her

235

JOSEPHUS
hvvarojrdrajv /Socuaat, Kai 8ta 7d)(ov<; et? 'louraiav WpxiXaos d(f)LKveLTaL nepl rep yafx^po) Kai dvyarpl Setaa?. yu'erat 8e ^orjdo? aurots" T7J fidXa TTpofJLTiBrj^ Kai Texvrj tyju rod /Sao-iAeco? 500 dTreiXrjv SieKpovoaro. ovpL^aXdjv yap €vOea>s avrqj " 7TOV TTO-re iartu 6 dXir-qpiog ixou yafx^po? ; " epoa, " 7T0V be rrjv TrarpoKTOuop o0O)U,at K€(l)aX'qv,
Tjv

rat?

efiavTOV
TTji^
/jltj

^(^epGLv

hiaoTrapd^oj ;
to*

Tjpoodiqaa}

he

Kai
el

dvyarepa

fiou

KaXco

i^u/A^t'oc

Kai

yap
601

KeKOivajvrjKev

rod

OKep.p.aro<i,

on

roiovrov yvvr) yeyovev, pLep-iavrai. Bavj^idta) he Kai oe rov em^ovXevdevra rrj? dve^LKaKta?, el ^17
P'^XP'^'^^

WXe^auhpog- eyoj yap
cu?

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drro

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ocov,
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rou

fieu

evpiqoojv

rrdXat

heha>-

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eKeivcp

Trepl ttJ?

dvyarpos e^erd-qpilv

ye rrpos to oov d^ioj/^a ^Xerrojv
Trepl
dp.(f)olv

eveyvr]oa}

vvv he

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Kau
po<£

fjg

narrjp Xiav rf rov KoXdCeiu vlov drovojre' erri^ovXov, dp^eiipajpLev rd? St^td? /cat yevoj^

p-eda rij?
502
(2)

dXXT]Xa>u

opyrjg

htdhoxoL."
Kaiirep

Tovrois

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Trapareray
tol

p-evov

Wpojhr]v vrtdyerat- hihaxji yovv avra>
vrr^
^

ovvraxdeioaq
uai

AXe^di'hpov
ecjjLords

Pi^Xovs

Kai

KaB^

eKaorov

dvayvo) ovu KecjidXaiov
d(f)opp,rju

eoKerrrero.
ypafxpLevovs
503 ojg 6' eojpa

Xapi^dvei 5' o Wpx^^Xao^

roi

orparrjy-qijLaros

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p.LKp6v

el?

Kai ^epojpav ixer-qyayev Tnorevovra rov ^aotXea, " OKerrreou,'
'

rovs eyyerd? alria?

(I'f^yi'Vffa
:

»

^

FA

et Lat.

:

most MS3. om. the rest.

236

JEWISH WAR,

I.

499-503

{cf.

ant. xvi. 261-266)
visit of
Jn^iJtv^^'^'

sons of the highest rank had passed into Herod's hands, »when Archelaus, alarmed for his son-in-law and daughter, arrived in haste in Judaea. Coming with singular sagacity to their aid, he succeeded by tratagem in diverting the king's threats in another direction. For, the moment he met him, he ex" Where is my scoundrel of a son-in-law ? laimed Where shall I set eyes on the person of this parricide, that I may tear him in pieces with my own hands ? My daughter, too, shall share the fate of her fine pouse ; for even if she has had no part in his chemes, as the wife of such a miscreant she is polluted. But you too, the intended victim of the olot, astonish me by your forbearance, in leaving, as
:

Archelaus,
mwiiator.

it

For my part, I seems, Alexander still alive lurried hither from Cappadocia expecting to find :hat the culprit had long since paid his penalty and
!

:o

hold an inquiry with you upon my daughter, >vhom, out of regard for your exalted rank, I gave I way to that wretch. But now, I find, we have to leliberate about the pair of them. If, then, the bndness of a father's heart unnerves you for punishng a rebellious son, let us each lend the other his land, each take the other's place in visiting our ^ A'rath upon our children." (2) With this blustering oration J^e deluded Herod, lotwithstanding the latter*s~ attitude of defiance, Serod, at any rate, handed him for perusal the

Archelaus

l^iexaade^r,

locuments composed by Alexander and examined
chapter after chapter with him, dwelling upon each. \rchelaus, finding here an opportunity for furthering lis ruse, little by little shifted the blame on to the persons whose names appeared in the volumes, par:icularly Pheroras. When he observed that he was

237

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238

JEWISH WAR,

I.

503-506

{cf.

ant. xvi. 267-269)
:

** gaining the king's confidence, he remarked nust be careful to see that all these villains have lot been conspiring against this young man, and not he young man against you. For I can see no reason vvhy he should have plunged into such heinous crime, .vhen he already enjoyed the honours of royalty and expected to succeed to the throne, unless there were others seducing him and misguiding the tractable Such persons, indeed, have been ^pirit of youth.

We

cnown to impose not only on the young, but on old nen as well by them the most illustrious houses md entire kingdoms have been overturned." and for a while (3) Herod assented to this speech -elaxed his wrath with Alexander and vented it ipon Pheroras, as he was the main theme of the
;

;

documents. Pheroras, observing this quick hange in the king's feelings and the paramount influence exercised on him by his friend Archelaus, despairing of saving himself by honourable means ^ought protection in effrontery he abandoned Alexander and threw himself on the mercy of Archelaus. The latter replied that he did not see how he could sue for pardon for a man involved in such grave charges, which clearly proved that he had plotted against the king and been the cause of the young prince's present misfortunes, unless he were prepared to renounce his villainy and his denials, to own up to the crimes of which he was accused, and to ask pardon of his brother, who indeed loved him for that object, said Archelaus, he would render him
four
:

;

every possible assistance. (4) Pheroras took his advice, and assuming an attitude calculated to arouse the deepest compassion, in black raiment and in tears, threw himself at

239

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irapa-

240

JEWISH WAR,
successfully

I.

506-509

{cf.

ant. xvi. 269)

Herod's feet and craved his pardon as he had often done before. He confessed himself a polluted wretch, guilty of all that was laid to his charge, but deplored his mental derangement and madness, which he attributed to his passion for his Archelaus, after thus inducing Pheroras to wife. appear as his own accuser and to bear witness against himself, now proceeded to plead for him and sought to appease Herod's wrath, citing parallel cases in his own family history. He had himself, he said, suffered much worse injury from his brother, but had preferred the claims of natural affection to revenge for in kingdoms, as in corpulent individuals, there was always some member becoming inflamed from the weight which it supported yet what it needed was not amputation but some milder method
; ;

pleads

^^^°^'

of cure.

representations Archelaus sueHerod's anger against Pheroras. He himself, however, affected to be still indignant with Alexander, protesting that he would divorce his daughter and carry her off with him, until he brought Herod round into the position of a suppliant on the young man's behalf and a suitor, once more, for the hand of Archelaus's daughter for his son. With an air of complete sincerity, Archelaus said that he had his permission to unite her to whom for his dearest he would, save only Alexander desire was to maintain the marriage ties which linked him to Herod. To this the king repHed that Archelaus, by consenting not to break the marriage, would really be giving his son back to him, seeing that they already had children and that the young man was so deeply attached to his wife ; if she
(5)

By many such
in soothing

and

bri

ceeded

general reconci

;

24]

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"
"

In

-i. xvi. 270 it is Herod who undertakes to go to Rome. Mentioned by Pausanias (ii. 3. 5) as the builder of the

finest baths at Corinth.

242

JEWISH WAR,

I.

509-514 (=ant.

xvi. 269

f.,

301)

remained with him, her very presence would make him ashamed of his errors, whereas, were she torn from him, he would be driven to utter desperation
for the

;

domestic affections exercised a chastening and diverting influence on reckless characters. Archelaus was induced, not without difficulty, to assent, was reconciled to the youthful offender, and reconciled him to his father he added, however, that it was absolutely essential that the latter should be sent to Rome for an interview with Caesar, as he himself had forwarded a full report of the matter to the emperor." (6) Such was the end of the ruse by which Arche- Herod's After the reconciliation ArchSai laus rescued his son-in-law. the time was passed in festivity and interchange of On his departure Herod presented him courtesies. with seventy talents, a throne of gold set with precious stones, some eunuchs, and a concubine, named Pannychis he conferred other favours upon each of his friends, proportionate to their rank. Magnificent presents were, likewise, by order of royalty, made to Archelaus by all the high officials Herod and his nobles then escorted him at court. as far as Antioch. (xxvi. 1) Not long after, however, there arrived in visitor Judaea a man whose influence far outmatched the Scouia artifices of Archelaus, and who not only broke up the villain: reconciliation which the latter had negotiated in the Herod! interest of Alexander, but also proved the cause of that prince's ruin. He was a Lacedaemonian, named Eurycles,^ whose accursed visit to the realm arose from a craving for money, when Greece could no longer meet his extravagant requirements. He brought with him magnificent presents for Herod, as
;
;

243

JOSEPHUS
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516

(2)

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Text corrupt

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^

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AL.

" Perhaps, as Reinach suggests, because of the pretended relationship of Spartans and Jews, 1 Mace. xii. 21 ; Jos. J. xii. 226.

244

JEWISH WAR,

I.

514-518

(

= ant.

xvi. 301-305)

a bait to secure his quarry, and instantly found them returned with interest but he accounted a pure and simple gift as nothing, if he failed to make merchandise out of the realm at the price of blood. So he proceeded to impose on the king by flattery, clever talk, and lying encomiums upon his merits.
;

Quickly reading Herod's character and studying in all he said or did to please him, he was soon numbered among his principal friends indeed the king and the whole court were delighted to show special honour to this Spartan, out of regard for his country." (2) When he had learnt everything about the He rottenness that was sapping the royal house, the denoun lexan quarrel between the brothers and their father's dis- to h ere position towards each of them, Eurycles, although under a prior obligation to Antipater for the latter's
;

*^'

nevertheless feigned a friendship for Alexander, falsely claiming to be an old comrade of Archelaus. With this recommendation he was quickly received as a proved friend and was at once introduced by Alexander to his brother Aristobulus. Exploiting in turn all the various personages,'' he insinuated himself into favour with each by a different method but he chiefly acted as a hireling of Antipater and a traitor to Alexander. To the former he represented how disgraceful it was that he, the eldest son, should overlook the intrigues of persons who had an eye upon his prospects to Alexander, that he, the son of one princess and husband of another, should suffer the son of a woman of no station to succeed to the throne, especially when he had in Archelaus such powerful support behind him. The fiction of his being a friend of
hospitality,
;

;

"

Or

possibly " Trying in turn

all

the parts in the play."
24.5

JOSEPHUS
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521

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^ Avrirrdrpoj ro) (f)d6pa) rrjV rraTTTTcoav avrujv ^aoiX^iav rrporeivwv. rLpwpT^aeLV ye fitju [rot?]^ avrds roLS 'YpKavov Kal ^^laptdp^fii-js haipLOcnv ovhe ydp TrpeTTeiv avrdv 8ta8e^acr^at

Std8o;)(OV

^

+/cat

PA.
*

-

P:

T/";?

AM

:

om. the

rest.

Or

" in

which he was an ahen."

24.6

JEWISH WAR,

I.

518-521

(r/.

ant. xvi. 305-307)

Archelaus made the young prince regard him as a counsellor to be trusted and so, without any reserve, Alexander poured out to him his grievances against Antipater, adding that it would not be surprising if Herod, after murdering their mother, should rob him and his brother of her kingdom. Thereupon Eurycles pretended to pity and condole with him. He then inveigled Aristobulus into using similar iving implicated both brothers in language, i -d
;
i

complaints confidences

i

their father,
'

;
'

own invention,

ii..

went off with these with the addition of his '^rs were plotting against

and even then were him, watching their oppoi S^.. almost upon him sword in hand. Richly rewarded for his intelligence, he proceeded to sing the praises Finally, having underof Antipater to his father. taken a' a price to bring about the death of Aristobulus and Alexander, he came to lay his indictment
of

them before
life in

their parent.

came to bring return for his benefactions to himself, the light of day in repayment for his hospitality. *' For," he said, " a sword has long since been sharpened for your destruction and Alexander's right arm braced It is I who have retarded the blow by to wield it. pretending to assist him." Alexander, he continued, had said that Herod, not content with reigning himself over an empire which belonged to others,'* not content, after murdering their mother, with squandering her realm, was now proceeding to foist in a bastard as his successor and to offer their grandfather's kingdom to that pest, Antipater. But he, Alexander (so Eurycles reported him), would avenge the spirits of Hyrcanus and Mariamme ; for it would
Visiting Herod, he declared that he

him

247

J05EPHUS
522 77oAAd S' elvai

Trarpo? ttjv apxh^ Slxcl (j)6vov. rd Trapo^vvovra KaS^ rffxepav, (Lore AaAtct? TLva rponov dGVKO(f)dvTr]Tou /carafjLTjhe X€Xei(f)6aL' 7T€pl iJL€u ydp evyevelag erepajv (jLvetas

napa tolovtov

aurd? aXoyios vf^pit^eodai, rod Trarpd? XiyovTO? " 6 fjLOvo? €vy€vr]<^ WXd^avBpo? /cat rov TTarepa 8t' dyeveiav dSo^ojv " Kara 8e rd^ ^rjpa? 7TpOGKpOV€LV fieU OLOJTTOJV, €7TaLV€aa<S hk 77 pOG523 aKOveiv e'lpajv. Ttavraxov 8' dix^iXiKTOv evplaKetu Tov TTarepa /cat fJLOuco (j)LX6oropyov WurLTzdrpaj, 8t' 6v^ qheoj'^ /cat redvi'i^eudai /xr) Kparijaas rij? imKreivavn 8e elvai, ocorripias d(j}opixriv ^oXrj?.^ TTpdirov fiei' Wpx^Xaov ovra Kriheonqv, Trpog ou hLa(^ev^€odai pahiws, eVetra Kataapa p-^xpL vvv 524 dyvoovvra rov 'Wpojhov rponov ov ydp oj? 77pdrepov avro) TrapaGr-queodai 77e0pt/caj? rov €(f)€Grojra TTarepa^ ovbk <f)d€y^€G9aL^ Trepl rcbu eaurov
yevo^ivrjs

fjLOvou eyKX-qpidraju,

dXXd
/cat

-rrpojrov fiev KTjpv^eLV rd<;

rov edvov? cruft^opd?

rovs

p-^XP'^

4'^X'O^ (f^opo-

Xoyoufieuov^, eTretr' ei? oTa? rpv(f)d? /cat Tipd^eis rd 8t' alfiaros rroptGdevra ;^p7]/xaTa dvr}Xco9r],
70i)?

re

e^

r)p.<2)V

TrXovrrjoavras
eVt riGiv.

olol,

/cat

rd<^
/cat

52a depaTTevdeiGa? rroXeus

t,rjrriGeiv

8e

rov TrdTTTTOv eKel /cat rr/v pur^repa /cat rd rrjg ^aaiAeta? jjlvgt] Trdvra Kripv^ecv, i(f>* ols ou Kpidijoeodat TTarpoKrovo?.
1

5

Destinon

:

quae Lat.
cf. B-. vi. 64:

*

Destinon:
2

eVtjSoi'X^j mss.

;

(some

.ms3.).

Bekker with Lat.

(pdfy^aadai mss.

" Rather his ^reat-grandfather, Hyrcanus, who was the father of Alexandra, the mother of Mariamme.

248

JEWISH WAR,
ill

I.

521-525

to inherit the throne from such a without bloodshed. Then there were the constant daily provocations to which he was subjected, insomuch that he could not utter a single word which escaped calumny. Were allusion made to other persons' noble lineage, his father gratuitously insulted him by remarking, " Nobody is noble but Alexander here, who scorns his father for the baseOn the hunting-field, were he ness of his birth " did he express commendasilent, he gave offence tion, he was pronounced ironical to boot. On all occasions, in fact, he found his father implacable, reserving all his affection for Antipater. He would,

become him

father

!

;

therefore, willingly die,
If,

if his

enterprise miscarried.
;

on the other hand, he struck the fatal blow, he first Archelaus, had protectors to fall back upon his father-in-law, to whom he could easily make his and then Caesar, who to that very day was escape ignorant of Herod's true character. For he would not, as once before, stand before the emperor, overawed by his father's presence, nor would he confine his observations to his personal grievances. No he would first proclaim to the world the sufferings of his nation, bled to death by taxation, and then go on to describe the luxury and malpractices on which the motley obtained by its blood was lavished, the char;
;

acters of the men who had grown rich at his and his brother's expense, and the motives which had led to the favouritism shown to particular cities. There, too, he would bring up for inquiry the fate of his

grandfather ^ and his mother, and make public all the abominations of the realm. Under such conditions he could not be condemned as a parricide.
**

^

Or

" reign."

249

JOSEPHUS
526
(3)

KvpvKXi]?
fjLOVog
Trj<;

TotauTa Kar' 'AAe^ai^Spou T€paT€Vodfi€Vos i7TrjU€L TToXXa Tov WvTLTTaTpou, cu? dpa
re
e'lr]

(jaXoTrdrajp Koi hid tovto p-^xpt' vvv
fJLrjTTOj

eTTL^ovXyjg ifiTToBios.
6 /SacrtAei)?

Se KaXojg
et's"

irrl

rot?

TTpujTOis

/caTecrraA/xeVo?

527 opyrjV i^aypLOvrat.

kol rrdXiv Xa^dw iripovs Kara rcbv dSeA(/»a>i^ V7T€7T€fi7T€U Karrjyopovs Xeyeiv on 'IoukouVSoj Kal Tvpdvvoj Xddpa SiaXeyoLvro, rot? LTTrrdpxoLS /xeV vore rou rore S' e/c rivujv rrpoo^aaiXeaj? yevopiivois
TTarpos
,

dvr]K€arov Kaipdv 'Ai^ri-

KpouGfJidrajv dTTOTTeTrrcuKOGt r-qs rd^eojs.
*Y{pdjhiqs

e^'

of?

evdeoj? vrrepayavaKr-qoa? i^aodvLaeu dAA' ol jxev ovSev rcjv hia^X-qdevrajv 628 rov5 dvSpa?. d)fxoX6yovv, TTpoeKOfiladr] 8e rt? Trpo? rov 'AAe^eTTLorroXr) napd ^AXe^dvSpov avrdv Sefr/rat rd) <f)povpuo fierd WpLoro^ovXov rov d6€X(f)ov Kreivavra rov

avSpetou^ (f)povpapxov
Iva

TTapaKaXovvro?

TTarepa, Kal Trapdoxj] rol? orrXot? ;\;p7]craa^at Kat
ravrrjv WXd^avhpo? ijl€v 629 Tat? aAy\at? d(f)opp.at? elvai eAcyev rdx^aofia Ato^ai^TOf ypa/x/xarcu? 8'
.

o ^L6(j>avros rov ^aoiXicos, roXfi-qpog dvrjp kol ScLVOs fJUfji-qoaodaL Trdor]? ;)(eip6? ypdjifiara- noXXd yovv TTapaxapd^as reXevralov eVt rovrco [/cat J'
171^

KreLver at.
[levojv.

^aoaviaas Se rov (f)povpapxov
ouSe Trap'
iKeivov

'}]pd)Br]s

ovhev rJKovGev
530
(4)

row Sia^e^Xr}-

'AAAa KairoL rovs iXeyxovs evploKOJV dode-

vels rovs VLOVS

p.€vovg,

eVeAewaey rrjpelv, en fiivroL XeXv rov Se Xvpiedjva rrjs OLKtas Kal Spafiarovpyov oXov rov p.voovs EvpuKAe'a, oojrrjpa Kal
'

Destinon from Lat.
'

:

om.

'AXe^dvdpov PA Lat.

:

'Hpw5ou the

rest.

PAM

250

JEWISH WAR,

I.

526-530

(c/.

ant. xvi. 314-321)

officers (3) Having delivered this monstrous tirade against Alexander, Eurycles pfoc^eded"to^ extol Antipater torture. to the skies, as the only son who had any filial affection, an afTection which had so far enabled him The king, who had scarcely to thwart the plot. recovered his composure after previous shocks, burst Antipater, seizing this new into ungovernable fury. opportunity, privily sent in others to accuse his brothers of holding clandestine interviews with Jucundus and Tyrannus, at one time commanders of the king's cavalry, but now, owing to some misdemeanours, degraded. This report brought Herod's indignation to a climax, and he instantly had the two men put to the torture. They made no confesbut a letter sion of the crimes imputed to them was produced, addressed by Alexander to the governor of Alexandrion, requesting him to admit him and his brother Aristobulus to that fortress after they had slain their father, and to grant them the use of the arms and the other resources of the place. This letter Alexander declared to be the handiwork of Diophantus, a secretary of the king, an audacious
;

fellow who had a clever knack of imitating any handwriting, and who, after numerous forgeries, was eventually put to death for a crime of that nature. Herod had the keeper of the fortress put to the torture, but from him too failed to elicit anything bearing on the alleged facts. (4) Notwithstanding the weakness of the obtain- The end able evidence, Herod gave orders for a watch to be "^^^ kept on his sons, though still leaving them their liberty. As for Eurycles, the bane of his house and stage-manager of the whole abominable business,

^''

251

.

JOSEPHUS
evepyeriqv KaXcov, TTevrrjKOvra Scupetrat raXavToiS'

6 be TTjV oLKpi^rj (f>TJfJLr]v <t)dd(jas etV KaTTTrahoKiav dpyvpLleraL Kal rrapd Wpx^Xdov, roXjjLrjGa? etTreZv
631 OTL
8'

Kal SiaXXd^ecev 'HpcoSrjv WXe^dvSpoj. Stapa? T-qv 'EAAaSa toZs €K KaKcov KTiqdeLcnv €tV ofioia KaTexP'Tioaro' his yovv inl Kalcrapos Karrjyoprjdel? eVt tw ordoeojs ifiTrXrJGaL rrjv ^ A)(atav Kal TTepiSveii' rd? TroAet? (^uyaSeuerat. KaKelvou WXe^dvbpou Kal ^AptoTo^ovXou pL€V ovrojs y)
€1?
TTOLvrj

TTepL-fjXdev.

532

"A^LOV 8e avTideluai rov Kcpov Kvdpearov^ TO) XTTapTLdrrj- Kal yap ovros cjv eV rot? fidXiara <f)LXos^ ^AXe^dvSpo) Kal Kara rov avrov Eupu/cAet Kaipov €77 tBrjpLTjGas 77vvdavofJL€va} TO) ^aGiXel Trepl (Lv €K€ivos hii^aXXev opKOis to ix-qhev aKrjKoevaL 533 [Trapa]' tcDi^ fieLpaKicov €7naT0jaaT0. ov fxrju wvnuiv ye tl tovs ddXlovg' fjLOi^ojv yap 171^ rwv KaKOJV aKpoarrfS eToiixoraros 'Hpcubrjs Kal KeXapiaaevo? avro) rrd? 6 avfJLmGrevajv Kal auvayavaKTcov
(5)

634

(xxvii.
rrju

1)

Ylapoj^vvev

8'

avrov

Kal

^aXajyurj

eVt rotS" reKvois ti/xoTT^ra. ravrrjv yap ovvhrjoaadaL rots klv^vvol? 6 WpLoro^ouXo? deXcov,

ovaav
eavTTjV
OTL

eKvpdv

Kal

rriBiha,

StaTrep-Trerat

Gco^euu

TTapaivchv

TTapeoKevdaO at

yap

^aoiXea

e<j>* ots" Kal Trporepov, SuAAatcp TO) "Apa^i yrjixaadai GTrovSd^ovaa Xddpa Ta Tov jSacrtAeoj? dTtopp-qra hiayyeXXoi Trpos 635 avTov exOpdv ovTa. tovO' a)077ep TeXevTaia dveXXa

KTeiveiv avrrju hta^Xridelaav

*

Evaparov RC (through assimilation to A.'\). ^ om. PA. Niese (f>i\oL$ mss.
^
:

"

C7".

J

487.

252

JEWISH WAR,

I.

530-535

(

= ant.

xvi. 309

ff.,

322)

the king called him his saviour and benefactor, and presented him with fifty talents. That villain then, before the true story of the affair got abroad, made off to Cappadocia, where he extorted more money from Archelaus, having the impudence to assert that he had reconciled Herod to Alexander. Thence he crossed to Greece, where he employed the proceeds of his crimes on equally criminal objects. Twice arraigned before Caesar for spreading sedition throughout Achaia and fleecing the cities of that province, he was condemned to exile. Thus did retribution overtake him for his betrayal of Alexander

and Aristobulus. (5) As a contrast to the conduct of this Spartan may fitly be mentioned that of Euarestus of Cos. The latter, who was one of Alexander's most intimate friends, paid a visit to Judaea at the same time as Eurycles, and on being questioned by the king upon the allegations made by his other guest, affirmed on oath that he had heard nothing of the kind from the young men. His testimony, however, was of no avail to the unfortunate wretches for Herod had a ready ear only for slander, and all stood high in his favour who shared his credulity and his indignation.
;

contraste

°

another
^'S'tor.

A further stimulus to Herod's cruelty to Salomes For Aristobulus, tton!"^'* sons was given by Salome. wishing to involve her, who was at once his motherin-law and aunt, in the perils threatening himself, sent her a warning to look to her own safety, as the king was prepared to kill her on the charge previously brought against her " namely that, in her anxiety to marry the Arab Syllaeus, she had privately communicated to him the secrets of the king, whose enemy he was. This was, as it were, the final hurricane
(xxvii. 1)

his

:

253

JOSEPHUS
)(€Lfial^of.Leiov9

rovg

veavioKOVi
TTpos

€7T€^d7TTLO€v
ttjv

17

yap

XaXcoiJL-q

SpajJLOvcra

^aoiXda

irap-

atveoLu
8ecr/xet
oltt"

efjLrjvvoev.

fiev

aii<f>OT€povs

KaKelvo? rov?

utets"

ovk€tl Kaprepijaas Kal hie^wpLo^v

dXX-qXoji', TTefJLTTeL he rrpos

Kalaapa hid rdxovs
(f>i-

OvoXovfJLVLOu re rou arparoTreSdpx'rjv Kal tojv
Xujv^ "OXvfJLTTOV eyypd(j)ovs^

536 ol S'

COS"

els 'Pco/x7]v

rds urjvvaeLS ^epovras. TrXeiJoavres direhooav rd aTTo

^aatXeajs ypdiifiara, u(j)6hpa pikv rj)(9eadr) Kalaap eVt rots veavioKois, ov fMTjv a)ero heZv d(f)€XeadaL rov Trarepa ttjv rrepl^ rcov vlcjv e^ovoiav. 537 dvriypd(j)ei yovv Kvpiov jxev avrdv KaOiGrds, ev fievroL TTOLriaeiv Xeyojv, el pierd kolvov ovveSplou
T(x)v

Tov

re Ihiojv Gvyyevojv Kal tojv

Kard

rrjp eirapxiav

r^yepLOVcuv

e^erdueiev
Kreiveiv,

rrjv

eTn^ovXiqv

Kav

p-ev

ivexojvrat,
538

edv he piovov ojglv hpaapidv

^e^ovXevpevoL, KoXdl^etu pLerpicorepov. TTeiSerai, Kal rrapaTovTOLS 'Hpcuhrjs (2) yevopLevog els Brjpvrov, evda Trpoaera^ev Katcrap, Gvvrjye 7TpoKadLL,ovGiv*' re ol rd hiKaaT-qpiov rjyepLoves^ ypa(f>ev avrols vtto Kalaapos, TiaropVLVos re Kal ol Trepl IlehdvLOv rrpeo^eiSy cruv ols Kal OvoXovpiVLOS [6y eTrirpoiTOS, erreid^ ol rod ^aaiXecus Gvyyevels Kal <f)iXoi, XaXcoprj re /cai ^epcopas, pLed^ ovs ol Trdorjs T^vpias dpioroi ttXtji ^Ap-^eXdov rod ^aoiXeajs' rovrov ydp ovra ktj.

heGTTjV

^

AXe^dvhpov
1

hi

vrroiptas
:

^^X^^

'Hpcuh-qg.

Destinon from Lat.

t6u <pi\oy mss.
»

*

f77/5d0w9
*
'

LTRC.
:

+A'oTd

PA trpoKadi^ovTal TO PAM.
*•

PA Kard the rest. the rest.
:

«

om. PA.
ffide

Beirut.

25*

JEWISH WAR, 1. 535-538

(c/ ANT. xvi. 323, 332, 356 ff.)

which submerged the tempest-tossed youths. For Salome ran off to the king and reported the warning which she had received. Herod, his patience exhausted, put both his sons in irons and in separate confinement he then hastily dispatched Volumnius, the military tribune, and Olympus, one of his friends, with all the information in writing, to Gaesar. Taking ship to Rome they deUvered the king's dispatches to the emperor, who, while deeply distressed for the young men, did not think it right to deprive the
;

Herod

thJ'prin'S

and repon

Angiustus^

father of his authority over his sons. He replied accordingly, leaving Herod complete liberty of action, Augustus but adding a recommendation to him to hold an f fr^g^e han inquiry into the plot before a joint council of his own relatives and the provincial governors ; then, if his sons were convicted, to put them to death, but if

they had merely meditated flight, to be content with a milder penalty. repaired to (2) Acting on this advice, Herod Berytus," the place appointed by Caesar, and there assembled the court. In accordance with written instructions received from Caesar, the Roman officers presided, namely Saturninus^ and his legates, Pedanius and others with them was associated Volumnius the procurator. Next came the king's relatives and
'^

Trial held

c^^g^g^c?

;

friends, including

these
af law,
''

all

Salome and Pheroras, and after the aristocracy of Syria, with the exception
'^
;

King Archelaus for, as Alexander's father-inhe was regarded by Herod with distrust. His

C. Sentius Saturninus, governor of Syria, previously xtnsul in 19 b.c. * It is uncertain whether he is identical with Herod's "riend and ambassador (§ 535).

Cappadocia, it appears, must at this time have been jnder the superintendence of the governor of Syria.
**

255

J05EPHUS
539 Tovs

ye

fi-qv

VLOus

ov

-npoi^yayev

etV

rrjv

hiKrjv

fjidXa TTpofxrjdajs' jj^ei

yap on kol

pLovov ocfydevreg

iXerjdrjOOVT at
Xdl3oL€P,

Travrajs'

pahlajg

atTta?.

dXX

OL

et 8e St) koI \6yov pera^AXe^avhpou OLTToXvaeodat rds pL€u iv nAaravT^ Kcop-rj HibajVLOJU

i(f)povpovvTO.
540
(3)

KaraoTOLS

5'

o ^aotXev^ ch? rrpos Tjapovra?

8l€T€lv€to,

Kar-qyopei

t€

r-qv

pieu

eTTL^ovXrju

dodevo)?,

cl>?

dv dnopovpLevos els avrrju iXeyx^J^v,
/cat

Xoihopias 8e kol oKcoppara
pieXelas

v^peis Kal nXrjpL-

pLvpias

els

avrov,

d kol davdrov xaXe.

TTcorepa rols GVvehpoLS d7Te(f)T]veu

eTretra pi-qhevos

dvTiXeyovTOs eTtOLKricrdpevos
541 rrfv yvcopLYju

>

cos

avros dXioKOiro
HaTopvtvos

KOL VLKCOV^ VLKTjV TTLKpdv Kara TOJU TeKVOJU, eTTTjpOJTa

eKaarou.

Kal
p.ev

TrpojTOS

a7Te(j)rjvaTo

KaraKpLveiv
reKi^oju,

tCjv

veavioKotv,
avro),

dXX
rpicov

ov

ddvarov ov yap

elvai

deparou
8'

TTapeGTcurajv

erepov
Kal

reKvois

dTrajXeiav
ol

eTTLxpTicjiLoaoOaL.

ovpLip-qchoL

avro)

Kal

hvo
rives

TTpeo^evral
54"-'

yivovrai,

tovtols
Se
rrjs

erepoi

rjKoXovdrjoau.

OvoXoypvLOs

OKvdpojnrjs

avrov Trdvres ddvarov KaraKpivovoiv rcov pLeipaKLOJU, ol piev KoXaKevovres,
d7ro(f)dGeojs rjp^aro, Kal /x€t'

ol be pLLcrovvres '}lpcoSr)v, Kal ovSels Si' dyavdKrt]543 OLV.

evda

h-q
Tjv

piereojpos

'q

re Supia Trdaa Kal ro

^lovSa'LKOv

eK^exopevcov ro reXos rov hpdp.aros'
vireXdp^avev eoeoOai piexpt reKvo'Wpdjh-qv. 6 he ovpas rovs vlovs,
yiKi{)i}

ovhels pLevroL

Krovlas

(hpov
*

M

and apparently Lat.

256

JEWISH WAR,

I.

539-543

(

= ant.

xvi. 361-373)

sons were not produced by Herod in court a very wise precaution, for he knew that their mere appearance would be sure to arouse compassion, while, if they were further permitted to speak, Alexander would have no difficulty in rebutting the charges. So they were detained in custody at Platana," a village in the territory of Sidon. (3) The king, on rising, nevertheless inveighed Coudemn against them as though they had been present. His ponces? accusation of a plot was, for lack of proofs, weak but he dwelt on the affronts, mockeries, insults, and offences innumerable of which he had been the victim, and which, he declared to the court, were more cruel than death itself. After that, none contradicting him, he commiserated his hard fate that even in winning his case against his sons his triumph would be bitter and himself the loser, and then asked them all to express their opinions. Saturninus first delivered his opinion, which was to condemn the young men, but not to death as the father of three children present in court, it would not be right for him, he said, to vote for the destruction of the children of another. His two legates voted in the same sense and their example was followed by some others. Volumnius was the first to pronounce a pitiless sentence and all who followed him condemned the lads to death, some from flattery, others from hatred of Herod, none from indignation against the prisoners. From that moment all Syria and Jewry were in suspense, anxiously awaiting the last act of the drama ; yet none supposed that Herod would carry his cruelty He, meanto the length of murdering his children.
;

;

;

« Eas Damur, on the coast, way between it and Sidon. K VOL. II

S. of Beirut

and about

half-

257

JOSEPHUS
Tvpol' KOLKcldei' SLarrXevaa? els Katfjdpetav €ts" rpoTTOv avaipeoeojs tols /xetpa/ciot? icrKenrero. 544 (4) naAatos" Se ng rod ^aoiXiojs GTpaTia)Tr)s, ovojia Tipojv, €)(^ul>v vlov G^ohpa (Tvvqdrj /cat (f)i\ov

'AAe^avSpoj
hi

/cat

avros qyaTTTjKojg t8ta
e/5oa
TTepLLOjy

ret p.€ip6.KLa,

VTTep^oXrjV dyavaKTTJoecos €K(f>pojv eyiverOy^ /cat
iikv

ro

TTpcjTov

77€7TarrJGdai

ro

SiKaiov,
645

oLTToXcoXevaL

rrjv

dXr'jdetav,

TTjV (fiVGLV, dvOpLiaS y€fjL€LV
fiTj

(f)€LhoiJLevcp

rod

^ijv VTTTjyopeve

TOV ^lOV ro
,

uvyKex^aOai KOL TTOLvd^ OOa
ttolOo?.

8e

/cat

Toj

/SacrtAet
€(f)q,

ToXp.-qoa<^

irpooeXdelv

reXog " dAA'

e/xot fi€v,"

" KaKoSaL/jLoveoraro? etVat So/cct?,

OCTTt? Kara, rcov (f)LXrdra)u TTeldfj rols TTOvrjpordroi?,

ye Oepojpa /cat SaAoj/XT]? Karayvovs TToXXdKig Bdvarov 7tlot€V€l? rovroig Kara row reKvojv, ol G€ rcov yvrjGLCov TrepiKorrrovres 8ta8o;^a»i^ eV* ^Avrirrdrpo) KaraXeiTTovGL p-ovoj, rov eavrolg evGKeipaL piivroL 546 p-^rax^LpLGrou alpovpLevoi ^aaiXia. ye, fiT] TTore /cd/cetVoj yevrjrai pXGO? eV rot? arpariojrais 6 raJv dSeXc/xjw ddvaros' ov yap eariv OGri? OVK e'Aeet rd ptetpaKia, raJw Se rjycpovow /cat ravO^ dp.a Xeycjv <f)avepdj9 dyavaKrovGLv -rroAAot." 6 8e ^acrtAeus" (l>v6pLat,€.v rovs dyavaKrovvra<; evdeojg iKeivovs re /cat avrdv /cat top' vldv avrov
€t
.

547

GVveXdpL^avev. <I) (5) 'E^'
Tpv(f>ojv
/SAa/9eta?^

rcjv

Ik

rrj?

avXrj^
€/c

rt?

Kovpeoju,

ouopLa,

7rpo€K7TrjhriGas

rivos

eavrov

p-qwr-qs

yiverai.

deo" KapLe,"

yap

€(f)rj,

" Tipcjjv ovros dvcTreideu, drav deparrevo)
'

PA
:

2

PA

iyivero the rest. : (ppifo^Xa^elas the rest.

258

JEWISH WAR,

I.

543-547

(

= ant.

xvi. 373-387)

while, dragged his sons to Tyre, and, taking ship thence to Caesarea, pondered in his mind over the manner of their execution. (4) Now there was an old soldier in the king's army, named Tiro, whose son was on very intimate and friendly terms with Alexander, and who had a personal affection himself for the young princes. This man, in the excess of his indignation, lost his reason. At first he went about shouting that justice had been trampled under foot, truth was dead, the laws of nature confounded, the world full of iniquity, and whatever else his emotion suggested to one who was careless of his life. At length he boldly presented himself to the king and thus addressed him " Most god-forsaken of men, that is my opinion of you, you who to the injury of your nearest and dearest trust the word of the basest of scoundrels, if it be true that Pheroras and Salome, whom you have so often sentenced to death, have now made you believe their slanders upon your children. They are cutting off your legitimate heirs, leaving you none but Antipater, choosing him for king as the most manageable in their leading-strings. But take care that the death of his brothers does not one day rouse against him the hatred of the army for there is not a man there who does not pity the lads, and many of the officers are freely expressing their indignation." He forthwith named these malcontents and they were promptly arrested by the king, together with
: ;

Action o

Skiier^

;

Tiro and his son.
(5) Thereupon, one of the court barbers, named Trypho, possessed by some strange frenzy, rushed forward and turned informer against himself. " Me too," he cried, " this Tiro tried to induce to cut your

and of
J'^^T^^

*

259

JOSEPHUS
Toj ^vpo) o€ ^Lax^LpLoaodai, /xeyaAas" re
/jloc

nap*

618 'AAe^ai'Spov

Sojpea? vttlgx^^Ito." ravr* OLKOvaa? 'Hpojbrjg Tov re Tipcova avv roj iraihl kol rov Kovpea ^aadvois hiriXey)(^ev , kol roJu fxev apvov-

549 eKeXevaev

fii]heu rrXeov Xeyovrog, urpe^Xovv rov Tlpcova G<f>ohp6repov. 6 8' vlos OLKTelpag vrreox^ro rev ^auiXel rravra firjvvGeiv, el ;^aptCTatTO rov rrarepa avrw. KOLKelvov Sovrog

fievcoVy

rod 8e

€L7rev

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COS
^

BeXrjoeiev

he aXrjdes eXeyov.
550
ev eKKXr]oia rcjv re r\yeKarriyop-qoas rov Xaov err* avrovg eorparoXoyqcrev avroOc yovv dvaipovvrai fierd rod Kovpeojs ^vXols ^aXXop-evoi Kal XlOols.
(6)
fi-qv
\x6v<jL>v

'HpcoSrjs ye

KoX

Tipojvos

551 TTep.ipas Se Kal

rovs vlels

els

rroppco

rrjs

Kataapetas",
^

He^aurrjv , ovaav ov Trpooera^ev aTTOirvZ^ai.

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652
(xxviii.
rrjv
1)
^

Avmrdrpo)

he

dh-qpirov

e^ovrt,

hiahoxrjv jjllgos fJiev d(j>6p-qrov eK rod edvovs eTTeyeiperai, Trdvrcov eTTLorafievajv on rds hiadheX<f)Ois

^oXds roLS
VTTOLKOvpei
opojvrL
^

he

Kal

Trdoas eTTLOvvrd^eiev ovros, heos ov fierpiov av^avofJLevr]v

rrjv

rcJov
(.Lev

dvr)prjjjievwv

yevedv

-qaav

yap

AXe^drhptp

eK TXa(f)vpas vleis hvo, Tiypdvrjs
1

om.

LTKC.

S60

JEWISH WAR,

I.

54>7-552

(

= ant.

xvi. 387

ff.,

xvii. 1)

throat with my razor when in attendance upon you, promising me a large reward from Alexander." On hearing this, Herod put Tiro, his son and the barber under the torture, and when father and son denied all and the other would add nothing more, gave orders to rack Tiro still more severely. The son, thereupon, moved with compassion, promised to tell the king everything if he would spare him his father. Herod granting his request, he stated that his father, at the instigation of Alexander, intended to kill him. This statement, according to some, was a fabrication to end his father's sufferings, while others maintained

that
(6)

it

was true.
Executi

Herod summoned a public assembly, formally accused the officers concerned and Tiro, and enlisted the aid of the populace to dispatch them they and
;

^J^'^*'^'

Aristob

the barber were beaten to death on the spot with cudgels and stones. He then sent his sons to Sebaste,*' a town not far from Gaesarea, and ordered them to be strangled. The order was promptly executed, and direction was given to convey the bodies to the fortress of Alexandrion, for burial there with Alexander, their maternal grandfather. Such was the end of Alexander and Aristobulus.

7-6 b.c.

(xxviii. 1) Antipater, having now an indisputable Unclaim to the succession, became an object of intoler- J°§"flfa!i able abhorrence to the nation for all knew that it Antipat was he who had contrived all the calumnies against his brothers. He was, moreover, haunted with grave alarm at the sight of the children of his victims growing to maturity. For Alexander had by Glaphyra two sons, Tigranes and Alexander ; and by his
;

"

Samaria.

261

JOSEPHUS
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550

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Kal

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iyeuopL-qv
*

druxeoraros,
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P.

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LRC

:

Ti

Niese.

262

JEWISH WAR,

I.

552-556

(cf.

ant. xvii. 6-13)

marriage with Bernice, Salome's daughter, Aristobulus had three, Herod, Agrippa, and Aristobulus, besides two daughters, Herodias and Mariamme. After the execution of Alexander, Herod had sent back Glaphyra to Cappadocia with her dowry Bernice, the widow of Aristobulus, he gave in marriage to Antipater's maternal uncle,*^ this match being arranged by Antipater in order to conciliate his enem},- Salome. Antipater further sought to ingratiate himself with Pheroras by presents and other attentions, and with Caesar's friends by sending considerable sums to Rome. Saturninus and all his staff in Syria were glutted with his gifts. Yet the more he gave, the more he was hated, as it was felt that his bounties were not the outcome of generosity but extorted from him by fear. The result was that the recipients were no better disposed to him than before, while those whom he overlooked became more implacable enemies. The presents distributed, nevertheless, became daily more magnificent, when he saw the king, to the undoing of his own expectations, taking care of the orphans and showing his remorse for the murder of his sons by his compassion
;

for their offspring.
(2) For Herod, one day, assembled his relatives and friends,^ set the young children before them, " I have been and said, with tears in his eyes bereaved by some evil genius of the sires of these infants, but pity for the orphans and nature alike commend them to my care. If I have been the most unfortunate of fathers, I will try at any rate to prove
:

Herod's

niarrlSr^

arrangefur"th\
^f'jjj'^^'^

murdere(
p^'"^^^-

Theudion, A. xvii. 70. Reinach regards these words as having the technical meaning of high officials at court, cf. § 460.
"
*

263

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657 KaraXLTreLV
fi€i>

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.

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K'qhepLOJv
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:

8iaK6\peL

the rest.

Corrupt text: Destinon proposes iwdde, to be joined the preceding sentence.
°
*•

Names unknown.
xviii,

Tigranes (§ 552} or perhaps Alexander {A. where the order of names is reversed).

139,

264

JEWISH WAR,

I.

556-560

{cf.

ant. xvii. 14-17)

myself a more considerate grandfather and to leave their tutelage, after my death, to those most dear to me. I affiance your daughter,** Pheroras, to the elder of these brothers,^ Alexander's sons, in order
that this alliance may make you his natural guardian. son,^ Antipater, I betroth the daughter of Aristobulus so may you become a father to this orphan girl. Her sister ^ my own Herod shall take, for on his mother's ^ side he is grandson of a highpriest. Let then effect be given to my wishes, and And I pray let no friend of mine frustrate them. God to bless these unions, to the benefit of my realm and of my descendants, and to look with serener eyes upon these children here than those with which he beheld their fathers." (3) Having thus spoken he gave way to tears and joined the children's hands, and then fondly embracing one after the other dismissed the assembly. At that Antipater's blood ran cold f and his chagrin was evident to all. For he imagined that the honour bestowed by his father on the orphans was his own ruin and that his claims to the throne would be again endangered, if Alexander's children were to have, in addition to the support of Archelaus, that of Pheroras, a tetrarch. He reflected on the hatred which the nation bore him and their pity for the orphans, the enthusiasm which the Jews had shown for his brothers in their lifetime and their fond memory of them now^ that, in his interest, they were

To your

'^

;

**

<*

Mariamme. The celebrated Herodias mentioned

in the

New

Testa-

ment.
* Mariamme If, daughter of the high priest Simon, son of Boethus {A. xv. 320). ^ Or *' Antipater instantly shuddered."

VOL.

II

K 2

265

JOSEPHUS
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561
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/cat

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ttols TrpoaXd^oi.

^epcopav KaT-qvn-

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^

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of

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must surely be

right:

tol'twi'

PAM.

" Not including the deceased Mariamme I, who raises the total to ten. See Appendix, " The Herodian Family."

'266

JEWISH WAR,
dead.
(4)

I.

560-564^

(cf.

ant. xvii. 17-22)
all

He

resolved accordingly at

costs to

break

off these betrothals.

Afraid of practising a ruse upon so harsh a whose suspicions were easily aroused, he boldly ventured into his presence and besought him outright not to deprive him of the honour which he had deigned to confer on him, nor to leave him the mere title of king while others enjoyed the power for he would never be master of affairs, should Alexander's son, with Archelaus as his grandfather, also have Pheroras as his father-in-law. He therefore earnestly entreated him, as the palace contained a numerous family, to modify these matrimonial arrangements. The king, in fact, had nine ^ wives and issue by seven Herod's of them. Antipater himself was son of Doris, Herod chUdreu. (H) of Mariamme (H), the high-priest's daughter, Antipater and Archelaus were sons of Malthace, the Samaritan Olympias, a daughter by this last wife had married Joseph,^ the king's nephew. By Cleopatra, a native of Jerusalem, he had Herod and Philip by Pallas, Phasael. He had besides other daughters, Roxane and Salome, one by Phaedra, the other by Elpis. Two of his wives, one a cousin, the other a niece, were childless. In addition there were two daughters ^ by Mariamme (I), sisters of Alexander and Aristobulus. In view of this large family Antipater begged for an alteration in the projected marriages. (5) The king, on discovering Antipater's attitude to the orphans, was highly indignant, and the thought
father,
; ;
;
''

Son of Herod's brother Joseph, who was
f.).

killed at the

battle of Jericho (§§ 323
«

Salampsio and Cypros.

267

JOSEPHUS
T€ avro) Trapeorrj Trepl r(x)V di'7]pi^fJL€vojv, fxrj ttotc WvTLTrdrpov SiapoXoju yivoLvro rojv KaKelvoL t6t€ ukv ovv ttoXXo. Trpog opyqv dno565 dyojVLGfia. KpLvdfJievos drr^Xavvei rov ^AvrLTrarpov, a^^t? 8' VTraxO^Xs avrov rals KoXaKeiais pLedrjpfjLOGaro, Kal avTO) ixev ttjv 'ApiGro^ovXov ovvojKLGev Ovyarepa, Tov he vlov avrov rfj Oepcopa Ovyarpl.
666
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.

5C7

(xxix.

l)

eXTTiha?

6

^

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he Kal

rag
Trpos

rLov

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Gvp,(f)epov

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1

Niesewith Heg. AeiiasPA(as
:

in § 641): 'loi-X/a?

^

+aTroi5d<TavTO^ ws Icpauiv

'AvTLTrdrpov

PAM

the rest. (doubtless

a gloss).
^

P: cm. the

rest.

268

JEWISH WAR,
crossed his

I.

564-567

{cf.

ant. xvii.

18, 10, 33)

mind might not his murdered sons also have been the victims of this man's slanders ? He, accordmgly, at the moment replied a long and angry speech, and dismissed Antipater from his presence. Subsequently, however, seduced by his flatteries, he made other arrangements, and gave the daughter of Aristobulus to Antipater himself, and the daughter of Pheroras to his son. (6) How powerful was the effect of Antipater 's adulation on this occasion may be gauged from Salome's ill success in a similar suit. For, although she was Herod's sister and had recourse to the intercession of the Empress Livia to plead with him for permission to marry the Arab Syllaeus,^ Herod swore that he would regard her as his bitterest enemy if and, in the end, she did not renounce this passion he married her, against her will, to one of his friends, named Alexas, and one of her daughters ^ to the son ^ of Alexas, the other ^ to Antipater's maternal uncle.^ Of his daughters by Mariamme, one ^ was given to

Under
A^^ip^

m

Herod

^opos^,

™^ons.

Enforo.
saToin

^

;

Antipater, his sister's, the other brother's son.

-^

to Phasael, his

(xxix. 1) Antipater, having cut off the orphans' expectations and arranged the marriages to his own advantage, regarded his prospects as securely anchored, and, with assurance now added to villainy, became insufferable. For, unable to avert the hatred which he inspired in all, he sought security in intimidation. He was assisted by Pheroras, who ° §§ 487, 334. In A. xvii. 10 it is stated that the empress (JuHa) took Herod's side and sought to break off Salome's proposed match with Syllaeus. ^ Names unknown. " Berenice, widow of Aristobulus. « Cypros. ^ Theudion (§ 553 note). * Salampsio.

lutrigu

^"^^P^^

269

JOSEPHUS
568 ytVerat he Kal yvi^aLKcov avurayfjia
o

Kara
Tj

riiv avXriv,

v€WT€pou? iKLvr]0€v dopv^ovs
fiera
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Salome and Roxana. She had paid the fine imposed upon them

for refusing

270

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I.

568-572

{cf.

ant. xvii. 33-48)

looked on Antipater's claim to the throne as already assured. There was, moreover, a gang of women at a cabals court who created new disturbances. The wife ofcouTt.^^ Pheroras, in league with her mother and sister and the mother of Antipater, displayed constant effrontery in the palace, and even ventured to insult two young daughters of the king.'^ She became, in consequence, the object of Herod's special aversion yet, notwithstanding the king's hatred, these women domineered over the rest. The sole opponent of their league was saiome Salome, who reported it to the king as a conclave "^^roceed? not conducive to the interests of his realm. Informed to Heroc of this denunciation and of Herod's wrath, they abandoned their public meetings and all signs of friendly recognition, and on the contrary pretended to quarrel with one another in the king's hearing Antipater joined in their dissimulation by taking offence, in public, at Pheroras. But they continued to hold clandestine meetings and nocturnal carousals, and the knowledge that they were watched only bound them closer together. Salome, however, was ignorant of none of their proceedings and reported everything to Herod. (2) The king was furiously indignant, particularly Pheroras at the wife of Pheroras, the principal object of^'jvorce^i Salome's charges. He, accordingly, assembled a wife. council of his friends and relations and accused the wretched woman of numerous misdeeds, among others of insulting his own daughters, of subsidizing the Pharisees to oppose him,^ and of alienating his brother, after bewitching him with drugs. In conclusion, he addressed Pheroras and told him that he
;
;

to take the oath of allegiance to Herod on his accession {A. xvii. 42).

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272

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must choose one
his wife.

I.

572-575

(c/.

ant. xvii. 49-55)

or the other, either his brother or Pheroras replying that he would sooner part with his existence than with his wife, Herod, in perplexity, turned to Antipater and ordered him to have no further intercourse either with the wife of Pheroras, or with her husband, or with any of her set. Antipater, while not openly violating this injunction, continued secretly and at night to associate with them but fearing the vigilance of Salome he contrived, with the help of friends in Italy, a visit to Antipab Rome. A letter arriving from them, suggesting that Y^^'t to Antipater ought to be sent before long to Caesar's o b.'c. court, Herod without a moment's delay sent him off with a brilliant retinue, a large sum of money and his will, in which Antipater was named as heir to the throne, and Herod, the king's son by Mariamme, the high-priest's daughter," as Antipater's successor. he intrigue (3) Syllaeus the Arab also set sail for Rome had disregarded Caesar's orders and went to maintain J^g^J^'J^i against Antipater the case which he had previously pleaded against Nicolas.^ There was also a grave matter at issue between him and his own sovereign, Aretas, for he had put to death a number of that prince's friends, including Soaemus, one of the most powerful personages in Petra. By a large bribe he secured the services of Fabatus, Caesar's treasurer, whom he also employed to assist him against Herod. The latter, however, by even larger bribes, detached Fabatus from Syllaeus and endeavoured, through him, to exact from Syllaeus the penalty imposed by Caesar." But Syllaeus still refused to pay anything,
;

c.

;

Nicolas of Damascus had, in the course of an attempted mediation between Herod and Augustus (c. 7 b.c), accused Syllaeus of treasonable designs {A. xvi. 335 fF., no parallel inB.). A. xvi. 352 f.
''

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274

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I

575-580

(

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and furthermore accused Fabatus to Caesar, asserting that the emperor's agent was acting not for his but Indignant at this and still for Herod's interests. highly paid by Herod, Fabatus betrayed the secrets of Syllaeus, informing the king that he had by bribery corrupted Corinthus, one of his bodyguard, and warning him to be on his guard against this nian. The king acted on this advice, knowing that this Corinthus, though brought up within his dominion, was an Arab by birth. He straightway had him arrested and with him two other Arabs, whom he discovered in his company, one a friend of Syllaeus,

Discover

another^

Arabaga

the other the chief of a tribe. Being put to the torture, these men confessed that Corinthus had by large bribes induced them to kill Herod. They were, accordingly, after being further examined by Saturninus, the governor of Syria, sent up for trial to Rome. (4) Herod, meanwhile, never relaxed his efforts to Exile am compel Pheroras to divorce his wife. But, notwith- ph^erom standing the abundant cause which he had for hisOBc hatred of the creature, he could devise no means of punishing her, until finally, in extreme indignation, lie banished both her and his brother from the realm. Pheroras, accepting this affront with equanimity, departed to his own tetrarchy," swearing that the only limit to his exile should be Herod's death, and that never, so long as his brother lived, would he return Nor, in fact, would he revisit his brother, to him. even during his illness, though urgently pressed to for Herod, believing that he was dying, do so desired to leave him certain instructions. Herod, however, unexpectedly recovered, and not long after Herod thereupon disPheroras himself fell sick
; ;

»

Peraea

483).

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276

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I.

580-585

(

= ant.

xvii. 59-65)

played greater humanity, for he went to him and affectionately tended him. But he could not cope with the malady, and a few days later Pheroras expired. Notwithstanding the love which Herod had for his brother to his dying day, a report was spread that he had poisoned even him. Anyhow, he had the corpse conveyed to Jerusalem, gave orders for a solemn national mourning, and honoured him with the most imposing funeral. Such was the end to which came one of the murderers of Alexander and
Aristobulus.
(xxx. 1) But retribution was now, in turn, descend- Herod ing upon the real perpetrator of that crime, Anti- Jw^^'^"^^ this retribution arose out of the death of Pheroras pater Pheroras. For certain freedmen of the deceased poisoned came, in dejection, to the king and informed him that his brother had been carried off by poison ; his wife, they said, had served up to him some extraordinary concoction, after eating which he was im;

mediately taken ill. They added that, two days before, her mother and sister had brought from Arabia a woman who was an expert in drugs, to make up a love-potion for Pheroras but, instead of this, she had given him a deadly poison, at the
;

instigation of Syllaeus,
(2)

who knew

her.

Beset with all sorts of suspicions, the king put Reveiatio the women-servants and some ladies above that rank °' ^^^^ women One victmi in her agonies exclaimed, concernic to the torture. " May God who governs earth and heaven punish ^"^'P^*^" the author of our present miseries, Antipater's mother "" Clutching at this clue, the king pushed The woman his search for the facts yet further.
/--v
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JEWISFI WAR,

r.

585-589

(

= ant.

xvii. 65-67)

then revealed the intimacy of Antipater's mother with Pheroras and the ladies of his family, and their clandestine meetings she added that Pheroras and Antipater, on their return from the king, would pass the whole night drinking with those women, without
;

allowing a single servant, male or female, to be present. This information was given by one of the ladies of rank. (3) Herod had each of the slave girls separately tortured. All their evidence agreed with that already stated they added that it was by a mutual arrangement that Antipater had withdrawn to Rome and Pheroras to Peraea for they were constantly saying to each other, " After Alexander and Aristobulus, we and our wives will be Herod's next victims.
;
;

Having

slain
;

Mariamme and
so
it

her offspring, he

will

spare none

will

be better to

flee as far as

possible from the ferocious beast." Antipater, they continued, would often complain to his mother that he was already grey-headed, while his father grew

younger every day he would perhaps be the first to die, before he began to be really king. Even supposing his father ever did die (and when would that be ?) his enjoyment of his heritage must be extremely short. Then there were these hydra heads, the sons of Aristobulus and Alexander, shooting up. His father had robbed him of his hopes for his children, by nominating as the next heir to the throne not one of his own children, but Herod, the son of Mariamme. In that at least he betrayed his extreme senility, if he supposed that that part of his will would stand for he, Antipater, would take good care to leave none of the family alive. Never had
;
;

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^

WvTnrdTpov Kal
A.
xvii. 70.

Dindorf

:

idaei ye or idaei mss.
:

»

<fii\oi

PAM

Heg.

lor text cf.

S80

JEWISH WAR,
;

I.

589-592

{cf.

ant. xvii. 65-70)

father so hated his children, yet Herod hated his brother far more only the other day he had given him (Antipater) a hundred talents to break off all intercourse with Pheroras. And when Pheroras remarked, " Why, w^hat harm were we doing " Would to heaven he him ? " he had replied would rob us of everything and leave us to live in nakedness. But it is impossible to escape so bloodthirsty a beast, who will not even allow us to show affection for anyone. Now we must meet in secret we shall be able to do so openh^ if ever we possess the courage and arms of men." (4) To these revelations the tortured women added Repudiat that Pheroras had had designs of flying with them to Antipatei Petra. Herod believed all these statements because mother. of the detail of the hundred talents, which he had mentioned to none but Antipater. The first to feel the explosion of his wrath was Doris, Antipater 's mother he stripped her of all the finery which he had bestowed on her and for the second time dismissed her from court. With the ladies of Pheroras 's household he made his peace and showed them
:

;

;

special attentions after their tortures. But he was scared with fright and flared up at the least suspicion,

and many innocent persons w^ere haled by him to torture, for fear that a single culprit should escape
him.

(5) His attention w^as now directed to Antipater Discoverj the Samaritan, agent to his son Antipater. From^/^P^°^' ,} , Antipatei 1 .1 mm, under torture, he learnt that Antipater had and procured from Egypt, through Antiphilus, one of his fo^po^son companions, a deadly poison intended for the king Herod. that from Antiphilus it had passed into the hands of Theudion, Antipater's uncle, who had delivered it
1

.,11

.

,

;

281

.

JOSEPHUS
tov auro? eariv €v 'Pajfir] Trj<^ VTTOvoias KexojpicriJLevos' ^epojpav 693 8c rfj yvvaiKL Trapadeodat to cbopfiaKOW. TavrrjV ovv^]^ 6 fjaaiXev? iieraTrepLiljdiJLei'O'^ avriKa to 6' efetat /xev a»? t) Xri(j)6kv eKeXevaeu kopllI,€iv. KOfJLLOVaa, pL7TT€L 8' iaUTTjU OLTTO TOV TeyOU? TOV T€ eXeyxov Kal ttjv Ik tov ^aaiXiajs aLKtav (l)9dvovGaTTpOVoia 8', OJb €0LK€V>, deOV fieTLOVTOS ^AvTLTTaTpou OVK Ittl K€(j}aXrjv dAA' IttI daTepa Treaovoa 8taKopnGdelrrav 8' avTrju 6 ^aatAei)? dva694 ocoLeTaL. KTriGdjievo<^, KeKdpojTO yap drro tov TTTOj/jLaTo?, rjpcoTa 8t' ^v aLTiaw ptipctev iavT-qv, el fxkv et7ro6
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^

AM

Lat.

:

om. the

rest.

^

n conj.

:

fj

mss.

282

JEWISH WAR,

I.

592-596

(

= ant.

xvii. 69-76)

to Pheroras, since it was he whom Antipater had commissioned to kill Herod while he himself was at Rome and out of the way of suspicion and that Pheroras had entrusted the poison to his wife. The king sent for her and ordered her instantly to produce what she had received. She went out, as though to fetch it, and then flung herself from the roof, in order However, to evade conviction and the king's rack. by the providence, it seems, of God, whose vengeance was pursuing Antipater, she fell not on her head, but on another part of her body, and was not killed. She was carried to the king, who had restoratives applied, as she was stunned by the fall he then asked her why she had thrown herself from the roof, and swore that, if she told the truth, he would exempt her from all punishment, but, if she prevaricated, he would tear her body to pieces with tortures and leave not a limb for burial. (6) At this the woman hesitated an instant and " After all, why should I longer guard then replied hese secrets, now that Pheroras is dead ? Merely o save Antipater who has been the ruin of us all ? Listen to me, O king, and may God hear me too, a vitness to the truth of my words who cannot be At the time when you were sitting weepleceived ng beside the dying Pheroras, he called me to him md said, Much have I been mistaken, my wife, in ny brother's feelings towards me I hated him who
;

;

confessio
"/jJoJJ^of

:

Pheroras.

!

'

;

oves

me

so tenderly

;

I

plotted to

kill

him who

is

so

)verwhelmed with grief for me even before my I am but receiving the reward of my imleath. as for you, bring that poison which Antipater )iety eft us, and you are keeping for his destruction, and )romptly destroy it under my eyes, lest I carry away
;

283

"

JOSEPHUS
597

aSow

rov dXaoropa.' Kal /^eAeucravros Kal TrXeZarov fxev el? to irvp opwuTos : avTov Kar€K€vajoa, ^pax^ ^^ ifiavrfj Trpos ro^^ ahrjXa /cat rov Ik gov (j)6^ov ir-qp-qoa."
</>epot/Ltt

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50s

(7)

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ra? ^aordvov?
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-<

h

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e^rjXenJjev.
1)

601

(xxxi.

'Etti

eXeyxovs
Bepos
lovs

ovvehpapieVy

'AvruTrdrpa)

rovroLS Kal BddvXXos els rov r) reXevraia TTLons rw ^e^ovXevfievajv' rjv fiev yap dneXei)
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dXXo

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erepojv epnercov, Iva

e fj-

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^

I

acdevr)<T€u Dilldorf.

284

JEWISH ANTIQUITIES,
my command.
make speed
to

II.

274-277

And I bid thee without more delay Egypt, pressing forward by night and day, and by no dallying to prolong the time for the Hebrews, now suffering in servitude." (4) Moses, unable to doubt the promises of the Deity, after having seen and heard such confirmation 3f them, prayed and entreated that he might be i^ouchsafed this power in Egypt he also besought Him not to deny him the knowledge of His name, but, dnce he had been granted speech with Him and /ision of Him, further to tell him how He should be iddressed, so that, when sacrificing, he might invoke iim by name to be present at the sacred rites. Then lod revealed to him His name, which ere then had lot come to men's ears, and of which I am forbidden o speak." Moreover, Moses found those miracles at lis service not on that occasion only but at all times diensoever there was need of them from all which okens he came to trust more firmly in the oracle from he fire, to believe that God would be his gracious •rotector, and to hope to be able to deliver his people
;
;

Revelation
divine nam ^^- "•• i^.

upon the Egyptians. Accordingly, on learning that the king of igypt, the Pharaothes under whom he had fled the ountry, was dead, he besought Raguel to permit him 3r the welfare of his countrymen to go to Egypt nd, taking with him Sapphora,^ his wife, daughter of laguel, and the children whom he had by her, Gersos
to bring disaster
1)
(xiii.
;

nd

Moses
Egypt,"
En:. iv. i^^.

Ki'ptos) was employed, and JHVH in Hebrew was written with the vowels of the latter, to indicate Read Adonai"; hence, through later neglect of the in;ntion of the scribes, arose the form Jehovah, which has Inquired a sacredness of its own, but in its origin is a

donai (lxx

ss.

ybrid. ^ Bibl. Zipporah (lxx

I,eirc()dbpa).

285

JOSEPHUS
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rjSr}

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Kal irpoaiwv t^ws avvTTo-mo^ tjv toj Trarpi tt((A tQiv abiXcpCji' 5e ("and then, while as yet his father had no suspicion of him, would go to him and " etc. ) is specious.
'

The

alternative

0' or oe mss. reaciing of
:

LTRC

J

LTHC

Lat.; (ynaTaypaxl/Ti

PAM

(perhaps rightly).

2»6

JEWISH WAR,

I.

602-606

(

= ant.

xvii. 80-82)

sons of the king, now growing lads and full of manlyspirit, were receiving their education in Rome. Anxious to rid himself of these scions springing up His
to dash his hopes, Antipater forged several letters to

forger]

injure his

name of their friends in Rome, while he prevailed on others by bribery to write that the young princes were constantly railing at their
their injury in the father, publicly deploring the fate of

brothers.

Aristobulus,

Alexander and and indignant at their own recall for their father was now summoning them back, and it was this fact which caused Antipater the greatest
;

uneasiness.
while

departure abroad, Antipater, used to procure, at a price, the sending of such letters of abuse of his brothers
(2)

Even before
still

his

in Judaea,

>vritten in
Dicion,

Rome, and then, in order to avoid suswould go to his father and make excuses for lis brothers, urging that such and such statements vere false, while other matters mentioned were
nere youthful indiscretions. Now, in Rome, having o pay immense sums to the writers of these letters Lgainst his brothers, his efforts were directed to
•onfusing the evidence of such outlay.
le

To this end bought up costly apparel, embroidered carpets, ups of silver and gold, and many other precious 'bjects, in order to conceal under the enormous total f these outgoings the wages paid for the other ffair. His returns showed an expenditure of 200 alents, of which the greater part was put down to is suit with Syllaeus. But now, though even all hese petty knaveries were exposed with the larger rime, now when every fresh torture was loudly
287

JOSEPHUS
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(3)

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On
suspects
Cilicia

the borders of

Pamphylia and Cilicia. Reinaci some confusion as Celenderis was the first port ir

which he would reach.

288

JEWISH WAR,

I.

606-610

(

= ant.

xvii.

82-86)

proclaiming him a parricide, when the letters were reveahng him as once more a fratricide, none the less not one of the visitors to Rome told him of the turn of his fortunes in Judaea, although seven months elapsed between his conviction and his return so intense was the hatred which all bore him. Perhaps, moreover, the lips of those who were minded to speak were sealed by the spirits of his murdered brothers. However that may be, he wrote from Rome to announce the good news of his early return and of the honours paid to him by Caesar in taking leave
;

of him.
king, impatient to lay hands on the conand fearing that he might be forewarned and on his guard, repUed in an equally dissembling letter, couched in affectionate terms and bidding him hasten his return because, if he made speed, added Herod, he would be prepared to relinquish his complaints against his mother. For Antipater was not ignorant of her dismissal from court. He had previously received at Tarentum a letter announcing the death of Pheroras and had displayed the profoundest grief, for which some applauded him, attributing it
(3)

The

Return o

spirator

,vnar?nc( of his ^^^^^*^°

;

to the loss of an uncle

emotion, it seems, he wept not for Pheroras but for his accomplice. He was, moreover, already alarmed at the thought of his past proceedings had the poison been discovered ? But now, when he received in Cilicia the above mentioned letter from his father, he instantly pressed on. However, as he was entering the harbour of Oelenderis," the thought of his mother's disgrace came over him, and even without such prompting ^ his soul had already
;

but

his

was due

to the failure of the plot

:

:

^

Perhaps " involuntarily," propria motu.
L

VOL.

II

289

JOSEPHUS
611 Kad^ iavTrjv ri]? ipvx'rj?T(x)V
(^iXcjjv

ol fxev ovv TrpoixrjdeoTepoL
fjirj

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TO)

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^
'

PA

:

dir4arp€(p€y the rest,

*

Aa^' tavrbi'

LTR.

290

JEWISH WAR,

I

611-615

{cf.

ant. xvii. 86-91)

a premonition of the future. The more far-sighted of his friends advised him not to put himself into his father's clutches until he had clearly ascertained the reasons for his mother's dismissal, as they feared that his arrival might only serve to swell the charges " against her. But the less reflective, anxious rather to see their native country than to serve Antipater's interests, urged him to push on and not by procrastinating to afford his father ground for sinister suspicions and his traducers a handle for calumny. *' Even supposing," they said, " any intrigue against you is now on foot, it is because of your absence none would have ventured on such a thing had you been there. It is absurd to let vague suspicions rob you of certain happiness, and not to run to your father's arms to receive the kingdom which is tottering on his unaided shoulders." Antipater, under the impulse of his evil genius, followed their advice, and sailing across landed at the port of Augustus, at Gaesarea. (4) Here he found a solitude, unlooked for, pro- His found, and ominous all avoided him, none ventured ]^l^^ll^ to approach him. For, equally hated though he had always been,^ this hatred was noW' at liberty to show itself. Moreover, fear of the king kept many aloof, for every city by now was full of the Antipater scandal, and the only person ignorant how he stood was Antipater himself. No man ever had a more brilliant escort than his when he sailed for Rome, none on return a more ignominious reception. Divining now the disasters which had befallen at home, he still maintained a crafty dissimulation and,
;

;

" Or perhaps " feared that there might have been some " Or " as he was by all." addition to the charges."

291

"

JOSEPHUS
Se'et

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htaoKeudoeLU dvaiSeLCi Kal SoAot?, aTrep
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qp avTO) pova ra
617
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A MLR.


JEWISH WAR,
I.

615-619

(

= ant.

xvii. 89-92)

though dead with fright at the bottom of his heart, contrived to preserve an imposing exterior. There was no longer any possibiUty of flight or retreat from the perils encompassing him. However, he had received no definite tidings of events at the palace owing to the king's threats against informers— and he still cherished a ray of hope perhaps nothing had been discovered, perhaps, even if anything had been discovered, he might mend matters by effrontery and guile, his sole means of salvation. (5) Armed, then, with these weapons he entered and at the palace, without his friends, for they had been ^^'^^^.'^ ^ insolently stopped at the outer gate. At the time there was a visitor within Varus,'^ the governor of
:

Antipater proceeded to his father's presence and, seeking courage in audacity, approached as though to kiss him. Herod, with arms extended and " That too betrays the head averted, cried out parricide he would embrace me, with such accusations against him Perdition take thee, most impious wretch, and touch me not until you have cleared yourself of the charges. I offer you a tribunal and for judge this timely visitor, Varus. Go and prepare your defence for to-morrow I leave you that interval for your artifices." Unable through consternation to utter a word in reply, Antipater withdrew^, and his
Syria.
: :
!

;

mother and

his wife

^

came

to

him and

told

him

in

evidence against him. Then he collected himself and applied himself to preparing
detail of all the
his defence.
° P. Quintilius Varus, Ugatus of Syria c. 6-4 b.c, afterwards slain by Arminius and the Germans at the battle of Teutoburg. The daughter of Herod's predecessor Antigonus, A. xvii. 92, not his other wife, the daughter of Aristobulus (§ 565).
''

293

JOSEPHUS
620
(xxxli.
1)

T17

8'

iTTLOVOT]

GVvdBpiov

p.kv

6

^aoiXeu? aOpoit^ei ru)v ovyyevcov Kal c^lXajv, eiaTrpoKaXel he Kal rovs 'AvriTrdrpov ^tAou? KadeL^erai he avro? dfia Ovdpco Kal rov? fi-quvrd^ TTcivTa? eKeXevaev eioayayelv, ev oh e to i]x9r] a ai' Kal TTJg AvrLTTarpou fi-qrpog olKerai nve^ ov vpo
^

TToXXov avveiX-qfiixeuoL, Koiii^ovre? ypap^iiara Trap* '' errel^ 7Te4>(jjparaL avrrjs 7:p6? tov vlov roidheTrdvra eKelva toj Trarpi oov, jjly) Trapayivou npog
621 hvvafJLLu."
pirj riva TTopiar) Ttapd tov Kataapo? rovrcov ovv 7019 aAAoi? elorjyfjievcDV *ApTLTraTpos elaepxeraL Kal Treooju TTprjvrjg irpo " LKeTevco, TtdTep," e(f>r), rcjjv rrohcjjv tov Trarpo?,

avrou,

du

"

fj.r]hev

pLOV TrpoKaTeyvajKevai,

Trapaoxelv he

jioi

Ta? d/cod? aKepaiov; el? ttju aTToXoyiav aTTohei^u) yap ifxavTOv Kadapov, dv av deXr^g.' 8' 622 avTOj oiydv eyKpayojv^ 77po? tov (2) '0 Ovapov eLTTev " dAA' oti fxev Kal crv, Ovape, Kat AvTLTTaTpov i^a)Xr) Kpivel, hiKaGTrjs ooLog TTO-S hehoLKa he fir} Ka/JLOV fiLOT^arjs ttjv TTeneiopiai.
^

Ti'xrji',

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tov? vlov? yeyevvqKOTa.
roL? ev 'PcopLTj rpocfieioLS (f)iXovs Kaluapog, t,r)XajTovs he 7T0ii]Gas ^aoLXevuLV eTepoi?, evpov eni-

^ovXovs, OL Tedv-qKaoi to TiXeov 'AvTindTpoj' vecx) yap ovTL Kal hiahoxcp tovtco pLdXtara rvjv do(f}ato he pnapdv tovto d-qpiov ttjs 624 Aetay e7Topil,6jJiriv efj-ov e/XTys" VTTepepLTrXrjCjdev dve^iKaKLas rjveyKev KaT
.

1

iirdirfp

LTRC.

*

KfKpayCis (sic)

PA.

29-^

JEWISH WAR,
(xxxii. 1)

I.

620-624

{cf.

ant. xvii. 93-95)
Trial of

the following day the king assembled and friends, inviting Antipater's friends to attend as well. He himself presided, with Varus, and ordered all the informers to be produced. Among these were some domestics of Antipater's mother, recently arrested in the act of carrying a letter from her to her son in these terms " As your father has discovered all, do not come near him, unless you have obtained support from Caesar." When these witnesses had been brought in with the rest, Antipater entered and, falling prostrate at his " 1 beseech you, father, do not father's feet, said condemn me in advance, but lend an unprejudiced ear to my defence for I shall, if you permit, establish my innocence." (2) Herod burst out upon him to be silent and then " That you, Varus, and every addressed Varus
a council of his relatives
:
:

On

;

Herod'^
'"^

:

honest judge
criminal,
I

will

condemn Antipater

as an

abandoned

am fully persuaded. What 1 fear is that my fate may also appear hateful to you and that you may judge me deserving of every calamity for having begotten such sons. And yet you ought rather to pity me for having been the most devoted of fathers My late sons, whom to such abominable wretches.
when they were
for the throne,
I thought fit to destine not only expensively educated in Rome, but introduced to Caesar's friendship, and made an object of envy to other sovereigns, these I found to be conspirators. They have died, he was mainly to further Antipater's interests young, he was the heir, and to secure him was the object which 1 had most at heart. And now this foul monster, gorged with the benefits of my for-

quite

young

whom

I

:

995

JOSEPHUS
Tov Kopov eSo^a yap avTO) ttoXuu l^rju Kal TO ipLov yrjpa<i i^apvvOr), ^aaiAcu?
V7TefjL€LV€v €1
[17]

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airo

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yovi'
rrjg

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on Karayayajv amov

XOJpa? oLTreppLiiiieuov Kal 7Tapajodfi€uog rov<; Ik paoiXiho^ {lOL yeyevvqixlvovs aTreSetfa ttJ? i^ofJLoXoyoviio.t gol, Ovape, 7r]V 625 dpx^S hidhoxov ifjLavTOV (t)p€voPXdp€Law iyoj ydpY rovg vlou? €K€Lvou? /car' ifxavTov -napoj^vva, hiKaias avruw Kal ri pikv drroKoifjai; cXtt tSa? 8t' ^ AvTLTrarpov. iK€LVOv<; evepyerrjoa rrjXiKOvroVy tjXlkov tovtou; (L ye t,wv fjLeu oXiyov helv TrapexcoprjGa rrj? e^ovaiasy (f>avepajs Se rat? hiad-qKatg iueypai/ja rrjg dpx'TJ? SidSoxou Kal irpoGohov p,kv Ihia Trevr-qKOvra raXdvTOjv eVet/Lta, rcov 8' ifjLOJV exoprjyrjGa XP'H' lidrojv dveSrjv, TrXeovri Se vvv els 'Pcjj/jlt^v eScoKa rpiaKOGia rdXavra, KacGapi 8* e^ oXr]s ttjs yeveds
.

626 fxovov

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eKelvoL TOtouTov rjG€^7]Gav,

Kal rrdXiv hoXois rr^v Ovape, ool (fyvXaKreov iyd) jJiev ^^ yap olha ro Orjpiov Kal TrpoOpOJIJLaL TTjV fldXXoVGaV d^LOTTLGTiaV Kal TOV €7TLTrXaGTOV 6Xo(j)vppi6v ouros €Gtlu 6 Tiapaivcbv ifioi 7T0T€ (fivXarreoOaL Cowra WXe^aubpou Kal firj iraGlV 7TLGT€V€LV TO CTtU/Xa OVTO? 6 fJ-^XP^ '^V^ KOLTTjg eiGdycDV Kal fjirj fie rt? evehpevoL Trepi^XeTTCov OVTOS 6 Tafiias tCjv vttvojv Kal x^pi^yo?
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^

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oni. the rest.

296

JEWISH WAR,
He

I.

624-627

{cf.

ant. xvii. 95

f.)

bearance, has turned his bloated insolence upon me. thought me too long-lived my old age oppressed him he could not endure the idea of becoming king by other means than parricide. Justly indeed has he served me for bringing him back, a castaway, from the country, ousting the sons whom a princess bore me and declaring him heir to the throne I admit, Varus, my own infatuation. It was I who exasperated those sons against me by cutting off their just expectations in the interests of Antipater. When did I ever indulge them as I have this scoundrel ? To him in my own lifetime I well nigh resigned my power I nominated him in my will, in the public eye, heir to the throne I assigned him a private income of fifty talents, apart from hberal contributions from my personal revenues recently,
; ;
!

;

;

;

when he

set sail for

Rome,

I

presented him with

three hundred talents, and recommended him to Caesar, alone of all my children, as his father's preWhat crime did those others commit comserver. parable to that of Antipater ? Or what proof was brought against them so convincing as that which

presumed to open his mouth, hoping once more to smother the truth under Varus, you must be on your guard. / his wiles. know the creature and foresee the plausible pleading,
is

establishes this traitor's guilt ? " However, this parricide has

the hypocritical lamentations, that are to follow. This the man who, in former days, when Alexander was alive, advised me to beware of him and not to trust
to my couch and looked assassin was concealed this
;

my me my

is he who conducted round to see that no is he who dispensed hours of slumber, ensured my freedom from care,

life

to all

men's hands

;

this

VOL.

II

L2

297

;

JOSEPHUS
dvr)pr]fX€V0L? Xvtttju Kal hiaKpivojv ttju ra)v
1,(jjv7<jjv

evwotau abeXcjxIbv 6 vvepaoTnoTTj? o
,

e/xos",

o crco/xaro-

628 <f)vXa^.
iu

orav dvajjLvqadd), Ovape, to Trauovpyou Kal rrjv vnoKpioiv, dTnoTia /ue rov €l(jep)(eTaL Kal davfjidl^aj ttcD? ^advv^ ourcxj? t,riv eni^ovXov hUcjjvyov. dXX irrel Balfioji' rt? i^ep-qfiot rov efjLou olkou Kal fjLOt tovs <j>iXrdTou? eTTauLaTTqatu del, KXavoofiai fiev iyd) rr]u dSiKOu elfjiapfxeu-qu Kal Kar' ifiauTOU (jrevd^co r-qv ip-qfiiau, Sta^eu^erat 8' ovSel? Sufjiqcja? rovfxoi' alfia, Kav Std Trdvrojv
eKaoTcp
jiov Tojv reKvoju 6 eXeyxo? eXdr]."
(3)

629

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iyd) TTarpoKTOvo? , ov op.oXoyel'i (j)vXaKa Std iravroi
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;

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topLGVOv, rov 8'
631 o?
i(f)opa

ovpavov hiKaar-qv

dp.rixo.vov,

Travraxou TrdpeoTiv; -q ro TOJV dbeXcjxZv reXos rjyvoovv, oug 6 ^eo? ovrojq ri 8e pie Kal pLerrjXde rrjS els ae KaKo^ovXias ; TTapco^vvev Kara oov ; ^aoiXeias eX-nis ; aAA' e^arrdvra

Kal

GiXevov.
<l)6^os
1

vTTOvoLa

P.LO0VS

; ;

ov

Ik

oov

ri?

dXXos

yap eorepyopuqv dXXd pL-qv oe r-qpojv
*

Sapiv

PA

Lat.

wiiToiTjaai

LVRC.

29«

JEWISH WAR,

I.

627-631

(c/.

ant.

xvii. 99

f.)

consoled me in my sorrow for my victims, and sounded this is my the feelings of his surviving brothers When I recall, Varus, his buckler, my bodyguard knavery and hypocrisy on each occasion, I can scarce believe I am alive and marvel how I escaped so deep a schemer. But since some evil genius is bent on desolating my house and raising up against me one after another those who are nearest to my heart, I may weep over my unjust destiny, I may groan in spirit over my forlorn state, but not one shall escape who thirsts for my blood, no, not though conviction should extend to all my children." (3) Here his emotion rendered further speech impossible, and he signalled to Nicolas, one of his But now Antipater, friends, to state the evidence.
;
!

speech of
^""^'^^
-'

who

still

head and cried out

lay prostrate at his father's feet, raised his " You, father, have made
:

my

defence yourself. For. how could I be a parricide, I who, as you admit, have ever served as your proYou call my filial piety imposture and tector ? How could I, cunning in all else, have hypocrisy. been so senseless as not to perceive that, while it was difficult to conceal from man the concoction of so atrocious a crime, it was impossible to hide it from the Judge in heaven, who sees all, who is present everywhere ? Was I ignorant of my brothers' fate, whom God so relentlessly punished for their wicked designs upon you ? And then, what motive could have instigated me against you ? Aspiration to the Suspicion of your throne ? But I reigned already hatred ? But was I not beloved ? Had I other Nay, by preserving you I reason to fear you ?
!

**

" Possibly for aov we should read e|w aov " reason to fear others beside you ?

U

:

"

Had

I

299

JOSEPHUS
632 erepOLS (t)o^€p6s
^J/xr^i^.

evheia xpi^iidroji'
;

fidXXou
rrdvTOJV
etxoi^

i^-fjv

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Trarep,

el

yap
Kal

Kal rivL ; e^ojXeoTaros
ifjvx'^i'

dvOpcjTTCov

iyevofMrju

drjptov

dvrjjjLepov,

ovk du rals oat? evepyee(/)r]s"

atati evLK-qOriv, ov Karrjyaye? fieu, co?

avr6<;,

TrpoeKpivag hk tooovtojv reKvoju, dneSeL^as Se ^cui/ /SaatAea, 8t' VTrep^oXrji^ Be tuw dXXojv dyadwu
633 i-olrjoag
€7TL(j)dovou
cos"
;

co

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aTToS-qiJLLag,

ttoXuu eBojKa Kaipov toi (j)B6vuj /cat

aoL Se, Trarep, fjLaKpdu T0L9 iTTL^ovXevovuL hitopiav. Kal rot? CTOt? dyujGiv dTreSrjjjLOVu, Iva fxi) SuAAaio?

Tov GOV y-qpcos KaTa(f)povqGrj.
rrj?

'Pco^ry

jjlol

fidprv;

Kal 6 rrjs oiKOViiivvig TTpoardr-qs KaiCTap, o (juXoTTaropa TToXXaKL? p.e eiTrajv. Xd^e, Trdrep, to, Trap' avrov ypa/x/uara. raura tojv ivddSe hia^oXaoi' TTLGTorepa, raura d/ToAoyta ^ot
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634 XP^y-'^^-

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daXdaGrjs
635

he eVt rovg eXeyxou?, TrdpetpLL hid yrjg Kal ovhev ovhajxov iradiov 6 TrarpoKTOvo';.
jxe

aAAa

pL-qTTOj

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^

ydp Kal rrapd
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. .

deep Kal
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(f)epeG6a>
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Lat.
:

to

vvp,
the

uTjTTu:
;

.

0i\(i

PA.M

tJ.TjWju

diOe\-nuai

rest
"
*

text apparently corrupt.

" Lover of his father."
;

Text doubtful perhaps " benefit of this evidence."

1

do not

ask.

to

be given the

300

JEWISH WAR,
inspired fear in

I.

632-635

{cf.

ant. xvH. 102-105)
it

others.

Was

lack of
?

Who had more

at his disposal than I

money Even had

?

I

been the most abandoned of men, with the heart of a ferocious beast, must I not have been reclaimed, For, as you have father, by your benefactions ? said yourself, you recalled me from exile, you gave me preference over such a number of sons, you proclaimed me king in your own lifetime, and by loading me with other favours made me the envy of Ah me that fatal journey What an opporall. tunity I gave to jealousy, what an ample period to 'hose who were intriguing against me Yet it was jor you, father, and to fight your battles that I took :hat journey, to prevent Syllaeus from treating your Rome is witness to my filial )ld age with contempt. Diety and Caesar, the lord of the universe, who has Take, father, these )ften called me Philopator.' " These are more trustworthy than etters from him. these are my sole he calumnies against me here indication here are the proofs which I offer of my
! ! !

'

;

;

ender feelings for you.
'

Remember how

reluctantly

embarked, knowing the lurking hostility to me nihm this realm. It was you, father, who involunarily brought about my ruin, by compelling me to pve my envious foes an opportunity for calumny. here I am, the 3ut here I am to meet my accusers parricide,' who has traversed sea and land, and But I do not ask for your lowhere been molested ove on the strength of the evidence so far given of ny innocence ^ for I stand condemned before God ind before you, father. But, condemned though am, I entreat you not to rely on admissions exracted by the torture of others. Let the fire be
;
!

;

301

JOSEPHUS
efjLcou oTrXdyxvcov to. opyava, Tov fjLLapov acofiarog' €l yap elfil TTarpoKTovo's, ovK dc^et'Aoj 9vqaK€LU d^aadvLaros.^ 636 Totavra {jber^ 6\o(i)Vpp,ov kol haKpvojv iK^ocou tov<; T€ aAAous (ZTT-ai^ra? Kai tof Ouapou et? olktov TTpovKaXeaaro, jiovou Se o 6vp.6s 'HpcoSrju dhaKpw SieKpdrei roug iXey)(oug dXrjdels iTnardfJLevou. 'Ey TOVTO) NtKoAao? rod paoiXeoj? KeAeu(4.) 637 cravTO? TToAAa Trpog to navovpyov to ^ Avmrdrpov TTpoenrdjv koi tov Itt* avrco biax^o.? eXeov, eneLTa TTLKpdv Karrjyopiav Kar€T€LvaTO, Trdvra p.ev rd Kara ttjv ^aoiXeiav KaKovpyr]p.ara TTepLTiOels avTCOy

oSeueVoj

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he

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.

ralg €K€luov Sia^oXai? dTToXajXoras

eTn^ovXeveiv

avrov eAeyei^ Kal rot? TTepiovGiv cos i<f)€bpoLS Trj<; biaSox^S' rov yap napaoKevdoaura irarpl T^ 7TOV y dv dheX^dv dTtoayia^ai ; <f)dpiiaKOi> 5' eVt tov eXey^ov ttj? <j)appiaKeias ra? 03g TrpoeXdojv re p.->-juva€i<; Ji'^'^Y iTreheiKwev Kal irepl Oepojpa otl KdKeluof * AvTirtaTpos noL-qKaT€axe-Xial,ev oeteu dd€X(f)OKT6uou Kal tovs <f)LXTdTous tw ^aaiXel hia^detpas dXov tov (jlvoovs dvaTrXt]G€Leu tou olkov,
,

dXXa T€ TToXXd
Q^c)

TTpog tovtols KaTa7Tav€L rou Xoyou.
(5)

eliTOjv

Kal aTToheL^a?

Ouapog 8e dTToXoyeiGdaL KcAcucra? tov Wvtltj

TTaTpov, CO? ovbev irXiov clttojv

" deos iuTLV

/jloi

tov prjhev dSiKeiv fidpTVS " €K€Lto GtydJv, aLTTjGa?
^ The M??. add 6\o<pvf,ixb% (or from Lat. * Bekker: d/Saaan'arws m99.

-ov),

an obvious gloss, absent
'

ora.

PAM.

302

JEWISH WAR,
!

I.

635-639

(cf.

ant. xvii. 106-128)

applied to me Let the instruments of torment course through my frame nor spare this polluted For, if I am a parricide, I ought not to die body without being put upon the rack."
!

These ejaculations, accompanied by moaning and
tears,

moved

all

to

compassion, including Varus.

Herod alone remained dry-eyed, furious and knowing that the evidence was true.** (4) Thereupon Nicolas, as ordered by the king. addressed the assembly. He began with a full exposure of Antipater's knavery, dissipating the commiseration which his speech had aroused. He then
launched out into a severe indictment, attributing to him all the crimes which had been committed throughout the realm, and in particular the execution of his brothers, demonstrating that they owed their death to Antipater's calumnies. He added that he had further designs on the survivors as presumptive " Would one who had preheirs to the throne pared to poison his father have stopped short at his brothers ? " Passing on to the evidence for the poisoning plot, he brought forward in succession all the information extracted being roused to indignation on the subject of Pheroras, at the idea of Antipater converting even him into a fratricide and, by corrupting the king's nearest of kin, infecting the whole palace with pollution. With many more observations, supported by proofs, Nicolas concluded
; ;

Speech

of

^*^'^^^^'

his speech.
(5) Varus then called on Antipater for his defence. Outcome But he would say no more than " God is wdtness of Antipate my innocence " and remained prostrate and silent, imprison
" According to A. xvii. 106 even Herod was not unmoved, though he sought to conceal his emotion.

303

.

,

JOSEPHUS
TO (^dpfiaKov hidcoai tivl 7oju

em

Oavara) Kara-

rod Se 7rapa\priiia TfAeu640 KpLTOJV heoiicoTr] meti^. TTjoavTOS , 6 fiev OLTTopp-qTOvg TroiT^aa? ra? Trpo?
^Hpojdrjv opLiXiag Kal ra rrepl to ovvehptov Kaioapi ypdipag (JLera piav rjpLepav xajpit^eTai' Seop-el he 6 ^aaiXevs Wi'TiTraTpou Kal 77po? Katoapa rous hiqXojoovTas rrjv oup.(j)opa.u e^eTrepLifjev 641 (6) McTO. he raura Kal Kara HaXcufxrjg eni^ovXos * AvT LTTarpos evplorKeraL^' rcjv yap ^Kvtl<I)l\ov

Tt?

OLKercov

rjKev

emaroXa?

ko[xl^oju
^Ak/jlyJ';

qtto

*Pa)p.r]£ TTapa
vojjia.

Atoui'a?^ OepaTTaivihos,
p.ev

Kal

TTapa

ravriqs e-neoraXro
e'y

rov^aaiXec

rds

TTapa

T^aXojfirjg

eTnoroXds

rot?

Atouta?^

evprjKevau ypdfJLfjLaaiu, 77e77o/x0eVat he avro)
642 8t' evvoiav.

Xddpa
rov

at he rrj? 'LaXwpLTjs AotSopta? re

paGiXeojs
fieyiGTrjV.

TTepielxov
hiacfideipas

TTiKporaTas Kal Kar-qyoplav ravras he TrXdaas ^AvrLvarpo? Kal ttju
erreiaev 'Wpo'jhr]
TTefJiipai.

643

^

AKp^-qv

hc-

eV ttjs Trpo? avrcv eTTiGToX-qs' '<'cit yap eKeivo) to yvvaiov eypai/jew " wg e^ovX-qQ-qs eypaipd oov tw Trarpl Kal rds cTTtaroAd? eKeivas CTTepLipa, TTeTTetGiieuT] rov ^aacXea fir} (j>eLoeo9ai tt^s" KaXojs he TTOLrjoeig, ertei' dheX(f)r}g, OTav duayvo).
TjXeyxOrj

he

hdv aTTapTLodfj Trdvra,
644
(?)

fJLvrjfxovevoag

(x)v

VTTeo)(OV."

TavT-qs (fxjjpadeLO-qs ttj? eTTLGToXrjg Kal
HaXaj/JLT^g

rwv

ivoKevaodeiawv, evvoia p,ev e/xTTLTTT€L TO) ^aoiXeZ rd^a Kal <Ta>' ^rar' AXe^di^hpou TrXaodrjvaL ypa/x/xara, vepuaXy-qs S* -qv vtto rod nddovs COS" Trap* oXiyov Kal rrjv dheXcjyrjV dvo^
*

Kara

iVL^ov\as 'AfT.
Afuias

fi'.'piaK.

iraroiriKus

PAM.

-

'loiX/as the test; c/. § oob, hai TO. Destinon ; »<ai WS5.
:

PA

304

JEWISH WAR,
had
it

I

639-644.

(c/.

ant. xvii. 131-144)

called for the poison and applied to a prisoner under sentence of death, who drank it and instantly expired. Then, after a private interview with Herod, Varus drafted his report of the meeting for Gaesar, and a day later took his departure. The king had Antipater put in irons and dispatched messengers to the emperor to inform him of the catastrophe. (6) It was subsequently discovered that Antipater Di^^corp; had also plotted against Salome. For a domestic of A^J'^^^ Antiphilus arrived from Rome with letters from a saiome maid-servant of Livia," named Acme ; she wrote to the king to say that she had found among Livia's papers some letters from Salome, which, as his weilwisher, she had privately transmitted to him. These letters of Salome, containing the most cruel abuse of the king and the most scathing condemnation of his conduct, were forgeries of Antipater, who had bribed Acme to send them to Herod. He was convicted by the letter which the woman addressed at the same " As you desired, I time to him, in these terms have written to your father and forwarded those letters, and feel sure that, when he has read them, he will not spare his sister. Be good enough, when all is over, to remember what you promised.*' (7) When this letter was brought to light, with Herods those concocted to injure Salome, a suspicion crossed newfwni the king's mind that perhaps the letters incriminating naming Alexander were also forgeries.* He was, moreover, heir!^^^ deeply distressed at the thought that he had almost killed his sister also, owing to Antipater's intrigues. " Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, and after his death known as .Julia Augusta; by her former husband she was mother of the emperor Tiberius.
:

The governor, thereupon,

"

Cy.

§

528.

305

JOSEPHUS
K7€Lva<;
St'
^

AvTLTTaTpov
virkp

645 Xa^^lv
€771

riymjpiav
^

ovK€TL avdvTOJv.

ovi^

dve^ciXXero
8'

d)pfJir]iJi€vo<;

AvTiTTarpou iiTeuxidr) voooj WKfirj'; Kal row Kara HaXojix-q^ €(jk€vrrjv re SiaQ-qK-qv G46 ojprjfjL€vajv eVeCTreiAei' KalaapL.
TOP
;\;aAe77r)- Trept

lievTOL

ri]<;

atTT^aa? ^xeriypar^ev, Kal fSaoiXea fiev ^ Avrinav dfieXwu rwv Trpea^irrdTtov

dn^heLKwev
^
,

\p)(eXdov
tovtov<;
xpriiidTa)v

Kal

^iXlttttov
;(iAta

hia^e^X-qKei

yap

Kal

'AvTL7Tarpo<;
SojpoLS

Kaiaapi be ovv rols
TaXai^ra,
rfj

Si;(a'

hk yvvatKL Kal t€kvols

auTov Kal (f)LXoLg Kal ciTreAe u^e'poi? 7T€pl TTeuraKOOia, dneveni€v he Kal Tolg aAAoi? Traiolv^ ttjs re ;^ojpa9 OVK oXiya Kal rc7w XPVf^^'^^^' Aa/XTrpoTarat? 8e
bajpeals eVt'/xa ZaAcu/xr^i/ r-qv dheX(f)-qv. Tat9 biaOrjKaL^ ravra StajpOcoaaro.
647
(xxxiii,
I)

iv

ixex'

ovv

ripoT^ei

8'
Sr)

repov
yrjpa

T)

i'6ao<;,

are

avroj 77p6? ro xaXerrcora>u appojor-qpidraw iv
iqv

Kal

ddvixia

eTnirerjovrajv

fxev

yap
hk
dj<;

rjSr]

ox^bou
tpvx'Tjv

erojv

i^bofJ.'qKOvra,

rerarreivajro
avpi(f)Opals,

rrjv
fJ-rjh*

rat? rrepl

row reKvojv
-qheoju

iv

vyteia^

n

rojv

rrpooUadaL.

ri)s

vooov

5' Tjv iTTLraoLS io)v

*AvrL7Tarpos, ov ovk ev Trapepyo),

patera? hk TTpofjprjro at'eAeii^.
648
(2)

FtVerat
Tt?
rrjv

hrjfxorLK-q

Kara

iv rals ov}X(l)opal<; avroj Kal h-uo rjoav oo<f)Laral irravdoraoLS ttoXlv jxdXtara hoKOVvreg dKpi^ovv rd
h'

^ Havercamp on ms. authority: bia. most mss. cf. B. 104 for the same error. * Destinon (after A. xvii. 147 vUctlv): airaaiv m93.
;

i.

'

ir/fta

M99.

money." Greek "sophists." The Greek term, orijrinally free sinister associations, for a paid professor of from any
"
*

Literally " without

306

JEWISH WAR,

I.

644-648 (-ant.

xvii.

146-149)

He determined, therefore, to delay no longer to punish him for all his crimes. But when proceeding to extreme measures against Antipater, he was arrested by a serious illness. He Mrote, however, to Caesar on the subject of Acme and the fraud which
he also called for had been practised on Salome He now named Antipas his will and modified it. king, passing over his eldest sons, Archelaus and Philip, who had also been the objects of Antipater 's calumnies. To Augustus he bequeathed, besides gifts in kind," one thousand talents to the empress, to the children, friends and freedmen of the emperor about five hundred to the other members of his own family he assigned large tracts of territory and considerable sums of money, honouring his sister Salome with the most magnificent presents of all. Such were the corrections which Herod made in
;
; ;

his will.

(xxxiii. 1) His illness steadily grew worse, aggra- Herod' vated as were the attacks of disease by age and ISneS despondency. For he was now nearly seventy years old, and his tragic experiences with his children had so broken his spirit, that even in good health he no longer enjoyed any of the pleasures of life. His malady was further increased by the thought that for he had determined Antipater was still alive that his execution should be no casual affair, but seriously undertaken on his recovery. (2) To his other troubles was now added an in- a sedit surrection of the populace. There were in the pui^'^c capital two doctors^ with a reputation as profound thegoi experts in the laws of their country, who con- tul Tel
;

4 B.C.

rhetoric etc. is employed the Jewish " Rabbi."

by Josephus as the equivalent of

307

JOSEPHUS
TTarpLa Kal 6ta Tovro eV vavrl
rj^LojfjLeuoL 60^17?,

rw

edvei ixeyiarr^g

649

Mar^ta?

eVepo?
rcov

'louSa? re uto? He7T<f)Ojpaiov^ kol AJapyaAof. toutoi? ouk oAtyo6
viujv
e^rj-youfJievoLg

TTpoofjeaav

rov?

vofioug,

Kal ov^i^ov ovv€L)(ov^ ooiiiiepai rojr rj^owTOJi' crrparo-ehov. ot rore roi' f^aoiXia TiwOavofievoL rai? dOvfiLaig VTTeKpeovra^ Kal rfj voacp Xoyov KadUaav €is rov? yvajpifiovg, tu? dpa Katpog iTnrrjSeLOTaros
650 TTapa tovs

ra KaraoKevaoOevra epya KaraaTTdv ddep-LTOu yap elvat Kara rov vaou ^ ecKouag rj npoTOfxa? Tj [,cpov TLVO? eTTajvufiov epyov etVat* Karelrj

TLfiajpelv tJSt] ro) deo) Kal

Trarpiov? vofMOvg

.

eoKevoLKei S'
oocjyLorai,

o PaocXev-; vrrkp rr]v fxeyaX-qv TrvXrjv
hr)

de-ov )(pvoovw ov

rore Trapffvovv iKKOTrretv ol

KaXov elvat Xeyoureg, et Kal rt? ylvoiro KLvhvvos, irnep rod TTarpiov vofiov 9vrjaK€LV' roZs
dddi'aToi' re rrjw
ifjv)(rjv

yap ovTco TeXcuroJatv
rrjv Iv

Kal

651

dyadolg aiod-qoiv alowiov TrapafiiveLV, rovs hk dyei^i^ei?* Kal tt7? eavrcou aortas' aTtetpov^ dyvoovvTas (biXoipv^elv Kal npo rod he aperijs top Ik voaov ddvarov aipeLodai. (3) "Afia 8e rot? (.kclvow Aoyot? hLecfyrjixiodr] Kal OvrjOKeiv 6 ^aoiXev?, wore BappaXewrepov Tj-rovro rrj<; €7nx^LpT]Geajg ol veoi. fieo-qg yovv rjpepas Kal ttoXXwv Kara ro lepov dvaor pe(^o pievojv oxolvotg 7Taxelai<; Kadiixrjoavres 0(f)d<; avrov? dno rod reyoug rov xpvoovv derov l^eKorrrov rreXeKeoLU.
^

\'ariant

readings
*

Z(ir<p(pa'iov,

Xcn-ipaipfov
*

:

A.

\\

has
rest.

"ZafjKi^aiov.
'

LVRC:

i'7rop(pyo»'Ta

av^vhu awuxov P: the rest.

avi'rjyov

the

d^efe??

PC.

" Perhaps in imitation of the pediments of Greek temples. In the eatly temples ot Zeus the Hat surface of llie pediment

208

JEWISH WAR,
;

I.

648-651

(

= ant

xvii.

149-155)

sequently enjoyed the highest esteem of the whole nation their names were Judas, son of Sepphoraeus, and Matthias, son of Margalus. Their lectures on the laws were attended by a large youthful audience, and day after day they drew together quite an army of men in their prime. Hearing now that the king was gradually sinking under despondency and disease, these doctors threw out hints to their friends that this was the fitting moment to avenge God's honour and to pull down those structures which had been erected in defiance of their fathers' laws. It was, in fact, unlawful to place in the temple either images or busts or any representation whatsoever of a living creature notwithstanding this, the king had erected over the great gate a golden eagle." This it was which these doctors now exhorted their disciples to cut down, telling them that, even if the action proved hazardous, it was a noble deed to die for the law of one's country for the souls of those who came to such an end attained immortality and it was only an eternally abiding sense of felicity the ignoble, uninitiated in their philosophy, who clung in their ignorance to life and preferred death on a sick-bed to that of a hero. (3) While they were discoursing in this strain, a PunisTir the news culprits rumour spread that the king was dying caused the young men to throw themselves more boldly into the enterprise. At mid-day, accordingly, when numbers of people were perambulating the temple, they let themselves down from the roof by stout cords and began chopping off the golden eagle
; ;
;

;

was ornamented with an eagle as a symbol of the god, whence the whole pediment derived its name (d€T6s or

309

.

JOSEPHUS
652 r^yyiXOrj 8' evOecos rep ^aotXeujs arparrjya), KOiKei-

653

654

655

656

vo? fiera x^ipos ovk oXiyrj^ dvabpafjicov Trepl reaaapOLKovra veavias auXXafipdvei kol Kariqyayev irpos ^acrtAea. TTVvdavojjLevcp S' avrco Trpcorov, el toX/jltjoetav rov -x^pvoovv derov iKKOTrreiv, ojfjioXoyovv. CTretra, tlvos KcXevaavros , dTreKpivavro rod Trarpiov ri 8' ovrojs yeyijdacni' Stepajrijaavros, vofJLOv. dvaipelGdai fxeXXovres, eXeyov on nXetovajv dyadcjv dTToXavaouGLV jjuerd rrjv TeXexrrrjV. rovrois 6 ^aatXevs St' VTrep^oXrjv (4) 'Errt dpyrjs Kpetrrojv rrjs vocrov yevopLevos Trpoeioiv etV €KKXrjGLap, KOL TToXXd TOJi^ dvhpoiv Kaniyoprjoas ojs lepoGvXcov /cat TrpoSaGeL rod vopLov Treipal^oi'Tcov rt pLetl^ov r]^iov KoXdt^eiv ojs dcre^ets'. o 8e SrjpLos BeLGag, pur) Std ttoXXojv 6 eXeyxos ^XOr], rrapeKaXec Trpcorov pL€v rovs vrrodep^ivovs rrjv Trpd^Lu, eVetra rovs iv avrij GvXXrjt^devras KoXdoavra tols XoiTreiSeraL /xoAt? d jSa7TOLS rrjv opyrjv d^teVat. aiXevs, KOL rovs p^ev KadipaJGavras eavrovs dpLa rols GO<f)LGrais Kar€KavG€ ^wt^ra?, rovs Xolttovs 8e rojv GvXXrjcf)d€VTajv rrapeScoKev rols VTrrjperaLS dveAetv (o) "Kvdev avrov ro GOjp,a ndv tj vogos 8ta-

Xa^ovGa ttolklXols TrddeoLv ipiepit^ero' irvperos pL€v yap rju ov Xd^pos, Kvr]Gp.6s 8e dcjiopiqros rrjs iin(f)av€Las oXr]s /cat koXov Gvvex^^'^ dXy-qhoues, Trepi re rovs noSas ojonep vhpojTndjvros otSr^^tara, rov
re rjrpov
(f)XeypLovrj /cat Sr)^
^ 01)

alSoLov GTjTTeSdw gkoj5i'

Xiese

:

mss.

Perhaps " the captain of the Temple " Acts iv. 1 , V. 24).
«•

is

intended

{cf.

310

JEWISH WAR,

I.

652-656

(

= ant.

xvii.

156-169)

with hatchets. The king's captain,^ to whom the matter was immediately reported, hastened to the scene with a considerable force, arrested about forty of the young men and conducted them to the king. Herod first asked them whether they had dared to cut down the golden eagle they admitted it. " Who ordered you to do so ? " he continued. " The law of our fathers." " And why so exultant, when you will shortly be put to death ? " " Because, after our death, we shall enjoy greater felicity." (4) These proceedings provoked the king to such fury that he forgot his disease and had himself carried to a public assembly,^ where at great length he denounced the men as sacrilegious persons who, under the pretext of zeal for the law, had some more ambitious aim in view, and demanded that they should be punished for impiety. The people, apprehensive of wholesale prosecutions, besought him to confine the punishment to the instigators of the deed and to those who had been arrested in the perpetration of it, and to forgo his anger against the rest. The king grudgingly consented those who had let themselves down from the roof together with the doctors he had burnt alive the remainder of those arrested he handed over to his executioners.
; ;
;

time onwards Herod's malady began body and his sufferings took a variety of forms. He had fever, though not a raging fever, an intolerable itching of the whole skin, continuous pains in the intestines, tumours in the feet as in dropsy, inflammation of the abdomen and
(5)

From

this

Herod's
illness.

to spread to his whole

A meeting of the magistrates in the theatre at Jericho, according to A. xvii. 160 f.
**

311

JOSEPHUS
XrjKa^ y€vv<l)oa, Trpo? tovtols

opOoTTvoia

/cat

hvo-

TTVOia KOi GTTaGfJLol TTOLVTOJV TOiV ^eXoJV, Cl)OT€ Tovg

eTrideiat^ovras

ttolutjv

eii/at

tww

oo^lotow

ra

657 voGTJfiara Xeyeiv.
o/xojs"

6 Se TraXaiojv tooovtol'^ TrddeoLv

Tov

l,i]u

avrelx^TO, aojTqpiav re rjXTTL^ev Kal

BepaTTeias eTrevoei- StajSa? yovu rov ^Yophdvqv rot?
KaTOL KaXXtppo-qu ixprjro depyiols'
fxev

ravra
vrro

S'

e^etat

€L?
icrrl

rrju

^

Aa(j>aXrl7 lv XLfjLvqv,
TTOTLfia.
depfjLco
TrXrjpr]

yXvKvrrjTO?

S*

[Kaiy
eXaio)
els
a>?

So^au Se
rrdv

ivravda rols
to
Kal
ouafia
roi)?

larpol?

dvaddXifjat

XaXaadeu
658 ocjidaXyious

TTveXoVy

eKXvet

redveajs

dveoTpeipev.

dopv^ov Se
<f)a>vrju

Tcou depanevovrajv yevofievou rrpos ftev T-qv

dvqveyKev

,

et? he

to Xolttov drroyvovg

ttju oojriqpiav

roU

re

arpancoTaLg
hiavelp-ai

dpd
Kal

TTevTijKovra

Spaxp-dg
'^ofi

eKiXevaev
TjyeiJiOOL

rroXXd

XPVP-^"^^

Kal rols

^t'Aots".

659

(6)

Ai;t6? 8e v-noGTpicjjojv els ^lepixovvra iraparjhr],

yiveraL peXayxoXoju

Kal povov ovk dneiXcou
els
eVtjSoAT^i/'

ainuj

TO)

davdroj

TrpoeKorrreu

d-

deuirou
Tou

TTpd^eo)?- tov?

yap d6'
6Xr]g

eKdoT-qs

Kcuprjg

evLO-qpovs
€t?

dvhpas

e^

^{ovSalag

ovi'ayayd>i^

KaXovfjievof

LTrrrohpopov

eKeXevaev ovyttjv

660 KXeljai
<f)r]u

TrpooKaXeudpevog he HaXcop-qp
Tou di'hpa ravrris

d6e\e(f)r^,

Kal

'AAe^ai " olha,"

'louSatou? TOV epov eopTaoovTas ddvaTov, hvva'

om.
:

PAM

Lat,
.ms9.

*

Hudson

iiTifiovXr];

S12

JEWISH WAR,

I.

656-660

(

= ant.

xvii.

169-176)
in

gangrene of the privy parts, engendering worms,*^

addition to asthma,^ with great difficulty in breathing, and convulsions in all his limbs. His condition led diviners to pronounce his maladies a judgement on him for his treatment of the professors. Yet, struggling as he was with such numerous sufferings, he clung to life, hoped for recovery, and devised one remedy after another. Thus he crossed the Jordan to take the warm baths at Callirrhoe, the waters of Herod at which descend into the Lake Asphaltitis ^ and from Caiiirrho There, the their sweetness are also used for drink. physicians deciding to raise the temperature of his whole body with hot oil, he was lowered into a bath full of that liquid, whereupon he fainted and turned

up his eyes as though he were dead. His attendants raising an uproar, their cries brought him to himself,
but, now despairing of recovery, he gave orders to distribute fifty drachmas per head to the soldiers and considerable sums to their officers and to his
friends.

(6) He started on his return journey and reached Herod at Jericho in an atrabilious condition, in which, hurling af^est of defiance as it were at death itself, he proceeded to notables. Having assembled devise an outrageous scheme. the distinguished men from every village from one end of Judaea to the other, he ordered them to be locked into the hippodrome. He then summoned his sister Salome and her husband Alexas and said " I know that the Jews will celebrate my death by
;

"

Agrippa
''

Cf. the description of the death of his grandson, I, '• eaten of worms," in Acts xii. 23.

Herod

The Greek word means inabihty to breathe except in an upright posture. " The Dead Sea. Callirrhoe (" Baths of Herod ") was near the N.E. end of it.

313

;

JOSEPHUS
(laL he
e;(etu,

nevSelodaL

8t*

irepojv Kal Xafirrpov i7nTd(l)Lov

dv

vfiels

OeXijarj-e

rats

ejials

ivToXalg

VTTovpyrjaaL.

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" A. xvW. 176, " He was not blind to the feelings of the Jews and knew what relief and intense delight his death would bring them/' A Jewish festi%'al on the seventh of the month Kislev (December), of which the occasion is un-

recorded
is

in the

said

by a

late Scholiast to

Jewish calendar known as Megillath Taanith, commemorate Herod's death

314

JEWISH WAR,
;

I.

660-663

(

= ant.

xvii.

177-186)

a festival " yet I can obtain a vicarious mourning and a magnificent funeral, if you consent to follow my You know these men here in custody instructions. the moment I expire have them surrounded by so shall all Judaea the soldiers and massacred and every household weep for me, whether they will or no." Executio (7) At the moment when he was giving these instructions, he received letters from his ambassadors at Rome, informing him that Acme ^ had been executed by Caesar's orders and Antipater condemned to death but, the letter continued, if his father were content with banishing him, he had At this news he for a Caesar's permission to do so. while recovered his spirits, but later, under the strain of lack of nourishment and a convulsive cough, overpowered by his tortures, he endeavoured to anticipate Herod He took an apple and called tuiS.*^^ the hour of destiny. for a knife, as it was his custom to cut up this fruit when eating it, and then, looking round to see that there was no one to prevent him, raised his hand to However, his cousin Achiab rushed strike himself. up and seizing his hand arrested the blow. Instantly there arose loud lamentations throughout the palace, Anti- Executioi in the belief that the king had passed away pater, quick to catch the sound, took heart again and. radiant with joy, besought his jailers, for a remuneration, to loose him and let him go. The head jailer, however, not only prevented this, but hastened to the king and reported his prisoner's
; ; ;

cut the tradition is untrustworthy. sequel {B. ii. 10) that Herod died a

It

appears from the
before Passover. Schurer, G.J. V.
*

little
f.,

See

Zeitiin.
i.

Megiliat Taanit, pp. 100
f,

ed. 3)

416

§641.

315

JOSEPHUS
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316

JEWISH WAR,
design.

I.

664.-667

(

= ant.

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187-195)

Herod, with a shout which might have seemed beyond a sick man's strength, instantly sent his guards and had Antipater executed. He ordered his body to be buried at Hyrcanium." After that he again amended his will, nominating Archelaus, his eldest son and brother of Antipas, heir to the throne, and Antipas tetrarch.^ (8) Herod survived the execution of his son but
expired after a reign of thirty-four years, reckoning from the date when, after putting Antigonus to death, he assumed control of the state ; of thirty-seven years, from the date ^ when he was proclaimed king by the Romans. In his life as a whole he was blessed, if ever man was, by fortune a commoner, he mounted to a throne, retained it for all those years and bequeathed it to his own children in his family life, on the contrary, no man was more unfortunate. Before the army had learnt of his decease, Salome left the palace with her husband and released the prisoners whom Herod had ordered to be put to death, telling them that the king had changed his mind and now dismissed them all to their homes. Not until after their departure did she and her husband announce the news to the loldiers, summoning them and the rest of the people to a public assembly in the amphitheatre at Jericho. Here Ptolemy, to whom the king had entrusted his ^ r J J Jbenediction iignet-rmg, came forward, pronounced a I 3n the deceased king, delivered an exhortation to :he people, and read a letter which Herod had left
five days.
'^

Herod's

favour of" Archelaus,

Herod's
(about
^^^''^^)-

He

:

;

Reading o
his will.

4.-

" Hyrcania." * 37 b.c. Both sons of the Samaritan Malthace. 40 B.C. (end). Josephus reckons the short portions of Roman calendar year at the beginning and end of the eign as complete years (Schurer, G.J.V, i. 416).
"

Greek here

*

•^

317

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318

JEWISH WAR,
for the troops, in

I.

667-673

(

= ant.

xvii.

195-199)

which he earnestly appealed to be loyal to his successor. After this letter, he opened and read the codicils under these Philip " inherited Trachonitis and the neighbouring districts, Antipas, as we have already mentioned,'' was appointed tetrarch," and Archelaus king. The lastnamed received a charge from Herod to carry his ring to Caesar, with the documents relating to the administration of the realm, under seal, because he had vested in Caesar the control of all his dispositions and the ratification of the will in the remaining particulars the directions of the previous will were

them

to

:

;

to hold good. tions

Archelaus w^as instantly hailed with acclamaand the troops advancing by companies, with the people, made promises of allegiance on their own part, and invoked upon him the blessing of God. The king's funeral next occupied attention. Archelaus, omitting nothing that :;ould contribute to its magnificence, brought forth
(9)

His funen

and congratulations

;

all

the royal ornaments to accompany the procession n honour of the deceased. The bier was of solid ^old, studded with precious stones, and had a coverng of purple, embroidered with various colours on :his lay the body enveloped in a purple robe, a diadem
;

encircling the
^old,

head and surmounted by a crown of the sceptre beside his right hand. Around :he bier were Herod's sons and a large group of lis relations these were followed by the guards, he Thracian contingent, Germans and Gauls, all quipped as for war. The remainder of the troops narched in front, armed and in orderly array, led by
;

«

Son of Cleopatra. « Of Galilee and Peraea {A.

"

§

664.

xvii. 188).

319

JOSEPHUS
Ta^idpXOL? OLKoXovOoVVTeg iv KOOflO), TTeVTaKOOlOl be eV avTOL? rojv olk€T(jju Kal aTreXevdepojv dpojCTTaStou? 5' iKopLLoSy) TO CTcu/xa 8iafjLaTO(f)6poL. Kooiovs^ et? ^WpJjheiov, orrov Kara ra? eVroAa? Kal rd piev rrepl 'HpojSrjv roiovrov eo^ev iTd(t)r].
77epa?.
1

LVRC

Lat. Heg.
starts

;

id^on-nKovra

PAM

(reading

o' /or r

).

The procession

from Jericho which was 150 stades (N.E.) from Jerusalem {B. iv. 4-74); Herodion was bO stades south of Jerusalem [B. i. -265, 4-19).

320

JEWISH WAR,
their

I.

673

(

= ant.

xvii. 199)

commanders and subordinate officers behind came five hundred of Herod's servants and freedmen, carrying spices The body was thus
;

these

conveyed

for a distance of

two hundred furlongs to

Herodion, where, in accordance with the directions
of the deceased,
reign.
it

was interred.

So ended Herod's

VOL.

II

M

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BOOK

II

(i. 1) " The necessity under which Archelaus found Accessio himself of undertaking a journey to Rome was the p^oj^jgec signal for fresh disturbances. After keeping seven archel^ ^'°' days' mourning for his father and providing the usual ^ funeral banquet for the populace on a sumptuous scale a Jewish custom which reduces many to poverty, such entertainment of the people being considered obligatory and its omission an act of impiety he changed into white raiment and went forth to the Temple, where the people received him with varied acclamations. Speaking from a golden throne on a raised platform he greeted the multitude. He thanked them for the zeal which they had displayed over his father's funeral and for the marks of homage shown to himself, as to a king whose claim to the throne was already confirmed. He would, however, he said, for the present abstain not only from the exercise of the authority, but even from the assumption of the titles, of royalty, until his right to the succession had been ratified by Caesar, to whose ruling everything had been submitted under the terms of the will. Even when, as he reminded them, the army at Jericho had desired to place the diadem on his head, he had declined it. He would, none the less, make an ample return alike to the soldiers and to the citizens for their devotion and

«§§ l-S

= A.

xvii.

200-203.

323

JOSEPHUS
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Karaoradevra

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VC

Lat. cf. i. 655. the rest with Lat.
;

'

^ Duties on sales, A. xvii. 205. Judas, Matthias and their followers, B. ' Joazar, A. xvii. 164.

i.

648-655.

S24

JEWISH WAR,
definitely declared

II.

3-8 (=ant.

xvii.

203-208)

supreme authorities had him king for it would be his earnest and constant endeavour to treat them better than they had been treated by his father.
goodwill, as soon as the
;

Delighted at these professions, the multitude Demands ^ once proceeded to test his intentions by making ^ large demands. One party clamoured for a reduction of the taxes, another for the abolition of the duties," a third for the Hberation of the prisoners. To all these requests, in his desire to ingratiate himself with the people, he readily assented. Then, after offering a sacrifice, he regaled himself with his friends. Towards evening, however, a large number Thdr of those who were bent on revolution assembled on on'^ihe"
(2)

at

spot, and, now that the public mourning king was ended, began a lamentation on their own account, bewailing the fate of those whom Herod •11/' II punished tor cuttmg down the golden eagle irom 11 had the gate of the Temple.^ This mourning was in no subdued tones there were piercing shrieks, a dirge directed by a conductor, and lamentations with beating of the breast which resounded throughout the all this in honour of the unfortunate men who, city they asserted, had in defence of their country's laws and the Temple perished on the pyre. These martyrs ought, they clamoured, to be avenged by the punishment of Herod's favourites, and the first step was the deposition of the high-priest whom he had appointed,^ as they had a right to select a man of greater piety and purer morals. (3) Archelaus, exasperated by these proceedings, but in haste to depart, wished to defer retahation, from fear that, if he provoked the hostility of the people, he would be detained by a general rising.

the

same

occasion

for the

obsequie
°^^^^^

-1

1

1

r-

martyiec doctors

:

;

325

JOSEPHUS
9 crrparrjyov VTTOTrefJupas Travaacrdai Trape/caAct.

10

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ro

TrXrjOos

i(f)aLvero, rr]v he

Grpandv

e7Ta^ir]Giv avrols oXrjv,

TTetovs hid rrjs TToXeoJS ddpoovs, rovs he
61 Ovovaiv

LTTTTe'is

dvd ro Trehiov

eKdorois

e^ai<j)vr]S

"

Or perhaps
iv. 1.

the

" captain

of the

Temple " (Sagan),

Acts

* Greek " sustenance." In the parallel A. xvil. 214 the writer (an assistant of Josephus), using the same source, appears to have taken the word Tpo<pri literall\- " they had no lack of food for the rebels, not being ashamed to beg for it." Apparently rounding the N.W. side of the city outside
:
<^

S2t)

JEWISH WAR,

II.

8-13

(

= ant.

xvii. 209-217)

He, accordingly, endeavoured to appease the rebels by persuasion, without resort to force, and quietly
sent his general to entreat them to desist. This officer on entering the Temple and before he had even opened his mouth, was driven off by the rioters with many others whom Archelaus a shower of stones sent in after him to call them to reason were similarly treated. To all remonstrances they replied with anger, and it was evident that, given any accession to their numbers, they had no intention of remaining And now the feast of unleavened bread, inactive. which the Jews call Passover, came round it is an occasion for the contribution of a multitude of sacrifices, and a vast crowd streamed in from the country The promoters of the mourning for the ceremony. for the doctors stood in a body in the temple, procuring recruits* for their faction. This alarmed Archelaus, who, wishing to prevent the contagion from spreading to the whole crowd, sent in a tribune in command of a cohort, with orders to restrain by force the ringleaders of the sedition. Indignant at the appearance of the troops, the whole crowd pelted them with stones most of the cohort were killed, while their commander was wounded and escaped with
<*

;

is

quelle

;

Jioo^g,^ April, 4

;

Then, as if nothing serious had happened, the rioters returned to their sacrifices. Archelaus, however, now felt that it would be impossible to restrain the mob without bloodshed, and let loose upon them his entire army, the infantry advancing in close order through the city, the cavalry by way of the plain. The soldiers falling unexpectedly upon the
difficulty.
^^

the walls, while the infantry struck straight across from the palace which lay on the S.W. of the city to the Temple on the N.E.

327

.

JOSEPHUS
vpooneaov-re^ hiachOelpovGL TO 8e XoLTTOV 7tAi9(?o? ct?
fxev
TO.

rrepl

Tpia^iAt'ou?,
op-q

TrXrjGLOv

8(-

eoKehaaav.

et-novro

be

^ApxeXdou

K-qpuKes

k€-

14

eV oXkov, koi eKaarov avaxtopelv Xevovreg rtdvres a)XOvro Tr]V ioprr^v aTroAtTTOvre?. (ii. 8€ fierd Trj<; pLrjrpog Kal tcuv 1) Auro? Kal ^LKoXdov YlorrXd YljoXei^aLov Kal (j)LXajv
Karrjct
Trpos

BdXaaaav KaraXiTTojv
Kal
K-qhep-ova
re rcJv

irrLTpoTTov

re

7COU ^aGiXeiajv
15 17T7TOV.

oLKeLcov

Ot'A-

ovve^rj€L d' a/xa rot? t€Kvol? ZaAcu/xry Kal

Tov
fiev

jSaCTtAeco?

dSeA^tSot

Kat
irepl

yap.^pol,
rrjs

tco

SoK€LV

GVvayojVLOViJievoL

hLaSo)(rjs

Tcov
16

^Apx^Xdcp, TO 8' dX-qOes Karr]yop-qoovT€<; Ttepl Kara to lepov 7TapavopLrjdevTa>v 8' auTols Kara ttjv KaLodpetav (2) T,vvavTa
6
TTjs

T.a^luo?
dvLd>v
irrl

T.vpLas

iTTirpoTTo?

ets"

'IoL'8atai'

tovTov irreoxev TrpoaajTepoj p^copetv irreXddjv Ovapos,
(f)vXaKfj tcov
xprjfjidTCDV.

'HpcoSou

ov Sid
1"

riroAe/xatoi; ttoAAo, SerjOelg

^

Apx^Xao?

pter-

rdre fiev ovv "La^lvo? Ovdpo) ;^apt^6fieuo? ovT* €771 ra? aKpa? ecrTreuCTei^ oure ra Tapnela TCOV TTaTpcpcov XPVI^'^'^^'^ aTreKXeLoev Wpx^Xdcxj,
eTTepuparo.
p.lXP'-

^^

'^'7?

Kataapo?
o
etV

hiayvojoecos
ttj?

rjpeii-qoeiv
co?

18 v-eox^'i'o

Kal hUTpt^ev
e/Lt77o8t^oi''Ttut'

IttI

KaLoapetag.
€tV dvrjxdr],

8e

Ttui^

/xev

Av'Tid;^etai'

dTTrjpev,
Ta;)(Oi;?

*Apx^Xaog
eVt

8e

'Pcvpuqv
opp-Tjoa^

8ta

'lepoaoAu/xojy

TrapaXap^^dvei

TCI

jSacriAeta, /cat fieTaTrefjLTToiJievo?

tov? t€ (f>poup-

* Called Ptollas in ^. xvii. -219. Malthace. Herod's chief friend and executor, B. i. 473, 667, ii. 21. Of Damascus, another friend of Herod, and the historian on whose work Josephus is here probably dependent.

°
'

•*

328

JEWISH WAR,

II.

lS-18

(

= axt.

xvii.

218-223)

various parties busy with their sacrifices slew about three thousand of them and dispersed the renaainder among the neighbouring hills. The heralds of Archelaus followed and ordered everyone to return home ; so they all abandoned the festival and departed.
(ii.

Archelaus himself with his mother'^ and his Archeiau; Poplas,* Ptolemy,^ and Nicolas,"* now de- departs °™^' scended to the coast, leaving Philip to take charge of °^ the palace* and to protect his private interests. Salome/ with her children, also accompanied him, and the nephews and sons-in-law of the late king, ostensibly to support the claims of Archelaus to the succession, but in reality to accuse him of the recent Uega) proceedings in the Temple. (2) At Caesarea the party were met by Sabinus, .Mercecar procurator of Syria," on his way up to Judaea to take designs charge of Herod's estate. He was prevented from p^ocumc continuing his journey by the arrival of Varus,'* whose presence Archelaus had. through Ptolemy, urgently solicited. Sabmus. in deference to Varus, abandoned for the moment his intention of rushing to the castles and excluding Archelaus from access to his father s treasuries, and. promising to take no action until Caesar had given his decision, remained But as soon as those who had obat Caesarea structed his designs had left. Varus for Antioch,* Archelaus for Rome, he sped to Jerusalem and took and then, summoning the possession of the palace
1)

friends,

>\

;

*

"

Or perhaps " the realm." More accurately described
'•wv
eu

^

Herod's

sister.

in

^wi-^ooTTos

Zvpiq irpay>x6.Tu)Vf

A. xvii. 221 as Kalaapo^ i.e. imperial finance officer

for the province.
*
*

left

Quintilius Varus, governor (legatus) of Syria {B. i. 617). Before returning to Antioch he visited Jerusalem and a legion there to keep order (§ 40).

VOL.

II

M

2

S29

JOSEPHUS
apxov?
Kal
bioiKr]7ag

In^ipdro

hi^p^vvav

rov<;

rCjv xprjiiaTOJV dvaXoyiOfiovg rds t€ ciKpas
19 XayL^6.v€.iv.

napa-

KaTTjjjLeXovv

€Kaora
fjLaXXov
Tj

ov jxt-jv ol (j)iXaK€S tojv \\p)(€Xdou t^povpovvreg ep.€vov Se evToXwv, Kal rr)v (f)povpdv dvaTidevreg Katoapt
*Ap)(€Xdip.

20

(3)

Kdv

TOVTCp

7T€pl TT^? jSaatAeta?

dpL(j)LG^r)Ta)V TTaXlV *AvTL77aS dud^eiOLV d^Lojv ttjs imSLadrj-

21

KvpLOjrepau elvat rrjv StaOrjKrjv, eV fj ^aaiXevg ovXXrnlj€o9aL 8' avro) TrpoiJTTdo)(€TO ^aXajji-q Kal ttoXXol tow avv Wpx^Xdco TrXeourajv ovyyevow. irrriy^ro he r-qu iirjTepa Kal Tov dheXcfiov KiKoXdov YlroXefialov, poTrrjv eluai
KTjs

avTos iyeypaTTTO.

'Wpojhr] ttlotlw yeyovei iKeiwov TLpnajraTOS' TrXeXarov pivTOi TTeTToldet hid SetvoTT^ra Xoyow Klprjvaloj toj priTopL, hid Kal Tous" vovOerovvTa? €'lk€lv Wpx^Xdco
rrju

hoKOvvra Std
brj

Tiapd

yap

t(2)v

(f)LXa>v

22

Kara to TTpeo^elou Kal rd? inLhiadrjKag hteKpovaaro. peOioraro 8e eV 'Pojprj 'ndvra>v vpos avrov
Tj

GTTovhr] 70JV ovyyevojv,

oh

Xaos,

Kal

t:

po-qyov pivojs

hid piaovs rjv *Apx^eKaoTog avrovopLiag

iTTedvpei oTpar-qyo) 'PaJ/iat6o^ hiOLKovpevrj?, el he TOVTo^ hiapaprdvoi, ^aotXeveLU 'Ai^rtVai^ jjdeXev. 23 (-i) Hvv7'jpyeL 8* avrois els rovro Kal Ha^ii^os hi* emoroXdoVy Kar-qyoprjoa? p.ev ^Ap^eXdov rtapd 24 Kataapt, 8' TioXXd ^ Avriirav. ovveTraiveoag rd^avres he rd eyKXrjpara ol jrepl HaXojprju eve\eipioav Katcrapt, Kal perd tovtous Wpx^Xaos rd T€^ Ke^ctAata rwv eavrov hLKaia>u ypdipag Kal rov
1

toJtou

LVRC.

2+d\XaPAM.
§ I-l.

*•

B.

i.

6t6.

*

Malthace who had sailed with her other son,

330

JEWISH WAR,

II.

18-24

(

= ant.

xvii.

223-228)

governors of the forts and the controllers of the treasury, endeavoured to search into the accounts and to take possession of the castles. These officers, however, mindful of the injunctions of Archelaus, continued to guard their respective trusts, for which they professed to hold themselves responsible to Caesar, rather than to Archelaus. (3) Meanwhile another claimant to the throne had set out for Rome, namely, Antipas, who maintained that the will in which he had been named king had greater validity than the codicil." He had received previous promises of support from Salome and from many of his relations who had sailed with Archelaus. He had won over his mother^ and Ptolemy, brother of Nicolas, from whose influence much was expected, owing to the confidence reposed in him
friends.

Antipas,

claimant
^^^^

by Herod, who had honoured him above all his But what Antipas mainly relied on was the
;

brilhant eloquence of his advocate Irenaeus on the strength of this he refused to listen to those who advised him to give way to Archelaus, in consideration of his rights of seniority and the terms of the codicil. At Rome, all the relations, who detested Archelaus, transferred their support to him the object that was uppermost in the minds of every one of these was autonomy under the administration of a Roman governor, but, in default of that, they preferred to have Antipas for king. (4) They were aided in this design by Sabinus, who, in dispatches to Caesar, accused Archelaus and highly commended Antipas. Salome and her friends now drew up their indictment and placed it in Caesar's hands Archelaus responded by drafting a summary statement of his rights and sending in his father's
; ;

Theriva^
^^

^^^^

331

.

JOSEPHUS
haKJv\:o'^ Tov Trarpo? Kal rovs Xoyou^^ ela-e^nei
20 hioL

UroXeiJLaiov.
diJLcf)OLU

7TpoaKeil)dijLevo<;

8e o

Kalaap ri

Trap'

/car'

ibiav, ro
Trj<;

re fieyedog Tqs jSaj-,-

Ae/a? Kat to vXr)do<;
dpidfiou
T^js

'HpojSov
ouvebpiov

Kal

rd

napd Ovdpov

vpoaoBoVj Trpo? ofi" toi' npoavayvou^^ be Kal ^a^ivov TT^pl iovt'mu
yeved?,
fxev

CTreCTraAjLteVa,

ddpolC^eL

tcov iv

reXcL

'PajfiaioiUy iv Jj Kal rou i^ WypLTTTra Kal 'looAi'a?
TT^s"

dvyaTp6<; derov Tralha Vdiov TTpajrajs iKadiaev,

dTToSlBcuaL 6e \6you
26
(5)

auroU
d
LaAa»/X57?
*

"Kuda
7)1^

KaracTTd?

utd?

'Ai^rtSe'.i^d-

TTarpos",

3e roiv ivavTiovfievoju
(jydoKcov

\p\eXda)
fiev

raro? einelv, Karr^yopei
d}jL(f)L(j^rjT€lv

toI<;

Adyoi?

epyoig
8e
i^Gi^

TTCtAat
TcD;'

dpTL /SacrtAet'a? 'Ap;^eAaoi', rot? 5* yeyovevai ^aaiXia, Karetpa)uev6adaL Kat'crapo? ciKodji^, 01/ htKaoTTjV ttj?

ou TTepLep-eivev, e'i ye fxerd r-qv 'HpcoSoy eyKaOerovg p^kv v-novep.ipa'^ rovg Trepid-qoovras avTco to bidbrjp.a, irpoKadioa^ 8' cVt TOV dpovov Kal ;(pT7/xaTtaa?''* ^aaiXevs, Ta^^L^ T€ Trj<; CTrparid? dp-eiipa^ Kal TTpoKOTrd? ;(aptcrd/Liei^Oi, 28 €TL he TO) hr]p.a) TtdvTa KaTavevaa'^ oocov cL? vapd paoiXecoq Tvx^li' -q^iovv, Kal Toug irrl p-eyidTatg atViat? Trapd tov Trarpd? SeSe/zeVof? Xvaag, vvv rjKei TTapd tov Sea-noTov GKidv aLTr]o6fjLevo<; paaiXeia?, rjg yjpTraoev iavTO) to ocjp^a, Kal ttoicou ov TcJijv TTpayp.dT(i}v dXXd tojv 6vop.dTa>v Kvpiov 8' 29 Kai'crapa. TTpoaajveihiiCev cu? Kat to irevdog
21 SLaSoxrjs

TeXeuTYju

^

rationes

administrationis

Lat.

(apparently

reading

'Soyicixovu as in
*
»

A.

!').

PAV*:
+wi

Tooaavayvovs the rest (perhaps rightly).

MLVRC.

SS-2

JEWISH WAR,

II.

24-29

(

= ant.

xvii. 228-233)

ring and papers ^ by Ptolemy to the emperor. Caesar, after reflecting in private on the allegations of both parties, the extent of the kingdom, the amount of

the revenue,
children,

as

well

as

the

number

of Herod's

and after perusing the letters on the subject which he had received from Varus and Sabinus, summoned a council of leading Romans, at which for the first time he gave a seat to Caius, the son of Agrippa and his daughter Julia, whom he had adopted himself he then called upon the parties to
;

council

Augustus

speak.
(5) Thereupon Antipater, son of Salome, the ablest orator among the opponents of Archelaus, rose as his accuser. Archelaus, he stated, although at the
Antipatei

laiome,
^^^^^g^j^u

moment

ostensibly suing for a crown, had in reality long since acted as king. He was now merely playing

upon the patient ears of Caesar, whose sentence upon the subject of the succession he had not awaited. For, after Herod's death, had he not suborned persons to place the diadem on his head, sat in state upon the throne and given audience as a king, made changes in the ranks of the army and conferred promotions, assented to all the favours which the people had claimed from him as sovereign, and liberated those whom his father had imprisoned for the gravest crimes ? And after all this he had now come to beg from his lord for the shadow of royalty, of which he had already appropriated the substance, thus making Caesar a dispenser not of realities, but of mere titles A further charge which Antipater brought against
!
i

>|

" Or, with accounts."

the

other

reading

Xoyca/xovs,

" (public)

I

333

JOSEPHUS
KareLpajvevaaro
€.'T7La)(riiiaTit(jJV

rod
to

narpos,

/xe^*

rji-Upav

fi€V

TrpoGOJTTOV

€1?

XvTT-qv,

VVKTOjp
Kal
ttjv

Se

pi-^XP^^

KajfJLOJV

pLeOvGKopLevo?,

iv

oj

Tapax'^v
S*"'

rod TrX-qdovs

eV

tt^?

eVt

rovrois

aya-

vaKriqaeoJS eXeyev yeyovivai.

kol tov

Xoyov TtavTos evaTT-qpeiaaro roj
TOV
vaov
(jyovevBivTcoVy

TrXrjdei

dyowa rov rwv Trept
fieu
i(f)^

ov?
tStat?

iX-qXvdevat

ioprqi',

TTapa

he

tois

dvoiais

wpioj?

cltt-

€G(l)dx6aL'

Kal ToaovTov iv to) Upo) ueaoipevoBai

veKpcw
31

ttXtjOos,

daov ovh^

lA'^Y

d.XX6^vXos Igoj.

peVG€V TToXepLOS
eA77t8o?

€7T€X6(jJV OLK-qpUKTOS

TaVTTJV /XCVTOt

TTjV WfJLOTTjTa TTpOGKeijjdpLeVOV
fJLrjh^

aVTOV Kal TOV TTaTcpa
^aGiXiKris,
f]

avTov ttotc
T-qv

d^i^aJGai

6t€

xeipov
rjv

^vxrjv

Kdjivajv

tov
Kal

GcopiaTos
ou5'

aKpar-qs
€ypa(j)€V

vyiaivovTos
rai?

XoycGpLov
yjhei

6v

ev

eirihiaO-qKais

htdhoxop,

Kal

TavTa
32

fjLtjhh'

TOV

iv

Tals

hiaB-qKais
piev

/.ie/u,0aa^at

hvvdp.€Vos,

as

eypaipev
ipvx'q^'

vyLalvcov

to

GcTjjia,

Kadapdv 8e

ttjv

^X^^ Trddovs

TravTog.

€t

piivToi Kal KvpLOJTepav Tideivi tis ttjv tov Kdpivov-

Tos KpLGLV, drroKex^^poTOvrfGdai ^aGiXeias

Wpx^-

Xaov

eavTov tols et? avTTjV TrapavopL'qdeLGLV' TTOTaTTOv yap dv yevcGdat Xa^ovTa T-qv dpx'qv TTapa Katcrapo? tov Trplv Xa^elv togovtovs dvu</>'

-qprjKOTa;
33
(6)

rioAAd TOiavTa hie^eXdojv WvTLTraTpog Kal
TrXeiGTOVS

TOV?
icj)^

Twv
1

Gvyyevcov
om. PA.

TrapaGT-qGdpLevos

CKdGTa) TOW KaTTqyoprjpLevwv pidpTvpas /cara-

384

JEWISH WAR,

II.

29-33

(

= ant.

xvii. 233-240)

Archelaus was that even in his mourning for his father he had played the hypocrite, in the day-time assuming a pose of grief, at night drinking to riotous In this connexion, he added that the recent excess. outbreak of the populace was attributable to their indignation at such conduct. Proceeding to the main contention of his speech, he laid great stress on the multitude of Jews who had been massacred around the sanctuary, poor people who had come for a

had thembeen brutally immolated.*^ There had been, he said, such a pile of corpses in the temple as would never have been raised even by the ruthless inroad of a foreign foe. It was, indeed, because he foresaw this ferocity of Archelaus that his father had never deigned to hold out to him even a hope of ascending the throne, until the day when, more stricken in mind than in body, and incapable of sound reasoning, he did not even know whose name he was inscribing when, morein the codicil as that of his successor over, he had no fault to find with the heir named in the will which he had drafted while he possessed health of body and a mind quite unclouded by But, he continued, even if greater weight affliction. were attached by any to the decision of an invalid, Archelaus had pronounced his own deposition from the kingdom by his outrages upon it. What would he become, once invested with authority by Caesar, who before receiving it had massacred such multitudes (6) After dilating at length in this strain, and producing most of the relatives as witnesses to each item
festival and, while offering their sacrifices,

selves

;

!

in his accusation, Antipater concluded his speech.
« C/. the charge against Pilate of mingling the blood of Galilaeans with their sacrifices, Luke xiii. 1.

335

JOSEPHUS
34 TraveL
^

tov

Xoyov.

aviorarai

8e

NtKoAao?

VTrep

Xp-X^eXdov y Koi tov fiev eV ro) Upo) (f)6vov dvayKOLOV d7T€(f)r]V€V TToXe/jLLOV? ydp yeyovevai tov? dv-

^aaiXelas fiouov dXXd Kal tov KaiGapo? tcov 8' aAAcov eyKX-qfJidTcov GVjjL^ovXovs dTTeSeiKwev avTovg tov? KaTrjyopovs yeyovevai. tyjv ye jjltjv emhiad-qK-qv rj^iov hid TOVTO /xaAiara elvai Kvpiav, otl ^e^aiojTrjV ev 36 avT-rj Kaloapa KadioTaTO tov htahoxov 6 ydp
r]pr)fievovg

ov

ttjs

35

SiKa^ovTos

avTTjV

.

Gaj<t>povd)V d'jGTe toj heuTTOTr] tcov oXojv Trapaxojpelv
TTJ?

i^OVGUa?

ov

hriTTOV
8'

TTepl

kXi]POv6iXOV

KpLGLV

iG(f)dXXeTO,

G(jj(l>pov(ji)v

fjpelTO

Kal

tov

Kad-

LGTafievov 6 yivojGKOJV tov KadiGTdvTa.
87
(7)

^le^eXdovTos 8e TrdvTa koi ^iKoXdov Trap-

eXdojv ^ApxeXaog TTpoTTiTrTei^ tcov

KauGapo?
elrj

yovdTcxJv

dvavaTpcoa? 38 SiaSox^JS, ov fi-qv tl ^e^aiov drr e(f)-qv aT o htaXvGas 8e TOV? Gvvehpovs eKeivrjs ttjs -qjiepas Kad^ eavTOV
V'^^Xl' GTrjGas
eve(f)r]vev

KdKelvos

avTov

fxev

wg

fidXa d^Log

(f)LXo(f)p6va>g

Trjg
.

TTepl (JjV hLTjKOVGeV eOKeTTTeTO, etT€ XPI "^^^ ^^ rat? SiadrjKaig KaTaGTrJGal Tiva hkdhoxoVy etVe /cat Trao-Q TTj yevea Siavelfxai T-qv dpxrjv eboKet ydp eTTLKOvpias xpflC^^^ '^o TrX-qdog tojv TrpoGOj-najv.

39

(iii.

1)

Y\plv he opiGai tl rrepl tovtojv
r)

Kataapa

40

eK Ttvpiag dTTOGTdGeoJS , ^v 77 po'ihopievos 6 OvapoSy dve^t) ydp /xera tov ^ ApxeXdov ttXovv els 'lepoGoXvfxa tov? TtapaKivovvTa? Kade^ojv, eTTeihr) TrpoSrjXov rjv to ttXtjOos ovk
eKopLLGdrjGav

TeXevTa piev Gaoa, TTapd

WpxeXdov
8'

pLi^Trjp

^laXdaK-rj voG-q-

Ovdpov
ttjs

emoToXal

nepl

^Xovhaiixjv

^

TtpoaTTLTTTu

most

MSS.

336

JEWISH WAR,

II.

34-40

(

= ant.

xvii. 240-251)

Nicolas then rose in defence of Archelaus. He main- Nicolas c tained that the slaughter in the Temple had been for^he^^ rendered necessary, because the victims had shown defence. themselves enemies not only of the kingdom, but also of Caesar, the arbiter of the kingdom. As for the other charges made against Archelaus, he showed that his accusers themselves had advised him to act as he did. The vaUdity of the codicil, he claimed, was proved by this fact above all, that in it Caesar was constituted surety for the succession ; one who was sane enough to cede his authority to the master of the world was surely not mistaken in his selection of an heir. The sagacity shown in his choice of the donor was a guarantee of his sanity in the choice of the recipient. (7) Nicolas on his side having fully stated his case, Perpiexii Archelaus came forward and fell, in silence, at the ^^ngustu: knees of Caesar. The emperor very graciously raised him up, intimating that he thought him worthy to succeed his father, but pronouncing no final decision. After dismissing his council, he passed the day in reflection on what he had heard, considering whether he ought to appoint as successor one of those named in the wills or to divide the dominion among all the children for the numerous members of this family all seemed in need of support. any de- Further (iii. 1) But before Caesar had come to cision on these matters, Malthace, the mother of pg^^'Jg^Qg Archelaus, was taken ill and died, and dispatches provoked arrived from Varus in Syria concerning the revolt conduc uct lUS of the Jews. This outbreak had been foreseen by ^^'^'""^' Jerusalec Varus, who, after the sailing of Archelaus, had gone up to Jerusalem to repress its promoters, and, as it was evident that the people would not remain quiet,
;
1

S37

JOSEPHUS
rip€iir]aov,
41 OTTep

€V

tojv

rpicov
iv
rfj

ano V. ^upta? Tayiiarajv,
jroXei

dyojv
fi€i'

-^Kev,

KaTaXeinei.

Kal

avro?
he
6

V7T€GTpeiJj€v

elg

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iTreXdojv

6.(f)opfir]v avrols 7Tapia\ev veajrepoTovs T€ yap <f)povpovs Trapahihovai rag OLKpas l^idtero Kal TTiKpujg ra ^aoiXiKa \pri\jia7a hi-qpevva, 7T€7tol6(jj9 ov jiovov TOt? VTTO Ovdpov KaTaX€L<f)6eLGt orpartajTaLS dXXd Kal TrXrjdeL SovXojv ISlojv, ou? aTTavras onXioag VTT-qperats ixpTJ^o

Y.a^iVO?

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,

42 77]?

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evardoiqs

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rijs

TrevTrjKoorrjg,

ovroj

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KaXovaiv nua iopTrjv 'louSatot Trap' €7rra yivofievTju e^dopidhas Kal^ rov dpidpLOu tow rjpLepwv rrpoaiqyopLav exovoav ovx rj ovurjdrjg dprjOKeia avv'ivvriyayev rov hrjfxov, dXX' r) dyaudKr-qoig dhpafiev yovv nXrjSos dneLpov €K re rrjg FaAiAata?
,
.

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6 yvT^GLOS

44

*Iou8aia? rpia fiepr) TpLxrj oTparorrehevovrai, rrpog re tco ^opetco rov lepov KXipLari Kal rrpdg rco piearjfi^pivco Kara tou IvTTohpopLOV, Tj he rplrrj fioipa rrpos rolg ^aoiXeloig
TTpodvpLLaLS
Aads".

dvhpwv

e| avr-qs
elg

hiaveijxavres he

o^dg avrovg

Kara hvatv.
45
(2)

rrepLKaBetopievoi he rravraxodev rows
rrpos

'PcU/XatOUS" €7ToXl6pKOVV.

'0 he 'La^Lvo?
Kal
tol

re

vrroheloas

(f)povi]piara,

ro ttXtjOo? avrojv awex^^? p^^v dy-

yeXovs errepLvev rrpog Ovapov errapivveiv ev rdx^^ heofievos, tu? el ^pahvvoL KaraKorrrjoofievov tov 46 rdyfiarog- avros he irrl tou vip-qXorarov rov ^povpiov TTvpyou dva^ds, o? eKaXeiro Oaaar^Ao? err^ Agra Hudson (after LaL).
«•

^

16.

838

JEWISH WAR,
had

II.

40-46

(

= ant.

xvii. 251-267)

left in the city one of the three legions from Syria which he had brought with him he himself then returned to Antioch. It was the arrival of Sabinus ° which gave the Jews an occasion for insurrection. For this officer endeavoured to force the guardians of the citadels to hand them over to him and instituted an exacting search for the royal treasures, relying for this task not only on the soldiers left by Varus, but on a crowd of his own slaves, all of whom he armed and employed as instruments of his avarice. So, on the arrival of Pentecost thus End of Mj ^'^' the Jews call a feast which occurs seven weeks after ^ JPassover),^ and takes its name from the number of intervening days it was not the customary ritual so much as indignation w^hich drew the people in crowds to the capital. A countless multitude flocked in from Galilee, from Idumaea, from Jericho, and from Peraea beyond the Jordan, but it was the native population of Judaea itself which, both in numbers and ardour, was pre-eminent. Distributing themselves into three divisions, they formed three camps, one 3n the north of the Temple, another on the south, adjoining the hippodrome," and the third near the Dalace, on the west. Thus investing the Romans on all sides, they held them under siege. (2) Sabinus, terrified at their numbers and deter- a fight in
;

messenger after messenger to begging for his prompt support and assuring him that, if he delayed, the legion would be cut to pieces. He himself mounted to the highest tower in
Tiination, dispatched
V^arus,
*

*^® ^^"^^

Such must be the meaning, but

this sense of

napd

is

unusual.
"

its

Mentioned here only and in the parallel in J. xvii. 255 ; exact position is unknown. It was probably built by

Herod.

339

JOSEPHUS
cLfVfiov

exojv

db€}(<f)6v

*Hpc68ou hiaifydapevra

vtto

Yldpdow, evrevBev KareoeLev roi? iv
orpaTLOJTaLS eTrLX^ipeTv rol? TToXepLLOis'

tw

rdty/itaTt

8t' eKTrX-q^iv

yap ou5'
ro

€LS

Tovs a^erepovs Kara^aivetv iddppeL.
Be ol oTpanajTai TTpoTrrjhcooiu €19
p.dx'Q^

47 TTapaTTeLodeuTe?

Upov

Kal
cV

Kaprepdu
pi^v

rots

'louSaioi?
KadvTTepdei^

ovvdiTTovoLV,

ff

fJL€Xpi

ovBels

irr-qpLVvev TrepLrjaau

ip-eLpla TroAe/xou rwv dveipixtv

48 eVet 8e ttoAAoi ^Xovhaiojv

dva^dvres

iirl rds"

OTodg

Kara Kc^aArj? avTcov
TToAAoi fcal

rd ^eX-q, ovverpi^ovro oure tou? dvojdeu ^dXXovras dpivi'€odaL
rjcjyUoav

pdhiov
pLeveiv.

-qv,

ov7€ rovs ovo7dhr]v pLaxopievov? vtto-

49

(3)

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8e'

Trpos

aM^OTcpctji'

vtto-

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/<at
1)770

rd? GTod<;

,

epya davp-dota fieyeOoug re

TToAureAeias" eve/ccv'* ot 8'
T-qg <l)Xoy6s

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tojv

ai^rojt'

i^ai<f)vrig

irepiax^Q^vjes ttoXXoI pLev iv avTJj
8e
vtto

hie(j)6dpr]oau,

ttoXXol

voXepnajv

tttj-

bdjvres elg avTovg, riveg 8' eig tovttlooj

Kara 7oO

7€ixovs iKprjpLvil^ovTO, evLOL
50 18101?
^L(f)eoLU

8'

ut:'

dpiqxo.vLag Tolg

TO 77vp eSdauoi^' oool 8e KadepTTvfi^o-v

oavres drro rd)V reixdjv
tcjv
rep

elg

rovg

Poj^atou?
Kal^
rdji>

€va€-ax^'i-P^O70i hid rrjV eKTrXrj^LV rjoau.
pikv

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ip-qpLOJ

8*

vvo rod heovg OKehaOeov
drjoavpo)
irpoo<t€>

odevTOJU,
'

rov

^J.(v PA, which Destinon retains, writing aiveTpl^ovro above and making the apodosis begin at KaTa^rol'ov^.tvQl..

»

VxP'

LVRC

Lat.

S40

JEWISH WAR.
the fortress

II.

46-50

(

= ant.

xvii. 257-264)

was

slain

by the Parthians"

— called Phasael, after Herod'sbrother,\vlio — and thence signalled

to the legionaries to attack the enemy, for he was in such a panic that he had not even the courage to descend to his own men. The soldiers, obedient to this poltroon, leapt into the Temple and engaged in a stubborn contest with the Jews. So long as they remained unassailed from above, their military experience gave them the advantage over the novices opposed to them but when a large body of Jews mounted the porticoes and poured their missiles down upon their heads, many fell, and the Romans found it no easy task either to defend themselves against those attacking them from above or to hold their ground against their other opponents in hand-to-hand fight. (3) Harassed by these two foes, the legionaries Burning set fire to the porticoes, which for massive grandeur porticoes and magnificence were wonderful works of art. Of ^"^ '*'"** ~ or the the Jews who occupied them, many, suddenly en- treasury. many leapt down veloped, perished in the flames
; ;

among
;

their enemies

and were

slain

by them

;

some

flung themselves over the precipitous wall in their rear others, in despair, threw themselves on their

avoid becoming victims of the any who successfully crept down from the wall and dashed at the Romans fell an easy prey, owing to their dazed condition. Then, their enemies either slain or dispersed in panic, the soldiers fell upon God's treasury, now reft of defenders, and plundered it to the amount of some
to

own swords
flames
;

while

"

6/. ZJ.i. 27 If.,

and

for the tower of Phasael

i.

418,

v.

166.

341

.

JOSEPHUS
7T€o6uT€? OL orpaTLOjTaL TTepl T6Tpa/<oata TaAavTa bnqpnaoai^, (Lu ooa fir) StCKAaTTi] T.a^lvog rjdpotoev. 51 (4) 'louSatoL'? he -q re tujv kpyow kol avhpcov /cat p.a)(_Lii(x)r€pov? iTnavu(f)dopa TToXv TrXeiov?

doTTjoeu

'PajpLaiOLgy

Kal Trepioxovre? ra ^aoiXeta
1-17]

TTOLvrag rj7T€iXovv Sia(t)d€Lp€LV, el

ddrrov aTTLOiev
^ovXopLevcp

VTno)(yovvro
o2 fJ-era

yap aheiav

rco

Za/StVco

TaypLaro? e^teVat. ovveXdpi^avou 8' avToT?^ ol nXeiovs roju ^aotXiKajv avropLoXrjGavreg T^e^aor-qvol TToXepLLKcoTarop ro pLei'TOL p.epos, TpLOX^XioL, 'Pov(f)6<g re Kal Tpdrog inl rovroLS, o pLev Toi)? TTc^oi)? rcju BaoiXiKOJV vtt^ avrov excov, 'Pov<f)0? he rovg tTTTret?, (Lu eKarepog /cat ;\;ajpt9 VTTTjKOov hwdpLeo)? St' dXKTjv Kal Gvveoiv rjv 'louSaiot 53 TToXepLou poTTTj,'^ TTpooeBevro 'Pa»/xatot?. p.ev ovv eveKeivro rfj TToXiopKia, rojv ret^ojv a/xa TTeipojpievoL rod c^povpiov Kal rols rrepl rov ILa^vov ipL^ocjvreg arrteVat, /X7]8' epLTrohojv avrolg yeveodai

rod

hid

xpovov

TToXXov
2a/StVoj

KopLLl,opLevoi<i

rr]v

irdrpiov
tju

54 avrovopLiav.

8'

dyaTT-qrov pikv

vrre^-

eXdelVy rjTTLoreL he rat? VTtooxeoeoiv /cat to Trpdov

avrojv heXeap et? evehpav vTrajfrrevev dp.a he /cat r-qv aTTO Ovdpov ^OTjOetau eX7Til,<jji> hterpi^ev rrjv
TToXiopKLav.
55
(iv.
1)

'Ei^

he
'

rovrcp Kal rd Kara rr)v
ed. pr.
:

x^P^^

avTovi MS9.
Tj

2

ijv

TToX/MOf ponr)
to

Naber
xvii.

:

iro\iiJ.Qv (jOTr-qv

niost MSS.

264 Sabinus secured 400 talents apart from the sums stolen by the soldiers. The writer oi A. is clearly imitating Thuc. vii. 85 ro (xku oZv adpoLodh tqZ
<"

According

A.

aTf,aTtv/jLaTO': i% to KOifdf oC

a passage of which there
*

i.e.

wo\u iy^vero, rb hh 5iaK\aTr(v ttoXv, be a faint reminiscence here. troops drafted in the region of Sebaste - Samaria.

may

342

JEWISH WAR,

II.

50-55

(

= ant.

xvii. 264-

four hundred talents ; of this sum all that stolen by them was collected by Sabinus.*^

was not

(4) However, the effect of this loss of buildings and of lives was only to rally the Jews in far greater strength and efficiency against the Romans. Surrounding the palace, they threatened to kill them to a man unless they promptly withdrew if Sabinus were prepared to retire with his legion, they guaranteed him a safe conduct. The rebels now had with them the bulk of the royal troops which had deserted
;

Sabimis
j^n^hf^^ palace.

to their side.

The most

efficient division,

however,

of those troops still adhered to the Romans, namely, three thousand Sebastenians,^ under Rufus and Gratus, the latter commanding the royal infantry, the former the cavalry ; a pair, either of whom, even without any force under him, was worth an army,^ owing to their bravery and acumen. So the Jews pressed the siege, making assaults on the fortress, while at the same time they loudly called on Sabinus and his followers to depart and not to stand in the way of men who after such a lapse of time were on the road to recovering their national independence. Sabinus would have been quite content to slink away, but he mistrusted their promises, and suspected that their mildness was a bait he was, moreover, hoping for succour to ensnare him from Varus and so let the siege drag on. (iv. 1) Meanwhile, the country also, in various

;

These cohorts of Sehasteni are often mentioned in inscriptions, and elsewhere in Josephus, e.g. B. ii. 58, 63, 74, 236. The aireipa 'Ze^aarrj mentioned in Acts xxvii. 1 as quartered at Caesarea was probably one of them, though le^aarri^ its full title was probably cohors Atiffusta, not Sebastenian Avgusta Sehastenorum (Schiirer).
;

*

Literally " sufficient to turn the scale of war."

343

JOSEPHUS
voXXaxoOei' irapdaoero, Kacpo? dviireiBev. Kara
8tCT;)(tAiot

/cat

fiev

ovxvovs ^aoiXeidv o ye r-qv 'ISou/xatW

Toil'

VTTO 'Wpojhrj TrdAat arpaTevaafxevcov
8i€/xa;)(OVTO rot? ^aoiXiKol^,- ol?

ovoTavres evoTrXoi

'A;^ta/3o? OLveijjLO? ^aaiXdojs oltto tcov IpvyLVordrajv

XojpLcov eTToXefieL, V7T0(f)€vy(jJv rr]v
56 GVfiTrXoKrjv cv he T.e7T<f>a)peL rrj?

iv rol? TreStois"

TaXiXatag 'louSa?, VLOS 'E^e/cta rov Kararpexovros rtore rrjv x^P^^ dpxi-XrjaTou koI ;(eipaj^eVTOS' v(f)* 'HpcuSou jSaatAecus", crvoT-qaas rrX-qdo? ovx dXiyov dvappiqyvvoLv TOL? /SaCTtAtKOL? OTrXodi^Kas Kal rov? rrepl avTov OTrXioag rol? r-qv hvvaoreiav t,r)XovoLV e7re;\;etp6t.
{"2)

57

Kara

8e tt^v

nepatav

Zt/Ltcui'

rt? tcuv /Saat-

Ai/ca»i/

SouAtuv',

evp.op(^iq.

ocufiaros

Kal

jxeyedeL

TTeTToidojs , TTepiTLdrjGLU fxev eavTO) SidSrjiJLa, Trepucuv

he fieS' (Lv ovvrjOpOLoev Xtjotow rd re ev 'l6pi;(0t ^aoiXeta KaraTTLfXTTprjOLU Kal rroXXas erepa? rcvv
TToXvreXojv
evTrpertTj

eTravXets,

dprrayds

58 TTvpo? avrco vopiL,6p.evos.

Kav
fjirj

KaradiXe^as,

el

eV rov rrdaav OLKrjGLV Vpdrog 6 row ^aoiXtpaStcu?
e(f)6r]

Kcjv TTetojv Tjyepiujv rovs re

TpaxoJVLra<;^

ro^oras

Kal ro iiaxip^ojrarov rujv ^e^acrrrjvdjv dvaXa^dtv 59 vTTavridleL rov dvhpa. ra)U p.ev ovv Wepaiatv^ ovx^ol hLecf)ddpr]oaif ev rfj p-dxi], tov ^ijxojva 8* avrov dvachevyovra 5i* opdlov (f)dpayyo? 6 Vparo? V 77 or ejjLver at Kal ^evyovros eK TrXayiov rov au;(eVa KarecjiXeyr] he Kal rd TrX-qoiov vXi'i^a? drreppa^ev.'^
*
^ Hudson from Lat. Tpaxanoras etc. mss. vaiuv, Traiduv or ire^'il'u .ms3. Destinon from A.
:
ji

:

'

aTr(pp7)^ev

PA.
suicide,

"

i.e.
i.

Herod,
;

whom

he

had once saved from
"

B.

662

c/. n. 77.

B.

i.

204.

344

JEWISH WAR,
districts, J

II.

55-59

(

= ant.

xvii. 269-277)

^

was a prey to disorder, and the opportunity Anarchy -4. Palestine. •J u r -J. to induced numbers or persons X aspire to sovereignty. In Idumaea, two thousand of Herod's veterans formed Revolt of up in arms and took the field against the royal troops, veterans They were opposed by Achiab, the king's" cousin, i^d^^^^^e^ who, avoiding an engagement in the plain, fell back on the strongest positions. At Sepphoris in Galilee and of Judas, son of Ezechias, the brigand-chief who in oaiiiee." former days infested the country and was subdued by King Herod,^ raised a considerable body of followers, broke open the royal arsenals, and, having armed his companions, attacked the other aspirants to power. (2) In Peraea Simon/ one of the royal slaves, proud The usuri mon in of his tall and handsome figure, assumed the diadem, pe^a ea. Perambulating the country with the brigands whom he had collected, he burnt down the royal palace at Jericho and many other stately mansions, such incendiarism providing him with an easy opportunity for plunder. Not a house of any respectability would have escaped the flames, had not Gratus, the commander of the royal infantry, with the archers of Trachonitis and the finest troops of the Sebastenians, gone out to encounter this rascal. In the ensuing engagement numbers of the Peraeans fell. Simon himself, endeavouring to escape up a steep ravine, was intercepted by Gratus, who struck the fugitive from the side a blow on the neck, which severed his head from his body. The palace at Betharamatha,'*
i

i

*
.
'^

Mentioned by Tacitus, Hist. Simo quidam regium nomen

v.

9 " post mortem Herodis inuaserat " (Reinach).

^f

the

Beth-haram of the Old Test. (Jos. xiii. 27), Beth-ramtha Talmud, rebuilt by Herod Antipas and renamed Julias

A.
jf

xviii.

the

Dead Sea and

27) or Livias ; some six miles north of east of the Jordan.

ttie

tiead

345

JOSEPHUS
^lophdvov
60
(3)
jSaCTi'Aeta

Kara Br]dapdixada^ ovaravrajv
Ocpatas".
rig
di'rLTTOLrjdrjvai,

iripcjv rivu)V eV ttjs

Tore

/cat

7T0LfJ,-qv

/Saat-

61

eVaAetro, rrpov$€V€L S* avroj r-qv eA7Tt8a ocopLaros loxv? Kal 4^vxrj davdrov Kara<^povov(ja, rrpos he rovrois dhe\(f)ol reaaapes ofJLOLOL. rovrcov iKdcrrco Xo^ov vrroL^ev^a? evoirXov ojoTrep orpanqyoZs expfj'i'o Kal oarpdnat?
Aeta?
iroXfi-qaev.
errl

WBpoyyalos

62 rojv

ra? Karahpopids, avros he Kaddrrep ^aoiXeu? rore p,ev oepLVorepojv -qTTrero Trpayfidrajv.

8' rrepLridrjGLV htdh-qp^a, hiefieivev eavroj ovv vorepov ovk oXlyov xpovop rrjv ^copav Kararpe^cov ovv rols dheX(f)ol9' Kal ro Kreivetv avrolg rrpoTjyovpLevov rju 'Pajfiaiovs re Kal rov? /SacriAtKou?, hiecfyevyev 8' ovSe ^lovhalcxjv el ri? eh X^^P*^^ eXdot 63 (j)epcov eroXfi-qaav he rrore 'Pajfiaiajv KephosXoxov ddpovv TTepLGx^t^ Ko.r Wp^fiaovvra' alra 8' ovroL Kal orrXa hieKoixit^ov roj rdyfiari. rov fiev ovv eKarovrdpxTiv avrojv "Apecov Kal reaaapdKovra

rovs yewaiordrovs Kar-qKovnaav, ol he XolttoI Kivhvvevovres ravro Tradelv, Tpdrov ovv rol? ttoAAo, eTTL^orjdrjoavros, e^e(l)vyov. 64 He^aoTTjvols roLavra rovs eTTixcoptovs Kal rovs dXXo(f)vXovs Trap' oXov rov rroXefMov epyaodp,evoL p.erd XP^'^^^
ol pLev

rpels

ex^tpcoOrjoav,

vtt^

^ApxeXdov

ptev

6

rrpeo^vraroSy ol 8' e^r)S hvo Tpdro) Kal FItoXepaioj TTepiTTeoovres' 6 he rerapros ^ApxeXdqj
65 7Tpooex^P'r]<y€V

Kara he^tdv. rovro pLev hrj to reXos vorepov avrovs i^ehex^To, rore he XrjorpiKov 7ToXep.ov rrjV ^lovhaiav rrdoav eveTTLpLTrXaoav.
^

Niese
\K

:

Bridap6.ni.v

evda or Bijdapafxddov Mss.
xviii. 27.

:

iv 'Afifj-ddois

A.

Br}dapafx<pda

A.

346

JEWISH WAR,

II.

59-65

(

= ant.

xvii. 277-285)

near the Jordan, was likewise burnt to the ground by another body of Peraean insurgents. (3) Now, too, a mere shepherd had the temerity to aspire to the throne. He was called Athrongaeus, and his sole recommendations, to raise such hopes, were vigour of body, a soul contemptuous of death, and four brothers resembHng himself. To each of these he entrusted an armed band and employed them as generals and satraps for his raids, while he himself, like a king, handled matters of graver moment. It was now that he donned the diadem, but his raiding expeditions throughout the country with his brothers continued long afterwards. Their principal object was to kill Romans and royalists, but no Jew, from whom they had anything to gain, escaped, if he fell into their hands. On one occasion they ventured to surround, near Emmaus," an entire Roman company,^ engaged in convoying corn and arms to the legion. Their centurion Arius and forty Df his bravest men w^ere shot down by the brigands the remainder, in danger of a hke fate, were rescued :hrough the intervention of Gratus with his Sebastenans. After perpetrating throughout the war many such outrages upon compatriot and foreigner alike, :hree of them were eventually captured, the eldest Dy Archelaus, the two next by Gratus and Ptolemy :he fourth made terms with Archelaus and sur•endered.*' Such was the end to which they ultinately came but at the period of which we are ipeaking, these men were making the whole of fudaea one scene of guerilla warfare.
;

The usurpi
ga^euTthe shepherd.

;

;

"
'

See § 71 note. There were five

*

Centuria.
is

in all (§ 60)

:

the fate of the fifth

un-

ecorded.

347

JOSEPHUS
66
(v.
/cat

l)

Ovdpco

he

Se^a/xeVoj

ra Trapa Ha^Lvov

67

re rrepl tov oXou TTapeorr) Kal GnevSen^ eVi tt^i' dvaXa^ojv drj rd XoLTrd hvo rdyfiara ^oTjOeLav. Kal rd? avv avTols T€OGapa<i tAas" LTTTreoju inl nToAe/iatSo? TJei, Trpoajd^as €Kel Kal rovs Trapa row ^aoiXiojv Kal hvvacncbv er.LKOvpovs (JVueXdeiv rrpooeXa^eu 8e Kal napd SrjpvTLOJv 8t€p;(op,evos"
rojv -qyefjiouojv ypa/LX/iara Selcrat

rdyiiaTOS

68 TTju ttoXlv
8'

Kal TrevraKooLov? oirXlra?. i-nel to re dXXo ovfj-pLaxiKOv TrX-qOog avTO) rraprju Kal Kara to Trpog 'Hpojhrjv €xdo<; 'ApeVa? o "Apai/f ovk oXiyqv dyojv hvvaiJiLV
;)(tAtoL'?

€iV

rrju

IlToAe/xai'Sa

iTTTTLKrjv
enejJLTrei'

re Kal

7re^t/<:rji/,

(.lepos rrjg

orpand?
rfj

els rrju

FaAtAatai^ yeirvicooai^
rjyefJLOi^a

evdecvs flroAe-

/xatSt

Kal
re

Fatoi'^

rojv

aurov
Kal

0tAa>i^,

o?
iv-

rovs
ttoXlv

inraurLdoavras
avrrjp
fiev
.

rpeTrerai

HeTT^ajpiv
8'

eXdw

efiTTLTrp-qoL,

rov?

69 oiKOVura? dvh pair ohil,er ai
lieoj?

[lerd 8e 717? oXrjs Suvarrj? fieu

avro? Ovapos

el?

^afidpetav eXdoas

dTreox^ro, pir]hev ev rols rajv dXXa>v dopv^ois TTapaKeKLv-qKvlav evpojv, auAt^erat Se nepi riva KcjfjLr^u Wpovv KaXovfJLevrjv KrrjpLa 8e rjv
TToXeoj?

70

kpd^a)V 'HpcuSou ^iXoiq. evdev els lLa-<^dj TrpoeiGLU, Kojp.'qv erepav epvpivi^v, Tjv opLOLOJS hi-qpTTaoav rds re Trpooopovs^ rtdaas
Kal
8td
vtto

nroXepLalov

rovro

rojv

^

hi-qpTrdadrj

p.-qvi6vrajv

Kal

rols

ooais eTTervyxo-vov TTvpds pojTO rrdvra Kal rrpos rds
.

8e

Kal

(f)6vou

rtevX-q'

dpnayds
:

rojv

^

Apd^ojv

^

Yaiov] Galli

filio

Lat.

rci vl.^

A.

||.

2

Destinon and Niese: trpocbbov^
i.e.

.mss.

**

Lat. alae^

regiments of auxiliary cavalry, usually

348

JEWISH WAR,
(v.

II.

66-70

(

= ant.

xvii. 286-290)

receiving the dispatches from Sabinus varus Varus was alarmed for the whole the^JeUef legion and resolved to hasten to its relief. Accord- of Sabinus ingly, mobilizing the two remaining legions with the fom* regiments" of horse which were attached to them, he marched for Ptolemais, having ordered the auxiliary troops furnished by the kings and chieftains to assemble at that place. On his way through Berytus,^ his army was further increased by 1500 armed recruits from that city. When the other contingent of allies had joined him at Ptolemais, as well as Aretas the Arab who, in memory of his hatred of Herod, brought a considerable body of cavalry and infantry, Varus at once sent a detachment of his His camarmy into the region of Galilee adjoining Ptolemais, GaHiee^an under the command of his friend Gains the latter Samaria. routed all who opposed him, captured and burnt the city of Sepphoris and reduced its inhabitants to slavery. Varus himself with the main body pursued his march into the country of Samaria he spared the city, finding that it had taken no part in the general tumult, and encamped near a village called Arous ^ this belonged to Ptolemy and for that reason was sacked by the Arabs, who were infuriated ven against the friends of Herod. Thence he adi^anced to Sappho,** another fortified village, which hey likewise sacked, as well as all the neighbouring
1)

On

and

his officers,

;

;

;

v'illages

which they encountered on their march. The whole district became a scene of fire and blood, md nothing was safe against the ravages of the
:onsisting of
iry

500 horse, as distinct from the strictly " legion" squadrons of cavalry, consisting of only 120 horse, 5. iii. 120 (Reinach). ^ Beirut. * Position unknown. Unknown ; Sampho in A. xvii. 290.
'^

S49

.

JOSEPHUS
71

ovSeu
7T€pl

OLVT€L)(€v.

KaT€(j>\iyq

he

koI
8t'

^A/jLjAaovs

(f)vy6urajv rcbv olKTjropcov,

Ovdpov

opyrjv tcjv

*'Apeiov dTTOG(f)ay€VTcov KeAeucrai/Tos-.

'Ev^eVSe^ et? 'lepoGoXvfxa TvpoeXdow 6(f)6€LS ttj? hwdfieoj? rd orparorreha tojikoI ol p.kv (ly^^ovro (f)V73 'louSatcov hieoKehaoev.
72
(2)

T€

fjLOVov fierd

yovreg dvd
rrju

x^P^^' he^dfievoi 8e avrov ol Karo dn€OK€vdi,ovTo ret? air tag rrjs dTTOordoeajs, avrol fjLev ovSkv TTapaKLi^rjoaL Xeyovres, 8ta 8e rrjv ioprrjv dvayKaioj? Se^a/xevot re
rrjv

TToXiv

TrXrjdos ovfXTToXiopK-qOrjvaL pidXXov 'Pco/xatot?

rj

ctu/x-

74 TToXefJirjoaL

rot?

dTTOoraGLv.

TTpovTTrjvrrjKeLoav S<

avroj

'I CO (77^ 770?

Gvv Tpdrcp orpaTO) Kal
p.€voi'

'Poi}(/»o?,

[reY 6 dvei/jLOS ^Ap^eXdov Ka dyovre? dp,a roj ^aoiXiKu
'I.e^aGrrjvov?,

rovs

ol

re

drro

roi

'Pojfia'LKov rdyiJLaTO<; tov Gwi^drj

rponov K€KOGfxr)
oiJjlv

Sa/Stro? fikv

yap ovh^

ei?

vrro/xeiVa'
^ttI

iXdelv Ovdpcp TTpoe^rjXdev rrjg TToXeoiS
75 oav.

Ovapo? be
alrlous

[/cara]^ fxolpav rrjg GTparids
KLV-qfiarog
eTrepupev

ddXaG en
rrj

rovs

rod

nepl*

Xcopav, Kal ttoXXcou dyofxevajv rovs fxev rjrro dopv^cvbets (j)avevra<i e(f)povpeL, rovs S' alncordrov
76

dveGravpcDoev rrepl hiGX^Xiovs (3) ^WyyeXdr] 8' avrco Kara
GvufjieveLV fjLvpiovg OTrXlras.

rr]v

^Xhovpiaiav er

6 8e rovs fiev
rrjs

"Apa^a

evpojv
rrjv

OX)

GVfjLjjLdxcov Tjdog

e^ovras, dAA'
'^^
Trpos

t8taj rrdde

Grparevop.evovs Kal rrepa

eavrov TrpoaipeGeoj
^HpcoSr).

xojpav
1

KaKOVvras
jierd

^X^^^
the rest.

dTTOTTepneraL,

be
?i'0(i'

rwv ihiwv rayjidrojv en
^
*

P

:

Ivdfv 8(
3

AM

:

q^^ p \m.

om.

"

§ 63.

Ttie

LVRC. Emmaus

(ttI

PAM.

intended

is

doubtless the town S.E.

S50

JEWISH WAR,

II.

71-76

(

= ant.

xvii. 291-297)

Arabs. Emmaus, the inhabitants of which had fled, was burnt to the ground by the orders of Varus, in revenge for the slaughter of Arius and his men.'^ He quells (2) Proceeding thence to Jerusalem, he had only to show himself at the head of his troops to dis- rection a perse the Jewish camps. Their occupants fled up Jernsaier country but the Jews in the city received him and disclaimed all responsibility for the revolt, asserting that they themselves had never stirred, that the festival had compelled them to admit the crowd, and that they had been rather besieged with the Romans than in league with the rebels. Prior to this, Varus had been met outside the city by Joseph, the cousin of Archelaus,^ with Rufus and Gratus, at the head of the royal army and the Sebastenians, and by the
;

Roman legionaries, in their customary equipment

;

for

Sabinus, not venturing to face Varus, had previously left the city for the coast. Varus now detached part of his army to scour the country in search of the authors of the insurrection, many of whom were brought in. Those who appeared to be the less turbulent individuals he imprisoned the most culpable, in number about two thousand, he crucified. (3) He was informed that in Idumaea ten thousand and in ^*^"™^''^still held together in arms. Finding that the Arabs were not properly conducting themselves as allies, but were rather making war to gratify their private resentment, and, from hatred of Herod, were doing more injury to the country than he had intended, he dismissed them, and with his own legions marched
;

of

Lydda

one time Nlcopolis, mentioned in Luke ^ Joseph, son of at Jericho {A. xviii.

at the foot of the Judaean hills, mod. Amwas, at not the village much nearer to Jerusalem xxiv. 13. Herod's brother Joseph, who was killed

134, B.

i.

323

f.).

351

JOSEPHUS
77

Tovs
y^elpas

d(j)€OT(2>Ta?

rjTreLyero.

KOLKelvot.

Trplv

€i?
G(f)d?

iXdelv

'A;>^ta/SoL'

avfJc^ovXevaavrog

auTou? TrapeSocrav, Ovapo? 8e to) 7TXi]d€L piev rj(f)UL ras alriaSy rov? Se -qyepova? €^€Taodr]aop.evov? Kaloap Se rots" jLtep' aAAot? 78 €7T€pL7T€v €77t KatGapa. Gvveyvco, rit'o.? Se rcDi' rod jSaatAeco? cruyye^cDv,

79

yap iv avrol? eVtot TjpoGrjKovres 'Hpcx}Srj Kara yevos, KoAacrat rrpoGera^ev, on Kar* oIk€LOV ^aGiXews iGrparevGavro Ovapos pi€v ovv rovrov
T^crav
.

rov rpoTTOV KaraGrrjGapevos Kal <f)povpai' KaTaXnrojv to
els ^AuTLOx^i'OiV eTrdveLGLV.

to.
/cat

iv

'lepoGoXvp^ot?

irporepov rdyp.a

go

(vi

1)

'App^eAaoj

8*

eVt

'PcojjLrjs

ndXiv

dXXr)

GVVLGTarai
CTTCtCTeoj?

hiKr] Tipos 'louSatou?, ot Trpo rris diro-

677 IT peipavros

Ovdpov

TTpeG^eis

e^eXrj-

XvdeGav

TTepi

T'q<i

rov 'idvovs avrovopLia?- -^oav 8e
ol

7T€vr-^Kovra

p-kv
iirl

Trapovres,

GvpLTrapLGravro

8e

avrolg rwv
81

'Pcjpurjs

^lovhalcov vnkp oKraKiGeV rep
8'

xtAtou?.

ddpOLGavros be Kat'crapo? Gvvihpiov rcjv
(fjiXcov

iv TcAet 'PojpLaiojv Kal rojv

Kara ro
rju

YlaXdrtov

WttoXXowos

l^pco,

KrLGp,a

t8^o^

82

avrou daupLaoLcp iroXvreXeia K€KOGp't]p.€uou, perd pikv rCov rt peG^evr ojv rd ^XovhalKOv rtXrjOo^ eGrrj Gvv 8e rot? (f)iXoLS dvriKpus Wpx^Xao?, rdjv 8e rovrov Gvyyevcov ol (j)iXoL nap ovherepoig, GupLnapiGraodai pikv WpxeXdco hid plGos Kal <l)ddvov ov)^
8e p^rd rcov Karrjyopwv 6(f)drjvai v-6 KauGapos alSovpevoi. rovrotg Gvp,7Taprjv^ Kat OtAiTTTTO? aSeA^os" 'Ap^eAaou, 7Tpo7Tep,(f)dels Kar evvotav vnd Ovdpov Svolv eveKa, Wp^eXdcp n GVvaycxiViGaGdai, Kav hiavepirj rov 'HpcuSoy Kataa/:
VTTopievovres y

83

oXkov TjaGi

rol<;

iyyovoi?, KXrjpov

nvds

d^LcoOrjvai.

S52

JEWISH WAR,
in haste to

11.

77-83

(

= ant.

xvii. 297-303)

meet the rebels. They, before any action took place, on the advice of Achiab," surrendered Varus discharged the rank and file and sent the leaders to Caesar for trial. Caesar pardoned all with the exception of certain individuals of royal blood, for their number included some relatives of Herod these he ordered to be punished for taking up arms against a sovereign who was of their own family. Having thus restored order in Jerusalem, Varus left as garrison the legion previously quartered there and returned to Antioch. (vi. 1) Meanw^hile, Archelaus in Rome had to a Jewish defend himself in a new suit against certain Jewish ^^^)^{^g^^^ ^ deputies who, before the revolt, had set out with the asks for ^"^'^""""^ permission of Varus to plead for the autonomy of their nation. Fifty deputies appeared, but more than eight thousand of the Jews in Rome espoused their cause. Caesar assembled a council, composed Augustus of the Roman magistrates and his friends, in the freTh"°°^ temple of the Palatine Apollo, a building erected by council, himself with astonishingly rich ornamentation. The Jewish crowd took up a position with the deputies the Dpposite them was Archelaus with his friends friends of his relatives appeared neither on the one side nor on the other, scorning through hatred and snvy to join Archelaus, yet ashamed to let Caesar see them among his accusers. Another person present was Philip, brother of Archelaus, whom Varus, out Df friendliness, had sent off under escort with two Dbjects primarily to support Archelaus, but also to :ome in for a share of Herod's estate in case Caesar should distribute it among all his descendants.
; ; ; ;
:

"
^

§
:

55.
iiri

M
II

:

TovToii Trapi]v

PA

tovtols TrapTJv the rest.

VOL.

X

353

J05EPHUS
84
(2) *E7TLTpa7T€v Sc XdyeLU toi? KanqyopoL? ra? 'HpcuSou 7Tapavo}xias rrpajrov hie^-^eaau, ov jSacrtAea

Xeyovre?, dXXa rojv Trcvrrore TvpavvTjGOLVTajv (Lfio-

Tarov
fievajv

^vrjvo)(^evai
VTT^

rvpavvov TrXeldrajv yovv avr^py]avTOV roiavTa ireTTOvdevai rov^ Kara(joot€

XeMevra?,
85

fiaKaptLeoOaL rovg OLTroXojXorag'

^e^aoavLKevai
Idta?

yap ov jjlovov ra aoj/xara rcvv VTTorerayiJLevcov, dXXa /cat rd? TToXeig- rag /xev yap
XeXaj^rjuOai,

rd? be rojv dXXo(j)vXojv kckott^S"

GfirjKevaL
86 Tolg

Kal

to

'louSatas"

alfia
rijs

KexapiaOai
ev-

e^ojdev

drj/xot?.
tcop'

dvrl

be

rraAata?

baifMOVLa? Kal

Trarpiojv voficov irevlas to eOuog
rreTrX-qpajKev at,

Kal
be

Tapavop.ias
rrXeiovg
ev

eaxaT-qs
eTeaiv
ttjv

KadoXov
avfj.-

VTTopLefievqKevaL rd? e^

'Hpwbov
ojv

(f)opd?

oXiyois
fxeTOL

'louSatous"

ev

TravTi

Tcu

y^povcp

eV

Ba^vXojuo?

dva\o'jp-qGiv

erradou
87

ol TrpoyovoL,

GTavTeg. eh Tov bvGTuxelv edov? TrpoeXOelv, ujGTe VTTOjJielvai T-qg TTLKpds bovXeiag Kal biabox^jv avdalpeTov

Rep^ov ^aotXevovros drravatogovtov fxevTOi fieTpLorrjTos^ KaV

8S

WpxeXaov yovv
eiTTelv

tov
Kal

ttiXlkovtov
Gvp-TTevdriG at

Tvpdvvov
t€

Tralba

/xerd Tr]v tov vaTpos TeXevTrjv /SaatAe'a
eToipLcog

tov

vpoG'Hpoj8oi
elvat

OdvaTov avTO) Kal GVvev^aGOai
89 TOV
8'

rrepl Trjg

biaboxyj?
vlos

(jjGTxep

dycoviaGavra,

pLXj

voOog
t7]v

bc^eiev

'Rpcobov,

npooip^iaGaGOai
rrepl ttjs dpxTJg toj

jSacrtAet'at

Tpio\iXitov

TToXiTajv (f)6vcp,

kgI TOGavTa p.ev Tap-

cGTaKevat dv/xaTa
^

dew, togovtoi^

PAM
*

Lat.
(K

:

ra7r£tj/2TT)T3s

the rest.

Hudson, Bekker.

33 +

JEWISH WAR,
(2)

II.

84-89

(

= ant.

xvii.

304-313)
speeche
Mie ^''^
'^*^^^'

The

plaintiffs,

being given permission to state

their case, began by enumerating Herod's enormities. " It was not a king," they said, " whom they had had

Jewi

deputies

to tolerate, but the most cruel tyrant that ever existed. Numerous had been his victims, but the survivors had suffered so much that they envied the For he had tortured not only the fate of the dead. persons of his subjects, but also their cities and
;

while he crippled the towns in his own dominion, he embellished those of other nations, lavishing the lifeblood of Judaea on foreign communities. In place of their ancient prosperity and ancestral laws, he had sunk the nation to poverty and the last degree of iniquity. In short, the miseries which Herod in the course of a few years had inflicted on the Jews surpassed all that their forefathers had suffered during all the time since they left Babylon to return to their country in the reign of Xerxes." And yet so chastened and habituated to misfortune had they become, that they had consented to this bitter servitude being made hereditary and had actually chosen the This Archelaus, son of such a heir themselves tyrant, they had, on his father's decease, promptly acclaimed king they had joined in his mourning for Herod's death, in his prayers for the prosperity of his own reign. But he, anxious apparently not to be taken for a bastard son of Herod, had ushered in his reign with the massacre of three thousand citizens that was the grand total of the victims which he had offered to God on behalf of his throne, that was the number of corpses with which he had filled the
!

;

;

" i.e. the return under Ezra, which Josephus (A. xi. 120) places in the reign of Xerxes, not as in the O.T. in that of Artaxerxes.

355

JOSEPHUS
90 S'
iii7T€7TXrjKevaL V€Kpols

[levroL T7€ptAet(/)^eWas- ck

TO Upov iv ioprfj. rovg roGOvrwv KaKUJV et/coTOj?
rrpos

i7TeGrpd(f)dai

TTore

rj^r]^

ra?

ovfjL(f)opag

/cat

7ToXep.ov
he-)(^eodai,

vojJLcp TO,?

TrXrjya? iOeXeLU

Kara

TrpooujTTOV

heloBai

he

'^toixalajv
/cat
pir]

iXeijaai

rd

re*

rfj^
91

'louSata? Xelifjava VTTopplipai Tot? oj/xtu?
rfj

to TrepLGOOv avrrjg orrapdrrovoLV, ovvdipavras
auTcDi^ Stot/c€tv €77
iStot?

be

Hvpla

rrjV ^cupat^

-qyepLOOLW eTTihei^eoOaL ydp, co? ot vvv OTaoiivheLS

hta^aXXopLevoi
92 rpiovs

/cat

TToXepLtKol
'loL'Satot

(fyepeuv

olhaatv
e/c

pLe-

93

KarrjyopLa? KareXr^^av €tV roLavrrjv d^lajotv, dvaard? 8e Nt/cdAao? dTreAt'craTO^ /Ltev tcl? etV tou? fiaotXels alrias, KarrjyopeL de rod edvov? ro re hvoapKrov /cat to bvGTretde? (f)VG€L Trpos roijs ^aoiXelsovvSid^aXXe he /cat rovg Wpx^Xdou ovyyevels, oooL TTpo? rou9 Karriyopov? dcfjeiorrjKeoav. pLev ovv Katcrap aKovoas eKarepwv (3) ToTe hieXvae ro ovveSpiov, fierd 8' -qp-epag oXiyas ro p.ev ripLiov ri)? ^aGiXeias \pxeXdcx) hlhcoaiv
TiyepLovag.
/xei^

oui^

ttJ?

^

94 TTOLTjoeLV, el

/cat jSaaiAea d^LOV eavrov rrapdoxoL,* ro he Xolttov rjp.LOU hieXojv elg hvo rerpap^ias Suatv erepoig TTaialv ^Hpcohou hlhwoLV, ri-jv pLev ^iXimraj, rrjv

idudp)(r]u TrpoaeLTTojv, vrroaxopLevog he

he

^AvrLTTo.

roj

vpos

Wpx^Xaov

dpL<f)Lo^rirovprL

95 77ept rrjg /SaatAeias".

eyevero he vtto rovrcp pLev rj FaAiAata, rrpooohos hiaKOGiajv re riepata /cai raXduroju, Baravea he Kal Tpa;(ajp' Avpavlris re
'

7767?

TTOTe

LVRC.
:

*

trs. re

rd ed. pr.
;

Nieseand others from Lat.
*

dTreOL'aaro >iss.
-mss.

cf.

B.

i.

453.

Niese: TrapdaxT?

856

JEWISH WAR,
Temple
that those

II.

90-95

(

= ANT.

xvii.

313-319)

at a festival

!

It was,

who had survived such

however, but natural disasters should

now

at length turn

and confront their calamities and

desire to face their blows, in accordance with the laws

of war. They implored the Romans to take pity on the relics of Judaea and not to fling what remained of it to those who were savagely rending it in pieces,

but to unite their country to Syria and to entrust the administration to governors from among themselves. The Jews would then show that, calumniated though they now were as factious and always at war, they

knew how
petition the

to

obey equitable rulers." With this Jews brought their accusation to a close.

Nicolas then rose and, after refuting the charges ^-^^^[^ brought against the occupants of the throne, retorted by an accusation of the national character, impatient of all authority and insubordinate towards their sovereigns. The relatives of Archelaus who had gone over to his accusers also came in for a share of
his strictures.
(3) Caesar, after hearing both parties, dismissed the assembly. His decision was announced a few days later he gave half the kingdom to Archelaus, with the title of ethnarch, promising, moreover, to
:

Augustui
Herod's
between^

^^/jfj^pi^"

make him king, should he

prove his deserts

;

the other

(as eth-

half he divided into two tetrarchies, which he pre-

Antipa's

1

sented to two other sons of Herod, one to Philip, the other to Antipas, who had disputed the throne with Archelaus. Antipas had for his province Peraea and Galilee, with a revenue of two hundred talents. Batanaea, Trachonitis, Auranitis and certain portions

tetrarchs

357

JOSEPHUS
Kal
fJieprj

tlvol

tov Zrjuojvo? olkov

tol Trepl

Ylavidha,^

TTpooohov exovra raXavrajv eKarov, vno ^lXltttto)
96 re-raKTO.
rrjs

^Apx^Xdov
/le'pet

8'

iBvapxias 'I8ou/xata
tjv,

KOL 'louSata Trdoa Kal Sa^apetTt?

k€kovS'

<f)Loii€vrj

TerdpTcp

rojv (f)6pow els TLpLrjv tov
TToXets
vtt-

97

fjLT]

ixerd

tow dXXcov

dTTOOTrjvai.

rjKOOV? TTapeXa^ev HTpdTOjvos rrvpyov Kal He^aGTrjv

Kal

*lo7r777]v

Kal ^lepoooXvp-a- rdj yap 'EAAr^yiSa?
"Ittttov

rdl,av Kal

TdBapa Kal

aTTOTef-Loiieuos ttjs

^aoiXeias TrpoaeOrjKev Hvpia.
TTjS
^

rrpoaohos

[§']*

'TjV

Apx^Xdo) SodeldTjs X^P^^ TeTpaKocrtcov TaXdv9Stojv. ^aXojjjLrj Se rrpos ols 6 ^aaiXeu? iv ralg
Sta^T^/cat? KaTeXiTTev 'la^veta? re /cat

'A^corou
;\;apt^erat

/cat

OaaaT^At'So?
avTrj

aTToheLKVvTai
/cat

SecTTOTig,

S'

Kataap
e/c

to,

iv

'Acr/caAcoyt

^aatAeta*

CTUVT^yero 8'

TrdvTOJv i^rjKOVTa rrpoaohov raAavra*
V7t6 TTjV

TOV 8e OLKOV aVTTJS
99 era^ev.
KaTo.XeL(f)dev
8'

WpX^XdoV

TOTTapx'iOLV

ttjs 8' aAAi]?

'HpaS8ou yeveds" e/caaro? to
hiad-qKais
iKopLL^ero.

iv

Tats

Sval

ai)Tou

OvyaTpduL
TTevTTjKOVTa

Trapdlvots

Katoap
TratoiV.

e^codev
/cat

Xo.pit€Tai
100 ovvojKiaev

pLvpidSag

dpyvplov
^cto,

avTas TOt? Oepcopa
iTTihiiveipiev
v<f>*

8e

TOV

oIkov

avTols

ttjv

iavTO)

/caTa-

Xei^Oeluav
*

'Hpcu8ou

hcjpedv,

ovaav
c/.
.-/.

x^^^^^
xvii.

So Reinach after Graetz and Schiirer, the .Mss. have 'li'vavcj/Ivav or 'Id/jLueLay, the
conjecture, conflicting with
§

last
-

189: a worthless

98.

om. P.

"

where

Called in the parallel passage {A. xvii. 319) and else{e.g. B. i. 398J Zenodorus.

358

JEWISH WAR,

11.

95-100
"

(

= ant.

xvii.

319-323)

neighbourhood of hundred talents, were allotted to Philip. The ethnarchy of Archelaus comprised the whole of Idumaea and Judaea, besides the district of Samaria, which had a quarter of its tribute remitted in consideration of its having taken no part in the insurrection. The cities subjected to Archelaus were Strato's Tower, ^ Sebaste,'^ Joppa and Jerusalem the Greek towns of Gaza, Gadara, and Hippos were, on the other hand, detached from his principality and annexed to Syria. The territory given to Archelaus produced a revenue of four hundred* talents. Salome, besides the legacy which the king had left her in his will, was declared mistress of Jamnia, Azotus and Phasaelis Caesar also made her a present of the palace of Ascalon, her revenue from all sources amounting to sixty talents her estates, however, were placed under the jurisdiction^ of Archelaus. Each of the other members of Herod's
of the domain of Zeno
in the

Panias,* producing a revenue of a

;

;

;

family received the legacy
king's

named in

the

will.

To the

two unmarried daughters ^ Caesar presented, in addition, 500,000 (drachms) of silver and gave them in marriage to the sons of Pheroras. After this division of the estate, he further distributed among the family Herod's legacy to himself, amount* The region to the south and east of Caesarea Philippi and referred to as " Ituraea " in Luke iii. 1 (" Philip, tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis "). "

Caesarea-on-sea.

^
"

^
«

Samaria. 600 according to A. Greek " toparchy."

xvii.

320.

Roxane and Salome

(i.

563).

S59

.

JOSEPHUS
raXdvTcov
101
(vii.
,

evreX-q

nva row

Ket/xr^Aicuv ei? rrjv

tov
/xev

KaroLXOfJLevov niJLrjv i^eXofxevog.
l)

Kdv

rovrci)
8'

veavias
iv
8t'

ris

'louSato?
Trapd
rep

TO

yevo?,

rpac^ei?

Hihajvi

rd>v

'PajfiaLOJu

OLTTeXevOepoj,^

oixoioT-qra

i.Lop(f)Tjs

eavrov WXe^avhpov tov dvaipeOevra 'Hpc68ou, /car' iXTrlSa tov XrjO€LV rjKev et? V(f)^ ovvepyos S* 771^ Tts" OfiocfivXo? ainco 102 'PcjjpLTjv. TrdvTa TCL Kara ttjv ^aoiXeiav e77 lot dfievo?, v<f) ov hihaxOels eAeyev, cos ol 7TepL(f)6evT€£ irrl T'qv dvalpeoLV avTou t€ kol ^ ApioTo^ovXov 8t' oIktov
ipevhofievos

eKKXeipeiav
103 TOVTOLS

avTovs yovu Tovs

ojjlolojv

vrro^oXfj

owfMaTOJV.
€^-

iv

KprjTrj

'louSatou?

arraTrjoas

/cat XafXTrpajs

Mt^Aov"
^oXrjU
104 €LS
€LS
e/cet

€vBa

l^ohLaoBels hieriXevG€V €t? GVvayeLpa? ttoXXco rrXeov 8t' vnepdv€77eLG€P

d^LOTTLGTLaS

KGL TOVS

lSl0^€V0VS 8e

'Pojfir]v

avTOj

ovveKTrXevoai. t€
77

KaTaxOels

ALKaidpx^Lav
'loL'Satojv
TtJJV

hojpd

XapLJ^dvet

a pLTiXr) 9 rj Trapd Tajv* Kal KadaTrep /SaatAeu?

VTTO

eXrjXvdeL 8' els
ojioLov, 105 Ga(f)cos

TTpO' ^iXwV 7TpO€7TefJL(f)drj togovtov 7tlgt€ojs to ttjs iJLop(f)rjs wore tovs iojpaKOTag ^AXe^avSpou /cat eTTLGTapLevovs Sto/xvua^at tovtov etvat. to

TTaTpCpOJV

ye

pLTjv

'Iou8at/c6v^

eV

ttj

'PcopLij

dirav

l^ex'^Q^)
rju

TTpos TTjv Siav avTov, /cat 7tXt]9os drreLpov

Trepl

TOVS OT€VOJiTOVS 8t' (Lv eKopLiteTO- KOI ydp [hr)Y Trpo-fjXdop eh TOGOVTOV <f)p€vo^Xa^€Las ol Mi^Aiot,
*

'VuifjLa'iK^v a.ire\ev6ipiov
2

manv

MSS.

om.

P.

1500

in

A.

xvii. 323.

As Reinach

points out, the figure

[la

.S6O

JEWISH WAR,
ing
to
trifling

II.

100-105

(

= ant

xvii.

323-331)

a thousand " talents, reserving only some works of art which he kept in honour of the

deceased,
(vii. 1)

At

this

time

a

young man who, though by

The pseud

birth a Jew, had been brought up at Sidon at the house of a Roman freedman, on the strength of a certain physical resemblance passed himself off as

had put to death.* the hope of imposing upon others. He had as his assistant a compatriot, perfectly acquainted with the affairs of the realm, acting upon whose instructions he gave out that the executioners sent to kill him and Aristobulus had, out of compassion, stolen them away, substituting in their stead the corpses of individuals who resembled them. With this tale he completely deceived the Jews of Crete, and, being handsomely furnished with supplies, sailed across to Melos, where, through the sxtreme plausibility of his story, he collected a much larger sum and even induced his hosts to embark with
the prince Alexander,

whom Herod

and came

to

Rome

in

tiim

for Rome. Landing at Dicaearchia,'' he was oaded with presents by the Jewish colony there and A-as escorted on his way like a king by the friends of The resemblance was so conlis supposed father. zincing that those who had seen Alexander and <nown him well swore that this was he. At Rome i\] Jewry poured forth to see him. and vast crowds :hronged the narrow streets through which he was Dorne for the crazy Melians went so far as to carry
;

pven

in

B.

is

probably right
in

he parallel passage

we are told in B. i, 646 (as in A.) that Herod left 1000 talents to
;

\ \ugustus and 500 to his wife, children, and friends, Irachm was "the ordinary day wage of a labourer": a alent was 6000 drachms.
*
i,

551.
II

'

VOL.

The Greek name N2

for Puteoli

(

Vita 16).

36l

JOSEPHUS
cocTTC <l)op€Lco T€ avTou Koyilteiv Koi OepaTTelav ^aaiXiKr^v iStot? 7TapaG)(elv dvaXcojJiaaLU.

106

(2) Kalaap Be ywcLaKCDV [a/cpi^cD? J^ rou? 'AAe^dvSpov ^apaKT-qpas Karrjyoprjro yap U(/>' 'HpcuSou 770/3' avrto, uvveo'jpa fikv koI Trplv IheZv rov
y

6.77 6.7 TjV , StSoU? TTjV OfJLOLOTTjTO? TTJg Kol [TTiGTeujsY' "Tou? IXapojTepai's eXTrioiv KeAaSdv Ttva TreixTrei tojv aa^ijjs eTTLGrafievajv ^AXe^avhpov, KeXevaas ayayelv airro) tov veavi107 oKov. 6 8e COS" elheVy ireKfjLrjparo (lev rax^ara /cat TO.? Sta</)opa? TOV rrpoawTTOVy ro he oXov aa»/xa GKXrjporepou re Kal SouAo^ai^c? Karafiadajv evorjGev 7t6vv he avrov Trapco^vvev rj 108 TTCLV TO GVvraypLa. Tcov Trap* auTOV Xeyofievajv rolg yap ToXfjia

dvBpOJTTOV
8e
TL

TTVudavofMevoiS

Trepl

WpLGTo^ouXov
a7ToXeXeL(f}daL
S'

crco^ecr^at
eTTLT-qhes

fjiev

KaKeivov
Kurrpo)

eXeyev,

ev

Ta? em^ovXas (j^vXaGGopLevov rjrrov yap
Ste^euy/xeVou?.

109 err LxetpeLGO at

ovv " Trapa KaLGapos frjv toi; p.rjvvGai rov avaTreiGavra ere TrAavctCT^at' T-qXiKav-ra." K6Kelvos avraj hrjXcjoeiv eLTTOjv errerai Trpos Kalaapa Kal rov ^lovhalov ivheiKwrai KaraxpyjGapievov avrov rfj opioioTrjri Trpos ipyaGtav roGavra yap elX-q^evai hojpa Kad^ eKaGT-qv ttoXlv oaa Ccov ^AXe^ai^hpos ovk* eXa^ev. 110 yeXaGas he Kataap eVt Tourot? top' jjiev ifjevhaXe^avhpov hi eve^iav Gcop^arog eyKarera^ev toIs epeTat?, TOV ava—eiGavTa he eKeXevGev avaLpeOrjvaf Mr^Atot? 5' TjpKeGev eTTLTipiiov Trjg avotag to di^aaTToXa^opievos

avTov Kar e^ets- TO

Ihiav " pllgOov,"

e(f)rj,

XcopLaTa.
^

om.
3

PAM.
wXdffacrdaL

2

op^^ Lat.,

LVRC.

perhaps rightly cf. A. * om. ouk PAM.
;

||.

S62

JEWISH WAR,
him
in a litter

II.

105-110

(

= ant.

xvii. 331-338)

and

to provide a royal retinue at their

own expense.

(2) Caesar, who had an exact recollection of The Alexander's features, as he had been arraigned by Scted Herod at his tribunal," divined, even before he had Augustus seen the fellow, that the affair was an imposture, based on resemblance however, to give a chance to a more favourable hope, he sent Celadus, one of those who knew Alexander best, with orders to bring the young man to him. Celadus had no sooner set eyes on him than he detected the points of difference in the face, and noting that his whole person had a coarser and servile appearance, penetrated the whole plot. The audacity of the fellow's statements quite exasperated him. For, when questioned about Aristobulus, he was in the habit of replying that he, too, was alive, but had been purposely left behind in Cyprus as a precaution against treachery, as they were less exposed to assault when separated. Celadus, therefore, took him aside and said, " Caesar will reward you by sparing your life, if you will inform him who induced you to play such a trick." Promising Celadus to give the required information, he accompanied him to Caesar and denounced the Jew who had thus traded upon his resemblance to Alexander for, as he said, he had in every town received more presents than Alexander ever received in his lifetime. Caesar laughed at these words and enrolled the pseudo-Alexander, as an able-bodied man, among, the oarsmen of his galleys his inspiring genius he ordered to execution. As for the Melians he considered them sufficiently punished for their folly by their lavish extravagance.
; ;
;

«

i.

452.

363

JOSEPHUS
in
(S)
/cat

Y\apaXa^d)V
iivrjiJLrjv

8e

r-qv

iduapxiO-v
hia(f)opa)v

*Ap;^eAao?

Kara

rojv TraAai

ov fxovov

'lofSatoi? aAAa kol Sa/i,apeuCTt XPV^^H'^^^^ co/xa»?, Trpeo^evGafjLevojv eKarepajv Kar^ avrov 77/50? Kat-

oapa
€LS

BUvvaw

eret rrjs oLpXV^ ivdrcu (l)vyahev€raL fxev ttoXlu rrjg FaAAta?, rj ovoia 8'

avro? avrov

112 Tot?

eyKaTajdoaeraL. rrplv tov Kaiaapo? ovap Ihelv (paoLV roiovSe- ebo^ev opdv o-rdxvg evvea TrXrjpeig
Orjoavpols
utto

Kataapo?
8'

KAr)drjvai

auroi'

Kal

jieydXov;
Tti'd?

vtto

^oojv

pi€Ta7T€iJnljdfievo<i

Be

rovi

/xai^ret?

Kara^L^pojOKOfievovg. Kal rajv XaAorjfxaiveLU

haiojv

€7TVvBdv€T0,

Ti

hoKoleu.

113 d'AAojv 8'

dAActi? i^r]yovfi€va>v HipLOJv rt? 'Eacrato?
e(f)r]

TO yevo<^

rovg

fxiv oTd\v<;

iviavrov? voiii^eLVf

jSda? 8e jjLera^oXrjv Trpaypidrojv hid

to

t')7P'

x^P^^

dporpLOjura? aXXdoaeLW, (Lore ^auiXevoeiv fiev avrov rov roju cjraxvwv dpidfjiov, ev TTOLKiXais
he TTpayiidrojv fxera^oXal? yevoyievov reXevrrjoeiv.

ravra aKOVoas 'App^cAao?
r-qv Slktjv jxereKXridr]}

fierd nevre rj/jLepa?

eTTi

114

8e pLV-qpLrfS TjyrjadiJL-qu Kal rd rijs (4-) "A|toi/ yvvaLKOs avrov rXa(})vpas ovap, ^rrep rjv Ovydrrjp ApxeXdov rov \\a7T77ah6KOjv ^aoiXeojs yvvr) ixev 8' AXe^dvhpov yeyovvla rd Trpcorov, 6s rjv ddeX(f)d? ^ ApxeXdov TTepl ov hU^Lfjiev, vlds 8' 'Hpco8ou tou
,

^

1

eKX-qdv p.

this point until the outbreak of the war the narbecomes much more condensed. Probably the work of Nicolas of Damascus, the source hitherto followed, ended
"

From

rative

here.
" " The tenth " A. xvii. 34-2 : so Dio Cass. Iv. 27, and cf. the allusion to the 10th year of Archelaus in Vita 5 (Reinach).

S64

JEWISH WAR,

II.

111-114.

(

= ANT.

xvii. 339-349)

(3) Archelaus," on taking possession of his- ethnarchy, did not forget old feuds, but treated not only the Jews but even the Samaritans with great Both parties sent deputies to Caesar to brutality. denounce him, and in the ninth ^ year of his rule he was banished to Vienna,'' a town in Gaul, and his property confiscated to the imperial treasury. It is said that, before he received his summons from he thought he saw nine Caesar, he had this dream tall and full-grown ears of corn on which oxen were browsing. He sent for the soothsayers and some Chaldaeans and asked them their opinion of its meaning. Various interpretations being given, a certain Simon, of the sect^ of the Essenes, said that in his view the ears of corn denoted years and the oxen a revolution, because in ploughing they turn he would therefore reign for as many over the soil years as there were ears of corn and would die after a chequered experience of revolutionary changes.* Five days later Archelaus was summoned to his trial. (4) I think mention may also fitly be made of the dream of his wife Glaphyra. Daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, she had for her first husband Alexander,^ the brother of Archelaus, of whom we have been speaking, and son of King Herod, who
'

Cruelty

at

-

'

-

deposition '^'P^'''^'^"

Archelaus

6 a.d.

His
5^°^,^/'^^^

:

;

History

oi

Qiapiiym.

east

city of the Allobroges in Gallia Narbonensis, on the bank of the Rhone, mod. Vienne. " Greek " race." ' Reinach suggests that the dream of Archelaus, modelled on Pharaoh's dream in Genesis, is a piece of Essene Haggadah
"

A

which Josephus learnt during

Bannus ( Vita 1). The ot dreams himself {B. iii.
1

'

to
(i.

his stay with the hermit historian claims to be an interpreter 352). i. 446. After Alexander's death Herod sent her back her father with her dowry but without her children

553).

365

JOSEPHUS
€K yap TOiavTTjs vXrjg KareGKevaae rrjv (jK-qv-jv. S' ovSev iieTa(j)epo}Jievov kol GVixTrepivooTovvros 104 vaov Stec^epe. tovtujv ovv Kara GTTOvhrjv crvyKOfiLudei'TOji', eKOLGTov Kal irapa SvvafjLLV (faXoTLfxr]GaiJL€Vov, ap^LreKTovas rols epyoLs ichLGrrjGL Kar* ivToXrjv rod deov ovg Kal ro TrXrjdos dv eVeAe^aro 105 rrjs i^ovGia? eV avro) yevopL,€vr)g. ra Se ovofiara avrojVy KOL yap eV rat? UpaZs pi^XoLg avayeypaTTrai, raur' rjv Bacrar^Aos" jiev Ovpl Tralg r-fjg 'louSa
7}

VLOJVO?^ Be Maptaa^ry? rrjg dBeXcprj? rod GrparrjyoVy 'EAi^a^os" de 'Icra^a;(OU AartSo? (f)vXrjg. 106 ro Se TTXrjdos ovroj? vtto TTpodvpLias rol? iyx^t-povpLevoLS i—rjXdev, ojGre Mojuctt^? dvelp^ev avrovg v7TOKr)pv^dfjL€vos dpKelv rovs ovras' rovro yap at Sr]fiLovpyoL 7rpo€Lp-qK€Gav' i)(Ojpovv ovv eVt rrju rijs 107 GKTjvri? KaraGKevqVy Kal }>\ajVGrjg avrov? e/caara
<j)vXri?

rrcpl rcov piirpojv Kara rrjv VTTodrjKTjv rod d^oO Kal rod fieyedovs ocra re Set GKevrj y^ujpelv avrrjv dvehiSaGKe Trpos rds dvGias VTT-qper-qGovra. e(f)iXoripLodvro he Kal yvvalKes nepl re GroXds lepanKas Kal TTepl ra dXXa ogojv exPDi^ ro epyov KOGpLov re Kal Xeirovpyias eveKa rod Oeod. 108 (2) Ildvrojv 8' ev erolpLOj yeyev-qpLevajv ;(;pi'CTtoL> re Kal dpyvpov ^ Kal )(aXKod Kal rcov v(j>avrojVy TrpoeL—ojv eoprrjv }>[covGrJ£ Kal dvGias Kara rrjV

eKaGrov SvvapLLV LGrr) rrjv aWpiov SLa/jLerpr)Gdfjievog ro
^

GKTjvrjv, pLev
^

Trpdjrov

pikv

Bernard

:

lios

codd.

evpos TrevriqKOvra j^s^ Lat. om. codd.
:

"
^

Bibl. Bezalel. M?5. erroneously " son."

father Hur, and

Hur according
'EXid^),

Exodus mentions his grandto Josephus was the husband
son of Ahisamach.

of Miriam
'

(§ 54).

Bibl.

Oholiab (lxx

S66

JEWISH WAR,

II.

114-118

(

= ANT

xvii. 349-xvii. 4)

put him to death, as we have ah-eady related. After his death she married Juba, king of Libya, on whose decease ^ she returned home and hved in widowhood with her father. There Archelaus, the ethnarch, saw her and fell so passionately in love with her that he instantly divorced his wife Mariamme ^ and married her. So she came back to Judaea, where, not long after her arrival, she imagined that Alex" Your Libyan ander stood beside her and said marriage might have sufficed you, but, not content with that, you now return to my hearth and home, having taken to yourself a third husband, and him, audacious woman, my own brother/^ But I will not brook this outrage and shall reclaim you whether After relating this dream she you will or no." survived barely two days (viii. 1) The territory of Archelaus was now re- Judaea, duced to a province, and Coponius. a Roman of the p°J!J'fnce
'^ :

:

equestrian order, was sent out as procurator, entrusted by Augustus with full powers, including the Under his adminisinfliction of capital punishment tration, a Galilaean. named Judas.^ incited his

under th

copoiuu^
'^

6-9 a.i

Rising

oi

countrymen
childless,

to revolt, upbraiding

them

as

cowards

Gaiuaeai

when it was obligatory, Deut. xxv. 5 (Mark xii. 19). Glaphyra had two children by Alexander; A, xvii. 341 emphasizes this fact. « Judas of Galilee (as he
in

is called here and in Gamaliel's Acts v. 37) or of Gamala in Gaulanitis {A. xviii. 4) was the founder of the Zealots, whose fanaticism and violence under Florus, the last of the procurators, hastened the war with Rome. Of the issue of the revolt we learn only from Acts loc. cit. Judas was killed and his followers dispersed. There is no sufficient reason tor identifying this fanatic doctor, as Schiirer does, with the brigand Judas, son of lizechias, who raised an insurrection in Galilee after the death

speech

:

of

Herod (B.

ii.

oQ).

367

JOSEPHUS
(f)6pov

rov

Seoi'

re 'Poj{iaLOLg reXelv VTrofievovoLV Kal fxeTo. rjv 8' olto? otcrovGL Ovtjtov'; heoTTorag.
tSta?

ao(f)iorri<i

aipeaew? ovSev rols

a'AAot?

Trpoa-

€OLKCO£.

(2) Tpla yap rrapa 'loDSatot? e'tbrj (j)L\ooo(^€iraiy Kal Tov jjiev alperiGTal Oaptaatot, tov be Za5houKaloi, rplrov 8e, o 817 kol 8ok€l oejivor-qra aoKelv, *EcrCTT]i^oi. /caAowrat, 'louSatot /Ltei' yeVo? 120 ot'Te?, ^lAaAAryAot 8e Kai tcui^ aAAcuv TzAeoi^. oltoi

119

TOL?

^tei^

7]8oi^a?

6U9

KaKiav drrocrTpecbovTaL,
firj
.

rrjv

8e

eyKpareiav
dperrjv

Kal

ro

tol^

rtadeoiv

V7T07tl7tt€lv

Kal ydfiov fxev Trap' tov? 8' aAAoTpt'ou? 7Tat8a? eVAa/xjSai^oi^TC? drraAou? 6Tt Txpo? rd fxadi^^aTa avyyevet? i^yoOvTat Kal rol<; Tjde^nv avrcov €vtv7tovol, 121 701' fiev ydixov Kal rrjv e^ auTOV StaSox'Tji' ovk row yvvaiKUJv doeXyelas dvatpouvTeg, Tag 8e <^v\aTT6ii€voi Kal fJirjheiJLLav rripelu Trerretcr/xeVot rrji' TTpos €va viariv. 122 (3) Karac^pop'TjTat 8e ttAol'tou, Kal daufidaLov [77ap'j' avTolg ro koiuojulkov, ovbe 'ioriv evpelu Kr-qoeu rivd Trap* avroi<; V7Tep€\ovra' vofiog yap Tovs €LS rrju atpeaw eloiovra? br]ii€V€LV rw rdyfLart
v7To)^a^.^dvovGiv

avrols

vvepoijjLa,

1

om.

P.

An exaggerated statement, corrected in A. xviii. 23 while they agree in all other respects with the Pharisees, they have an invincible passion for liberty and take God for their only leader and lord "). * A shorter sketch of the three sects is given in A. xviii. 11-2-2, where the author refers to the fuller statement in the
"
('*

368

JEWISH WAR,

II.

118-122

{cf.

ant.

xviii. 4, 9, 11)

for consenting to pay tribute to the Romans and tolerating mortal masters, after having God for their This man was a sophist who founded a sect of lord.
his

own, having nothing in

common

with the

others.**

The

fact, takes three forms. The thre school are called Pharisees, ll^^^^^ of the second Sadducees, of the third Essenes.^ The Essenes have a reputation for cultivating (i.) The peculiar sanctity.'' Of Jewish birth, they show a ^fje-"^^' greater attachment to each other than do the other ascendsi They shun pleasures as a vice and regard a'lld^com sects. temperance and the control of the passions as a'"""ijyf Marriage they disdain, but they special virtue. adopt other men's children, w^iile yet pliable and docile, and regard them as their kin and mould them
(2)

Jewish philosophy, in
first

followers of the

own principles. They do on principle, condemn wedlock and the propagation thereby of the race, but they wish to protect themselves against women's wantonness, being persuaded that none of the sex keeps her plighted troth to one man. (3) Riches they despise, and their community of you will not find one goods is truly admirable among them distinguished by greater opulence than another. They have a law that new members on admission to the sect shall confiscate their property
in

accordance with their

not, indeed,

;

present passage. He has first-hand knowledge, having " passed through the three courses " himself ( Vita 11). " solemnity." " Or The name Essene probably means " pious " (Aram, hasa) ; Philo connected it with the Greek
boLos'.
TrapLouvfjioi. daioTriTos {Quod 07nnls probus KaXovurai fxev 'Eaaalot irapa. ttjv daLOT-qra /noi doKu) TTJs TTfjoariyopLas d^iudevTes {ap. Eus. Praep. Ev. viii. 11). Philo, Pliny {Nat. Hist. v. 17), and Josephus are our three authorities on the sect.

'KaaaiOL
12)
;

.

.

.

liber,

§

369

JOSEPHUS
TT7i^

ovatav, cucrre eV aTTacriv
<f)aLV€odaL
fJ^rjO^

fi-qre

TTCvlas raTretvo-

rrjra
123

vrrepoxrjv

rrXovrov,
filav

twv

8*

€Kd(TTov

KT-qfidrojv

dvaii€}JiiyyLh'ojv

uj07T€p

dheXSols dnauLV ovaiav elvai. KrjXlSa S' iTToXafi^dvovGL rovXaioVy ko.v dXeLcbdfj rt? aKcou, ofxrjx^'^^
TO
Gojfia'

TO

yap

auxf-telv
.

iv

KaXoj

TtdevraL,

X^vx^'-P'Ovelv re SuaTTavros

;\;€tpoTOVT7Tot 8' ol tojv

124

125

126

127

Kal aiperoi} 7rpo9 aTrduTcuv €Cj eKaaroi. Mta 8' OL'/c earii^ auroji^ vrdAt?, dAA' €v (4.) eKdarrj fxeroiKovoLV ttoXXol. Kal rot? erepujdev rjKovcnv alp€.TLcrTa1<s rrdvr^ dvaTteTnaTai rd Trap' avToZs opLoiojs (JJOTTep Ihia, Kal Trpo? ou? ou Trporepoi' €lSov eloiaaiv cog avvr^BeoTdrovs' hid Kai 770Lovvrai rag aTToSrjfjLLag ovdeu fiev oXojg 67nK-qheKOfiilofievoL, 8td Se rovs Xrjordg eVoTrAot. fidjv 8' €v cKdarr] TzdAet tou rdyixaros i^aLperojg roji' ^evojv d77 oh €i.Kvvr at, rafjuevoju ioS-qra Kal rd e77iT7]8eta. KaraoroXr^ he Kal ax'^l^^-O- croj/LtaTO? op-OLOv Tols /Lterd (fyo^ov Traihayajyov Uvotg Traioiv. ovre he eoOrJTas ovre V7Tohi']p.aTa daei^ovoi Trplv hiappayrjvai rd rrpdrepov 7ravTd77a'JLv t) 8a77aVTjdrjvaL rep ;\;pdra>, ovhev 8' €v dXX-qXoLg out* dyopdiovGLV ovt€ ttcoXovolv, dXXd toj xPTiC^^'^^ hihovg eKaoTOS to. Trap' avrco to [Trap* eKCtVou]' XprjOLpLOv dvTLKopiLleTaL' Kal x^P'-^ ^^ '^V'^ duTihoaeojg dKojXvTOS rj pLerdXTjipig avTolg rrap*^ d)v dv
€77 LfjieXriTal

KOLvojv

ra?

;^petas'

BeXojoiv.
128
^

(0)

ripos"

ye

pLTjV

TO Belov evoeBelg
"

iStoj?"

Trplv

Bekker on
om.
Trap

ms. authority: ddiaipfrot the rest.

'

Bekker, Naber,

to

take

* om. P. whatever they

choose."

S70

JEWISH WAR,

II.

122-128

to the order, with the result that you will nowhere the see either abject poverty or inordinate wealth
;

individual'spossessions join the common stock and all, hke brothers, enjoy a single patrimony. Oil they consider defiling, and anyone who accidentally comes
in contact with it scours his person
;

for

they

make

a point of keeping a dry skin and of always being dressed in white. They elect officers to attend to the interests of the community, the special services of each officer being determined by the whole body. (4) They occupy no one city, but settle in large

Their
''^

numbers

in every town.
all

On

sect from elsewhere,

the arrival of any of the the resources of the com-

^™®

munity are put at their disposal, just as if they were their own and they enter the houses of men whom they have never seen before as though they were their most intimate friends. Consequently, they carry nothing whatever with them on their journeys, except arms as a protection against brigands. In every city there is one of the order expressly ap;

pointed to attend to strangers, who provides them with raiment and other necessaries. In their dress and deportment they resemble children under rigorous disciphne. They do not change their garments or shoes until they are torn to shreds or worn threadbare with age. There is no buying or selling among themselves, but each gives what he has to any in need

and receives from him
to himself;

in exchange something useful they are, moreover, freely permitted to take anything from any of their brothers without making any return. (5) Their piety towards the Deity takes a peculiar

371

JOSEPHUS
yap
avaox^^v
tov
tJXlou

ovdev
rtj^a?

^e^rj/^cov,

TTarpLOV?

Se

€tV

^^eyyovrai rwv avrov €VXO-?,

129 (jJOTTep

Kat /xerd TauTa LK€TevovT€S avaT^lXai. a? eKauTOL re^va? laaGiv vtto rcbv €TnfxeX-qrcov hiac^ievTai, kol p^^XP^ 7r€/x 77x179 wpag ipyaodp.evoL ovvtovco? TrdXiv el? ev GVvadpoLC,ovTaL X<-opiov, i,coodpL€V0L re OKeTTdapLaoLV Atvot? ovtojs drroXovovrai to croj/xa i/jvxpol? vbaoLV, xat p.€TCL ravrrjv ttju dyveiav els Ihiov OLK-qp.a avviaoiVy
TTpog

evOa

piiqhevl

row erepoSo^ow

eTrtrerpaTTTat

Trap-

avroi re Kadapol Kaddirep els dyiov ri kol KaO130 repLevos rrapayivovrai ro heLTTvqriqpLOV iodvrojv /xe^' -qavx^O-S o p.ev gltottolos eV rd^ei TrapariBiqoi rovs dprovs, 6 Se pidyetpos €V dyyelov ^^os ebeopLaros eKdorco Traparidrjoiv. rrpo131 €^ Karevx^rai 3' o lepevs rijs rpo(f)rjs, Kal yevaaodal
eXdelv,
.

Tti^a

77 plv

rrjs ^^xt^S

dOeparov

dpiGroTTOtrjoapievois^

8'

enevx^TO.i'

TrdXiv

dpxdp.evoi re

Kal 77av6pLevoL

eTreiO^ deov ojs X'^PVY^^ "^V^ ^f^^S". (Ls lepds KaradepLevoL rds eadijras TraAtv eV epya henrvovoi 8' rpeTTOvrai. he'iXrjs op.oicjJS 132 P'^XP^ ovyKadetop-evujv rojv ^ei^ojv, el V770GrpeiljavTes ovre he Kpavyq TTore rvxoLev avro'ts napovresrov oIkov ovre Sopv^os pLialveL, rds he XaXids ev Kal rols e^ojdev (Ls 133 rd^ei Trapax^Jpovotv aAAr^Aots". pLVorrjpLOV <f>pLKr6v r] rojv evhov GLaj77rj Kara<f)aLveraL, rovrou 8* a'trtov tj hi-qveKTjS vi^i/jis Kal

yepalpovGL

n

^

Some

-Mss.

of

Porphyry:

dpiaTOTroir]<jd/jL(vos

mss.

of

Josephus,
" Cf. § 148, " the rays of the God." How far the Essenes, with their affinities to Judaism, can be regarded as sunuorshippers is doubtful. But, un-Jewish as this custom

372

JEWISH WAR,
form.

II.

128-1S3

Before the sun

is

mundane matters, but

offer to

up they utter no word on him certain prayers,
,

''

Their prayei P""^^'^""^ the sun,

which have been handed down from their forefathers, as though entreating him to rise." They are then

dismissed by their superiors to the various crafts in which they are severally proficient and are strenu- Their ^^"^"^'" ously employed until the fifth hour, when they again assemble in one place and, after girding their loins with linen cloths, bathe their bodies in cold water. After this purification, they assemble in a private apartment which none of the uninitiated is permitt ed _ to enter pure now themselves, they repair to the -^ refectory, as to some sacred shrine. When they have Their taken their seats in silence, the baker serves out th^^^—f^ loaves to them in order, and the cook sets before each one plate with a single course. Before meat the priest says a grace, and none may partake until after the prayer. When breakfast is ended, he pronounces a further grace thus at the beginning and at the close they do homage to God as the bountiful giver of life. Then laying aside their raiment, as holy vestments, they again betake themselves to their labours until the evening. On their return they sup in like manner, and any guests who may have arrived sit down with them. No clamour or disturbance ever pollutes their dwelling they speak in turn, each making way for his neighbour. To persons outside the silence of those within appears like some awful mystery it is in fact due to their invariable sobriety and to the limitation of their
,
;

;

;

;

seems, there was a time when even Jews at Jerusalem " turned their backs on the Temple and their faces towards the east and worshipped the sun towards the east " (Mishnah, Ezek. viii. 16). Sukkah, v. 2-4
;

373

JOSEPHUS
avrol? rpoSr^v Kal ttotov irap* Kopov. 134 (6) Tojv fji€v ovv dXXojv ovK eoTLv 6 tl firj tCjv iTTLfJLeXrjTcjv rrpoora^dvTOJV ivepyovoL, Svo 8e raura

TO

jJLcrpeiadai

fji€xpi'

77ap'

auTots-

airre^ovoia,
agio's,
i(J)UraL

iTTLKovpta
rpo(j>d<;

/cat

eAeoj*

^o'qOelv T€

yap tols
Se
el?

OTTorav heojvTai, Kal
aTropovfjLei'OLg

Kad^

rovg ovyyevel? pLGTahooet? opyrj? 135 OVK €^€GTL TTOLelodaL bi^a Tojv eTTLTpoTrcxJU. rajiiai hiKaiOL, dvfJLOV KadeKriKol, 7TLOT€Cog TrpoKal rrdv fjLeu ro p-qSev crrdraL, elprivrj^ VTTOvpyoi. avrow laxvporepov opKov, to de opLvveLV VTT* [avTolgV TTepuoravroA x^Zpov Trjg imopKLas vttoXap.^dvovT€9' rjbrj yap KareyvajoBai (^acrtv tov
opeyetu.
136 dr:LG70V}ievov Si^ct Beov.
7T€pl
Trpoi'

iavrovs ra?

Kal

UTTovhal^ovoL 8' eKTOTrajg

rd

TOJV

TTaXaidw

ipv^^s avTols Trpos BepaTreiav TraBcov pijat t€ dXe^rjTripioi Kal XiBujv IhiOT-qres dvepevvcovTai. ('^) Tot? Se irjXovoLV r-qv atpeoLV avrcov ovk 137 evBvs rj Trdpohos, dXX IttI iviavrov e^co p^ivovn TTjV aVTTjV VTTOTLBeVTai StaLTaV, d^LvdpLOV T6 Kal
dxjilXeLav

uvvrdyiiara, /xaAtara rd Kal acufiaros eKXeyovres'

€vBev

ro

TTpoetprj/jLevov

77ept^aj/Lta

/cat

XevKrju

ioBrjra

13S Sov'Tes".

eTretbdv he
So),

rovrco
fji€v

rw XP^^V
eyyiov
rfj

rreipav
hiairr^

Kparelas
^

TrpooeiaLV

iyKal

iffTarai

cm. Dindorf with one ms. the incorrect reading irepi.has probably caused the insertion of the pronoun.
:

Or

"

when they ask an alms."

Herod himself excused them from taking the oath of allegiance (J. xv. 371). The "tremendous oaths" sworn on admission to the order (§ 139) form a curious exception. ' i.e. probably charms or amulets. Lightfoot, Colossiaiu
*

S74

JEWISH WAR,
allotted portions of

II.

133-138
to the

meat and drink

demands

of nature.

(6) In all other matters they do nothing without Their orders from their superiors ; two things only are left <^^^"ty to individual discretion, the rendering of assistance and compassion. Members may of their own motion help the deserving, when in need," and supply food to but presents to relatives are prothe destitute hibited, without leave from the managers. Holding righteous indignation in reserve, they are masters of their temper, champions of fidelity, very ministers of peace. Any word of theirs has more force than and an oath swearing they avoid, regarding it as worse ofoath" than perjury, for they say that one who is not believed without an appeal to God stands condemned already.^ They display an extraordinary interest in the writings Their ^*^'^^'®'' of the ancients, singling out in particular those which make for the welfare of soul and body with the help of these, and with a view to the treatment of diseases, they make investigations into medicinal roots and the properties of stones.^ (7) A candidate anxious to join their sect is not Admiss immediately admitted. For one year, during which l^j.^^^^ he remains outside the fraternity, they prescribe for "ovice's him their own rule of life, presenting him with a and oat small hatchet,^ the loin-cloth already mentioned,^ and white raiment. Having given proof of his temperance during this probationary period, he is brought into closer touch with the rule and is allowed
;
;

;

(ed. 8), pp. 89

f. note, connectirig this passage with Anf. viii. (on Solomon's power over demons), regards the " writings " as Solomonian books and the Essenes as primarily dealers in charms, rather than physicians. The object of this is explained below (§ 148).

44

ff.

<*

«

§

129.

375

JOSEPHUS
KaBapojTcpojv
XafjL^dvei,

rujv

Trpo?

ayveiav

vharajv

/Ltera-

TrapaAa/xjSaierat be els tol? avfi^LajGetg

fiera yap rrjv ry^g Kapreplag eViSei^u' SvoLU dXXoig ereaiv to TjOos SoKLfidlerai Kal <f)av€Lg Trplv he 139 a^tos" ovTojg elg rov ofxiXov iyKpLveraL. TTJg KOLvrj'; dipaGdaL rpo(^rj<; opKOVs avroZg ofiuvat TrpojTOv evoe^Tjoeiv to Belov, fiev (f)pLKojS€Lg, dvBpo'jTTOVs Strata (^vXd^eiv koI err e era to. Trpos
ovheTTOj.

Kara, yvcoiirjv ^XdipeLV tlvcl fjLrjre i^ IttlToy/xaTOS", fMLGrjoetv 8' del rovs dbcKovg Kal ovvfiriTe

140 ayojVLeloOaL Tots" SiKatot?" to ttlgtov del irdoLV irape^etv, fidXiGTa he TOt?

TTepiyeveoOai^
[jirjhe—oTe
7]

tlvI

to

KparovGLV ov yap hi^^a deov dp\eLV' Kav auTos" dpxrj,

e^v^pLGew

TLVL rrXeiovi KOGfico

141 XapLTTpvvelGdai^' ttjv

e^ovotav, pnqh^ eGdrJTL Tov? VTTOTeTayfjLevovg virepdXriBeiav dya—dv del Kal Tovg
els ttjv

ipevhojievovs
^pvxTjV

TTpo^dXXeGdat^-

x^^P'^^

KXoTri]^

Kal

Kephovg KaBapdv (^vXd^eiv, Kal KpvipeLv tl tov£ alpeTiGTa? P-ijB^ eTepoi^ l^rjTe avTojv TL firjvvGeLv, Kav p^^xpi BavaTov tls ^id^-qTat.
dvoGLOv
142 Trpo?

TOiJTOL? ofjLi'UGLV pLrjhevl fiev fieTahovuaL tcov

tj c5? auTo? fieTeXaBev, d(f)e^eGBaL Kal GvvTrjprjGeiv ojjLOLOjg tcl Te rrjg aipeoews avTOJV ^ijiXia Kal to, tcov dyyeXojv 6v6/iara. TotouTOt? p-ev toj)? opKOLS TrpoGiovTas

hoyp.dTOJv eTepoJS
XfiGTeiag

he

e6aG(f)aXL^ovTaL.
143
(8)

Tovs

5'

eV

eK^dXXovGL Tov
^

Tciy/xaTos".

d^LOXP^OLS dp.apTrjp.aGU' dXovTag o S' eKKpuBels oIktLgtco
Porj)h. virepXafnTpCvfcfai mss,

irepiyipeadai
:

LVR


'

Herwerden
Porph.
:

iX^yxeiv irpo^dWeedai Mss,

S76

'

JEWISH WAR,

II.

138-143

to share the purer kind of holy water, but is not yet received into the meetings of the community. For after this exhibition of endurance, his character is tested for two years more, and only then, if found worthy, is he enrolled in the society. But, before he may touch the common food, he is made to swear tremendous oaths first that he will practise piety towards the Deity, next that he will observe justice towards men that he will wrong none whether of his own mind or under another's orders that he will for ever hate the unjust and fight the battle of the just ; that he will for ever keep faith with all men, especially with the powers that be, since no ruler attains his office save by the will of God " that, should he himself bear rule, he will never abuse his authority nor, either in dress or by other outward marks of superiority, outshine his subjects to be for ever a lover of truth and to expose liars to keep
:

\-j<^

:

;

;

;

;

hands from stealing and his soul pure from unholy to conceal nothing from the members of the sect and to report none of their secrets to others, even though tortured to death. He swears, moreover, to transmit their rules exactly as he himself to abstain from robbery received them and in like manner carefully to preserve the books of the Such are the sect and the names of the angels.^ oaths by which they secure their proselytes. (8) Those who are convicted of serious crimes they Expuisioi and the ejected individual oXt!^^^^ [pel from the order
his

gain

;

;

;

;

"

Reinach compares A. xv. 374, where the Essene Menasays to Herod
:

hem
**

"

You

will reign, for

God

has deemed

you worthy." Cf. also Rom. xiii. 1. Reinach conjectures that the developed angelolog-y of Rabbinic Judaism was partly of Essene origin. Lightfoot
finds in this esoteric doctrine a link with Zoroastrianism.

377

JOSEPHUS
TToXXaKLS
Tpo(f)rjs
jjLopcp

hLa(f)9€Lp€TaL' ToT?

yap opKois Koi
/cat
hrj

Tois eOeaiv efSeSe/xeVo? ouSe rrjs Trapa rols aAAot?
144
\iji(jj

Svvarai /jLeraXafji^dveu' rro-qcjiayojv he TO Gojfia rrjKOjjievos hia^OeipeTai. hto
,

TToXXovs

eXerjoavres
iKav-qv

eV

rats"

ioxo-'^o.i?

duaTTVoalg

dveXa^oVy
TTjv fJiexpt'

IttI

rols

d/xaprT^/xacrtP'

avrwv

145

146

davdrov ^dcravov -qyovfJievoL. 8e TCLS" KpLaetg aKpL^earaTOL Kal (9) n^pt hiKaioL, Kal hiKaCovGi fxh' ovk iXdrrov? twv EKarov GVveXOovres, ro 8' opLodkv v-n avrcov dKLvrjTov. oe^as Se /xeya Trap' avToZs pierd rdv deov TouVo/xa rod vop^oderou, Kav ^Xao(f)r]p,rjGr) rt? et? Tovrov KoXdterai Bavdrco. rots' Se rtpe,

o^vrepoLS
147 G€L€V
els

VTraKovELU Kal

rol?

TrXeloGLV

eV

KaXoj

TidevraL' SeVa yovu GvyKadeL,o fxevajv ovk dv XaXrj-

dKovrcov ra)V evvea. /cat to TXTUoat he T] TO Sc^toi^ p-epo? (j)vXdGGovr ai, Kal rat? e^hojidaiv epyojv e(f>d7TreGdaL hia<j)opojTara ^\ovhaia>v drrdyTajv ov p.6vov yap rpo(f>ds eavroZs Trpd fxids rjiiepag TrapaoKevaQovGiv , d>s purj nvp ivavoLev^ eKeivrjV rr^u rjpLepav, dAA' ovhe OKevos Tat? 148 Tt pLeraKLvqaaL BappovGLV ovhe dTTOTrarelv
Tt?

pLeGovs

.

5'

d'AAat?
rfj

hialou
VTr"

^odpov opvaaovres ^ddos ttoGKaXihi, tolovtov yap eonv to hihofievov
rjpbepais

avrdw

d^Lvlhtov rolg veoGvordroiS, Kal Trept-

149

KaXv^avres BoipLdrioVy^ cos (jlt) rds avyds v^ptloLeu rov deoVy BaKevovGiv els avrov. eTretra ttjv dvopvxBeloav yrjv e(j>eXKOVGiv els tov ^oBpov Kal
^

ivatpdeUv

PA*:
:

^^'tt^^g

A (corrector)
Porph.

:

ivaTrToui/ correctors

o\
2

LR.
l^xaTiou

PAM

doluariu}

Moses.

378

JEWISH WAR,

II.

143-149

often comes to a most miserable end. For, being bound by their oaths and usages, he is not at liberty to partake of other men's food, and so falls to eating grass and wastes away and dies of starvation. This has led them in compassion to receive many back in the last stage of exhaustion, deeming that torments which have brought them to the verge of death are a sufficient penalty for their misdoings. (9) They are just and scrupulously careful in their Their trial of cases, never passing sentence in a court of r^^'renJ less than a hundred members the decision thus for Mose reached is irrevocable. After God they hold most ianism a in awe the name of their lawsriver," any blasphemer °^\^^ -customs n -IT oi whom IS punished with death. It is a point or honour with them to obey their elders, and a majority; for instance, if ten sit together, one will not speak if the nine desire silence. They are careful not to spit into the midst of the company or to the right,^ and are stricter than all Jews in abstaining from work on the seventh day for not only do they prepare their food on the day before, to avoid kindling a fire on that one, but they do not venture to remove any vessel or even to go to stool. On other days they dig a trench a foot deep with a mattock such is the nature of the hatchet which they present to the
;
^
.

-iiiT-

;

neophytes^ and wrapping their mantle about them, that they may not offend the rays of the deity sit above it. They then replace the excavated soil in
,'^

* Reinach refers to a similar prohibition, applying only to prayer-time, in the Jerusalem Talmud {Berachoth, iii. 5).
"
**

§ 137.

sun, c/. § 128. Schiirer contrasts the Testaments of the XII Patriarchs, Benj. 8 (the sun is not defiled by the sight of ordure, but purifies it).

The

379

JOSEPHUS
rOVrO TTOLOVGL TOVS
voL.
Kal-rrep

€p-qiJLOT€pOVS TOTTOVg €K\€y6p.€-

8e^ (f)vaLKrj? ovorj^ rrjs
{ler^ avrrjV

rwv^ XvjxaTojv

eKKpioeojs OLTToXoveodai
OfJL€V0LS

KaOdrrep jiefjua-

edifiov.
^Lrjprjin-ai

150

rr)? doK-qoeca? Kal togovtov ol /xerayeveaTepoL tow Trpoyeveurepojv iXarrovvTai cuar', ei ifjavaeiav avTwv, iKeivovs aTToXoveodai KaOdrrep

(lO)

8e

Kara xpovov

€15

fxoLpas

reaaapas,

151 dXXo(l)vXoj

ovfx<f)vp€VTa?.

Kal fiaKpo^LOL

fidv,
err],

oj?

rovs TToXXovs
TT71/

VTrkp

eKarov Trapareiveiv

8td

aTrXorrjTa rrj^ StatTTyS", efiotye 8oKetv, Kal rr)V exna^iaVy Karacjypoviqral Se rwv heivcjVy Kal rd? ^xkv dXyrjhovas i'Lkojut€S tols (^poviqpLaGLV, rov hk ddvaTOV, el fier* euxAeta? TrpoGLOL,^ voixil^ovres hirjXey^ev he avTow ev drra152 ddavaGia<i dfxelvova.
Giv tolS
ijjv^ds

6

TTpos

'PajfxaLOVS TToXefios, ev

co

Kal XvyLCofjievoi, Kai6p,evoL t€ Kal KXcofxevoL Kal 8td Trdvrojv obevovre? rojv jSacrarov Iv" rj VLGT-qpiojv opydvojVy ^XaG({)'qfj,rjGcoGLV vopLoQenqv r) ^dycuGiv ri rcvv dGvvrjdojv, ovherepov VTTefjLeivav rtaOelv, dXX ovhe KoXaKevGai TTore tovs iieihLOJvres he ev rat? 153 aLKilofievovs rj haKpvGai. dXyrjhoGiV Kal Kareipajvevojievoi rojv rd? ^aGdvovs
crpe^XovjjLevoL

re

7TpoG(f)ep6vTOJv

evdufJLOL

rds"

(pvxds

r](f}LeGav

ojs

vdXiv
154

KOiJuovfJievoL.

(11)
(f>6ap'7d

Kat yap eppcorat
p.ev
^

Trap'

elvai

ret

ocofJLara
5rj
:

avrols ^he r) 8o|a, Kal Trjv vXrjv ov
om. PA.
^

Most

Mss.

oiV

M

:

*

+

a u/aaT IK Cjf

MLVRC.

Trpoaetai

PAM.
xxiii. 12-

'^

As Reinach remarks,

the whole procedure, except the

final ablution, follows the directions

given

in

Deut.

14.

380


JEWISH WAR,
II.

149-154

the trench. For this purpose they select the more retired spots. And though this discharge of the excrements is a natural function, they make it a rule to wash themselves after it, as if defiled.^ (10) Thev are divided, according to the duration of The four their discipline, into four grades ; ^ and so far are the l^s^senes. junior members inferior to the seniors, that a senior if but touched by a junior, must take a bath, as after
contact with an alien. They live to a great age most of them to upwards of a century in consequence, I imagine, of the simplicity and regularity of They make light of danger, and their mode of life. death, if it triumph over pain by their resolute will come with honour, they consider better than immortality. The war with the Romans tried their souls through and through by every variety of test, Racked and twisted, burnt and broken, and made to pass through every instrument of torture, in order to induce them to blaspheme their lawgiver or to eat some forbidden thing, they refused to yield to either demand, nor ever once did they cringe to their persecutors or shed a tear. Smiling in their agonies and mildly deriding their tormentors, they cheerfully resigned their souls, confident that they would receive them back again. (11) For it is a fixed belief of theirs that the body is corruptible and its constituent matter impermanent,

;

Their end
persecuti

Their bei

immortal of the so

Lightfoot {Col. p. 363, note) remarks that the passage must be read in connexion with the account of the admission to the order (§§ 137 f.). The three lowest grades are the novices in their first, second, and third years of pro" After passing through these three stages in three bation. successive years, [the Essene] enters upon the fourth and highest grade, thus becoming a perfect member."
''

381

J05EPHUS
fiovifiov
fieveiv,

avra)V, ra? he i/fu^a? dOauaToug del 8iaKal oviiTrXeKeodai fiev e/c rou XeTTToraTCV (potTcuCTa? aidepo^ ojorrep elpKralg roc? ocufxaaiv
<f}uoLKfj

155 Xvyyi tlvl

KaraG—cofxeia^, eTreiSav Se du'
heafxajv,

eOcoGL

Tcov

Kara adpKa

ota

Br]

fjbaKpdg

SouAetas"

drrriXXayfieva? , rore xalpecv

Kal jxereco-

koI rat? p^ev dyadalg, povs (^epeoBai. SpLOBo^ovure? Tratalv 'KXXrjVcov, dTTO^aivovrai tyju vrrep WKeavou Siatrai^ aTTOKeloBai /cat ^chpov ovre opL^poL? ovre VL(f)eTol^ ovre Kavp,aoL ^apvv6p,evoVy dAA' ov e^ ojKeavov Trpav? del l,e(f)vpo9 eTTLTTvecov
avaijjvx^i'
rats'

Be (j)avXaLS

l,o(f)cuBrj

Kal

)(^eip.epiov

d^opiL^ovrai
156 rojv.

pivxov,

yepLOvra
pLot

ripLOjpLoJv
rrjv

dBiaXeiTT-

BoKOVdL

6e

Kara

avrrjv

evvoiav

"KXXrjueg rols re dvBpelot^ avrcow, ovs Tjpoja? Kal
7)pLLdeovs

KaXovoiv,

rds

pLaKapojv

vvjoov?

dva-

redeiKevaiy rat? he

rcJju

TTOvrjpow

ifjvx^^i?

Kad^ ahov

rov^ daeBoji^ Xojpov, evda Kal KoXaCopLevov; rtva?

pLvdoXoyovoLV,

Stcju^ous-

^rat
[.lev

TavraAou? ^l^iovdg
dihiovs V(f)LardpievoL

re Kal Tirvov?, rrpcorov

157

rag ipv^dg, eTreira el? TrporpoTrrjv dperrjg Kal KaKLag drrorpoTT-qv. rovg re yap dyadovg yiveoBai
reXevr-qv,
heet
pier a
7T

Kara rov ^iov dpLeluovg eXTTihi npirj? Kal /xera rrjv rwv re KaKojv ep,TiohiteaSai rag 6pp,dg
poohoKOJvr ojv,
hidXvcnu
pLev
el

Kal
rrepl

XdBoiev
ipv^'^jg

ev

ra>

Lrjv,

rrjv

dOdvarou

rLpLOjpiav

v<j)e^eiv.

158

ravra
avrcjjv

ovv ^KgotjuoI

deoXoyovotv,

d(j)VKrov heXeap rolg dira^ yevoap^evois rrjg aocblas

KaBievreg}
^

tQjv
i.

PLV:

tov T^i'

M.

«

PAM

(cf.

373): iyKaOi^uTis the rest.

382

JEWISH WAR,

II.

154-158

but that the soul is immortal and imperishable.** Emanating from the finest ether, these souls become entangled, as it were, in the prison-house of the body, to which they are dragged down by a sort of natural spell but when once they are released from the bonds of the flesh, then, as though liberated from a long servitude, they rejoice and are borne aloft. Sharing the belief of the sons of Greece, they maintain that for virtuous souls there is reserved an abode beyond the ocean, a place which is not oppressed by rain or snow or heat, but is refreshed by the ever gentle breath of the west wind coming in from ocean while they relegate base souls to a murky and tempestuous dungeon, big with never-ending punishments. The Greeks, I imagine, had the same conception when they set apart the isles of the blessed " for their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods, and the region of the impious for the souls of the wicked down in Hades, where, as their mytho; ;

logists tell, persons

such as Sisyphus, Tantalus, Ixion,

and Tityus are undergoing punishment. Their aim was first to establish the doctrine of the immortality of the soul, and secondly to promote virtue and to deter from vice for the good are made better in their lifetime by the hope of a reward after death, and the passions of the wicked are restrained by the fear that, even though they escape detection while alive, they will undergo never-ending punishment after their decease. Such are the theological viewsof the Essenes concerning the soul, whereby they irresistibly attract all who have once tasted their philosophy.
;

"
''

Cf. A. xviii. 18.

First mentioned in Hesiod, Works and Days, 170 ff. they dwell with care-free hearts in the isles of the blessed beside the deep-eddying ocean, those happy heroes," etc.

383

JOSEPHUS
159
(12)

Etatv

8'

iv

avTols
Kal

ot

Kal

ra /xeAAovra
lepaZs

77 poyu'coGK€iV

VTTLOxvovvraiy
OTrdviov

fti^XoL?
8'

kol
rat?

SLa(f)6poLg

ayvctat?

7Tpo(f)rjra>v

d7TO<f)deyfJLa(JLV

e^TratSoTpt^ou/xevof
160

et

rrore

iv

7Tpoayop€V(jeGLV daroxovaiv.
(13)

hianav

"RdTLv he Kal erepov ^Kgg-i-jvcov rdyiia, p^ev Kal eOrj Kal vopap^a rolg aAAot? 6[jlo-

<f)povovv, bL€Grd)£ 8e ttJ

Kara ydpLOV

ho^r]- pi^eyicnov

yap

dTTOKOTrreiv olovrai rod ^lov p,epog, rrjv huapLTj

SoxT^v, rov?

yaiJLOVvra? , pidXXov Se, el Trdvres

ro avro (hpovrjuetav, eKXiTrelv dv rd yevos rdx^Gra.
161 hoKip^di^ovreg p^evrot

rpieria rds yapierds, eTreihdv
8'

rplg KadapddJOLV els rrelpav rod BvvaadaL riKrecv,

ovrojg dyovrau.
evSeLKVvp.evoL

raZs

ro

(jltj

8t'

eyKVjxoGLV ovx opLiXovGiv, 7]hovrjV dXXd reKvcov
dfjUTrexo-

Xpeiav yapLeiv.
iajpLari.

Xovrpd he ralg yvvat^lv

pLevais evSvpiara,

Kaddrrep roZs dvhpduiv iv jrepiroiavra puev eOr] rovhe rod rdyp.aro£.
he

162

(14)
/xer'

Awo

row

Ttporepojv

dKpi^eias

hoKOVvre?

i^qyeZodat

^apiaaloi ra

piev

ol

vopLLpua

Kal rrjv Trpojrrjv drrdyovres aZpeoiv elpLappievr} re
163

rd

Kal Bed) rrpoodTrrovai Trdvra, Kal rd piev Tipdrreiv hcKata Kal pirj Kard rd rrXeZorov iirl roZs
dvOpo'jTTOis KeZadaL, ^orjdeZv he elg

eKaorov Kal

rrjv

elpiappLevrjv ipuxr'jV re irdoav puev d(j)daprov, p.era-

" Josephus quotes three instances of Essene predictions which were fulfilled, those of Judas (B. i. 78), Simon (ii. 113) and Menahem (A. xv. 373 ff,). The}* taught their art to disciples {A. xiii. 311), This gift of fortune-telling was perhaps connected with magic or astrology; it is not treated

as inspired (Lightfoot, Col. p. 69, note

Ij.

384

JEWISH WAR,

II.

159-163

{cf.

ant.

xviii.

13 f.)

(12) There are some among them who profess to Their gif P'"°p'^^ foretell the future, being versed from their early °

years in holy books, various forms of purification and apophthegms of prophets and seldom, if ever, do
;

they err

in their predictions."

(13) There is yet another order of Essenes, which, Essene while at one with the rest in its mode of life, customs, wu"^™*^ and regulations, differs from them in its views on practise ™^"'*^® marriage. They think that those who decline to off the chief function of hfe, the propagamarry cut tion of the race, and, what is more, that, were all to adopt the same view, the whole race would very quickly die out. They give their wives, however, a three years' probation, and only marry them after they have by three ^ periods of purification given proof of fecundity. They have no intercourse with them during pregnancy, thus showing that their motive in marrying is not self-indulgence but the procreation of children. In the bath the women wear a dress, the men a loin-cloth. Such are the usages

of this order.

Of the two first-named ^ schools, the Pharisees, are considered the most accurate interpreters of the laws, and hold the position of the leading sect, attribute everything to Fate and to God they hold that to act rightly or otherwise rests, indeed, for the most part with men, but that in each action Fate
(

1 4<)

(ii.)

The

who

^^^^^'^^^^

;

co-operates.'^
^

Every

soul,

they
;

maintain,

is

im-

The

text

can hardly be right

the Lat. has " constanti

purgatione." " more ancient," Reinach. ' Cf. the saying of R. Akiba " Everything is foreseen and freewill is given," Sayings of Jewish FatJiers, iii. 22 (24). Josephus, as Reinach remarks, substitutes " Fate " for *' Providence " for his Gentile readers.
<*

:

VOL.

II

o

g85

.

JOSEPHUS
^aiVctv he et? erepou ocofxa rrju rojv

ayaOwv

ixovqVy

1G4

ras Se toju Y^ah^ovKaloL
elfJLapfj.ei'rjv

<j>avX(x>v

dLdloj

rLfiojpta

KoXal^eoOaL.
ri^v

be,

to

Sevrepou

TOiyfxa,

fxkv

TravraTraoLV
TL

dvaipovoLV
t)

Kal

rou

Beou
(jyaolv

105 ^^co
S'

Tov Spdv

KaKOV

€(f)opdv

riOevrat.'

eV

dvdpojTTtov eKAoyfj to re

TTpoKeloOau

Kal

Kara

xaXov Kal to KaKov eKaorou rovroju yi'coiirju
Te r-qv hiapiovriv Kal
rtpLag
d^'aipouoti'.
ttjv

iKarepov^ Trpooievai.

4^v)(?i^

Ta9
166 Kal

KaB^

ahov^

rip.ojpia';

Kal

Oaptcraiot pei^
opLOvoiav

(fjLXdXXrjXoi.

re

Kal

et?

to
Kal

KOivov
7Tp6<;

doKovvTe?,
dTTTQUel?

"LahbovKaiojv

6e

dXXrjXov; to yjOo? dypLcuTepov, at re eVt/at^iat

TTpO?

TOU? OjlOLOVg

CU9

7Tp6<;

dXXoTpLOU<i

roiavTa
€1^01^

p-kv Trepl toju iu

lovdatOL^ (f)LXooo(f)OvuTcoi/

CtTTCtr.

167

(ix.

j)

Trjg
ei?

7T€00vori<;

^Apx^Xdou Inapxiav ol
'

8*

iOvapx'i-^'^

fxera-

Xolttol,

OiAitttto^

Kal

*Hpa>8T79 o

KXr)6el<i

Ai^Ti—as", Slcokoup Td<; eaurcov

TeTpapxias'

70V

SaAoj/xr^ yap TeXeurojoa ^e^aoTov yvvaLKl Tqv t€ auTT^?

'louAta

rfj

roTrapx^iau

Kal ^Xdpveiav Kal tov^ eV ^aoar^Xihi. (fyoLviKoJuas
IQS KareXiTTev.
Ai'a?
VLOi'

pLera^aGi^g
Tr]<;
'

be

€ls

Tt/Se'ptoi^

toi'

'\ourrji/

Pojixaiajv

r)y€fJLOi'La<;

perd
tojv

AvyovoTov
'

TeXevT-qv,

d({)rjyqoapei^'ou

rrpay-

Herwerdeii: tKartpw V:
'

iftt^'

adov

C

tKaripu.- the rest. KadoKov the rest

"

in rather similar

Ttie doctrine of the reincarnation of the soul is expressed terms in B. iii. 371 (c/. Ap. ii. 2l&).

386

JEWISH WAR,

II.

163-168

{cf.

ant.

xviii. 14,

27-33)

perishable, but the soul of the good alone passes into another body,'^ while the souls of the wicked suffer

eternal punishment. The Sadducees, the second of the orders, do away with Fate altogether, and remove God beyond, not merely the commission, but the very sight, of evil. They maintain that man has the free choice of good or evil, and that it rests with each man's will whether he follows the one or the other. As for the persistence of the soul after death, penalties in the underworld, and rewards, they will have none of them. The Pharisees are affectionate to each other and cultivate harmonious relations with the community. The Sadducees, on the contrary, are, even among themselves, rather boorish in their behaviour, and in their intercourse with their peers ^ are as rude as to Such is what I have to say on the Jewish aliens. philosophical schools.

(iii.)The
^^^''^^^'^s^

(ix. 1) When the ethnarchy of Archelaus was con- The verted into a province, the other princes, Philip and n'jjnp^an Herod surnamed Antipas, continued to govern their Herod '^^''' as for Salome, she at her " respective tetrarchies death*^ bequeathed her toparchy to Julia, the wife of Augustus, together with Jamnia and the palm-groves of Phasaelis. On the death of Augustus, who had directed the state for fifty-seven years six months
;

^

i.e.

with the other sects or generally with their complace under the second of the procurators, J. xviii. 31. For her share in
:

patriots.
" Which took M. Ambivius {r.

9-1-2 a.d.)

Jamnia was in the the division of Herod's kingdom see § 98. lowlands of PhiHstia, PhasaeHs in the Jordan valley, as also was Archelais which is added to the list of Julia's legacies
in

A.

loc. c'd.

387

JOSEPHUS
liarojv eT€aLV

eVra Kal TrevTrjKovTa,

rrpo^ Se iitjolv

e^ Kal rjfiepaL? 6vo, Sia/ietVai^re? eV rat? rerpap;)((.'at?

o

76

'Hpaj5T7? Kal 6 OiAitttto?,
'lopSdi^ou
TTrjyalg ev

c)

fiev

rrpos
ttoAiv

TQts
KTt'^et

Tou

flayeaSt

\\aLaapeLaVy
'Hpcu^r^?
rfj

Kav
8'

Trj

Karoo
717

TavXaviTLKfj
raAiAat'a

*louAtdSa,

cV

/xei^

Ti-

jSepidSa, eV be
169
(2)

Uepaia
6e
et?

(f)€pujvvpiOV

MouAta?.
vtto
ei? 'lepo,

neiJL(j)deU

^iovbalau

i7TLrpo7TO<;

Tt^eplov OtAdTO? vvKTOjp K€KaXvixii€va^
aoAy/xa
170 OTjiialaL

TTapeLGKOiiil^eL

KaXovvraL.

rd? tovto
cu?

Kat'crapo?
fxeO'

eUovas

at

rip.epav

p.eylGTr]v

Tapaxr]V riyeipev 'lofdaiot?' ol re ydp eyyvg 77p6>
TT]!'
di/>tP'

l^eTrXayrjoav

TrerraTrniivajv

avrois
Setrojv

Tojv vofjLUjv, ovhkv
Ki-jXou

yap

ol^lovglv
rrjv

ev rfj TrdAet

riOeoBaiy
rr]u

Kal

rrpog

ayavaKrr,aiv
rrj<;

Kara
171

ttoXlu

ddpov;

6

eV

\cjpa<;

Aad?
els

ovveppevoev.

opix-qoavres

be

vpo^
i^

HtAdTOi^

KaLodpeiav iKerevov
8'

e^eveyKelv

'lepoooXvfjLojv

rds orjiiaiag Kal rripelv avroU rd Trdrpia.
dpvovfJL€vou
rrepl

rrju

otKLau

TrprjveU

niXdroo Kara-

" This figure, repeated in A. xviii. 32. is about a month From the death of Caesar (15 March 44 b.c.) to too long. the death of Augustus (19 Aug. a.d. 14, Suet. Jug. 100) is 57 The four days may be reduced years 5 months and 4 days. to two by reckoning from the opening of Caesar's will (17 Gardthausen, quoted by Reinach the March) as proposed by latter accounts for the error in the number of months by a confusion of the figures for 5 {(') and 6 (f). By her former husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero. ' Caesarea Philippi of the N.T., mod. Danias. * Bethsaida Julias {el-Tetl) east of the Jordan a little to
;
''

388

JEWISH WAR,

II.

168-171

(

= ant.

xviii.

32-36, 55-57)

and two days,^ the empire of the Romans passed to Tiberius, son of Juha." On his accession, Herod (Antipas) and Phihp continued to hold their tetPhilip built rarchies and respectively founded cities Caesarea near the sources of the Jordan, in the
:
'^

Accessior

n^fo'.^^
Foundati^
^^j^^,^'^^^^''

district of

Paneas, and Julias'^

in

lower Gaulanitis
city

;

Herod
(2)

built Tiberias in Galilee

and a

which also
procurator

Tiberias,' ^^^'

took the
to

name

Pilate, being sent

of Juha, in Peraea.^ by Tiberius

as

pilate

Judaea, introduced into Jerusalem by night and excites^ti under cover the effigies of Caesar which are called p^^^^^ standards/ This proceeding, when day broke, affair of aroused immense excitement among the Jews those staadard: on the spot were in consternation, considering their laws to have been trampled under foot, as those laws permit no image to be erected in the city while the indignation of the townspeople stirred the countryfolk, who flocked together in crowds. Hastening after Pilate to Caesarea, the Jews implored him to remove the standards from Jerusalem and to uphold
;

t

;

the laws of their ancestors. When Pilate refused, they fell prostrate around his house and for five
head of the Sea of Galilee. It was called daughter of Augustus, A. xviii. 28 as she was banished in 2 b.c, Schurer infers that the refoundation of the town by Philip must have been earlier than that date. * The Peraean Julias (formerly Betharamatha, B. ii. 59 note) opposite Jericho was called after the Empress Julian
the north of the
after Julia,
:

Livia {A. xviii. 27) rather than Julias,

;

other writers call it Livias and that, was probably the name given by the

founder.
correctly described in A. xviii. 55, " The busts (or of Caesar which were attached to the standards." Tacitus {Hist. iv. 6-2) records how these imperatorum imagines were torn down by Civilis and his victorious
^

More

"medallions")

Gauls.

389

J05EPHUS
Kal vvKra? toas eVt rrevre rjiiepa? bieKaprepouv. 172 (3) Tfj 8' e^T^? o ritAdTO? KaBioas eVt ^rjfxaros 6V Toi iieyaXuj orahico kol rrpooKaXeadiievo? ro aTTOKp'ivaaBai hrfiev avrolg BeXojv, rrX-qdo? cu? hlhojGLV Tol? GrparLcoTais oi-jfj-elov €k ovvTayixaros 077 Aoi?. ev ^lovhaiov? rols KVKXcLcjaoBaL rous" 173 7TepLGr(ior)<i de rptcrrt^^et ttjs" (hdXayyos 'lofSalot T^crai/ rrpog ro dSoKrjTOV rrjg oifjecog, /lei' a;!(av'er? OiAdTO? Se KaraKoipeiv elrrajv avrovs, et /xt7 TTpoohe^aivTO -rcib Kataapos' eiVova?, yvpivovv to.
TreaovTes
(iKLViqTOL

174

|<.'<i»T7

TOt?

crTpartajTai?

evcucrei'.

ot

8e

'louSatot

KaQd-ep €K
rov9
o4>d<;

GVvBrjfjLarog dBpooi KaraTreoovre? Kal

TrapaKXivavres i-roLpLOV? duaipelv^ p.dXXov t) tov vopbov Tjapa^rfvai. VTTepBavpidaas he 6 YXtXaros to t^s" SetatSai/xoi^ia?
avx^i^'o.s

e^ouw

O-Kparov
(4r)

€KKOfjLLaaL

p.ev

avTLKa

Ta?

cr7yp,aia?

*IepoCToAJ/xajv KcAeuet.
175

MeroL 5e rravra Tapaxriv irepav cVtVet toi/ Brjoavpou, KaXelraL he Kop^owds,^ el? Karayojyrju vhdrwv e^avaXiOKOJV' KaTrjyev he avro
tepop'

TeT paKO a iijjv^ dyavdKTTjais
'IfpoCToAuz-ta

rjv,

orahlow. rrpog tovto rov ttXtjBovs Kal rov fltAaToy napovro? et? Kare^oojv. ro rrepLGrdvres ^rif.La
rrjv rapay^^i'jVy roj TrXrjBet

176 o be, Trporjdei

yap avrojv

roug Grpanajras evorrXovs [^v \^ eoOriGiv IhiojrLKaZs KeKaXvfjLpLevov? eyKarajil^as Kal ^i(f>ei pieu XPV' oaoBai KojXvGag, fuAot? he Traieiu rovg KeKpayoras eyKeXevodpievog, GvvBrip.a hihojoiv d-rro rod ^1]^

PA

:

£!S

duaip'-oiv

the rest.
Kou{ioiva%

*

P

r.nd correctors of

A

and L:

the rest.

390

JEWISH WAR,
position.

II.

171-176

(

= ant.

xviii.

57-61)
in that

whole days and nights remained motionless

(3) On the ensuing day Pilate took his seat on his tribunal in the great stadium and summoning the multitude, with the apparent intention of answering them, gave the arranged signal to his armed soldiers Finding themselves in a ring to surround the Jews. of troops, three deep, the Jews were struck dumb at this unexpected sight. Pilate, after threatening to cut them down, if they refused to admit Caesar's images, signalled to the soldiers to draw their swords. Thereupon the Jews, as by concerted action, flung themselves in a body on the ground, extended their necks, and exclaimed that they were ready rather to die than to transgress the law. Overcome with astonishment at such intense religious zeal, Pilate gave orders for the immediate removal of the

standards from Jerusalem. (4) On a later occasion he provoked a fresh uproar by expending upon the construction of an aqueduct the sacred treasure known as Corhonas the water was brought from a distance of 400 furlongs. Indignant at this proceeding, the populace formed a ring round the tribunal of Pilate, then on a visit to Jerusalem, and besieged him with angry clamour. He, foreseeing the tumult, had interspersed among the crowd a troop of his soldiers, armed but disguised in civilian dress, with orders not to use their swords, but to beat any rioters with cudgels. He now from
<*
;

(n.) the

^^^'^^^

" Cf. Matt, xxvii. 6, tov Kop^avav {v.l. KopjSwi/di') = " the sacred treasury," the only parallel for this use of the word. Corhan =" devoted," " taboo " {cf. Ap. \. 167).

*

PAM

:

om. the

rest.

391

,

JOSEPHUS
177 fJLaro?.

TVTTTOixevoi he ol *lovhaLOi ttoXXol

fJLev

vtto

Tcbu rrX-qyojv, ttoAAoi 8e vtto ocjxZv avrojv iv ttj

(jivyfj

KaTaTTarrjOevres d~ajXovro.
Tojv dvr]pr]ii€vojv
1"8
(5)

irpos §e ttjv oviK^opav
ttXtjOo? iaiajTrrjaev.

KaravXaykv to

TOVTU) Kariqyopos 'HpcuSou rod reTpap\ovvros 'AyptVTra? fio? 'AptarojSouAou, ov 6 Ttarrip 'WpojhrjS dulKreivev , Trapayiverai rrpos Tov he jxr) Trpoode^afieuov r-qv KarTt/Septov. -qyopiav fievcov eVt 'Pcofirj? rov? re dXXov? tujv yvcvpifxcDV idepdrrevev Kal fjidXcGra tow TepiJ,avLKOv Kal hrj ttotc Tdiov, IhLcorrjv ert oura. 179 TTalha eGTLojv avrov rd re dXXa ttolklXojs e(j)iXo<j)pov€.lro Kal reXevralov rag xelpas dvareivag (j>avepa)S
Kai^
180 rr]v drrodavovros Ti^epiov.

rjv^aro ddrrov avrov dedaaadai rcov oXojv hecTTTOrovro ns rcov OLKerojv

avrov htayyeXXei
elpyvvGLV

toj Tc^epLco, Kal o?

dyavaKriquas
acKLas
^(-X^^

rov

^

XypiTTTrav

Kal

fxer^
,

avrov

€Ttl

fjirjvas

e^ iv heapiojr-qpia)

iiexpis avros

ireXevr-qaev -qyefjiovevGas errj hvo rrpos rot? e'lKOui Kal rpeZs rjfjLepas errl {jltjuIv e^. 181 (6) WTToheixOels he Tdios Kalaap dvL-qacv re
rcov
heo/JLOJV

rov

^AypLTrrrav

Kal
^

rrjg

^lXlttttou

rerpapxi-O-S, OvrjGKei^

yap ovros, Kadiurr^Gi ^aacXea.

TrapayevofjLevos he els rrjV dpxrjv
^

\yp Itttt as

(fidovo)

P

:

TeduTjKd the rest.

"
''

i.

551.

The whole story is told in much greater detail in .7. xviii. (? from some Roman source), where, however, there is no mention of this object of his visit. The visit was made
year before Tiberius died " {A. xviii. 126). Eutychus, his freedman and charioteer, A. xviii. 168 ; according to the account there given the words were spoken during a drive, not at dinner.
in the
'

"

392

J.

WAR,

II.

177-181

(c/.

ANT. xviii

62, 126, 166

flF

,

237)

Large numbers his tribunal gave the agreed signal. of the Jews perished, some from the blows which they received, others trodden to death by their companions Cowed by the fate of the in the ensuing flight.
victims, the multitude
(5)

was reduced

to silence.

time Agrippa, son of the Aristobulus Herod who was put to death by his father Herod,* came to ^ome^^ Tiberius to accuse Herod the tetrarch.^ The em- 36 a. d. peror having declined to countenance the charge, Agrippa remained in Rome, paying court to various notabilities and in particular to Gaius, son of Germanithis

At

cus,

who was still a private citizen. On one occasion when he was entertaining him at dinner, Agrippa,

paying him all kinds of compliments, finally raised his hands to heaven and openly prayed that he might soon see Gaius master of the world, through the decease of Tiberius. This was reported by one of Agrippa's domestics to Tiberius ; whereupon the emperor, in indignation, threw Agrippa into prison,
after
'^

is

im-

^[be^i'ua

where he kept him under rigorous treatment for six months until his own death, which closed a reign of ^i^^^^J twenty-two years, six months and three days.'* (6) Gaius, on being proclaimed emperor, liberated Accessic Agrippa and gave him, with the title of king, the fc^Auaui
tetrarchy
of
Philip,

now

deceased.^

arrival to take possession of his
<*

kingdom

Agrippa's ^ aroused

,^°"pp*^

and mad
king.

22 years 5 months and 3 days according to A. xviii. 224 But neither (c/. § 168 for confusion of the numbers 5 and 6). the statement quite agrees with our secular authorities reign lasted from 19 Aug. 14 (death of Augustus) to 16 March (Tac. or 26 March, Dion), i.e. 22 years 6 months and 28 days (or 22 years 7 months 7 days). * He had died in the twentieth year of the reign of Tiberius {A. xviii. 106), i.e. in a.d. 33-4.. f A.D. 38-39. VOL. II o2 393
:

;

JOSEPHUS
182 ivrjye

183

ra? *V\pcoSou rov t€7 pdp\ov hi-qy^ipev InidvpLias. be fiaXLOTa tovtov et's" eArrtSa jSaaiAet'a? 'HpajSta? r] yvvrj, KaroveihiCovaa rrjv apyiav koL (jyafievri rrapa to [irj ^ovXeaOai ttXclv Ittl Kai'aopa OT€pLGK€odaL fieiCouo? dpxT]?' 07T0V yap WypinTtav i^ lSlcotou ^aoiXia TreTToiriKev, rjTrov y dv €K€Li'ou SioTOLoeLev €.K r€Tpdpxov; TOUTOt? dvaTTeiodel? 'HptuSv]? rjK€i' Trpog Vdiov, vcj)^ ov rrjs
TrXeove^ia^
rrjv
It: lt Lp.d7 ai
(f)vyfj

et?

^Traviau^o)

rjKO-

Xovdrjoev yap ainco Kar-qyopos *Aypt777ras",

Ik€lvov Kal 'HpojSrjg pL€v iv ^Travia Kal rrj<i yvvaiKog reXevra.
ttjv

rerpapxiau

Kal Fdiog. cru[jL(i)vyovGr]^ avrco
TrpoaedriKeu

(x. 1) rdLO<^ Se Kataap errl roaovrov i^v^ptoev ft? TT^v fu-)(riv, cjore deou iavrov Kal hoKelv^ ^ovXeodai Kal KaXelodai, rcov re evyeveordrajv dvhpujv aKpoTopLTjoai rr^v TTarplba, eKTelvat he rrfv 185 doe^eiav Kal errl ^Xovhaiav. Werpojviov fxev ovv fierd or par Lag errl 'XepoooXvpLtov errepL^ev eyKadihpvoovra rcZi vaoj rovs dvhptdvras avrov, TTpoord^ag, el pirj he^OLvro *IouSatoi, rods re KojXvovra? dveXeli^ Kal rrdu rd Xolttov eOvos 186 e^avhpartohioaoOai. deep S' dpa row rrpoaraypidrojv epieXev. Kal WerpojVLOS p.ei' ovu rpiol rdypiaoL Kal ttoXXoIs €k rijg Hvpla? ovjiiLdxaLS els 187 rrjv ^\ovhaLav rjXavvev €k r'Pjs 'AvrioYeia?, loi>OaLOJV be ot p.ev rjTTiorovv errl rals rod noXepiOV

1S4

j

^ TaWta;' Niese and TaWia So (or "IcTrai'iai') all MSS. below, to conform to A. xviii. 25?. ^ Kal doKeif Niese: Kal Sokuu Kal the 5oKui' Kal PA.M Exc.
:
:

rest.
*

According

to

A.

xviii. -252 to

Lyons

in

Gaul.

894-

JEWISH WAR,

II.

181-187

{cf.

ant. xviii

240-262)
The end
ot

the envy and ambition of Herod the tetrarch. But it was above all his wife Herodias who instigated the she reproached him tetrarch to aspire to a throne for his indolence and told him that it was only his reluctance to set sail and wait upon Caesar which kept him out of promotion. " Now that he has made a king of Agrippa, a mere commoner, '* she said, ** surely he could not hesitate to confer the same title
;

Herod

Aniipas.

on

a

tetrarch."

Yielding *to

these

solicitations,

Herod presented himself to Gains, who punished him for his cupidity by banishing him to Spain." For an accuser had followed him in the person of Agrippa,^ to whose kingdom Gains annexed his rival's tetrarchy. Herod died in Spain, whither his wife had accompanied him into exile. emperor (x. 1) The insolence with which the Gains defied fortune surpassed all bounds he wished to be considered a god and to be hailed as such, he cut off the flower of the nobility of his country, and
:

Gains on
of his

su

^gjj'^ig

impiety extended even to Judaea. In fact, he sent Petronius with an army to Jerusalem to instal in the sanctuary statues of himself in the event of the Jews refusing to admit them, his orders were to put the recalcitrants to death and to reduce the whole nation to slavery. But these orders, as the sequel showed, v^ere under God's care. Petronius, accord- :^''^'^'''^l 1 1 r Petromu ingly, with three legions ^ and a large contingent ot ptokeniai l Syrian auxiliaries, left Antioch on the march for JjJ^f oj^^J Judaea. Among the Jews, some put no belief in the 40 a. d.
his
;
.

,

,

.

IT

<^

.

In A. xviii. 247 Agrippa sends his freedman Fortunatus accuse Antlpas. Two only, according: to A. xviii. 262 (and so Philo, Leg. ad Caium 31, § 207 " half his army " ; there were four legions in Syria at this time).
*•

to

"

395

JOSEPHUS
(j}rjiJLai?,

01

8c TnoTevoureg rjoav eV

dfJLr])(dvco

npog
Seo<i

Tr]u
rjbr)

dfj-vvav
rioAt?

Ta\v
5'

5'

cxcop^i'

8ia TravTcov to
ttJ?

TTapovGTj^^ €tV flroAejaatSa rrj? crrpartdb.
eoTTti/

158

(2)
Xio^;

a?rn7

FaAiAaia? TrapdTrepiex^raL

Kara, to

m^V^

TreStoi^

iKnafievr],

be opeoLV iK fiev rod Ttpos dvaroXrjV KXifxaro?
07ahi<jL>v

dno
be

i^TjKOVTa

roj

rrj?

VaXiXala?,

drro

159

Tov ixeurjiJi^pLUoO toj Kap/xr/Aoj Stexouri OTaSiov^ Ikotov €lko(7l, TO) 8' vipr^XoTara) xa-r' dpKrou, o KaXovcTLv /<Aiju,a/ca Tvplcvv ol iTnxcopi'OL- /cat tovto de oraSt'ou? d(f}€GrrjKei' eKarov. rod 8' doreo? oaov drro dvo OTahicov 6 KaXovfxevos Bt^Aco?
TTorafio? TTapappel -TTavrdrraaiv oAtyo?, Trap'
Me'/xuoi^os" iivqfxelov
a)

to

190 iKarovraTT-qxf]

iariv exov iyyu? aurov rorrov Oav/jLaro? d^LOV KVKXorepy)^ fikv
dvabiSojGLi' 8e
r-qu

ydp ioTLv Kal
ipdfifxou,
Tjv

koIXo<;,

veXivqv

191

oTav eKKevojarj ttoAAo, rrXola -npoao^ovra,^ TrdXiv dvr lttXt] pour at to x^P^^^t KaraovpovTOJv iikv ojOTTep iTTLTTjSe? Tore tcuu dvefiajv ei's" auTo Trjv e^codev dpy-qv ^a/LA/xov, tov he pLerdXXov Trdaav evOecos pLeTa^dXXovrog elg veXov. 6auliaoLOJTepov 8ej' tovtov p.0L hoKel to rrfv vrrepX^deloav veXov eV tou tottou rrdXtv ibdixpiov yiveoOaL eLKaiav. to p.ev ovv ;(ajptov tovto TotavTrjV
elX-qx^v (f)VGLV.

192

he pLeTo, yvvaiKtov koI reKvcov (3) 'loudatot dBpoioBevTeg el? to Trebiov to Trpos [iToXepLatdL KadiKerevov tov [\eTpujVLOV vrrep toii' rraTpiajv vopLOjv TrpujTov, e-€LTa vnep avTcou. 6 be rrpog Te TO TrXijdog Kal tol? berjoet? evbov? tov? piev
^

Dindorf

:

-,ap o'7/?y MS3.
^

*

Dindorf:

Trpoax^*"'* ^'3.

om. most

m33.

396

JEWISH WAR.
rumours
defence
the
;

II

187-192 (c/ ant

xviii

262 f)

of war, others believed, but

saw no means of

alarm, however, soon became universal,

army having already reached Ptolemais.

Ptolemais is a maritmie town in Galilee, built entrance to the Great Plam, and encompassed To the east, at a distance of 60 with mountains to the south, 120 furlongs, is the Galilaean range to the north is the highest furlongs off, lies Carmel
(2)

Digresi

at the

ptoierr

vurec:
^^^^•

;

;

chain of

all,

called by the natives the "

Ladder of the

Tyrians," 100 furlongs away.

At

a

distance of about

two furlongs from the town runs the diminutive river Beleus** on its bank stands the tomb of Memnon, and close to it is a very remarkable region, a hundred cubits in extent. It consists of a circular basin which produces vitreous sand. Numerous boats put in to this spot and empty the basin of its sand, whereupon it is filled up again by the action of the winds, which, as if by design, drift into it the common sand outside, the latter being all promptly converted by But the phenomenon this mine into vitreous matter. which, to my mind, is even more remarkable, is that the excess particles of glass which overflow from the Such are the cavity become ordinary sand as before.
;

curious properties of this spot.

children

their wives and Ptolemais and implored Petronius to have regard first for the laws of their Yielding so far to fathers, and next for themselves. this vast multitude and their entreaties, he left the
(3)
in

The Jews assembled with
the
plain

Petrcn

of

Jewisn
^^
"^'°

"

Belus

in

Tac. Hist.

v. 7

and Pliny. N.H. xxxv).

i90,

modern Nahr Na'man.

397

JOSEPHUS
193 TrpoeXdojv^

duSpLavrag Kal ra? arpa~La<;^ iv YlroXeiiatSi AetVet, Se ei? tyju VaXiXatav Kal ouyKaXeoa? ro T€ TrXrjOo'; Kal tous" yvajplpLov? TrdvTag et? TtjSeptaSa ri'-ju re 'Pajfiaicov 8te^r]6t hvvapLLV Kal
Toi?

Kaioapog
idvayv

aTreiAds-,

eVt

he

rr]v

d^lcooLv

drr-

194 i(j)aLvev
p.€vojv

dyfajfiova'

7rdvTa)V
ttoXlv

yap

tojv

vTToreray-

Kara

ovyKaOiSpuKorcDV rots

dAAot? deoLS Kal ra? Kaioapog elKovas, ro fjLOvovg €K€Lwoug dvTirdoueoBaL Ttpos rovro ox^hov d<f)Lorafievafv eli'ac Kal /xe^' v^peojg. Ta»i^ 8e rov v6p.ov Kal to Trdrptov edog 195 (4-) TTporeivopLevajv Kal c6? ovhk Oeov tl hcLKT^Xov, ovx 0770)? dvbpo?, ov Kara rov vaov fiovov dAA' ou8e cV eiVat'cu rLvl tottoj rrjg )(copag deodai depurov " dAAd jjltjv Kal ifiol elrj, vrroXa^dju 6 YlerpcovLog d heoTTorov e<j>-q' rovfiov (f)vXaKr€Os vofiog," yap avrdv Kal (^eiod^evos vjjlojv Trapa^ds
TToXeiirjoeL 8' i3^a? d Treijupag Kal OVK eya'j- Kal ydp avros, worrep Vfieis, 196 inLrdcrGopLaL." rrpog ravra ro ttXtjOos Trdur* rov vopiov Trdoxeiv iroipLw? ^X^^^' e/Sda 77p6

dTToXovfjiai hiKaiajs.

IJ.€

]9~

KaraareiXas 8' " TToXepLTjoere ,"
Satot
TTtpt

avrwv
eiTrev, "

6

Uerpcuvios

rrjv

^ot'^v,

pL€u

dpa Kaioapt;" Kal 'louKaloapos Kal rov h-qp-ou row
rjp.epa';

'Pa>p.aLojv

6lg

rr^s

dveiv

€<f)aGav,

€t

he

198

^ovXerat rd? eLKOvas eyKaOihpveLv, nporepov avrdv he'iv dvav rd ^Xovhaiujv edvos -npoBvoaaOai' TrapexeLv he o(j)ds avrov? eroipLovg els rr]v a<l)ayr]V dp.a reKi-OLS Kal yvvai^iv. errl rovroLS ^aO/ixa Kal OLKrog elofjei rov Y\erpdjviov rrjs re. dvvTTep^Xi^rov
*

So

PAM

:

rrji-

*

uff ffTpariay Kal roij<i di-opia^ras the rest. C: -npoaiXduiv the rest.

S98

JEWISH WAR,

II.

192-198 {cf ant.

xviii.

269-271)

statues and his troops at Ptolemais and advanced into Galilee, where he summoned the people, with all persons of distinction, to Tiberias. There he dwelt upon the power of the Romans and the emperor's menaces, and, moreover, pointed out the recklessness all the subject nations, he urged, of their request had erected in each of their cities statues of Caesar, along with those of their other gods, and that they alone should oppose this practice amounted almost to
;

aggravated by insult. the Jews appealed to their law and the custom of their ancestors, and pleaded that they were forbidden to place an image of God, much more of a man, not only in their sanctuary but even in any unconsecrated spot throughout the country, Petronius replied, " But I too must obey the law of my master if I transgress it and spare you, J shall be put to death, with justice. War will be made on you by him who sent me, not by me for I too, like you, am under orders." At this the multitude cried out that they were ready to endure everything for the law. Will Petronius, having checked their clamour, said, you then go to war with Caesar ? " The Jews replied that they offered sacrifice twice daily for Caesar" and the Roman people, but that if he wished to set up these statues, he must first sacrifice the and that they presented thementire Jewish nation selves, their wives and their children, ready for the slaughter. These words filled Petronius with astonishment and pity at the spectacle of the incomparable
rebellion,
(4)

When

;

;

'

;

"

Cf.

may

Ap. ii. 77 with note. From the present infer that the daily sacrifice for the Emperor

passage we

was offered

partly at the morning, partly at the evening service.

^99

JOSEPHUS
OpriOKela^
€TOLfiou
lujv

avhpchv
.

koI
Kal

77apaaTiqiJ.aT0^
3'

rod Tore

vp6<;
jiev

Odvarou
aTrpaKToi

199

(5)

Taii

cfr)? ddp6ov<; re toi)? SLit^arou?

kqt'

IdLav Kai 70 TrXrjdo^ iv koluo) ouAAeycui^' TTore piev

TiapeKaXei, vo-rk be ovve^o-vXevev

,

to ttMov ptevroL

htrj-eiXei, r-qv re 'Ptu/xatcuv eTTavareLVOpLevos loxvv

Kai TOi)? Vatou
200 di'dyKTqv.
a»?
7Tp6<;

6ufj.ov<;

ttju re

Ihiav Trpo? toutoi?
Trelpav

Be

pr]heplav

evhihovTOiv,

eojpa

Kal

ttjv

^copau

KLvhvvevovaav donopov
TTevrrjKoura -qpiepag

pLecuaL,

201

TrXrjdrj, reXevralov avrous Kal " TrapaKLvSvueureov ipLol pid\/\ou," elnoWy " rj yap rod 6eov ovvepyovuro?

Kara yap wpau oTTopov dpyd TTpoohierpL^ev avrtp rd
ddpoLoas

Tretaas"
t}

Kaiaapa

GcoOrjOOfxat

ped^

vpLcov

rjBeoj?,

vapo^vvdevros virep rooovrojv
ipLavrov
ijjux'i'i^,

eroLfx<jj<;

evihojooj
ttoAAo,

r-qv

hiac^rjKev

rd

7TXrj6o<i

Kar€V\6peuou^ avjoj, Kal TrapaXa^oju rrju orparidu Ik rr)^ IlroXepatSog vneorpeihev €t? rrju ^Avtlo'
202 ^eiai^.

eudeu

evOeuJS
els

eTreoieXXev
el

Kai'aapi

r-qv

re

ifx^oX-rju r-qv

'lovSatai^
7e,

rov

edvovs,

on

eavrov Kal rds LKeaias p.r) ^ovXerat vpd<; rol^

dvbpdoii' Kal r-qv x^jpav dTToXeoai, deoL c^vXdrreiv re avroLS^ TOf vopLov Kal rtapievai rd TrpdoraypLa.
203 ravraLS

ov 0(i>6hpa pLerpiajs qptBdvarov, on rdjv vpcGraypidroju avrou ^padv? VTTrjperr)? eyldXXd rov? pev rovroju ypaix^aro(f)dpov<; vero} oive^q )(eiiJ.aodr,uaL rpeU pTjUas ev rfj ^aAdacjTy,
Tat?
eTricroXals
eypaijjev d Vdios, QTreiAoJi/ Werpojvlo)
'

(7l/\^f7<^TL;^

PA, whence

ai\\i',f.v
'

/noTd-xcM^nuf
*

PA*

Destinon. Niese: avrous m33.

PA

:

t')i\>iTo

the lest.

400

JEWISH WAR,

II.

198-203

{cf.

ant.

xviii.

272-305)

devotion of this people to their rehgion and their unflinching resignation to death. So for the time he dismissed them, nothing being decided. (5) During the ensuing days he held crowded private conferences " with the aristocracy, and public meetings with the people at these he had recourse alternatively to entreaty, to advice, most often, however, to threats, holding over their heads the might of the Romans, the fury of Gains, and the necessity which circumstances imposed upon himself. As, however, none of these efforts would induce them to yield, and as he saw that the country was in danger of remaining unsown for it was seed-time and the people had spent fifty ^ days idly waiting upon him "It is he finally called them together and said better that I should take the risk. Either, God aiding me, I shall prevail with Caesar and have the satisfaction of saving myself as well as you, or, if his indignation is roused, I am ready on behalf of the lives of so many to surrender my own." With that he dismissed the multitude, who rained blessings on his head, and collecting his troops left Ptolemais and returned to Antioch. From that city he hastened to report to Caesar his expedition into Judaea and the entreaties of the nation, adding that, unless he wished to destroy the country as well as its inhabitants, he ought to respect their law and revoke the order. To this dispatch Gains replied in no measured terms, threatening to put Petronius to death for his tardiness in executing his orders. However, it so happened that the bearers of this message were weather-bound for three months at sea, while others, who brought
;

:

"

These
ff,

later conferences
^

269

were held at Tiberias, A. xviii. 40 according to A. xviii. 272.

401

.

JOSEPHUS
rov
uios
r)

8e

Vatov
e(f)dr]

^vttXoovv.
AajStui'

ddvarov aAAot KarayyeAAoi^re? yovv rag rrepl rovrojv Werpuj€77ra

ras"
xi.

eTTioroXas Kad^ eavrov.

kol

e'lKoaiv

T]/M€pat?

204

(1)

Vatov 8e r]y€yiov€VoavTO<;
KOL
he
SoXo(l)Ovrj6€vrog

lirfvas

OKTOJ
Tj

err] rpla dpTra^erat

Kal
ijl€V

VTTO TCOV iv 'PcOIJiTj

OT paTeVpi6.T(jjV
ovyKXr]ro?,

205

KXavSiog

,

^€LS TTjU dpX'Tj^Y rcju e^qyov/JLevcov

VTrdrajv Hevriov Haropvivov Kal YlofiTTajvLOv SeKovvSov, Tpialv rat? au/xjuevoucrai? aTretpats" €7nrpeipaaa (f)vXdTTeLV rrjv ttoXlv els to ViaTreTcoXiov rjOpoLadr), Kal 8td rrjV wpLor-qra ttjv Vatou KAauSt'oj TToXefj-elv etprjcfyiCeTo- KaTaar-qoeodai yap hi dpiUTOKparia?, d'jo—ep ovv rrdXaL hiajKelro, rrju dpxqv Tj Kpivelv 4'v4'V "^^^ d^LOV rrjs -qyep^ovias 206 (^) ^vvep-q [heY rrjVLKavra npos i-TTchrjpLoOvra Tov AypLTnTav ri'-jv re ovyKXrjrov KaXovaau €i? GupL^ovXlau TTefxipat Kal KXavhiov eV rrjg 7rape/xjSoArys", OTTO)? 77p6? d heoL xPV^^^I^os avrols yevoiro. [KdKelvosY ovvLhojv TOV rjhr] rfj hwdfJieL Kaioapa 6 8' avTOV Trpea^evT-qv 207 TTpo? KXavhiOv aTTeiaiu.

npos Tr]v oijyKXrjTOV dvaTrepLTrei hrjXovvTa Tr)v eauTOV TTpoaipecnu, on Trpojrov p.ev aKOJV vtto twv
orpaTLojTojv
1

dprrayeiTj,

Kal

ouTe
2

ttjv

eKeivwv

om.

P.

om. PA.

" Tn the account of this affair of Petronius A. xviji. apain enters much more into detail than B. ii. outstanding additions are the pro%'identiaI rainfall and the intercession of Agrippa with Gaius at Rome on behalf of the Jews. ' So A. xix. 201 ; in reality just o%er 3 years and 10 months (16 March 37 to 24 January 41 a.h.) ' The story of the assassination is told at icngth from some
:

402

J.

WAR, II. 203-207 {cf. ANT. xviii.

308, xix. 201, 236

ff.)

the news of the death of Gaius, had a fortunate The temp passage. So Petronius received this last information ihedpatii twenty-seven days earher than the letter conveying J^^^^'j^^ his own death-warrant." Accession (xi. 1) When Gaius, after a reign of three years and V, / ® CLAUDIUS, o Home* eight months, ° was assassmated,^ the troops carried off Claudius by force to make him emperor. But the senate, on the motion of the consuls, Sentius Saturninus and Pomponius Secundus, after entrusting the protection of the city to the three ^ cohorts that remained loyal to them, assembled in the Capitol and, on the ground of the savagery of Gaius, decreed war on Claudius they were determined either to revert to their former constitution as an aristocracy, or to elect by suffrage a leader worthy of the empire. (2) Agrippa was at the time in Rome, and, as Tmportan chance would have it, he received a summons alike by'^Agdpp from the senate, calling him into consultation, and as mediat from Claudius in the camp /; both parties solicited ciandms Agrippa, ^"^^l^J^ his services in this pressing emergency. " reflecting that Claudius was already virtually emhis back, repaired to him. peror with the power at Claudius, thereupon, sent him off as his envoy to inform the senate of his sentiments. He Mas to state, in the first place, that it was against his will at the that he had been carried off by the soldiers same time he considered it both unjust to betray
'
,
,

.

,

m
.

rf

;

;

first-hand authority in A. xix., where it fills more than half In the accession of Claudius, Agrippa plays a the book. larger part in B. than in A. " The praetorian guard. * Four according to A. xix. 188. ' Ttie praetorian camp established by Sejanus in a.d. 23 on the N.E. of Rome, outside the ancient city, but afterwards included within the AureUan walls; the site is used to-day tor barracks for the Italian army.

403

.

,

JOSEPHUS
GTrovhrju

iavrou

'7V)(^-qv

eyKaraXivelv BiKaiov ovr€ aa^aAe? Kpivoi' koI yap to tv^^Iv
KArjaeoj?
T-qu

rr)v
Tri<;

208 rjy€iJ,ovLKrj<;
bioiKYjaet^

iTTLKLuBvvov elvai-

ineid^

on

dpx'^^

wunep dyado^ vpoGTarr)^

apKelodat yap rfj rLfifj rrjg e<^' eKaGTU) rojv vpayjidrtov ^ovXr]u TTaGiv dnohajGeiv' kgl yap et firj <f)VGeL pLeTpio? rjv, LKaiow VTToheiypia oaj(f)poGVi'r]g avro) TTpoKeiGOai Tov Vatov Qdvarov.

ovx

^5"

Tvpavvo?'

77

poG-qyopias, Tr)V 8'

209

(3)

TaOr'

aTTTJyyetAei' 'AyptTTTra?.

tj

he ^ovXr)

Grparcp kgl yvcvfiats dyadal^ Tenoidvla hovXeiav Ikovgiov ovx VTrofievelv. /cat
d7T€Kpivaro
KAai'Sto?

Kai

(!)<; rJKOVGeu to. Trapd rrj^ ^ovXrjg, TrdXiv rov * AypLTTTTau aTTayyeXovi'Ta avTOi^ on TTpohovvai p-kv rov? el? avrou opLOuorjGavra?^ ov^ VTTOpLeVOL, TToXeiJLrjGeLV S' aKCOU VpO? OV? TjKlGTa 210 ^ovXoLTo. Selv jievroL 7Tpoa7ToheL\0rjvai toj ttoXefxcp xcxjpiov e^oj ttj? voXecj?' ov yap oglov hid TTju avTojv KaKO^ovXiav 6pL0({)vXa) (f)6i>cp pLLaiveodai TQ repLevrj ttj? Trarpiho?. 6 p-kv ovv ct/<:ouaas ravra rot? ^ovXevral? dTTViyyeiXev fi) Mera^ti he rcou /ierd rrjg GvyKXrjTOV GTpa211 nojTcov ns GTraodpLevo? to ^i^o? " dvhpe?,'

€-€fjnlj€v

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" GVorpanajTai,

Tt

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KTOvelv ^ouX6p.e6a Kai Kara

p-erd

\\Xavhioi

ouyyevojv 6pp.dv, e^ovre?
p.€p.(f)6rji>aL

hvidfievou,
67tXcoi>

p.ev avroKpdropa p.rjhei rooavra he rd StVaia 77p6«

212 ous"
^

pierd rcov
bLOLK-qaoL

xojpelv

p.eXXop.ev
^

;

"

ravrc

L\

R.
in

oatcavTCi

L\ RC.
thi

°

There

is

no verb

the

Greek

;

Reinach suspects

text.
*

Or, with the other reading, "

had sworn

fidelity to him.'

404

JEWISH WAR,

II.

207-212

(cf.

ant. xix. 246-254

ff.)

such devoted supporters and unsafe (to abandon) ^ the fortune which had befallen him, for the mere fact of having received the imperial title entailed risks. Agrippa was further to state that he would govern the empire as a virtuous ruler and not as a tyrant he would be content with the honour of the title, and on all public affairs would consult the whole people indeed, were he not by nature inclined to moderation, the fate of Gaius would serve as a sufficient warning to him to act with discretion. (3) To this message, delivered by Agrippa, the senate replied that, relying on the army and the wisdom of their own resolutions, they would not submit to voluntary servitude. When Claudius heard this answer of the senate, he again sent Agrippa to tell them that he would not consent to betray those who had unanimously elected him,^ and must therefore reluctantly fight those who were the last persons in the world he wished to have as his enemies. It would, however, he said, be necessary to select for the conflict some spot outside the city, as it would be monstrous that their obstinate perversity should cause the sacred precincts of their country to be polluted with her children's blood. Agrippa noted and delivered this message to the
;
;

senators.

In the midst of these negotiations one of the who had adhered to the senate, drawing his " Comrades in arms, what has sword, cried out possessed us that we should wish to murder our brothers and to rush upon our kinsmen in the ranks of Claudius, when we have an emperor with whom no fault can be found and are united by such close ties with those against whom we propose to take the
(4)

soldiers

:

405

JOSEPHUS
elTTOjv

8td

fiearjs

(Lpfjurjaev

rij?

^ovXijs

Trdvra?

rovs GVGrpaTLcora?
TrapaxpTifJ^OL

€(f)eXK6fX€i'og.

ol 8' evnarplSaL
77ept8eoj?

piev
8'

rrpog
oj?

tyju

drroXenpLv

ea^ov,

avdtg

d—oorpo<f)rj

ocor-qpLo?

ov

Kare(f)aLV€TO , rrjv
213 TTpos

tow orparLcurow ohov
VTTrjVTOJv
8'

-qTreiyovro
Trpo

KAai;8toy.
yvpLVol?
rrjv

avrol?
OL

rod

TELXOus

Tols
Tuxr/i^'

^L(I)€GLV

O(j>ohp6repov

KoXaKevovreg
rovs

Kau ouue^rj KLvhvvevaat
yvojvai
rrjv

TTpodyovras

Trplv

oppirjw

tow

GTpaTLCJTOJV KXavdLOV,
77a?
OTi

€t pLTj

Trpoobpafxdw WypLTT-

avTOj TO KLvbvvevpLa r-qg rrpd^eoj? iSriXajoeu,
re
et
pLTj

Kardoxot

ttjv
,

opji-qv

tcou
8t'

inl Tovq

evTTaTpidas

XeXvGGr^Korojv

drroXeGa?

ou?

to

Kparelv
21
-i

eon
TOV

rrepLOTrrov iprjixiag €golto /SacriAeu?.
dxrouVas-

(o)

Taur'
elg

KAau8tos-

Kareox^^
T€

rag
TTjV

Opjxds

GT par LOJT LKOV ,

7TpOGhe\€TaL

GvyKXrjTOV
ptevog

to GTpaTOTrehov Kal
avTolg

(f)LXo(f)poviiGd-

^ili^i-

^^v

aurtVa

Ovgow
TraTpojq.
utt'

tco

deep

215

ra
^

Trept

tt}?

-qyep-OPtag

;)(aptCTTrJpta.
ttj

Kal

tov

AypLTTTiav evdeoj? idojpelTO
77

^aaiAeia

TTdGTj,

poGTLdelg e^ojSev Kal Ta?
'Hpoj8r)

AvyovGrov
kvpavlTtv,

hoBeiGas
Xojpl<;

Tpa\ojvlTiv
eVepar--

Kal
ttjv

8e TOVTOjv
.

jSacriAetav
h-qp-to

Xvoaviov
T-qv

216 KaXovfxevTiv

Kal

toj

jxkv

biaTdypiaTL
8e

hojpedv

iSrjXov,

tols

dpxovoLV
^(aAKar?
bojpelraL

rrpoGCTa^ev
Sogiv
clg

iyxoipd^avTag
217 KaTreTojXtov

deXroL';

ttju

to

dvadelpai.

8'

avTOV

Kai

406

JEWISH WAR,

II.

212-217

{cf.

ant. xix. 263-277)

field ? " With those words he rushed through the midst of the senate, with all his fellow-soldiers at his

were momentdismay then, perceiving no other refuge to which to turn, they followed the soldiers and hastened to Claudius. Outside the walls they found themselves faced by the more hot-headed courtiers of fortune, with bared swords, and the lives of the leaders of the party would have been imperilled before Claudius even knew of the fury of the soldiers, had not Agrippa run to him and told him of the perilous situation and that unless he checked the impetuosity of the troops, who were mad against the patricians, he would lose the very men who lent lustre to his sovereignty and be left monarch
heels.
this desertion the patricians
;

At

arily struck with

of a v/ilderness. (5) On receiving this message, Claudius repressed the fury of the soldiers, admitted the senators to his camp, and, after warmly greeting them, went off with them without delay to sacrifice thank-offerings to God on his accession to the empire. Upon Agrippa he forthwith conferred the whole of his grandfather's kingdom, annexing to it from over the border not only the districts of Trachonitis and Auranitis of which Augustus had made a present to Herod," but a further principality known as the kingdom of Lysanias.'' This donation he announced to the people by an edict, and ordered the magistrates to have it engraved on brazen tablets to be deposited He, moreover, presented Herod, in the Capitol.
"
''

Agrippa
ot^j^i^jae"

B.
i.e.

i.

398.

Abila (north-west of Damascus) and parts of Lebanon {A. xix. 275). Caligula had alreadj^ given Agrippa " the tetrarchy of Lysanias " (^. xviii. 237); Claudius merely confirms this gift.

407

JOSEPHUS
rov a8eA<;66v
rjv

'Hpcvbiqv,

6

S'

avrog

Kal

yafifipog
ap;(7)?,

218

BepuLKT) ovvotKOJi', jSacTiAeta rfj XaAK'tot. av eV TOcrauTr;? oj? S', (6) Tax€cu?
'Aypt7777a
ctV

TrAoiiTo?

ovveppei,

Kal

tol?

\p-qixaaiv

auTO?

ou/<:

piaKpau^

Karey^priaaro' T-qXiKOvrov
'Pcu^aatotb
e7TOL7]a€v

yap
219
TT]!^

Tols 'lepoGoXvpLOL? Trepi^aXelv Tjp^aro r€LXO?,
ai^

TjXiKOu

reAea^ei'

dvrjVVTOv
e<^^7^

TToXiopKtau.

dAA'

Trptp-

vipojaai

to epyov

reXevr-qoa? ev Kaiaapeta, /^c/SacrtAeuKco? /xei^ err] rpta, TTporepou 8e tcui^ T^-rpapxicLv rpiolv eTepot? KaraXeiTreL Se rpet? /ixei/ 220 ereoLU ac^riy-qGapLevo? duyarepas €k KvTrpov yeyevvrjjjLevag, BepvLK-qv Kal Mapta/x/x77i' Kat Apouat'AAai^, uioi' Sc eV rr^s" avTrjg ^AypLTTTTav. ov TTauraTTaoLV oi^to? utjttlov ttolXlv TQ? paaiXeLag KAat-dio? eVap^^tav 770trjaa9 eVtrpOTTOU 7TefJi7T€L KoVOTTLOl' ^ddov, e7T€LTa Tl^€pLOV ^AXe^aubpou, OL fJiiqSev TrapaKtvovvreg rcov im.

221 ;(CL>pttut' iOcov €v elpTjvri

ravra Kal 6 ^aotXevwu
TeAeuTOL,
VLKr]<;

to edvo? Stec^vAa^ap'. /Lxerd rrjs XaA/<tSo? *Hpa»Sr/?
/u.ep'

/caraAtTTOji^

6k

ri^g

dSeA^tS?^?

Bepre-

hvo 77ar8a?
TTpoTepas
pttKpi

Bepi^tKiap'Oi'

T€ /cat 'Tp/cav'dt', cV

Sc T7]?
^

Maptd/z/xT]?

'Apiard^ouAot'.

Hudson

from Lat. "in rebus exiguis."
;

Bernice was Herod's second wife he had previously married Mariamme, grand-daughter of Herod the Great {A. xviii. 134). On the north of the city, to enclose the suburb Bezetha or " new city " (B. v. 151 ff^ J. xix. 326).
"
''

The work was stopped, before Agrippa's death, by Marsus, the governor of Svria, under orders from Claudius {B. V. 152, A. xix. 326 f.) A more precise statement is given in A. xix. 351. He reigned four years in all under Gaius (37-41 and three under Claudius (41-44); for the first three years under Gaius he
•^

<*

)

408

J.WAR,II.217-221(c/A.xix.

277,326,343ff.,xx.l00fF.)
and his
^Trod^^k
ol Cha'lci

who was at once the ^tu er and, by his marriage with Bernice, the son-in-law of Agrippa,'^ with the kingdom ofChalcis. (6) From so extensive a realm wealth soon flowed
in to

Reign

an(

Agrippa, nor w^as he long in expending his^^j^rmja] For he began to surround Jerusalem with riches. a wall^ on such a scale as, had it been completed, would have rendered ineffectual all the efforts of the Romans in the subsequent siege. But before the work had reached the projected height, he died'' at a.d. 44. Caesarea, after a reign of three years, to which must be added his previous three years' tenure of his He left issue by his wife Cypros,^ tetrarchies.^ three daughters Bernice, Mariamme, and Drusilla and one son, Agrippa. As the last was a minor/ Judaea Claudius again reduced the kingdoms to a province uf^ier'^'^^ and sent as procurators, first Cuspius Fadus,^ and procurau then Tiberius Alexander,'^ who by abstaining from all interference with the customs of the country kept the nation at peace. Subsequently Herod, king of Death of Chalcis, died he left by his marriage with his niece of chaicii Bernice, two sons, Bernicianus and Hyrcanus, and*-''-^^* by his previous wife, Mariamme, a third, Aristobulus.

;

held the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias, for the fourth he His " reign " in the held that of Herod Antipas as well. present passage is limited to his tenure of the whole kingdom of Herod the Great. * Daughter of Phasael, the nephew, and of Salampsio, the daughter of Herod the Great {A. xviii. 130 f.) He was seventeen years old {A. xix. 354). » c. A.D. 44-45. A.D. 46-48. c. Of a distinguished Jewish family of Alexandria, son of the Alabarch Alexander and nephew of Philo; renounced Judaism to tal<e service under the Romans, as procurator of Judaea, as prefect of Egypt (ii. 309), and as chief of the general staff of Titus at the siege of Jerusalem (vi. 237).
'^

''

409

JOSEPHUS
6vqK€L
S'

auTOj Kal erepo?
KaraXtTTcov
cu?

aj^eX<f)6^

^

Apioro^ovkos
ovroi

222 IdLioTTj^

^lojra.Trrji'

dvyarepa.
8e

Hev ovv rjoav,

TrpoelTTOv,

WpLGro^ovXou tov
koX

^Wpwhov
ai'S/jo?

TratSe?,

'AptcrTo^ouAo?
tj

'AAefutet?, rrj?

eV

Mapta/x/xT7S'

'HpcoST^ yeydp'eto-ai^
he

ou? o TTarrjp dvelXev
lJi€ydXrj^

WXc^dvSpov yeved
'YipwSov
reXeur-qv,

^ApfjLeviag ijSaoLXeuoey.

2:3

(xii.

1)
'^^S"

MeTCL

8e

rrju

o?
els

r)PX^
rrjv
^

XaAKt'So?,

Kadior-qGLV

KXavStos

^aoiXelav rov deiov rov ^AyptTTTrav vldv AypiTTTTa' rrjg 8' dXXrjs eTrapx^'O.? StaSexerai rrjv
^

AXe^dvhpOV KoU/XaVOS", €(/)' OU (1770 dopv^OL re rjp^avro Kal (f)dopd rrdXiV ^lovhalcov ouveX-qXvdoros ydp rod TrXrjOovg inl 224 iyevero. rrjv eoprrjv tojp' dCvfjLcov els ^lepoaoXvfJLO Kal rrjs"
€77 LT pOTTT^V

'Poj/xai'/crj?

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TL

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tov
ro

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crrodv

i(f)€Gra)Gr]?, evorrXoL 8'

del rds eoprds 7Tapa(j}vXdrttXtjOos

TOVGLV,

ojs

jjL-q

veojrepil,OL

rjOpoL-

GiievoVy elg

-rt?

tojv Grpariajrwu dvaGvpdfxevos r-qv

eGdrjra Kal KaraKvipa? dGX'qP'dvoJS TrpoGaireGrpeipev TOt? 'louSatot? ttjv ehpav Kal to) gx'^'^P^o.tl

o/xoiW e7Te(f)dey^aTo. Trpog tovto aTrav TO TiXrjBos TjyavdKTrjGev, Kal Kare^ocov tov Kovfjiavov KoXdleLV tov gt paT lajT-qv ol he tjttov vq^ovTes Twv vecjjv Kal to (f>vGei GTaGLwhes eK TOV eduov? exojpovv errl p.dx'qVy XiOovs re dpTrd 226 oavTes enl tovs GTpaTicoTag e^aXXov. Kal Kov225
(f)a)i''qv

fiev

,

"
*•

i.e. of A^'rippa. Called after her mother, a princess of

Emesa

{A.

xviii.

135).

Agrippa, Herod of Chalcis, Aristobulus. Alexander II and Tigranes. Tigranes was made king of Armenia by Augustus, but was soon deposed; anothei
*
<*

410

JEWISH WAR,

II.

221-^26

(

= ant.

xx. 104-109)

Another brother,'^ Aristobulus, died in private station, leaving a daughter Jotape.*' These three,'' as I have previously stated, were the children of Aristobulus, son of Herod Aristobulus and Alexander were the issue of Herod's marriage with Mariamme and were put to death by their father. The posterity of Alexander became kings of Greater Armenia.*^ (xii. 1) After the death of Herod, sovereign of Agnppa
;

i

Chalcis,
I

succeeded by Lumanus * under his admmistration disturbances broke out, resulting in another ^ large loss of Jewish lives. The usual crowd had assembled sedition at Jerusalem for the feast of unleavened bread, and Jerusaien ^'^ Passov r. the Koman cohort had taken up its position on the caused bj roof of the portico of the temple for a body of men oVa^Rom in arms invariably mounts guard at the feasts, to soldier. prevent disorders arising from such a concourse of people. Thereupon one of the soldiers, raising his robe, stooped in an indecent attitude, so as to turn his backside to the Jews, and made a noise in keeping with his posture.^ Enraged at this insult, the whole multitude with loud cries called upon Cumanus to punish the soldier some of the more hot-headed young men and seditious persons in the crowd started a fight, and, picking up stones, hurled them at the Tigranes, son of Alexander IF, was given the same kingdom by Nero {A. xviii. 139 f., cf. Tac. Ann. ii. 3). * Ventidius Cumanus (Tac. Ann. xii. 54).
1

kingdom to his)!,'"", °^ Chalcis. A . nephew Agnppa, son or Agnppa. As procurator or cnmanus the rest of the province (Tiberius) Alexander was procuratc 48-5
Claudius

presented
f
A

his

A

1

1

/-I

II-

1

.

A.D.

;

;

I

I

I

I

I

1

;

'^

;

Cf. B. ii. 51. " cannot infer from the present tense, as Reinach does, the use of a source anterior to a.d. 70 ; cf. the similar use of this tense in Ap. ii. 193 (note). '* Reinach appositely quotes Horace, Sat. i. 9. 69 "hodie tricesima sabbata : vin tu curtis ludaeis oppedere ?"
'

We

|

411

JOSEPHUS
/xavo?
opfMrj

8et<7a9,

ji-q

tov

X
OTrAtVa?
fieranefJi^TTeTaL.

yevoLTO,

TrAet'ou?

Se rat? aroat? i-nixeoyLevajv ^o^os ifiTTLTTTei kol rpaTreure? eV TOLS 'louSat'ots- o.KardGX€ro<; 227 rod Upov hi€(j)€vyov ei? tt^i^ ttoXlv. rooavrr] he
rajv
,

TTepl

ras"

i^ohous

^lol
vtt'

ovvojdoujjievajv

iyevero,

ware
VTTep

TTarrjdevra?
7pia}j.vpiov<;^

ioprr]v nevdo^ ixkv

aXXriXaw kol owTpi^evra'; aTToBaveiv, yevlodai 8e j-qv oXcp ro) eOvei, Bprjvov he KaO'
he

iKaarr^v OLKiav.
228
(2)

MereAa/LtjSap'ei'

ravrrjv
-

rrjv

ov(j.<^opav

Kara yap ttjv Bat[aAAo?i^ XrjGrpLK6<i Oopv^os dojpoj hr]piO(jLau dvohou^ llr€(f)duou riv6<; SovXou Kaicrapo? dTTOGKevrjV KOfJLiCofJLeviqv hiriprfaGav Xtj229 OTol 'HpoGTTeGovre';. Koujuai^o? hk 7T€pi7Teixijja<; rov? eV rojv TrXrjGiOV KOjp,a)u Secr/xcoTa? eKeXevGev dvdyeGdai 7rp6? avrou, imKaXajv on pLT) hico^avres evBa rojv GTparLcorojv TOi)? Ar^ara? GvXXd^oiev. TLS eupojv €v rivi Kojpurj tov lepov vo^iov hteppq^ev 23U T€ TO ^l^Xlov Kal els rtvp Kare^aXev. 'JouSatoi he cu? oXtjs avTols ttjs )(^djpas KaTa(f)XeyeLGr]s GVvexvdrjGav, Kal Kaddrrep opyduu) rivl rfj Setcrthatpbovia ovveXKOfievoL rrpo? ev Kiqpvyp^a Trdvres elg KaLodpetav eTrl Koupiavop Gvvehpapiov, iKerevovres TOV ovTOJS els tov deov Kal tov v6p,ov avTon p,r] Trepuhelv dTLp.ujpiqTOV. 6 he 231 e^u^piGavTa ov yap TjpepLeL to ttXyjOos, el p.r) tv^ol napa*

1.

|:

«

om.
"
''

PAM Lfit. (Ens.): M Lat.

rot-s m'

,'^1'" J

^

the rest duo u-vpLddes A. p^^ L^t. 656*' the rest.
: :

\\.

20,000 according to J. xx. 112.

The two Bethhorons (Upper and Lower), some

ten anc
th«

twelve miles respectively north-west of Jerusalem, on

412

JEWISH WAR,
troops.
himself,

IF.

226-231

(

= ant.

xx. 110-117)

Cumanus, fearing a general attack upon These troops sent for reinforcements. pouring into the porticoes, the Jews were seized with irresistible panic and turned to fly from the temple But such and make their escape into the town violence was used as they pressed round the exits that they were trodden under foot and crushed to death by one another upwards of thirty thousand perished, and the feast was turned into mourning for the whole nation and for every household into
** ;

lamentation. (2) This calamity was followed by other disorders, The affair originating with brigands On the public road lead- "/,o?an-,tii ing up to Bethhoron ° some brigands attacked one ofScnptu Stephen, a slave of Caesar, and robbed him of his baggage. Cumanus, thereupon, sent troops round the neighbouring villages, with orders to bring up the
inhabitants'' to

him

in chains,

reprimanding them

for

not having pursued and arrested the robbers. On this occasion a soldier, finding in one village a copy of the sacred law, tore the book in pieces and flung it into the fire.'* At that the Jews were roused as

though it were their whole country which had been consumed in the flames and, their religion acting like some instrument^ to draw them together, all on the first announcement of the news hurried in a body to Cumanus at Caesarea, and implored him not to leave unpunished the author of such an outrage on God
;

and on their law. The procurator, seeing that the multitude would not be pacified unless they obtained
main road to Joppa, famous in history : the defile was the scene of the defeat of Cestius described below {B. ii. 546 ff.). " A. XX. 114, *' the notables." " The burnina: of the book is not mentioned in A. *^ Or, as we should say, a magnet.

413

JOSEPHUS
yLvBiaSy
ri$LOV

T€

Trpoayeiv
aiTLOJixivajv

rov

orpariujr-qv
rrjv

Koi
IttI

Sia
232

fieocnu

tojv

OLTra^driv at

davdro) KeXevei.
(3)

Kal 'louSatot fiev dvexojpovv. Au^i? Se VaXiXaiojv Kal T^afiapdoju ytVerat

ovf.i^oXrj.
rjTLg eV

Kara yap
di'a^aLUOUTcov
Tt?

VT^fiau

KaXovjieviqv

KcopLr^v,

tw

fieydXoj TreSttu KeiTai rrjg HafiapeiTthog,
^lovSaicou

TToXXcov

enl

rrju

ioprrjv

233 diatpeLTai

234

FaXiXalog^ Trpog tovto TrXeloroL jxeu €K rrjg TaAtAata? Gvvihpapiov ojs TToXefx-qoovres Tols ^anapevoLV, ol yvcopLfioi 8' avrojv iXdovre? TTpos Kovptauov rjVTL^oXovv, TTplu dvTjKeGrov TrdOov^ VaXiXaiav hia^dvra nfiajprjaaoOaL rovg €LS T-qv aLTLOv^ rod <j>6vov' f^LOvujs yap dv ovrojg bLaXvdrjvaL irpo TToXefjLOu ro TTXrjdoS' Kou/^at'O? pikv ovv iv SevTepoj ra? €K€lvojv LKeoias rcou iu y^epoi^ Trpaypdrojv dip-evo^ dnpaKTov^ d-neTrepupev rov? iK^rag. IKyyeXdkv 8e et? 'iepocroAu/xa to TrdOo? rov (!•)
^

7T€(f)OU€ViJ.€uov TO. nX-qdr)

GVi'€Tdpa^€u Kal ttJ? loprrf^

d(l)€p€VOL -npos Tr)U

'Lap.dpeiav e^wpfioiv dorparrj

yrjTOL Kal p-Tj^evl rcou dp\6vTa)v Kari^ovri 7T€l66 235 fievoL.

Tov XrjGrpLKOU 8' auroiv /cat GraGLOjhovg AeivaLOV Ttb uio? 'EAea^apo? Kal 'AAe^av8pos" (i^TjpXov, ol TOt? ofMopoL? Trjs ^ AKpa^aTiqvrj? ronapxi-o.5 7tpog7T€g6vt€S avrovs re dvrjpovv p,r)hep.Lds 'qXiKias (peiboj 7T0L0vp.€V0L Kal rds koj/j-q? ii'eTTip,-

vpaoav.
^

For ttoWCjv
. , .

.

.

.

dvaip.

T(s

FaXiXatoj

PAM

have

ttoXXo.

Tiif
2

dfaipoCi/Tat

(accommodation

to yl. xx. WX'r).

Xfipi

PAM.

Tacitus, A7in. xii. 54-, irives a different account of tht events recorded in (3)-(7) (Keinach). According to hiir Cumanus was governor of Galilee and Felix of Samaria. " Ginae {A xx. US), Ginaea {B. iii. 48), where it is namec
*
.

414-

JEWISFI WAR,
satisfaction,

II.

231-235

(

= ant.

xx. 117-121)

I

j

I

thought fit to call out the soldier and ordered him to be led to execution through the ranks of his accusers. On this the Jews withdrew. (3) Next came a conflict between the Galilaeans Battle between and the Samaritans.** At a village called Gema,^ Jews and /^ p o situate in the great plain of Samaria, a Galilaean, one Samaritan of a large company of Jews on their way up to the Jf mu?d°er festival, was murdered.'' Thereupon, a considerable of a crowd assembled in haste from Galilee with the inmeantention of making war on the Samaritans while, the notables of the country went off to Cumanus, and entreated him, ere any irreparable mischief was done, to repair to Galilee and punish the perpetrators of the murder, as that was the only means of dispersing the crowd before they came to blows. Cumanus, however, treating their request as less important than other affairs on his hands,^ dismissed the petitioners without any satisfaction. (4) When the news of the murder reached Jerusalem, the masses were profoundly stirred, and, abandoning the festival, they dashed off to Samaria, without generals and without listening to any of the magistrates who sought to hold them back. The brigands and rioters among the party had as their eaders Eleazar, son of Deinaeus, and Alexander,* jvvho, falling upon the borderers of the toparchy of \crabatene,-^ massacred the inhabitants without jlistinction of age and burnt the villages.
1

1

;

I

IS

the northern frontier of Samaria, En-gannim of the Old at the head of the Testament (Jos. xix. 21), mod. Jenin reat Plain of Esdraelon. With the incident cf. Luke ix. 52 f. * According to A. xx. 1 18 several pilgrims were murdered. A. says " bribed by the Samaritans." • Alexander is not mentioned in A, f South-east of Shechem.
;
<*

415

JOSEPHUS
236
(5)

Kou/xai'O? 5e dvaXa^cou
iX-qv LTTTTeojv

(itto rrj<;

Kataapeta?
i^e-

fitau

KaXovfievrjv

He^aorrji'coif

^OTjdeL rots 7TopdovfJL€voL<i, Kal Tcjv TTepl Tov 'EAea-

lapov TToAAou?
237 eKT€LV€v.

fjL€V

Trpo? 8e

TOt?

T.afiap€VOiv
T€<f)pav

ovvlXa^ev TrXeLorov? 8' dnto Xolttov ttXtjOo? tcov TToXefJielv ol dpxovTeg rcoi' copfirjjjLevoju
,

'\€pocroXvijLa)v

iKhpajiovreg

Kal
€771

TOW
Kal

KccpaXcov

dvaxcopeli^,

jxtj

8td ttjv

oaKKOvg d/x7re;(o/L/,ep'ot Karax^ovre? LKerevov et? Sa^apet? djivvav

'lepoCToAu/xa *Pa)p,aLovs Trapo^vvew, iXerjoai re

Trjv

TTarpiha Kal rov vaov, reKva re Kal yvvalKa?

Ihta?,

a TTavra Kivhvvev^iv
77

23^ Aatou

a paTToXio 9 at.

St* ivos eKhiKiav FaAttovtols TretoOei'Tes 'louSaiot
77pos'

bL^XvOrjaav.

erpdnovro he 77oAAot

Xr)OT€Lav

xcopav dprrayai 239 T£ Tjoav Kal rcbv 6paovTepa>v eTravaoTaoeis. Kal rcuv Hafiapeajv ol hvvarol Trpog Ou^tjuiStof Kova hpdrov, OS rjv r^yepLOJV Trjg ^vpiag, et? Tvpov TrapayevojjLeuoL hiK-qv Tivd Trapd tojv TTopdrjodvrcov ttji 240 y^ajpav Tj^iovv Xa^eiv. Trapovreg he Kal ol yvcopijioi Ttov ^\ovhaLa>v Kal 6 dpxt^pevg 'lojya^ry? vlos ^Avdvov Kardp^at fiev eXeyov rrj? TapaxqHafiapeag hid rov (f)6i'OV, atrLOV he rcJjv dTTO^e^-q KGTOjv Kof/xavoi^ yeyovivai, prj OeX-qcravra rod*: avdevra? rov o<^ayev7os eTte^eXBeZv. 241 (6) \\ovahpdTO? he Tore fiev eKarepovg VTrep TiOeraL (f)rjoag, erteihav els tovs tottovs Trapa yevTiTai, hiepevvrjoeLV eKaura, avdis he TrapeXOoj
hid TTju aSetav, Kal
rrjV
°
^

Kara Trdaav

Lat. ala.

See

ii.

52 (note)
first

:

J. adds " and four companies
§

(rd-)

fxara, ? cohorts) of infantry."
'

Later the

victim of the slcarli,

256.

416

JEWISH WAR,
(5)

II.

236-241

(

= ant.

xx. 122-129)

Cumanus, taking with him from Gaesarea a
°

of cavalry known as " Sebastenians," * now assistance of the victims of these ravages he made prisoners of many of Eleazar's companions and killed a yet larger number. As for the rest of the party who had rushed to war with the Samaritans, the magistrates of Jerusalem hastened after them, clad in sackcloth and with ashes strewn upon their heads, and implored them to return home and not, by their desire for reprisals on the Samaritans, to bring down the wrath of the Romans on Jerusalem, but to take pity on their country and sanctuary, on their own wives and children all these were threatened with destruction merely for the object of avenging the blood of a single Galilaean. Yielding to these remonstrances the Jews dispersed. Many of them, however, emboldened by impunity, had recourse to robbery, and raids and insurrections, fostered by the more reckless, broke out all over the country. The leading Samaritans, accordingly, went off to Tyre to see Ummidius Quadratus, the governor of Syria, and urged him to punish the authors of these depredations. The Jewish notables, including the high-priest Jonathan,^ son of Ananus, also presented themselves, and maintained that it was the Samaritans, by the murder in question, who had originated the disturbance, but that the responsibility for all that ensued lay with Cumanus for refusing to take proceedings against the assassins. (6) Quadratus, at the moment, deferred giving a interven reply to either party, telling them that when he Quadrate visited the district he would investigate the parti- governor

troop

set off to the
;

;

culars

;

subsequently he proceeded to Caesarea,'*
«*

"

^"

'

"

To Samaria

" {A. xx. 129).

VOL.

II

P

417

JOSEPHUS
et?

KatadpeLav

tov<;

vtto

Kovixavov i,ajyprjddvTa?
els

242 dvearavpcxjaev
y€v6fJL€vo<;

Travras.

eKelOev

AuSSa

irapa-

ttolXlu

Sli]kovg€v

rujv

Sa/xapetov',

kol
8t-

fieraTTepufjoLfievog

OKrajKaideKa tojv ^lovhaLotv, ovs
ttjs
fidx'T)?,

i7T€7Tvoro

pLeT€a\r]K€.vaL

TreXeKei

243 ex^i-pLoaro.

8uo

8'

irepovg rojv hwaTajraroju Kal

Tovs dpxL€pel<; ^YojvdOriv Kal ^Avaviav, rov re Tovrov TTalha "Avavov Kal nvag aAAous" ^lovbaiajv
yvcopLjiovs
dve7T€fjnJj€v
€7tI

Kalaapa,
.

6fxoLOj<;

§€

244 /cat T^a/jLapecvv rovs eir i<j)av ear dr ovs

TraprjyyeLXev
TrAett'

be
€771

Kal

Kovfiavco Kal KeXepu

tw

;^tAiap;(a>

'P(jofir)<;

hujoovra?

yeyevrjfievcxjv.

dve^aivev
7TXi]6o?
els

el?

KAauStoj \6yov vrrep toju ravra hiaTTpa^dfievo? drro Xvhhcov 'lepoaoXufia, Kal KaraXa^ojv ro
tujv

dyov

r-qv

d^vp-cov

eoprrjv

ddopiJ^aj<;

'AyTto;^eiai'
(7)

eTrav^eL.
rrjv

245

Kara

he

'PcofirjV
,

Kalaap

dKovoa<;

Kovfxavov Kal ^afiapeajv
eKdvfioj?
K.ovjj.ai'a)

Traprjv he Kal

WypirTTras
eTreLhrj

V7TepayowLl,6fjLevo<;

^lovhaloju,

Kal

TToXXol

row hvvarwv Trapioravro, Za/xaKeXepa
irapa-

peojv

fJLev

Karayvov<; rpels dveXelv Trpoaera^ev rov?
,

246 hvvarojrdrovg

Kovfiavov he e(f)vyddevoev.
dvaTre/jnljag

he

heGficoriqv

el?

'lepoooXvfJLa

hoOrivai

'lofSatot?
r-qv

rrpo?

alKiav
rrju

eKeXevoev
Ke(f)aXrjv

Kal

TTeptovpeura
KOTTrjvai.

ttoXlv

ovrco

dwo-

247

(8)

rov
pela?

Mera ravra 'louSata? iJ-ei' ertirpoTTOv OryAt/ca WdXXavro? dheX(j>6v eK-ep-rrei rrfs re 2a/xaKal

VaXiXaia?

Kal

[lepala?,

eK

he

rrj?

41 S

JEWISH WAR,
where he

II.

241-247

(

= ant.

xx. 129-137)

crucified all the prisoners taken by Cumanus. there he went on to Lydda, where he gave another hearing to the Samaritans. He then sent for eighteen" Jews, who, as he was informed, had taken part in the combat, and had them beheaded. He sent up to Caesar, along with two other persons of the highest eminence, the high-priests Jonathan and Ananias, Ananus,^ the son of the latter, and some other Jewish notables, together with the most distinguished of the Samaritans. He also directed Cumanus and Celer, the tribune, to take ship for Rome and to render an account of their conduct to Olaudius. Having taken these measures, he left Lydda and went up to Jerusalem and, finding the 3eople peaceably celebrating the feast of unleavened Dread, ^ he returned to Antioch. Claudius (7) At Rome Caesar gave his hearing to Cumanus md the Samaritans in the presence of Agrippa, who ment for^^ nade a spirited defence on behalf of the Jews, while Jews and ^

From

;

-,

was supported by many eminent )ersons. The emperor condemned the Samaritans, )rdered three of their most prominent men to be executed, and banished Cumanus. Celer he sent )ack in chains to Jerusalem, with orders that he was after being o be delivered over to Jewish outrage Iragged round the city, he was then to be beheaded.

^umanus on

1

.

.

his side

T

T

,

.

banishes

Cumanus.

:

(8)
)f

Pallas, as procurator of

After this Claudius sent out Felix, the brother Judaea, Samaria, Galilee,

Feiijc,

r!^^f 52-60!^

A

"

si'here
"

certain Doetus with four others (A. xx. 130). " Ananus the captain " (? of the temple) in A. xx. 131, Jonathan's name is omitted.

" A national feast " (unspecified), ^. xx. 133. According B. the disturbances described in this chapter must have xtended over a whole year from one Passover (§ 224) to the
lext.

4>19

JOSEPHUS
XaAK"i8os" ^AypLTTTrav els iieil^ova jSacrtAfiav /LteraTidrjGLV,
Sous'

avro)

r-qv

re

^lXLttttov

y€voiJievr]v

eTjapxiaVy avrrj 8' tjv Tpa^oj^lng /cat Barai'ea Kal TavXavLTLg, TrpoaedrjKev 8e ri'-jv re Avoaviov /3aat-

Aetav
248 auTos"

/cat

tt^p'

Ovdpou
tt^v

yevoixivqv
"qyepioviav

rerpap^iav
ereau
rpta-

8e

Stot/crjcras'

KaiSeKa, rrpos Se p^-qolv o/ctco /cat et/cocrti^ -qfiepac? reXevra KaraXiTTOjv ^epojua rrj? otpxV'^ StdSoxoi^ 249 ou rat? ^AypLTrTTLV-qg rrjs yvvacKos aTrarats" eV
K\-qpovop.ia rrj?

^PX^^ £LO£7Toirjoaro

,

Kairrep

vlo)

yvqaiov Bperrav't/cov e/c MeacraAtVi]? tt^' 7Tporepa<; yvvaiKos Kal ^OKraoulav dvyarepa rrj. avTOV ^evx^elaav Nepcop'f yeyoret 8' aurc VTT* Kal iK n€TtyT79 ^Avrcouia. (xiii. l) "Ooa fxev ovv Nepcui^ 8t' VTrep^oXrj 250 evhaipiovias re /cat 77Aoi;tou Trapa^povrjaa? c^ v^ptaev els ttjv rv)(T]v, "^ rtVa rpoTTov rov re dSe^ (f)6v Kal rr)v yuvat/ca /cat ri^i^ fi-qrepa hie^rjXdei d(j)* (Lv CTTt rovs evyeveordrovs [xerrjveyKev rrj 251 (hpLor-qra, Kal ws reXevralov vtto ^pevo^Xa^eia e^ojKeiXev el? GKr]vrju Kal Oearpou, eTreiSr] 8 oxXov TTaoiv eorw, TrapaXeLipco, rpeipopLai he €7 TO. 'louSatots- /car' avrov yevofieva. App-eviav SlSojoi Tr^v jxev ovv yuKpav ('2) 252 ^aoiXeveiv Wpiarof^ovXa) rco 'Wpojhov, rfj AypirtTTa ^aoiXeia reooapa? TToXei? TrpoartOrja ovv rats roTrapxlaig, "A/SeAa jjiev Kal 'IouAta8
e)(ow
^
>

^

" Antonius Felix (Tac. Hi.^f. v. 9 the reading KXat'Si ^qXiKa in A. XX. 137 is doubtful) was probably, like h influential brother Pallas, a freedman of Antonia. mother Claudius. According to Tacitus (here probably untrus worthy) he had already been procurator of Samaria (§ 2.'
;
.

note).

4:20

:

JEWISH WAR,

II.

247-252

(c/.

ant. xx. 138, 148-159)

and Peraea.<* Agrippa he transferred from Chalcis Agrippaii to a larger kingdom, assigning to him Philip's former Trachoniti province, namely Trachonitis, Batanaea, and Gaul- ®tc., a.d.
anitis
;

.5

he added the kingdom of Lysanias and the old tetrarchy of Varus. ^ After governing the empire for thirteen years eight months and twenty days," Claudius died, leaving Nero as his Death of successor. Yielding to the artifices of his wife J ^^s^*^^' Agrippina, he had adopted this prince as heir to the throne, although he had by his former wife, Messalina, I legitimate son, Britannicus, besides a daughter, 3ctavia, whom he had given in marriage to Nero le had also, by Petina, another daughter, Antonia. (xiii. 1) All the outrageous acts in defiance of Accession 'ortune of which Nero was guilty, when excess of character c jrosperity and riches drove him mad how he nero. uccessively made away with his brother, wife, and nother how his cruelty then found fresh victims in he highest of the nobility how his infatuation inally landed him on the stage and the boards of the heatre all these subjects, being so hackneyed, I )ropose to pass over and to turn to the events of ewish history under his reign. lesser Agrippa's (2) He presented the kingdom of the Armenia to Aristobulus, son of Herod ^ he annexed euiffg^ed. o Agrippa's kingdom four cities with their districts,*
to this
;
;

;

;

;

*

Varus
11,

is

identified

by

Schiirer with the minister of

mentioned in Vita 48 ff., where he is described s a descendant of Soemus who had been a tetrarch in the .ebanon district (ib. 52) it is assumed that he inherited
Lgrippa
:

a time a part of this tetrarchy. * The calculation, repeated in A. xx. 148, is here correct Claudius reigned from 24th January 41 to 13th October 34. " Of Chalcis, grandson of Herod the Great. * Greek " toparchies."
)r

421

JOSEPHUS
rrjv flepatav, Tapixc^a? he Kal TijSepiaSa TaXiXala?, et? Se rrjv Xoltttji' ^lovhalav ^rjXiKa 253 KarioTTjuev eTrirpoTTOv. ovtos rov re dpxi-XrjaTrjV ^KXedCapov ereatv cIkogi ttjv ^ajpav Xr^adfJievov Kal TToXXovs TLov Gvv auToj t,ojypr)oas dveTrefiipev els 'PcoiJLTjV TCi)V 8' dvaGTavpa)devTCDV vtt^ avrov
Ti^?

Kara

Xrjorcov /cat riov
rcoi',

irrl

Koivujvia (j^copaOevrajv b-qpio-

254

255

'Zb^

257

258

ovg iKoXaoeVy aTreipov ri rrXrjdos tjv. he rijs X^P^^ erepov efSo? (3) KaOapdeLGTjs Xrjorcov ev 'lepoaoXvpbOLS enec^vero, ol KaXovpievoi oiKapiOLy pLed^ rjpLepav Kal ev p-earj rfj rroXei p^dXiara he^ ev rals (f)OvevovTes dvdpcoTTOvg. eopraZs paoyopLevoL r<2) TrX-qdei Kal rals eodrjatv VTTOKpVTTTOVreS piiKpd ^L(l)ihia, TOVrOL? eVVTTOV Tov? hia<^6povs, eneira rreGovrcov piepos eyivovro tCjv iTTayavaKTovvTcov ol 7Te(f)ovevK6T€s, hio Kal TTavrdTTaoiv vtto dvevperoi d^iOTnorias rioav TTpwTos p-ev ovv utt' avTOJv *Icova^T7? o dpxi-epeus d7TOG(f)dTTeTai, pLera 8' atnov Kad^ rjpLepav dv TjpodvTO TToXXoL' Kal Tcov Gvp.^op6jv 6 (f)6^os rjv XOiXe77(x)repo?, eKdGTou KaBdrrep ev TToXepLOj Kad wpav rov ddvarov rrpoohexop^evov TrpoeGKorrovvrc he TToppatdev Tovg hia^opovs, Kal ovhe rol? (fiiXoLs TTpoGLOVGLv^ 7TLGTIS Tjv , iv /xcCTats" he Tals VTTOVoiaLS Kal Tat? (j)vXaKaL? dvrjpovvro' togovtov tcov IttI' ^ovXevovrcov to Tdxos rjv Kal tov XaOelv -q Texvrj ^vveGTT] he vpos tovtois otI(J)os eTepov (4-) 7Tov)]pa)v, X^'-P^ H-^^ KadapojTepov, Tat? yvcopLaLS
.

kl
iz

"'

\^

1

om.

PALV:
is

yap Eus.

2

+ In LVRC.

"

Abila

places of the
tul.

not mentioned in A. xx. 159 : there were severa' name and the exact position of this one is doubt For JuUas = Livias sec § IbS (note).

422

JEWISH WAR,

II.

252-258

(c/.

ant. xx. 159-167)

namely, Abila and Julias in Peraea," and Tarichaeae and Tiberias in Galilee he appointed ^ Felix to be procurator of the rest of Judaea. Felix took prisoner Eleazar,'' the brigand chief, who for twenty years had ravaged the country, with many of his associates, and sent them for trial to Rome. Of the brigands whom he crucified, and of the common people who were convicted of complicity with them and punished by him, the number was incalculable. (3) But while the country was thus cleared of these pests, a new species of banditti was springing up in Jerusalem, the so-called sicarii,'^ who committed murders in broad daylight in the heart of the city. rhe festivals were their special seasons, when they A'ould mingle with the crowd, carrying short daggers concealed under their clothing, with which they stabbed their enemies. Then, when they fell, the
;

^eiix quel

brfgands.

Rise of th( ^^*^"'
'

murderers joined in the cries of indignation and, ;hrough this plausible behaviour, were never discovered.

The

first

to

be assassinated by them was
;

fonathan the high-priest after his death there were lumerous daily murders. The panic created was nore alarming than the calamity itself; every one, LS on the battlefield, hourly expecting death. Men
:ept
lot trust

watch at a distance on their enemies and would even their friends when they approached, fet, even while their suspicions were aroused and hey were on their guard, they fell so swift were he conspirators and so crafty in eluding detection. (4) Besides these there arose another body of and of false P"""?'^^^^illains, with purer hands but more impious intentions,
;
"*

i.e.

^

confirmed his previous appointment (§ 24.7). Son of Deinaeus, § 235. " Assassins," from Lat. sica, a curved dagger.
'^-

423

.

JOSEPHUS
259 rrjv

8e aGe^earepov, orrep ovhkv rjrrov rojv a(f)ayecov evhaip-oviav rrj? TToXecos eXvpn'^varo. TrXdvoL

Kal OLTrarewvcg [vttoY TrpocrxrjP'O.TL Kal npayfiera^oXd? SaLfiovdv ro ttXtjOo? eTretdov^ Kal fxar€v6fJL€V0L, TTporjyov el? rrjV iprjfiLav, a>? eVet rov deov hel^ovros IttI tovtols Or^At^, 260 avTols orjjJLela iXevdeplas. ehoKei yap aTTOGrdaeajs elvai KarapoX-q, Trepupas LTTTrels Kal Tre^ovs OTrXiras ttoXv ttXtjOos hti^deip^v [roirrou]^ ^louhatous 8e 261 (5) Metjovt '^^V/fi eKaKCOGev 6 KlyvTmos ipevhoTT po<^rjT-qs rrapayevofievos yap els rrjv )(^OL)pav dvOpojiros yorjg Kal TTpot^Tjrov TTLGnv emOels eavrco Trepl rpLGpLvpiovg 262 fxev dBpoLl,€i ra)V r)77arrj[i€Vcov, rrepiayaycbv 8e
dvdpojTTOL
,

yap

deiacrixov

veojrepKJfxovs

-

ainovs eK rrj? ep-q}xia<? opos, eKeWev old? re rjv
^Ldl,€Gdai
(f)povpds

els

to eXaLwv KaXovfievov
rrjs

els 'IepocroAu/xa TrapeXOelv

Kal

KparrjGas

[KaV/ rov

h-qfiov

[jeY Tvpawelv,

'Pojfia'CKrjs
;\;pcu/xevo9

263 ToZs GVveiGTTeGOVGiv hopvc^opois.

(f)Bdvei

8'

avrov

rr)V opfJLrjv Ot^Ai^ VTravrj^Gas^ fjuerd tojv 'PcofiaiKcov

ottXltcov, Kal rrds d Srjfxos GVve(f)rjifjaro rrjs djjbvvrjsj

cjore

GVjjL^oXrjs
jLter'

yevofievi-js

rov

fiev

^vyelv
di]vai

oAtycuy,

SLacf)daprjvaL

Se

AlyvTrriov Kal l^a>yp-q-

TrXeLGTovs

rojv
errl

ovv
rrjv

avrw,
eavrujv

TrXrjdos

GKedaodev

ro 8e Xolttov eKaorov 8ta

Xadelv.
»

om. VRC. ^ om. Lat. * om. P.\.M.
^

2
:

aueirddov
'

toutu)v

Eus.

:

ravr-qs

VRC. VRC.
ora. Lat.

PA

Eus.

:

I'TrafTido-as

the rest.

«»

Cf.

Matt. xxiv. 24

ff.

" There

shall

arise

.

.

.

fals«f

"i

424

JEWISH WAR,
who no
city.

II.

258-263

(

= ant.

xx. 167-172)

less than the assassins ruined the peace of the Deceivers and impostors, under the pretence of divine inspiration fostering revolutionary changes, they persuaded the multitude to act like madmen, and led them out into the desert under the belief that God would there give them tokens of deliverance.'* Against them Felix, regarding this as but the preliminary to insurrection, sent a body of cavalry and heavy-armed infantry, and put a large number to the sAvord. (5) A still worse blow was dealt at the Jews by The the Egyptian false prophet. A charlatan, who had ^pJstor. gained for himself the reputation of a prophet, this man appeared in the country, collected a following of about thirty thousand ^ dupes, and led them by a circuitous route from the desert to the mount called the mount of Olives. From there he proposed to force an entrance into Jerusalem and, after overpowering the Roman garrison, to set himself up as tyrant of the people, employing those who poured in with him as his bodyguard. His

attack was anticipated by Felix, who went to meet him with the Roman heavy infantry, the whole population joining him in the defence. The outcome of the ensuing engagement was that the Egyptian escaped with a few of his followers most of his force were killed or taken prisoners the remainder dispersed and stealthily escaped to their
;

;

several homes.
prophets and shall show great signs they shall say unto you, Behold he is in the wilderness." Theudas was an earlier impostor of this type, and met with a similar fate, A. XX. 97.
. .
.

"

4000 according to Acts
impostor.
II

xxi.

38; S. Paul was mistaken
4-25

For this

VOL.

p 2

JOSEPHUS
(6) KaT€OTaXfjL€vajv 8e Kal tovtojv ojonep ev vooovvTL ocofiari ttolXlv erepov fiepos e(f)X€yiJLaLV€V, OL yap y6r]T€£ Kal XrjcrrpLKol avvaxOevreg ttoXXou^ €LS OLTTOGraaLV ivrjyov /cat Trpog IXevBepiav irapeKpoTovVy BdvaTOV iTTLTLfiwures Tot? TTeiSapxovGLV 'Pcufiaiajv -qyepiovia. Kal rrpos jStav d(/>atprjrfj oeodaL Xeyovres rovs iKovoiojs hovXeveiv Trpoaipov205 p^evovs. pL€pL^6pL€VOL 8' €1? TTjV ;(a»pav Kara Xoxou? Si-qprrai^ov re ra? rcov Svvarcov OLKias Kal aurou? dvfjpovv Kal Tag Ktopa? €V€vipi7Tpaoav, ajore rrjg drrovoLas avrcov rrrdoav rrju 'louSatav dvaTrip,TrXaodai. Kal ovros p-kv 6 rroXepo? Kad^ rjpiepav

2G4

dveppiTTL^eTo.
266
(7)

'Erepa 8e rapaxrj ovvioTarai

rrepl

KataaToug iv

peiav
avrfj

Twv dvapLeptypevcov

'Ioi;8atajv Trpos
.

ol p-ev yap rj^iovv Svpous" oraaLaadvTojv o4>er€pav elvai, rrjv ttoXlv 'loySatov yeyoveVat rov
tjv

KTLGTrjv avrrjS Xeyovres'
ol

he 'Wpajh-qs 6 jSaatAeu?
p.ev

be

erepoL

rov

OLKtarrjv
p.evroL

TTpoaajfioXoyovv

ye tt]v ttoXlv 'KXXrjuatv e4>aoav ov yap dv dvSpidvras Kal vaovg iyKad267 ihpvoai ^lovhaiois avr-qv dvaridevra. 8ia ravra hLrjpL(f)L(j^rjrouv'^ eKdrepoL, TTpo-ijeL 8' avrol? to (J)lX6 veiKov els dirXa Kal KaB^ rjpepav ol Bpaovrepo
avTT]v
Trap'
dp.(f)OLV

'louSatov,

Trpoe—iqhojv

IttI

p.dx'riv'

ovre'^

yap

yepatol rovs Iblovs oraotaards Kar ex^^v oloL re rjoav Kal rols "KXXt]glv aloxos eboKei 268 loubatajv eXarrovoBat. Trpoelxov 8* ol p,ev TrXovrw Kal oojpidrojv dXKrj, rd he 'KXXtjvlkov rfj rrapd
'IoL'8attL»v ol
^

Destinon:
'^

oe r)^x(pLa ^tjtoi v yiss.

*

oide

PAML.

Where

S. Paul then

probably lay a prisoner.

426

JEWISH WAR,

II.

264-268

(c/.

ant. xx. 172-176)
Further

(6) No sooner were these disorders reduced than the inflammation, as in a sick man's body, broke out again in another quarter. The impostors and brigands, banding together, incited numbers to revolt, exhorting them to assert their independence, and threatening to kill any who submitted to Roman domination and forcibly to suppress those who voluntarily accepted servitude. Distributing themselves in companies throughout the country, they looted the houses of the wealthy, murdered their owners, and set the villages on fire. The effects of their frenzy were thus felt throughout all Judaea, and every day saw this war being fanned into fiercer

brigandage

flame.
(7) Another disturbance occurred at Gaesarea," where the Jewish portion of the population rose against the Syrian inhabitants. They claimed that ;he city was theirs on the ground that its founder, King Herod, was a Jew. Their opponents admitted :he Jewish origin of its second founder, but main:ained that the city itself belonged to the Greeks, dnce Herod would never have erected the statues md temples which he placed there had he destined t for Jews.^ Such were the points at issue between :he two parties, and the quarrel eventually led to an ippeal to arms. Every day the more venturesome n either camp w^ould rush into combat for the older nembers of the Jewish community were incapable )f restraining their turbulent partisans, and the jreeks considered it humiliating to give way to the lews. The latter had the advantage of superior vealth and physical strength, the Greeks that of the
;

Disorders
5e\vn\^'^^ Syrians,
^• •

""

t

^

Jtrato's

In J. XX. 173 their argument is that the older Tower, had not a single Jewish inhabitant.

city,

427

.

JOSEPH us
CTparicorcov djiuvrf to yap rr^iov 'PojixaLOig Sui^a/xecu? eV Sfpta? '^v KaretXeyixeuov /cat Kaddnep ovyyeuels rjaav rrpog rag ^o-qdeias 269 eroLfjLOL. rolg ye iirjv irrdpxoLS (jipovrls rfv dvaoreXXeiv rrju rapaxrjv Kal tous" pLaxipLiorepovs del
T(x)V

rrjg

eVet

ovXXapi^dvovTes eKoXatov fidari^L Kal
IJLTjv

Secr/Ltot?.

ov

TO,

Trddrj

rcov ovXAafi^auofievcov iueTToiet rols
rj

KaraXeLTrofxevoLS dvaKorr-qv

Seog, dAA' ert fxaXXov

VLKajvras Se nore Tovg '\ovSaLOV£ TrpoeXddjv^ els Tr)V dyopdv 6 ^rjXi^ dTTeiXrjs eKeXevoev dva-)(Ojp€.Zv tcou he firj fier Tieidoixevajv eTTLTTepupas tovs crrpaTLwra? dvaipe'i avx^'ous, ojv bLapTTayrjuai ovve^rj Kal rds ovaias fieuovar)? be rrjs o-rdoeojs eViAefa? eKarepojOei' Tov? yvixjpipLOVs errefxipev TTpeo^eig enl ^epcova SLaXe^ofjLei'ov? vepl raju hiKaicov. (xiv. 271 \La6e^dfj.evos be irapd rovrov rrjv 1) e-niTpoTTTiv 6 Or^cTTO? TO [idXiara Xvp,atv6fievov rrji' XojpQ-v €776|rjef Tijjv yovv Xr^or ojv avveXaf3ev re 272 TrXeLGTOvs Kal hie(jideLpev ovk oXlyous. aAA' ovx 6 fxerd ^rJGTOV AX^tuog rou avrov rponou e^ rjyqoaro rcov rrpayixdrcov, ovk eonv he -qurtwa Ka ov [jlouov yovu ev rol^ 273 Kovpyias Iheav TrapeXemeu. TToXirLKOLS TTpdy/xaoLV eKXe-nrev Kal hi-qpTra^eu rd^ eKaorcov ovaias, ovhe ro rtdv eduos e^dpei rai^ elo(jiopalsy dXXd Kal rods €.7tI XrjGreia hehe/jLevov'^ vno rijs irap* eKdorois ^ovXrjs tj ru)V vporepojv eTTLrponcov dTreXvrpou rols ovyyeveaiVy Kal fiovos
.

270 Trapoj^vvovro Trpos ttjv ordcnv.

'^<

^

1

PM

:

napeXOwy (di' C) the

rest.
p.
5..'

Festus died in office (A. xx. 200). A more favourable estimate of tiis successor (l.ucceius) Albinus is given in J. xx, than in the War. There he begins by putting
"

l^jrcius

li

4Vh

J.

WAR,

II.

268 273

{cf.

ant. xx. 176-188, 197, 215)

support of the military for the troops stationed here were mainly levied by the Romans from Syria, and were consequently always ready to lend aid to their compatriots. The magistrates, indeed, were at pains to repress these disorders, and constantly arrested the more pugnacious offenders and punished them with the scourge and imprisonment but the sufferings of those arrested, so far from checking or intimidating the remainder, only served as a stimulus On one occasion when the Jews had to sedition. 3een victorious, Felix came forward into the marketplace and ordered them in menacing tones to retire ; )n their refusing to obey, he set his troops upon them, »vhen many were killed, their property being subsequently plundered. The quarrel, nevertheless, coninuing, Felix selected the notables of the two parties md sent them to Nero as deputies to discuss before
;
;

lim their respective rights. (xiv 1) Festus, who succeeded Felix as procurator, The last )roceeded to attack the principal plague of the p'Jocurator 'ountry he captured lar^e numbers of the brigands Festus, ^'^' 60-62. J J V, md put not a ^ to death. tew The administration of Albinus," who followed Aibinus, ^•^^"'^^' there was no form of "estus, was of another order illainy which he omitted to practise. Not only did le, in his official capacity, steal and plunder private )roperty and burden the whole nation with extraordinary taxes, but he accepted ransoms from their elatives on behalf of those who had been imprisoned or robbery by the local councils or by former rocurators and the only persons left in gaol as
:

4.

4-

4-

4-

;

;

own

ession,

the sicarii, though he ends, on hearing of his superby opening the prisons and thus filling the country

ith brigands.

429

JOSEPHUS
Sou? Toi? beGfJLOjrrjpiOLS cLs Trovrjpo? iyKarrrjviKavra /cat roji^ veajrepit^eiv ^ovXoIJL€va>v eV 'lepoGoXvfjiOLg idapG-qaav at roAjitat, /cat Xprjp-CLcrLV jiev ol hwarol tov WX^lvov TTpoaeXdfi^avov <l>ur€ rov OTaoLal^eiv avrois Trapi^eiv aSetav, TOV hrjixoTLKOV 8e TO fJiT] )(^aZpov -qavxta TTpog rovg 21.i 'AA^iVof KOLVojvov? OTre'/cAti^ei'. e/caaro? 8e tojv' Xhiov TTOVTjpojv V7Tel,(jjopi€vos avTOs /xev otI<J)os ojOTTep apx^X-Qorris rj Tvpavvo<; Tipoavelxev €k tov Xoxov, ToZs hopv^opovGL hk TTpog apTtayas roiv crvve^awev 8e tov? fiev d(f)216 fjLeTpLOJV Karexp'TJ'^o
o
fLT)

274 eXeiTTero.

.

rip-qp.ivovs

vrrep

tSv

ayava/cTeti^

^XPW

OLUjTtdv,

Tovs drrXriyas he, Seet rov fx-q rd avrd 77a^ety, Kal KoXaK€V€Lv rov d^Lov KoXdaecog. KadoXov 8e 8' fjL€V TTapprjoia Trdvrojv TrepiKeKorrTO, rvpavvl? 77 qv 8ta TrXetoi'ajv, Kal rd ortepixara rrjg jjieXXova-qg dXtoo€cos €KTore rfj TToAet Kare^aAAcTo. 277 (2) ToLOvrov 8* ovra rov WX^lvov dTreSet^ev 6 fier^ avTOv iXBojv Feooiog OAoipo? dyadwrarov Hard ovyKpLGLv. 6 fiev y€ Xddpa rd 77oAAa xrat VTTOGToXrj? €KaKovpyr]G€v, VeGGLog 8e rasji^B^ €t? TO eBvo<; T7apavop.ias €7r6fX7T€VG€v, Kal wGrrep KaraKpiTOJV 7T€p.(j}dels Btjijllo? ovre €77t TLjjiOjpia 278 dpTTayrj'^ nva rpoTTov ovre atVta? TTapeXiTrev. rjv
be
ev
fiev

rols

e'Aeeti^ot?

ojfxoraros,

eV

8e

rot?

aloxpoL? dvaibeGraros' ovre 8e TrXeito ris dTTLGriav dXr]deias Karex^ev ovre ev rep navovpyelv rri<;

boXiwrepas 6bov<i eTrevorjoev. o) rd /Ltev Kar dvhpa Kephaiveiv puKpdv eboKet, TToXetg 8' oAas i^ediSvoKe Kal SrjiJLOvg ddpoovs eXvpLaivero, Kal
"

i

Literally

"unbelief":
(Traill).

"was

more

successful

in

smothering the truth "

430

JEWISH WAR, II.273-278(r/'.ANT. XX. 214

f.,

252-256)

malefactors were those who failed to pay the price. Now, too, the audacity of the revolutionary party in Jerusalem was stimulated the influential men among their number secured from Albinus, by means of bribes, immunity for their seditious practices while of the populace all who were dissatisfied with peace joined hands with the governor's accomplices. Each ruffian, with his own band of followers grouped around him, towered above his company like a brigand chief or tyrant, employing his bodyguard to plunder peaceable citizens. The result was that the victims of robbery kept their grievances, of which they had every reason to complain, to themselves, while those who escaped injury cringed to wretches deserving of punishment, through fear of suffering the same fate. In short, none could now speak his mind, with tyrants on every side and from this date were sown in the city the seeds of its impending
; ; ;

fall.

successor, Gessius Florus,

Such was the character of Albinus, but his made him appear by comparison a paragon of virtue. The crimes of Albinus were, for the most part, perpetrated in secret and with dissimulation Gessius, on the contrary, ostentatiously paraded his outrages upon the nation, and, as though he had been sent as hangman of condemned criminals, abstained from no form of robbery Dr violence. Was there a call for compassion, he was the most cruel of men for shame, none more shameless than he. No man ever poured greater none invented more crafty :;ontempt " on truth methods of crime. To make gain out of individuals he stripped whole cities, seemed beneath him ruined entire populations, and almost went the
(2)
;
;

^"^pjQryg
hisexcessi

a^^- 6^-66.

;

:

431

JOSEPHUS
fjLOVOU

ovK eKrjpv^ev dva
e</>'

rrjv

•)(^(jjpav

ttclolv

e^eZvai

Xrj(jT€V€LV,

cb

fJLepos

auTos" X-qifjerai rcbv Xa(f)V-

279 pcxjv.

Sta

yovv

ttjv

eKeivov

TrXeove^iav

Trdaa?

iprjiicodrjvaL

ovi'e^r]

TTarpLow
(f)vXovs

TjOcou^

rds TToXei?^ Kal ttoXXovs ra>v i^avaaravras ^vyelv etV rds dXXoovv
eV

eTTapxiCLS.
pi^v

280
rji>

(3)

^lexpi

Hvpia Kecrrtos

FaAAo?

281

282

283

284

ovSe TTpea^evoaadai rt? TTpog avrov eroXpLTjueu Kara rod ^Xd)pov irapayev6pL€vov he els 'lepoooXvpia ttjs twv dl^vpLOJV eopr-q? ivearajGif]? Trepiordg 6 Srj[io?, ovk iXdrrovs rpLaKOGLOJV pLvpidhojv, Ik€.t€VOV iXe-qaat ras" rod edi'ovs ovpi(f)opd? Kal rov Xup^ecoua r-qg ;)(ojpa? ^XdJpov cKeKpdyeaav o 8e rrapojv Koi roj Keoricp TTapeoroJS hiexXe-6al,ev rds <f)Covds. o ye pirjv Keano? rrjv 6pp.rjv rov irX-qdovs KaraarelXag Kal hovs €pL(f)aGLV (hs TTpos rd piiXXov avroZs rov ^Xwpov KarauKevdoeiev pLerptwrepov, vTreGrpe<f)ev 7rpoe7Tef.L7Te 8* avrov piexpi \\aietV 'AyTto;(etav'. oapeias 0/\a>po? e^airarajv Kal TToXepLov rjht] ro) edvei GKOTTOvpievos, dj piovcp GvyKpvipeiv rds eavrov TTapavopilas vireXapL^avev elp-qvqs pi'^v ydp ovgtjs Kar-qyopovs e^eiv IttI Kaioapos ^lovhauovs nrpooehoKa, TTpaypLarevGapLevos 8e aTTOGraGuv avrow tco fjieLlovL KaKO) TTepiGrraGeLV rov eXeyxov dird rcbv pierpLajrepojv. 6 ptev ovv, (Ls dv aTToppayety] rd cdvos, Kad^ -qpuepav ertereivev avrols rds Gvpi<f)opds. ^Kv he rovrco Kal ol KaLoapecov "K/^-qveSy (4-) VLK-qGavres Trapd Nepcovt rrjs TToXecos dpxeLV, rd,
hi€7TOJV rr]v

eTrapx^civ,

^

Towapxi-as

LVRC
-256

Exc.
:

'

Destinon from A. xx.

and Lat.

edQv mss.

432

*

JEWISH WAR,

II.

278-284 (c/ ant. xx. 256

f.)

length of proclaiming throughout the country that all were at liberty to practise brigandage, on condition that he received his share of the spoils. Certainly his avarice brought desolation upon all the cities, and caused many to desert their ancestral haunts and seek refuge in foreign provinces.** (3) So long as Cestius Gallus remained in Syria The Jev discharging his provincial duties, none dared even to c?™ani send a deputation to him to complain of Florus ; but governc ^"*' when he visited Jerusalem on the occasion of the Passove feast of unleavened bread, the people pressed round ^ '^^' him, and a crowd of not less than three millions ^ ^ implored him to have compassion on the calamities of the nation, and loudly denounced Florus as the ruin of the country. Florus, who was present at Cestius's
side, scoffed at their outcry.

Cestius, for his part,

having quieted the excitement of the crowd, pledged himself to secure for them greater moderation on the part of Florus in future, and so returned to Antioch. Florus escorted him as far as Caesarea, playing upon his credulity, and already contemplating the prospect of war with the nation his only hope of covering up his own enormities. For, if the peace were kept, he expected to have the Jews accusing him before Caesar whereas, could he bring about their revolt, he hoped that this larger crime would divert inquiry

;

into less serious offences.
their sufferings.

In order, therefore, to

produce an outbreak of the nation, he daily added to

Meanwhile the Greeks of Caesarea had won and obtained from him the government of that city they brought back
(4)

Arising

their case at Caesar's tribunal,"

leads tc "^'^^ ^^^

;

Rome.

"

Here the

"An

parallel narrative in the Antiquities ceases. * See § 270. impossible figure.

433

JOSEPHUS
TT^S"

Kpioecog
rrjv
rrjs

iKOjJLLGav
dpx'')^

ypd/JLiiara,

Kal

rrpoojjLev

eXdfJi^avev
€T€L

o

TToAe/xo?
,

ScuSeKaTOj

^epcovo? 'qyeyiovias

iTrraKaS^KaTw he
Trp6<^

285 Trjs ^AypLTTTTa jSaatAeia?, WprefjiLGLOU fi-qvos.

hk TO fieyeOo'i ru)V i^ avrov GvpL(f)opa)u ovk d^iav

€o\ev

7Tp6(f)aaiv.

ol

yap
Trapa
,

iv

Katcrapeto,

'louSatot,

ov beoTTorrjs rjv Tt? "EAAt^i^ Kacaapevs rroXXaKLg piev KTrjoaadai roi' roTTOv ioTTOvSaoav TipL-qv TJoXXaTrXaoiova rrj';
ovvayojyrjv
e;!(oi'T€?
)(<jL)piov,

286 a^i'a? bihovre?' tu? 8' VTrepopojv tol? Serjcret? 7rp6?

Koi TTapojKohop.ei'^ to y^iop^^^ eVeti^o? re Kal CTTevrjV TTavTarraoLv ^laiav irdpohov drreXeLTTev avTolg, to
eTT-qpeiav

en

ipyaGTrjpLa

KaTaoKevaf^ofjLevo?

,

fxev TTpojTov ol depfJLOTepoL

Twv
8c

vecov 7Tpo7T7]hcovTe<;

287 oLKohopLelv
/Sta?

eKojXuov.

to?

tovtov?

elpyev

Trjg

twv hvvaTol OAcupo?, ol dp.ri\avovvTe<; ^Xovhaiojv ovv oU ^Itodvvris 6 TeXcovr]?, -neiOovoi Tov ^Xujpov dpyvpiou TaXduTOLS oktuj SLaKcoXvaaL 6 be rrpos pioi'ov to Xa^elv VTTooxofievog 288 TO epyov.
,

TrdvTa GVfJLTTpd^eLV,
€t?

Xa^dw

e^eioiv ttJ? Kaiaapeta?
ttiv

^e^aoTiji'

Kal

KaTaXeiTrei

OTdotv
louSaiots'

e^odoLov y woTTep dheiav
289

TrerrpaKojs"

aurtou

jidx^oOaL. (5) Trjs 8'
Tojv ^Xovhaiojv
Tojv,

eTTLOva-rjg

r]p.epa^

e^hop.dho£ ovorjSy

avvadpoLodevGTaoLaoTi^s TLS KaLoapev? ydoTpav KaraQTpeipas^ Kal vapd ttjv e'ioohov avTojv Bep.evos
els
Tr}u

ovvayojyr^v

np0(7U'K060lJ.il VFiC. Niese ingeniously conjectures Karaarf^pas "wreathed like an altar"; c/. B. i. 37H where the words are confused, but here no correction seems necessary.
^

2

"

Xero's

decision

must have been given some years

434.

JEWISH WAR,

II.

284-289

with them the text of the decision, and it was now that the war opened, in the twelfth year of the principate of Nero, and the seventeenth of the reign c. May of Agrippa, in the month of Artemisius." The *'^- ^^' ostensible pretext for war was out of proportion to the magnitude of the disasters to which it led. The Jews in Caesarea had a synagogue adjoining a plot The affa of ground owned by a Greek of that city this site gyna^os they had frequently endeavoured to purchase, offer- atCaasf ing a price far exceeding its true value. The proprietor, disdaining their solicitations, by way of insult further proceeded to build upon the site and erect workshops, leaving the Jews only a narrow and extremely awkward passage. Thereupon, some of the hot-headed youths proceeded to set upon the builders and attempted to interrupt operations. Florus having put a stop to their violence, the Jewish notables, with John the tax-collector, having no other expedient, offered Florus eight talents of silver to procure the cessation of the work. Florus, with his eye only on the money, promised them every assistance, but, having secured his pay, at once quitted Caesarea for Sebaste,^ leaving a free field to sedition, as though he had sold the Jews a licence to fight the matter out. (5) On the following day, which was a sabbath, when the Jews assembled at the synagogue, they found that one of the Caesarean mischief-makers had placed beside the entrance a pot, turned bottom
;

the decisive part in the matter was played by But Pallas {A. XX. 182). who died in 62 (Tac. Ann. xiv. 65). the decision led to increased trouble at Caesarea and ultimately to war {A. xx. 181). Artemisius is a month in spring or early summer in the Macedonian calendar which is " Samaria. followed throughout the War.
earlier, since

435

JOSEPHUS
€7T€6u€V OpveiS.

TOVTO TOV? ^lovhaLOU?
v^piofxlvajv
{jlcuY

dvT^K'eCTTCO?

Tiapoj^vvev
29^ vofjiojv,

ojg

avrol?
'^^

tojv

iJL€iJLLaafJL€i'ov

be rod x^P^^^Se

fiev

ovu

evoradeg Kal rrpaov IttI tovs wero xprjvai, ro oraaLcohes
^Aey/Liairoi-

rjyefJLOvas dvatfyevyeiu

Kal

Iv^

I'eoTrjTL

e^eKatero rrpo?

pLO-XTji'.

TrapeaKevaajjce-

voL 8'

elorrjKeGav ol tujv Kataapcojv
eTTtdvaoi'Ta
7rpo—€7T6iJb(f)eGav

rov

yap

OTaaLaaral, €K ovvrdyTrpooeXOujv
LTTTrdpx'rjS

291 /xaros",

Kal Ta^eoj? eyevero avfi^oX-q.

he ^Yo-UKovvhos 6 StaKojAuetv reraypievo?
TTji'

re ydarpav alpei Kal KaraTraveLV eTreiparo rrjv
rjTTWfievou 5' avrov rrjs tojv Katcrapecoi^

ordaiv.

^ias 'lofSatot tovs v6p.ovs dprrdoavres dvexojprjoav els Nap^ara* X^P^ '^'•S" olvtow ovtoj KaXelrai 292 GTahiovs e^-qKOvra hiexovaa ttj? Katcrapeta?* ol
8e Trepl rov ^lojduvrjv Bvvarol hojheKa irpos (t>Xa)pov iXdovres els ^e^aorrji' drrajSvpovro Trepl tojv neTTpayjjievojv
pLifivrjGKoi'Tes Tcbv OKTuj

Kal ^orj6eu> iKeTevov, alS-qfiovcos vtto TaXdvTOJV 6 he Kal ov\.

Xa^ojv ehrjoev rovs dvhpas, alricopLevos VTrep rov TOVS vopLovs e^eveyKeZv ttjs Kaioapelas.
293
(6)

Ylpos TOVTO
rjVf

TOJV

ev

']epoooXvpLOLS

dyavd6 he

KTTjOis

en

fievTOL tovs dvfiovs KaTeZxov.

OAcupos" aioTTep r]pyoXa^rjK<jJS eKpnTil,eiv tov ttoAcixov,

TTemljas

irrl

rov

lepov

d-qaavpov
^Is
'

e^aipel

heKae-nrd TaXavra, OKrupdpLevos
^

rds Kalaapos
^f

C: om. the

rest.

om.

Niese.

"

An

Jews were
4.S6

insinuation as acutely suggested by Reiand. that the lepers, for whom, under the Law, birds were to

JEWISH WAR,

II.

289-293
This

upwards, upon which he was sacrificing birds."

spectacle of what they considered an outrage upon their laws and a desecration of the spot enraged

the Jews beyond endurance. The steady-going and peaceable members of the congregation were in favour of immediate recourse to the authorities but the factious folk and the passionate youth were burning for a fight. The Caesarean party, on their side, stood prepared for action, for they had, by a concerted plan, sent the man on to the mock sacrifice and so they soon came to blows. Jucundus, the cavalry commander commissioned to intervene, came up, removed the pot and endeavoured to quell the riot, but was unable to cope with the violence of the Caesareans. The Jews, thereupon, snatched up their The Jew copy of the Law and withdrew to Narbata, a Jewish Jaesarei district sixty furlongs distant from Caesarea.** Their and vaii leading men, twelve in number, with John at their piJrus, head, waited upon Florus at Sebaste, bitterly complained of these proceedings and besought his assistance, delicately reminding him of the matter of the eight talents.^ Florus actually had them arrested and put in irons on the charge of having carried off the copy of the Law from Caesarea. (6) This news roused indignation at Jerusalem, Florus though the citizens still restrained their feelings. Tempfe But Florus, as if he had contracted to fan the flames ferment of war, sent to the temple treasury and extracted seventeen talents, making the requirements of the
; ;

be killed
that

in

an earthen vessel (Lev.
Israelites

Moses and the

whom
is

were lepers occurs constantly in i. 279 if.). * The " toparchy " of Narbata « §287.

f.). The charge he led out of Egypt the Contra Apionem {e.g.

xiv. 4

mentioned

later, § 509.

437

.T05EPHUS
204 XP^^^^-

€v6eoj? ef^^^ '^ov hijjJLOv, Kat to lepov ^oals hiaTTpvoioLS to Kato-apos- aveKaXovv ovojjia kol rij? OAcupou rvpav€vlol 8c rail' 295 vtSo? iXevdepovv o(j)ds lk€T€VOV. oraotaoTcJv Xoihopias alox^crrovs etV toi^ OAcopov €K€Kp6.y€OaV KOL KaVOVV 7T€pL(f)epOl>T€? iTTrjTOVV^ avro) Kepfiara KadaTrep aKXrjpcp /cat raXaLTTcopcu. ToijroLg ovK dveTpaTn] rrjv <l)t.Xapyvpiav, dAA' eVi 296 TO /xaAAov ;\;pr;/LtaTtaaa^at TrapajpyiGdrj. heov yovv els Kaiaapetai^ e'A^oi^Ta o/Seoat to tou TToXepiov TTvp eKeldev apxopievov Koi rrjg rapa^T]? dveXcZu Tag atVtab, e^' a> /cat pnoOov eXa^€v, 6 8e /xcto. GTpaTLOL? Ittttlkt]? t€ Kal 7T€l,LKrjg €771 lepoooAi^jLtcov
cr^Vx'^<^^^

^'

ovvdpafi6vr€S

et?

'

wpfjLYjGev,

Lva

Tot?

'Poj/xatojp'

ottXols

ipyda-qraL^

/cat to; 8eet /cat

297

(~)

'0

8e

Tat? d77etAat? neptSvafj rrjv ttoXlv. TTpoSvooj-rjaat Trjv 6pi.Lr)v hrjfjLog

avTOV ^ovXopLevog VTravra Tot? OTpaTLcvTatg /li6T* €V(f)r)pLias /cat toi^ OAwpoi' depaTTevriKwg e/c8e;\;6/cd/ceti/o? 77po77e/x(/fa? ctui^ tV298 a^at rrapeoKevdoaTo
.

KaTTLTcova eKaTOVTdpxTju duaeKeXevoev, /cat /x-)) 77p6? op" outojs iXoiSoprioav aia;(pais" elpcoueveaOaL to? i^uv (f)LXo' 299 (j)povqoeLS' helv yap avrovg, etVep yevvaloi eloLU
TievoLV

7T€VTrjKOUTa

Xojpelv avTovs

/cat

TTapprjGLaoTaL,

okco7tt€lv
fir)

jj,ev

ainov
.

/cat

TTapovra, <j)aiveGdaL be
3(Xi

fiovov

iv

tol? Xoyoi?,
TOirroi9
77€pt

ctAAd

/cdi'

Tots"

077Aot?
TrXijOog,

(l)LX€X€vd€povg

/caTaTrAayev'

to

d/xa

/cat

tcDv'

Ka-

TTLTOJva l777T€a>v €1? fxeGOV (fyepofJLevojv ,
TTplv
^

buGKeSdadrj

doTrdaaodai tov ^Xojpov
PA.M.

rj

Tot? GTpaTLcoTats

dnTjToiv
for t6

*

-i-ro ^ov\6fjL€i'oi>
l^.

C:

r/.

"ad quod

uolebat uteretur " Lat.

and

A.

x\\. 390.

438

JEWISH WAR.

IT

29^-300

imperial service his pretext." Instantly fired by this outrage, the people rushed in a body to the temple and with piercing cries invoked the name of Caesar, imploring him to liberate them from the tyranny of Florus. Some of the malcontents railed on the procurator in the most opprobrious terms and carrying round a basket begged coppers for him as for an unfortunate destitute. These proceedings, however, far from checking his avarice, only provoked him to further peculation. Accordingly, instead of betaking himself, as he should have done, to Caesarea, to extinguish the flames of war, there already breaking out, and to root out the cause of these disorders a task for which he had been paid he marched with an army ^ of cavalry and infantry upon Jerusalem, in order to attain his object with the aid of the Roman arms, and by means of intimidation and menaces to fleece the city. (7) The citizens, anxious to forestall and make him Fioru.s a ashamed of his intention, went to meet the troops ^6'^"*^''^ with acclamations, and prepared to give Florus an obsequious reception. He, however, sent on ahead a centurion, Capito, with fifty horsemen, and ordered the Jews to retire and not to mock with this show of if cordiality one whom they had so grossly abused they were courageous and outspoken persons (so ran his words) they ought to jeer at him in his very presence and to show their love of liberty not only

;

words but with arms in hand. Dismayed by this message and by Capito's cavalrymen charging into their ranks, the crowd dispersed, before they had a chance of saluting Florus or giving the soldiers proof
in
"

Perhaps because their payment of tribute was
(Reinach).

in arrear,

§ -1-03
*

Apparently he had only a single cohort

332).

439

JOSEPHUS
<f)av€p6v
TTOiTjoai
TOLS"

TO

TTeidrjVLOV.

8e
301

etV

OLKLas
8e

fJL€ra

avaxajprjoavre^ heovs Kal raTretvoTr^ro?

ivvKTepevaav.^

Tore fiev eV tol? ^acrtAetot? varepaia PrjP'OL rrpo avrojv dcjjLevo? Ka6ei,€TaL, Kal TrpooeXdovres ol re o.p\Lepel? Kal hvuarol to re yva)pip,ojTarov rrjg TToAeo)?^
(8)

OAoJpo?

avAiJcrat,

ttJ

8'

302 TTapioTTjoav

rep

^rjiiaTL.

tovtols 6 OAajpo?
rrjs

€/<€-

AeuCTev Tovs Xoihopi^aavr as ainov

eVSowat, ^a/x€el
jjltj

vo?

a-UTovg

aTToXa-uaeLV

dpLVvrjs,

irpo-

dyoiev rovg alrLov?.
elp-qvLKa.

ol 8e rov fiev SrjpLOv d7T€(f}r]vav^

(f)povovvTa,

roZs

he

Trapacfydey^apevois
TrXrjdei

303 fjTovvro avyyvcop.riv ev

yap rouovr oj

dav8t*

pLaoTov pev ovhev eivai rii^a? Opaavrepoug Kal
riXiKLav
TTjv

d(f>pova?,

dpLrj^ai^ov

8e tcuv rjpLaprrjKorajv

304

hidKpiOLv eKaorov pLerauoovvTog Kal Seei* d Setv pevroi ye eKelvov, el behpaKeu dpvovpepov. TTpovoeZ rrjg Kara to edvos elp-qvrjs Kal ^ovXerai *Pa»/Ltatot? 7TepLO<jjt,eLV rrjv ttoXlv, pidXXov 8td tou? TToAAou? dKaraLTLdrovs <Jvyyva>vaL Kal rot? oAiyot? rrXrjpLpLeX-qoaoLU r) St' oXlyovg TTOvqpovg rapd^ai Srjpou dyaOoi^ rooovrov.
(9)

305

Hpo? ravra pdXXop
hiapTTdleiu

Trapo^uvOels ipL^oa TOt?

rrjv dvcjj KaXovpevT^v rovs evrvyxdvovras. ol 8' e-nidvpia Kephovs TrpooXa^ovres r^yepoviK-qv TrapaKeXevatw ov pLOUOv e<f>* ov e7Tep(j)6-qoav tottov

OTpaTttuTat?
Kal

dyopdu

Kteiveiv

7Jp7Ta(,ov,
*

dAA'

els

Trdoas

ip.TTiq'bCjvres

rds olKias

biivvKT€f>ii.aav

VRC
*

(the usual
:

word
'

in

Josephus).

*

+

irav

VRC.
Destinon
5*'

aTTicpcxLi^ov

VRC,

mss.

440

JEWISH WAR,

II.

300-305

of their obedience. They retired to their homes and passed the night in terror and dejection. (8) Florus lodged at the palace, and on the following day had a tribunal placed in front of the building and took his seat the chief priests, the nobles, and the most eminent citizens then presented themselves before the tribunal. Florus ordered them to hand over the men who had insulted him, declaring that
;

they themselves would feel his vengeance if they produce the culprits. The leaders, in reply, declared that the people were peaceably disposed and implored pardon for the individuals who had spoken disrespectfully. It was not surprising, they said, that in so great a crowd there should be some but to pick out reckless spirits and foolish youths the delinquents was impossible, as everyone w^as now penitent and would, from fear of the consequences, deny what he had done. If, then, Florus cared for the peace of the nation and wished to preserve the city for the Romans, he ought to pardon the few offenders for the sake of the many innocent, rather than, because of a few rascals, to bring trouble upon such a host of good citizens. He deiiv( (9) This speech merely increased the exasperation of Florus, who now shouted to the soldiers to sack h^s sofdil and to for piunc the agora known as the " upper market," The troops, whose massacre kill any whom they encountered. lust for booty was thus backed by their general's order, not only plundered the quarter which they were sent to attack, but plunged into every house and
failed to
;

<*

" The upper city or upper agora, viz. the south-west quarter of the town. See B. v. 137 f. for the citv hills : (1) upper city [S.W.], (2) lower city or Akra [S.E.], (3) a third which had disappeared in the time of Josephus [probably N.E.] with G. A. Smith, Jerusalem^ ii. 448 note.
;

441

,

JOSEPHUS
8' rjv Ik tcui^ tou? OLKTjTopa?. <f)vyr) rujv KaraXa/jL^avo/JLCvajv kol (f)6vo? rpoTTOS T€ dpTTayfjg ovdel? TrapeXeLTTcro, /cat 770AXov9 rcjjv iJL€TpLajv ovXXa^ovres eVt tov (t>Xojpov dvrjyov ov? fidari^iv 77 poaiKLodpLevo? dvearav6 de^ CTt'/XTra? TtDv' eKeivqs d7ToXop,€vwv 307 pojoev. TTJg Tjiiepas dpidpios avv yvvai^lv Kal reKVois, ovSe yap vrjTTLOJV dTreaxovro, rrepl TpLG^^iXiovs^ Kal i^a^apvrepav re IttoUl ttjv ovp.308 Kooiovs ovvrj-)(dri. <f)opdv TO KaLvov TTJg 'PcD/iatcuy ajp-orriTos' o yap fjL-qbels Trporepov rore OAcupo? iroXpLrjuev, dvhpas LTTTTLKov rdypbaros piaariycoaaL re Trpo rov ^qp.aros Kal aravpo) TTpoG-qXajoai, (Lv el Kal to yevos 'louhalov^ dXXd yovv rd d^lojpLa 'Pwpia'CKOv rjv. (xv. 1) Kara rovrov rov Kaipov 6 i^iev ^a309 GiXevs WypLTTTTas ervx^v elg rrjv WXe^dvhpeiav

306 ea(hatov

orevojTTOjv

7T€7TOp€VpL€VOS,

OTTOJ?

WXe^dvbpO) OVVqadeir]
vtto

776771-

crevpLevoj
310 (f)d€vrL

rrjv

Ar/VTrrov
rrjv

Slpujvos
§e

Kal

77e/x-

hieTTeiv.

dSeAc^i^v

avrov ^epvLKrjv

rojv

rrapovaav iv 'lepoGoXvpLoig Kal rr]v Trapavopilav orpariancov deojpLevrjv heivov elarjeL irddos, Kal TToX^dKL? rovg re LTTTrdp^ovs eavrrjg Kal
cra)/xaTo</)uAaKa?
TrepLTTOvua
<l)6vov.

Trpos

311 TTavaaadai,

rov

Kal

6

p.ev

OXoJpov ovre
rrjV

ebelro
els

rd

TrXrjdo?
rrjs

rojv dvaipovpLevajv ovre

els

evyeveiav,

312 TO

TTapaKaXovcrqs , dXX els pLovov rd XvaureXes eK rojv dpTraywv dTTO^Xerrcuv Ttap-qKOvaev. rj d' dppLTj rojv orparLOjrujv eXvaarjoev Kal Kara rrjs /SaatAtdos" ov pidvov yovv ev opLpLaaLv avrrjs flKt^ovro rovs dXtoKopLevovs Kal dLe(f)deLpov, ciAAd
1

6 701'^
'

VRC.

ML:

'loroatajj/

2 VRC: TpidKovra or 'loioatoi the rest.

PAM.

442

JEWISH WAR,

II.

306-312

slaughtered the inmates. There ensued a stampede through the narrow alleys, massacre of all who were many of the peacecaught, every variety of pillage able citizens were arrested and brought before Florus, •who had them first scourged and then crucified. The total number of that day's victims, including women and children, for even infancy received no quarter, amounted to about three thousand six hundred. The calamity was aggravated by the unprecedented character of the Romans' cruelty. For Florus ventured that day to do what none had ever done before, namely, to scourge before his tribunal and nail to the cross men of equestrian rank, men who, if Jews by birth, were at least invested with that
;

Roman

dignity.

King Agrippa, at this moment, was absent, ineffectu; having gone to Alexandria to offer his congratulations 0^^^^ °* to Alexander," recently sent to take over the govern- Bemice t ment of Egypt, with which he had been entrusted by Nero. Agrippa's sister Bernice, however, who was at Jerusalem, witnessed with the liveliest emotion the outrages of the soldiers, and constantly sent her cavalry-commanders and life-guards to Florus to implore him to put a stop to the carnage. But he, regarding neither the number of the slain nor the exalted rank of his suppliant, but only the profit accruing from the plunder, turned a deaf ear to her prayers. The mad rage of the soldiers even vented itself upon the queen. Not only did they torture and put their captives to death under her eyes, but
(xv. 1)
<•

220

Tiberius Alexander, previously procurator of Judaea note), and brother-in-law of Bernice {A. xix. 276 f.).

443

.

JOSEPHUS
Kciv

avTXjV

aveiXov,

el

fir]

Kara^vyelv
arpaTLajrayv

etV

rr]V

^aoiXLKy]v avXrjv
(f)vXaKrj'i

€(f)9r),

KOLKel htevvKTepevaev /xera

hehoLKula
Toi)?

rrjv
*

rojv

€(l)ohov.

313 €77€bi]iJL€L 8' iv Toi?

lepoGoXvfjLOLg €vxr]u EKTeXovcra
tj

TO)

Oeoj-

yap

vogco
edo<;

TLOLv

aAAats"

avayKais

eu;(€cr^at

KaraTTovovp,ivovs rj -npo rpid-

Kovra
314 re

dnoScooeLV fxeXXoLev 6vGia<; oivov kol ^vprjaeadaL^ rds K6yLa<;. d 817 Kal Tore TeXovua BepvLKrj yufivoTTOvg re rrpo rov ^rjfjLaros lk€T€V€ rov <t>Xa)pov, Kal Trpos ro) p,r) TVX€LV alhovs avrrf rov nepl rov 1,-qv klvSuvov
-qfxepojv rjs

dcjil^eoOai

eveipaaev.
315
{"2)

Tavra

fX€V

ovv e^KaLheKarrj
rfj

fx-qvo?

'AprettXtjOo?

fxiOLOV

GUvrjvexOrj,

8*

imovGrj ro

fxev

V7T€p7Tad7]Gav 61? rrjv dvoj
jSoat?

Gweppevoev dyopdv kol
drroXcoXorajv dvcohvpero'
i7TL(f)dovoi (f>ojvai.

i^acGLOLg rrepl
els

rwv

ro rrXiov 8e -qGav

rov ^Xojpov

316 TTpos o heiGavres ol hvvarol ovv rolg dpxt^peuGLV

iodrjra? Trepiepp-q^avro, Kal TTpoGTriiTrovres eKaoroLS^ eSeovro TravGaodai Kal pLrj rrpog ois TTeTTOvdaoLv els dvrjKeGrov ri rov OAcupov epeBit,eiv. 317 eTTeiodr) he ro ttXtjOos ra\eojs alhoZ re row vapaKaXo-6vra>v Kal Kar^ eXTtiha rov fjLrjhev en rov

rds

^Xcjpov
318
(3)

els

avrovs TrapavofxriGeiv
rijs

'0 8€ GpeGdeLGrjs
avrrjv
dvdi/jau

rapax^S rJxOero Kal
rovs
re
iier aire pur erai
pLTjhev

ndXiv
pLOVov

Trpayfiarevofjievos

dpxi^pels
e<f)T]
^

Gvv roLS

yvajpijiois

Kal

reKpL-qpiov
:

eGeodai rod

en

rov

Dindorf ^vprjrraadai (-icraadai) MS9. 2 Destinon: avrrif mss.
3

VRC

(Lat.
c/.

?):

cKaaTos the rest.
xxi. 2S-26.

"

A

Nazirite vow,

Acts

Thirty days was

444

JEWISH WAR,

II.

312-318

they would have killed her also, had she not hastened to seek refuge in the palace, where she passed the night surrounded by guards, dreading an attack of the troops. She was visiting Jerusalem to discharge a vow to God for it is customary for those suffering from illness or other affliction to make a vow to abstain from wine and to shave their heads during the thirty days preceding that on which they must offer sacrifices." These rites Bernice was then undergoing, and she would come barefoot before the tribunal and make supplication to Florus, without any respect being shown to her, and even at the peril of her life. of^June^ (2) These events took place on the sixteenth
;

the month Artemisius. On the following day the Mou'rnin multitude, overcome with distress, flocked to the^^®*^®^^ upper agora, uttering terrific lamentations for the dead, but the shouts of imprecation upon Florus preponderated. Alarmed at this outburst, the leading men and the chief priests rent their clothes and, falling at the feet of one after another of the mob, implored them to desist, and not to provoke Florus,
after all they had endured, to some new and irreparable outrage. The multitude promptly complied, alike out of respect for their petitioners, and in the hope that Florus would spare them further enormities. Fiprus (3) The procurator was vexed at the extinction of the tumult, and, with the object of relighting the cohorts flames, sent for the chief priests and leading citizens [Ja^satea and told them that the people had but one way of proving that they intended to refrain from any
the period of purification prescribed by the school of Shammai for Nazirites completing a vow in Palestine ; the school of Hillel was apparently more severe (Mishna, Nasir, iii. 6,

quoted by Schiirer). " According to Niese's calculation.

445

JOSEPHUS
hrjfjLov

veaiTepia€iv ,

el

TrpoeXOovre^

vnavT'qoovGLu

Tot? 0770 KaiCTapeta? olulovglv crrpaTtdjrat?- Trapeyt319 vovTo

be bvo UTTelpai. rcov 8' ert uvyKaXovvrajv TO TrXrjdo? TTpoTTefiipas btebrjXou rolg rcov GTteipojv
eKO.TOVTOLpxoL?,
OTTOj?

TTapayyeiXcjjGiv

rots

v<j>*

avTaoTTaaaoBaL rovs ^\ovhaiovs, kolv tl Kar^ avTov <f)9ey^ajurai ;)^pT]CTacr^at rot? 320 ottAoi?. ol 8' apxiepels els to lepov ttjv nXiqOuv (jvvayay6vTe<£ VTiavrdv rot? 'Pai/xatot? TrapeKaXovv Kal 77 p6 avrjKearov Trddou? ra? OTreipas he^LOVodat. rovroL? TO OTaotojdes rjTTeLdeL, /cat 8ta. tovs dnoXajXoTag to ttXtjOo^ epperrev Trpo^ Tovg dpaavTepovs
eavTovs
P-'T}'!'^

321

Sr] Ttds p-ev lepevg nd? 8' VTr-qpeTiq? (4.) "Kvda rod deov rd dyta OKevrf TrpoKopiLaavTe? /cat rov KoopLOv, eV d) XeLTovpyelv edos tjv avTols, dva-

Xa^ovTes, KidapLGTai re /cat vpLVOjbol /xera tcl)V opydvojv TTpoGeTn-TTTOv Kal KaTrjVTi^oXovif <f}vXd^aL Tov lepov KOGpLov auTot? /cat pLrj npo? dpTrayrjv 322 TOW Beiojv KetpL-qXlcow 'Pcu/xat'ous' epeOiGai. tovs 8' dpxLepel<^ auTou? -qv Ihelv /cara/xcu/xeVous' /xev TTjS Ke(j>aXri<; kovlv,^ yvpivovs 8e to, GTepva rwv iod-qTajv bLeppriyp.evojv ^ 6vop.aGTL 8' eKaorov rcov yvojpip.ojv Kal Kowfj to ttAtJ^o? iKerevov pLrj 8t*
eXax^GT-qg
323 rot?
TrXripLp-eXeiag

Trpohovvai

ttjv

TTarpiba
rj

emdupLOVGLU

TTopOr^GaL-

riva

yap

rotS"

GTpaTLojTacs (f)epeLV aj(f)eXeLau rou otto ^lovbalcov doTTaGpLOV r) hLOpdcOGlV aVTolg TCOU GVpi^e^rjKOTOJV 324 TO pLTj vvi' TrpoeXBeZv ; el be brj be^tojoaLVTo tou?
^

LVKC

(cf. §
^

601):

Tr,v K((pa\riv AOfft

PAM.

wepitppTjyfj.ii'Uv

LVRC.

446

JEWISH WAR,

II.

318-S24

further revolutionary proceedings, namely to go out and meet the troops coming up from Caesarea two cohorts being at the time on their way. Then, while and sends the leaders were still convening the people for the pjf^te purpose, Florus sent word to the centurions of the instruccohorts to instruct their men not to return the salute of the Jews, and if they uttered a word in disparagement of himself, to make use of their arms. The chief priests, meanwhile, having assembled the multitude in the temple, exhorted them to meet the The priest advancing Romans and to prevent any irremediable Je?\^s\*Jf disaster by giving a courteous reception to the submit. cohorts. To this advice the factious party refused to listen, and the crowd, influenced by their memory of the fallen, inclined to the bolder policy. (4) Then it was that every priest and every minister of God, bearing in procession the holy vessels and wearing the robes in which they were wont to perform their priestly offices, the harpers also and the choristers with their instruments, fell on their knees and earnestly implored the people to preserve for them these sacred ornaments, and not to provoke the Romans to pillage the treasures of the house of God. Even the chief priests might then have been seen heaping dust upon their heads, their breasts bared,

their

vestments rent. They appealed by name to each of the notables individually and to the people as a whole not, by offending in so trifling a matter, to deliver up their country to those who were eager " After all," they asked, " what would to sack it. the troops profit by receiving a salute from the Jews ? What reparation for past events would they themselves obtain by now refusing to go out ? If, on the contrary, they welcomed these new-comers
447

J05EPHUS
TTpoaiovTas
TTju
T-)]!^

cl»?

I^o?,

OAojpoj yikv aTTOKOTT-qaeadai

re

KepS-qoetv S* aurou? TTarpiha kol to fn]dev Tza^etv ttXIov. aAAco? Kat to TreiB^odai Graaiat^ovaiv oAr/ot?, Seov
d(f)opfMrjv

rov

TroAe/xov,

Sijfiov ovra? roaovrov ovvavayKat^eiv kolK^ivovs ovvevyvojpioveiv ,^ heivrjs aKpaoias elvai. Toirrots' pueiXioooiievoi to ttXtjOo? a/xa /cat (•^) 325 Tcui' aTaCTtacrrtuv ovs fiev aTretAat?, ous" Se atSot

avTovs

KareoreiXav
re
/cat

.

erreira

i^-qyoviievoi

/i,e^'

rjcvx^o.?
/cat

kog/jlov

rot?
ol

arpaTLcoraig
rjaTrdaavro'

vtttjvtcov

ttXtjoIov

yevopbdvovs
ovvdr^pia

rcov

8e

jjLrjhev

OLTTOKpLvapievajv

GTaaiauTal OAoSpou Kare^oojv.
/car'

326 7"oi^'

'^i'

aOrcDv ScSo/xeVoi^* aurt/ca

youy

ot

orpartwrat
/cat

TTepiaxovTe?
ol
tTZTret?

avrovs
/xei'

eTraiou

$vXoLs,
pLalajv

<f>€vyovTas
eTTLTrrov

/caraStoi/coi^re?
utto

CTUveTrarouy.

he

77oAAot
S'
utt'

'Pa>-

rvTTTopLevoL,

ttXclous

dAArjAajv /3ta-

327 C6pL€VOL.
/cat

Setvo?

(f)ddv€LU
ttclglv

Se Trept ra? TruAa? (L6 capos r]v, eKaGTov GTrevSovros ^pahvripa pikv r^
iyivero, rcou

<f)vyrj

8e

G<f)aXewTOJU dTTcvXeiO
TrAi^^et

heiurj'

7TVLy6pL€voL

yap

/cat

/cAco/xei^ot

rcDi

koI ovhe Trpog ra(f)rii gvi^€lgl6lols KareXeLTrero. 328 ''"'S" yvojpLpos rols eTTLTTTov^ 8e /cat GrpaTLOjraL Traiovres dv4hr]v rou<
eTTL^aivovrojv
rj(i>avil,ovTO,

pLevrjs

KaraXapL^avopevous /cat 8ta rrj? Be^e^a KaAou dvecoOouv to TrXrjdos, ^ta^o/Ltevot TrapeXdet) /cat KparrjGai tov re UpoO /cat rr^? 'A^'ra>lHa?
^

au'eiSai/xo^e?;'

PAL.

2

Bekker: awein.vTov mss.

" Or " New city," the northernmost suburb, include within the unfinished wall of Agrippa I {B. v. 151 fF.).

448

JEWISH WAR,

II.

324-328

with their customary courtesy, they would cut away from Florus all ground for hostihties and gain for themselves their country and freedom from further molestation. And then, above all, what utter feebleness it showed to be guided by a handful of rebels, when they ought instead with their numerous body to coerce even these malcontents to join in their
,

own

rational policy

"

!

j

i

(5) By these remonstrances they succeeded in soothing the multitude, while they quelled the rebels partly by menaces, partly by appealing to their feelings of respect. Then, taking the lead, they advanced in quiet and orderly fashion to meet the troops, and on the approach of the latter saluted them. The cohorts making no response, the rebels started clamouring against Florus. This was the given signal for falling upon the Jews. In an instant the troops were round them, striking out with their clubs, and on their taking flight the cavalry pursued

Receptioi

cihirts:
a fresh

I

!

j

and trampled them under their horses' feet. Many fell beneath the blows of the Romans, a still larger number under the pressure of their own companions. Around the gates the crush was terrible as each strove to pass in first, the flight of all was retarded, and dreadful was the fate of any who stumbled suffocated and mangled by the crowds that trod them down, they were obliterated and their bodies so dis; ;

j

1

figured that their relatives could not recognize them them burial. The troops pushed in with the fugitives, mercilessly striking anyone who fell into their hands, and so thrust the crowd back through the quarter called Bezetha," trying to force their way
to give

through and occupy the temple and the castle of
VOL.
II

Q

449

JOSEPHUS
wv
Koi

OAajpo?

i(f)L6iJL€vo?

i^'TJye

rrjg

^aoL^iKrj^

avXi)? TOi)? Gvv avTO) kol Trpog ro (fypovpLov IXBelv
Siyj/xapreV ye p.riv rrj? em^oXr)?'^ 329 riyojvitero. 6 yap brjfjio? avTLKpu? e77tCTTpa^et? etpyev rrjv

Kal hLaardvres irTL rcjv reycov rovg 'Poje^aXXov. KaTaTTOvovfJLevoc 8e rot? virepdev ^eXeoLv Kal hiaKOipai to rov? orevojTTOV? €p,(f)pd^av TrXrjdo? daOevrjaavres dvexcopovv els ro rtpos tol^ /SacrtAetot? orparoTreBov. he Graoiaaral heioavreg p.rj ttolXlv 330 (6) Oi eTTeXdoju 6 (t>X(jjpo? KpaT-qcTj rov Upov Sid rrj? ^Avrajviag, dva^dure? evOeco? rd? crvvex^^? (JTod<; tout' 331 Tov Upov 77po? T-qv 'Ai^TOJt'tav' 8te/<:oi/fav. eipv^ev TTju ^Xujpov TrXeove^tav rojv yap rou deov drjoavpcov e<j>iep,€vo<; Kal 8ta rovro TrapeXdelv iTTidvpLcov et? rrjP 'AvTOJvtai^, w? aTTeppdyrjaau at oroal, r-qv opfi-qv dverpdnr], Kal fjLeraTTefMifjdiJLevo? TOV? T€ apx^epel^ Kal rrju ^ovXr]v avrog pikv
opfjLTju,^

fjLaiovg

,

e'^teVat rrjs TToXeojs

^<i>'r],

(f>povpdv 8' iyKaraXelipeiM

332 avTOL?

dv d^LOjacouLV. ra)v 8e Trdvra rrepl do(f>aXeia? Kal tov fx-qhkv vewreplaeLv VTroaxofie' vwv, el fjLLav ainols KaraXeirroL OTrelpav, (jlt) p-evoorjv

TOL Trfv p.axeGap,evriv
8t'

,

Trpo?
'^^

a

TTeTTOvdev
tus"

^X^'-^

TrXrjdo?,
rrjg

ydp ravrrju drrexOd)? dXXd^a? rrjv
Xonrrjg
hvvdp.eoj(^

OTTelpav,

Tj^LOVv,
et?

p-erd

Katoapetav. 333 (xvi, 1) 'Krepav Se eTTi^oXrjv^ rcjp rroXepLO) 7Topi.l,6pLevos eTTecrreXXev KeaTtoj ^\ovhaia>v drroVTreorpeifjev
^

L

Lat.
'

:

iTri^oi\r/s

the rest.

iwi^ovXvu

PAM

* t??? 6p/j.ri<; P: om. Lat. and second hand of L.

"

i.e.

the city
4,50

the cohort which Florus himself had brought into (§ -296) and which had sacked the Upper Market.

JEWISH WAR,
his

II.

828-3S3

Antonia. Florus, with the same object in view, led men out from the court of the palace and struggled to reach the fortress. But he was foiled in this purpose for he found himself faced by the people, w^ho turned upon him and checked his advance, while others, posting themselves along the roofs, kept the Romans under continuous fire. Overwhelmed by the missiles from above and incapable of cutting their way through the crowds that blocked the narrow alleys, the soldiers beat a retreat to their camp adjoining the palace. (6) Fearing, however, that Florus might return to the attack and capture the temple by way of the fortress Antonia, the Jewish revolutionaries instantly mounted the porticoes which connect the two buildings and cut the communication. This manoeuvre for it was God's cooled the cupidity of Florus treasures that he coveted and that had made him so eager to reach Antonia, and now that the porticoes were broken down, his ardour was checked he sent for the chief priests and the council, and told them that he intended to quit the city, but would leave them whatever garrison they desired. In reply, they undertook to maintain perfect order and to prevent any revolution, provided that he left them a single cohort, but not the one which had fought," as the people bore it a grudge on account of what they had suffered from it. He, accordingly, changed the cohort, as they requested, and with the remainder of his forces returned to Caesarea. (xvi. 1) With a view to providing further ground for hostilities, Florus now sent a report to Cestius,
; ; ;

The Jews
porticoes

^^^°^^i"^

Florus

jerasaiem

Cestius

eaSissary investigat

Florus leaves one of the two cohorts wiiich had just arrived thepositi from Caesarea.

451

JOSEPHUS
oraaiv Kara^euSd/xevo?,
Trepidelg
rrjv

avrol?,

Kal
yLTjV

Spdoai
ovb"

r€ dpxv^ ^'^'^ f^^^XV^ Xdyojv eVetvous" a
rcov

TTeTTOvSeaav.

ov

ol

'lepocroAu^cov

apxovTes eoiyrjoav, dAA' avrol re Kal Bepvt/07 Toj KeoTLcu TTepl d)V OAaJpo? €t? Tr]v ttoXlv irap-qvo334 fiTjoev
fjL€Ta

iypacpov.
Tcou

6 be ra

rrap"

api(j>olv

avayvov<;
p.€U

riyefioucjv

i^ovXevero.
pterd

rolg

ovv

avrou^ idoKeu Ke'artov
rj

orparid?
el

dva^alveiv
yeyovev, Kal
tj

TLp.(jjprio6p.evov

rrjv

OLTTooTaaLV,

^e^aioTepou?
fievovrag,

KaraoTrjaoura
be

'loLiSat'ous"

ovfi-

avTuj

KaraoKeipoiJLevov

TTpoTTejjufjaL' row eralpcov tou ra rrpdypiara Kal ra (f)povi^fjiara

335 rojv 'louSat'cov Trtcrrdj?

dvayyeXovvra.

rrefirrei

817^

riva

rcjv

x'-^'-dpX^^

SearroXiravov,*

o?

drTO

rrjs

*AXe^avhpeLa? v7T0Grpe<f)0vrL Trepirvxdjv WypiTTTTq
roj ^aoiXel

Kara
Kal

^IdfiueLav rov re

Trejjufjavra

Ka\

ra? atVta? edrjXojaev.
336
(2)

"Ei^^a

^lovbaicov
r)

ol

re

dpx^epel?

d/xo

Tots

hvvarol^ Kal

^ovXr] rraprjv he^LOvixeviq roi

^aaiXea.
337 bie^rjeaav

fierd be r-qv

eh

eKelvov depaireiav
r-qv

d-rr-

ojbvpovro rd?

eavrcov au/xc^opd? Kal
rrpd?
rjv'

^Xojpoi
<^e\

oj/xdrr^ra.

-qyavaKrei

'Aypt7777a?,
rjXeet

crrparrjyLKO)?

be

rrjv

opyqv

eh

ov'

'lovbaiovg pLere(j>epev, raireivovv avrcjv ^ov

Xofievog

ra
'

(fypovqfiara Kal rep

(jlyj

boKelv dbiKO)'
ol p,ev ovv, co

338 Tt TTadelv rij? dfivvqs drrorpe-rrajv.

avTwu the rest: ora. Lat. TLva the rest. P: ^ Cardwell: 5e or ovv dq ms3. Seoiro\iTav6v here and below VRC (as in Vita
:

LC

'

-f-

1:21).

45^

JEWISH WAR,
falsely accusing the

II.

333-338

Jews of revolt, representing them and charging them with crimes of which in fact they were the sufferers. However, the magistrates of Jerusalem,
as the aggressors in the recent fighting,

on their side, did not remain silent they, too, wrote to Cestius, as did also Bernice, on the subject of the iniquities perpetrated upon the city by Florus. Cestius, having read the dispatches from both parties, took counsel with his officers. They were of opinion that Cestius should go up in person to Jerusalem with an army, either to punish the authors of the revolt, if it was a fact, or to confirm the Jews in their allegiance, if they still remained loyal to Rome. The governor, however, decided first to send one of his :?olleagues to investigate the position of affairs and to present a faithful report to him of the temper of the Jews. He accordingly dispatched the tribune Neapolitanus, who fell in at Jamnia*^ with king Agrippa, .\grippa as he was returning from Alexandria, and Jerusalem nformed him who it was that had sent him on this
:

Tiission
(2)

chief priests of the Jews, the leading citizens and the council, to welcome the king. After paying homage to him, they proceded to deplore the calamities which had befallen them and to recount the brutalities of Florus. A.grippa was indignant at their narrative, but diplomatically turned his resentment upon the Jews whom it heart he pitied, wishing to humiliate their pride ind, by appearing to disbelieve that they had 3een at all ill-treated, to divert them from revenge.
"

and what was its object. To Jamnia also came the

inquiry or
torufs'aL

Jerusalem

Jamnia (Yehnah)

•oute to
:hat

in Philistia not being on the direct Jerusalem from Caesarea (or Antioch), it is supposed Neapolitanus went out of his way to meet Agrippa.

453

JOSEPHUS
koI 8td to.? iavrcov Kr-qa^is Gvvieoav evvoLKTjv rrjv inlttXti^lv tov ^aoiXecog- 6 he SrjfJLog Ik tojv 'lepoooXvfjLOJV iiTL i^TjKovra TrpoeXdojv crrahlov^ ede^touro €kojkvou 339 Toy 'AyptTTTrav Kal tov y^eaTToXiTavov 8e Kal Tojv d7T€a<f)ayiJL€vcov at yvvalKe? irpoeKdiovoai, Kal Trpo? rrjv tovtojv olfjLwyrjv 6 SrjjJLog els 6Xo(f)VpfjLovs TpaTTOfievos eTTLKovpelv rov WypiTTTTav Ik€T6V€v, TOV Tc NeaTToAiTavou KaT€p6a)v oaa TTadoiev VTTO ^Xojpov, Kal TrapeXBovoLv els ttjv ttoXlv T-qv T€ ayopav rjprjfjLajjJLevqv l-neheiKwaav Kal

av

ovreg

eKKpiroi

€7ndviJL0vvT€<i

elprjvr]?

,

.

340 7Te7TopdrjjJL€va?

to.?

OLKLas.

eTreira

St'

WypLTrna
,

yeaTToXlTaVOV OVV €vl depOLTTOUTL TTepieXdelv p-e^^pi tov SiAcud T-qv ttoXlv Iva yvo) aTraaiv ^lovbaiovg tol? jJLev aAAoi? 'Pco/xat'ots
TTetdoVGL

TOV

etKOVTas,
VTTep^oXrjV

fiovcp
TTjS

8'
ei's"

dn-exdavofievovs

^^Xcopcp
.

8t'

avrovs

(Lijlottjtos

6

8'

oj?

341 avToJv,

LKavrjv eXa^ev ttj? vpaoTrjTO? TO Upov dva^aLV€L. evda uvyKaXioas TO TrXrjdos, Kal ttoAAol /Ltev et? ttlgtlv avTovg ttjv rrpos 'Pcu/xatoDS" eTraivioas ttoAAo, 8e els to TrjpeZv T7]v elpT]V7]v TTpoTpexpap-evos Kal tov deov irpoa-

htoSevaas

Trelpav

€t?

,

KVVTjGas odev e^rjv
342
(3)

to.

6

be

TrXrjdos

dyia, irpos Keartop' eTravrjei. tcov ^lovhatojv eVt re tov
TpaTTOjievov
Trpos
(I)6vcp

^aoiXea
KaTOL
/XT/

Kal

tovs

dp)(LepeLS

TrepLTreiv

OAcL»pou
atcoTTcovTas

TTpio^eis

rj^iov

enl

togovto.)

Sepojva Kal KaTaXnreZv

eavTols
"

VTTovoLav

dTroGTaaeajs'

ho^etv

yap avTol

The pool
i.e.

of Siloam at the south-east extremity of the

city.
*

{8pi'(paKTo$, soreg),

without passing the stone balustrade or parapet which separated the outer from the inner

454

JEWISH WAR,
They indeed, being men

II.

338-342

of position, and as owners of property desirous of peace, understood the benevolent intention of the king's reprimand. But the people of Jerusalem also came out to a distance of sixty furlongs from the city to welcome Agrippa and Neapolitanus ; the widows of the slain ran on in advance uttering piercing cries, and to their shrieks the people responded with lamentations, entreating Agrippa to succour them, and loudly declaiming to Neapolitanus all that they had suffered from Florus. When they entered the city the Jews showed them the agora a scene of desolation, and the houses 'plundered. Then, through the agency of Agrippa, they induced Neapolitanus to make the tour of the city as far as Siloam," with a single attendant, in order to assure himself that the Jews were duly subordinate to all the Roman officials, Florus alone excepted, whom they hated for the excessive cruelty with which he had treated them. Having traversed the city and satisfied himself as to the amenable temper of the inhabitants, Neapolitanus went up to the Temple. Here he called the multitude together, highly commended them for their loyalty to the Romans and earnestly exhorted them to keep the peace then, after paying his devotions to the sanctuary of God from the permitted area,* he
;

returned to Cestius. citiz (3) The Jewish populace now turning to the king The and the chief priests pressed them to send an embassy embassy to Nero to denounce Florus, and not to remain silent ^^i^^after so frightful a massacre, thereby leaving the Jews under the suspicion of revolt as they would be
;

court, entry to the latter being forbidden to Gentiles pain of death (B. V. 193 f.).

under

^55

,

JOSEPHUS
343 Tov
€1

Karap^ai tcuv ottAcov, €t yur] <j)BaoavTes ivhel^aLvro Kardp$avra. (f)av€pOL S' rjuav ovk -qpefirjaovres,
r-qv

TTpeo^eiav rig

OLTroKcoXvoi.^

'AyptTTTTO,

8e

TO fiev y^etpoTovelv ^Xwpov Kar-qyopovs i7TL(f)dovov, ro TrepitSetv 8e 'louSat'ou? ft? TrdAe/xoi' eKpiTti344 oSivTas oyhk"^ avTo) XvcnreXe? Kare^aivero. TrpoaKaX^adpievo? he els rov ^varoi' to ttXtjOos Kal
TTapaurrjadiievos
VLKr]v
€771

ev

TrepiOTrrw

rrjv

dheX(f)r]v

rrjs

'Aaa/xcovatcov

otxrtas",

avrr]

Bepyap -qv

rod ^votov Trpos to nepav rrfs d-voj TToXems Kal yecfivpa toj ^vgto) to lepov avvrJTTTev, 'AyptV770? eXe^ev roidhe. " Et piev ecopcuv Trdvras t'/xd? 7ToXep.elv 345 (4) *PcxjpLaLOLg Kal pirj rov hrjiiov ro djpfjLr]pievovg Kadapajrarov Kal elXiKpiveGrarov elprjvrjv dyeiv TTpOTjprjfjLevovs, ovr^ dv TTaprjXdov els vp.ds ovre
errdvaj

GvpL^ovXeveLv eddpp-qaa- Trepiaods yap VTrep rod rd heovra TTOielv Trds Xoyos, drav fj rojv aKovovrajv
346 Trdvrojv
Trpos

ro x^^P^^

opLOVOia.

eirel

he

rivds

fiev -qXiKia rcov ev TToXepLco

KaKCJV aTrelparos, rtvds

he

eX-rrls
^

dXoyLoros eXevdeplas, eviovs he TrXeove^ia

dTTOKuXuei

PAM.
irpos

2

Q
ttjs

.

0^-;,-^

t^g rest.
is

"

The meaning of

to

irepav

duu TroXewy

un-

certain ; Reinach renders " et sa facade regardait les terrains qui font vis-a-vis a la ville haute." The Xystus, perhaps the gymnasium originally built by Jason {2 Niacc. iv. 9), was a place of exercise, apparently mainly open to the air, with " polished " flag-stones from which it took its name. Its exact position is uncertain : it seems to have lain on the lower slopes of the western hill (the upper city) above the Tyropoeon valley, which separated the west and the east hills, or (G. A. Smith) in the valley itself. The palace of the Hasmonaeans was to the west of it, higher up the western hill ; in this palace Agrippa I had
*•

jj^

456


JEWISH WAR,
II.

342-346
hostilities,

regarded as having commenced

unless

prompt measures were taken to denounce the real aggressor. It was clear that they did not intend to submit quietly to any opposition to the proposed embassy. Agrippa saw how odious would be the task of electing a body to accuse Florus, but reaHzed
even to himself, of letting the flames in Jewish breasts break out into war. He, accordingly, summoned the people to the Xystus and placed his sister Bernice in a commanding position on the roof of the palace of the Hasmonaeans, which stood above the Xystus on the opposite side of the upper town the Xystus was connected with the Temple by a bridge.'' Agrippa then delivered the following speech ^ " Had I found you all bent on war with the Speech of (4) Romans, instead of seeing that the most honest and difsiSd^e t
also the danger,

now smouldering

'^

;

:

single-minded members of the community are deter- Jews [iiined to preserve the peace, I should not have presented myself before you, nor ventured to offer idvice for any speech in support of the right policy s thrown away when the audience unanimously 'avours the worse. But seeing that the stimulus to vvar is for some of you mere youthfulness which lacks experience of its horrors, for others an unreflecting lope of regaining independence, for yet others
;

from

constructed an apartment which commanded a view of the nterior of the Temple {A. xx. 189 f.). ^ On the accuracy of the information given in the following >peech, and apparently derived from some official source, nonographs have been written by Friedlander, De fonte quo losephus, B.J. ii. 16. 4, ustis sit (Konigsberg, 1873), and Joinaszewski, "Die Dislokation des romischen Heeres im fahre 66 n. Chr." {Rheinisches Museum, 1892, pp. 207-218). owe these references to Drs. Th. Reinach and E. Schiirer.

VOL.

II

Q 2

457

JOSEPHUS
Tts"

7Tapo^vv€L Kal TO TTapoL Toju dadei>€(jr€pojv , iau

ra TTpdyfiara
0(jj(j>poviGdevT€S

avyxvdfj,

KepSos,

ottcos
firj

avrol t€
rrjs
,

fJLera^dXajvrai

Kal

ivicov
ojrjdrjv

KaKopouXias
Setv
347

ol

dyadol

TrapaTToXavGOjaiv
vp.ds

inl TO avro Trdvras
ovyL<j)ep€iv
77p6s"
.

ovvayayojv elnelv
8e
jjlol

a

vofJiCi^oj
fjLrj

dopv^rjarj

fJLrjSeiS,

idu

TO,
i^TL

TjSovqv aKOvrj- TOtS" p-^v

yap

dvrj-

K€orojs

7rjv

aTTOGraaiv
rrapaiveGLV

(Lpp^-qpiivois

€V€ori Kal

p,€rd r-qv

€p.r)v

ravrd

(^povelv, ip,ol 8e

StaTTtWet Kal Trpo? rovs dKoveiv ideXovras 6 Xoyo?,
348 idv
fjLrj

Trapd

Trdvrojv

rjavxta

yevrjraL.

ol6a pkv

ovv

on
TTJs

TToXXol Tas €K rcov ImrpoTTOJV

v^pea Kal
iyoj

rd
he

iXevdeplas
i^crd^cLv
TTpcorov
el p.ev

eyKojpua
rives

rpaytphovoiv,
riaiv

TTplv

ovres
rrjv

eTTix^ipeZre

TToXefieZv,

SLat,ev^a)

ovp.7rXoKrjV

tcDv

349

77 poi^daeajv.

yap dp^vveode rovs dhiKOVvrag,
el

ri

oepLvvvere rrjV

eXevOepiav ;

he to

hovXeveLV
rj

d(f)6prjT0v -qyelode, Tre ptaar) Trpos
pep,ipLS-

rovs -qyepiovas

Kal

yap

eKeivnov

p^erpLa^ovrojv

alo^pdv

350 opioiujs TO hovXeveiv.

OKonelTe he Kal Kad* eKa7roXep,elv
rj

OTov Tovrcov

cog

ecmv puKpd rod
rd
ovk

vtto-

deoLg, Kal TTpcord ye

r<Zv eTTtTpoTTojv eyKXr]p,ara.

Beparreveiv ydp,
351

epeOit^eLV

XPV
KaO^

''"^^

e^ovoias'

OTay Se tcjv puKpujv dpLaprrj p,dr ojv rovg e^ovetSta/xoi)?
4.58

TTOirjade

fieydXovg,

eavTojv

rovg

JEWISH WAR,
perliaps avarice

II.

Si6-C>51

and the prospect of enriching them-

selves at the expense of the weak in the event of a general convulsion, I, in order to bring these mis-

guided persons to reason and a better frame of mind, and to prevent virtuous citizens from reaping the consequences of the errors of a few, have thought it my duty to call you all together and to tell you what I conceive to be to your interest. If my remarks are not to the liking of any of my audience, pray let him not create a disturbance. For those who have irrevocably determined to rebel will still be at liberty, after my exhortation, to retain their sentiments but my words will be lost even upon those who are anxious to hear them, unless you all give me a quiet
;

hearing,
" Now, I know that there are many who wax eloquent on the insolence of the procurators and pronounce pompous panegyrics on liberty but, for my part, before examining who you are and who are this people whom you are undertaking to fight, I would first consider apart two distinct pretexts for hostilities which have been confused. For, if your abject is to have your revenge for injustice, what good is it to extol liberty ? If, on the other hand, it is servitude which you find intolerable, to complain af your rulers is superfluous were they the most ;onsiderate of men, servitude would be equally
; ;

Your
warfare mixed.

disgraceful.

"Consider then these arguments apart and how (i) Your weak, on either ground, are your reasons for going to agaS^"' war and first the charges against the procurators, individua The powers that be should be conciliated by flattery, curators^ lot irritated when you indulge in exaggerated JJ,^^"!^\Yj^^' •eproaches for minor errors, you only injure your- Rome.
; ;

459

JOSEPHUS
oueibilofxei'ovg aTreAey^^ere, /cat TzapeVre? to

Xddpa

Kal fjLer^ atSou? vfid? ^XaTrretv TtopOovai (f)av€pa)g. ovd€v 8e ovTOjg TQ? TiAryya? tus" to ^epetv' dvaaTe'AAei, /cat to tcuv ddLKOvfJLevcou rjovxi-ov rot's 352 dSt/couCTt yiverai hiarpoTrr]. etVat tou? S' (f)€pe
PojfjLaLow
PojfjLaLoi

VTTTjperag

dv-qKearuj?

)(aX€7T0V?'

ovttco

TTavre?
rtg

dSt/coucrtv

vfidg

Trpo?

ovg

atpeode^

rou

TToXejiov
cxtt'

ovSe ouSe

IvroXrjs

7Jk€l

TTOvrjpog

^Keivcov,

Kataap, ydp i^ ovhi ye

Tovs V7t6 TTjv dvaroX-qv ol d<f)* iairepas €Trt/3Ae7TOVOLV dAA' oi38' dKoveiw rax^ojs rd evrevdev eKel 353 pdhiov. droTTOv he kol hi eva TToXXolg Kal 8td fiLKpdg alrlag rrjXiKOVTOLS Kal /XTySe yivujOKOVGLV 354 d pLefKhopieOa TToXepielv. Kal tCjv fiev rjfi€Tepa)V iyKXrjfidrojv raxela yevoir* dv [t]]* hLopdcoais' ovre ydp 6 avro? iTTtrpoTTOS fxeveV hid Travrog, Kal TOVS htahe^ofievous etVo? eXevoeadai fierpiajrepovs' KLvqdevra 8' drra^ rov TToXejiov ovr^ dTrodeodai 355 pdhiov hL)(a GVii4)opa>v ovre ^aard^eiv dXXd firjv TO ye vvv eXevBepias eTTidupLelu dcopov, heov vrrep
.

rod
rj

firjhe

dTTO^aXelv avrrjv dyajviL^euOai Trporepov.
rrjs

ydp

TTeipa

hovXeias \aXe7T-q, Kal
d<f)iGTdfjievos,

rrepl
S'

tov

356

jJirjh^

dp^aodai Tavrrjs d dydjv hiKaios' 6
erreira

drra^

X^i-pojdeis,

iariv,
Trdvd^

ov
VTikp

(f)iXeXev6epog.

TOV

fir]

avddh-qs hovXos t6t€ roiyapovv exP'^^ he^aodai 'PcofJiaiovs Troieiv
YlofiTrrjios.

357 ore* eTre^aivev ttjs ;)(ojpa?
Tjixerepoi^
^

dAA' oi
avTuJv,

p.ev

npoyovoi

Kal
B.

ol
ii.

^aoiXels
:

kqi

2

Cobet (cf. cm. PAL.

e.g. '

638)

alpuade mss.
» *

MfVei

PAL.

*

+TT]v dpx"^"
"

MVRC.
**

vfx^repoi

AL

Lat.

Or

turns the wrongdoer aside.

460

;

JEWISH WAR,
selves
;

II.

351-357

by your denunciation of those whom you incriminate instead of maltreating you, as before, in secret and with a sense of shame, they will now despoil you openl}^ There is nothing to check blows like submission, and the resignation of the wronged victim puts the wrongdoer to confusion." Granted that the Roman ministers are intolerably harsh, it does not follow that all the Romans are unjust to you any more than Caesar yet it is against them, against him, that you are going to war. It is not by their orders that an oppressive governor comes from them to us, and they cannot see in the west their officers in the east it is not easy even promptly to hear yonder the news from these parts. How absurd it were, because of one man to make war on a whole people, for trifling grievances to take arms against so mighty a power, which does not even know the nature of our complaints The wrongs which we lay to their charge may be speedily rectified for the same procurator will not remain for ever, and it is probable that the successors of this one will show greater moderation on taking office. But war once set on foot cannot be lightly either broken off or carried through without risk of disaster. " Passing to your present passion for liberty, I say oi) Your that it comes too late. The time is past when you Pf(fe'°°(5 ought to have striven never to lose it. For servitude ence is ^^^^*^^*^' is a painful experience and a struggle to avoid it once for all is just but the man who having once accepted the yoke then tries to cast it off is a contumacious slave, not a lover of liberty. There was, to be sure, a time when you should have strained every nerve to keep out the Romans that was when Pompey invaded this country. But our forefathers and their
; ;
!

;

;

461

;

JOSEPHUS
y^pr]iiaoLV

koX oojyiaoLV kol ilsv\als a^eivov
tt^s"

VfJLcjv

TToXXo)

hiaKelyievoL, Trpo? [jLolpav oXcyrju

*Pa>/xei'

fiaiojv Suvdfieoj?

ovk avrioxov

Vfjcels
,

8c ol to

V7TaKov€LV €K hiaboxTJ? 7Tap€LXrj(f)6r€S rolg rrpdyixaaiv be rcvv Trpojrojv VTraKovaavrcov Toaovrov
358 -qyeiioviav ;
'EAATyyojP'
rrjv

iXarrovficvoL, Trpog 6Xr]v avdioraoOe r-qv 'Pajfialcov koI ^AOr^vatoi fia ol rrepl rfjg TUiv
ttoXlv,

iXevdepia? Trapahovres TTore Kal irvpl ol tov V'nepr](j)avov 'E.ep^rjv 8ia yif^s" TrXe-voavra kol 8ta daXdaor)? oheijaavTa Kal pLj) Xojpovfievov fiev rols TreXdyeoLV, TrXarvrepav 8e rijs EupcuTTT^? rr]V cnpaTidv dyovra, ola hpaTrirrjv hiw^avrc^, Trepl 8e ri] afiLKpa €77L fiids veojs SaAa/xtvt TT^y rooavrrjv 'ActiW /cAaaavre? vvv SovXevovGLV 'Poj/Ltaiot?, Kal rrjv -qyeixovtSa rrjs 'EAAaSos" TToXiv 8toiK-et ra oltto rfjs 'iTaAia? irpooAa/ceSat/xdrtot 8e fierd Bep/uoTruAa? 359 ray/xara. M:ai nAaratas" kol top ipevvrjoavra T-qv ^Aolav 360 WyqatXaov dya7ra)GLV rovs auTous" heoTToras, Kal MaK:e8dve? eVt (fyavra^ojJLevoi ^lXlttttov Kal rrjv ovv 'AAe^av8pa> TrapaGTreipovoav^ axnols rrjV rrjg
olKoviievTjs rjyejjiOVLav opcovreg, ^epovoiv rr]v
rrjv fieTa^oXrju

rooav-

3G1

TTpoGKVvovow.
I'/xet?
^

Kal Trpos ov? fjcera^e^-qKev r) TV)(r) dXXa re edvr] /xupta TrXelouos ye(jlovol

[lovra Trpd? iXevdeplav Trapprjola? €lk€l.

8*

dho^elre hovXevecv ols vnoreraKrai rd rrdvra;
conjecture
TrapaaTralpoiaav
is

Dindorfs

the noun

Tvxni>
it is

inserted, as
°

must be understood, but need by Destinon.

unnecessary not be

Alluding to the canal of Athos and the bridge across the

Hellespont.
*

His campaigns

in

Asia against Tissaphernes and Phar-

462

JEWISH WAR,

II.

357-361

kings, though in wealth and in vigour of body and soul far your superiors, yet failed to withstand a small fraction of the Roman army and will you, to whom thraldom is hereditary, you who in resources fall so far short of those who first tendered their submission, will you, I say, defy the whole Roman
;

empire
"

?

at the Athenians, the men who, to maintain Many gn the liberty of Greece, once consigned their city to submltte the men before whose pursuit the Rome: the flames haughty Xerxes, who navigated the land and trod ^^^ ^^^^ the sea," Xerxes for whom the deep was too narrow and whose army overflowed Europe, fled like a fugitive slave on a single galley the men who, off the coast of little Salamis, broke the immense might of Asia. Those men today are the servants of the Romans and the city that was queen of Greece is governed by orders from Italy. Look at the Lace- (?) SpaH daemonians after Thermopylae and Plataea, after Agesilaus the explorer of Asia,* they are content to serve the same masters. Look at the Macedonians, (c)Mace( who still cherish Philip in their imagination, still have before their eyes the vision of her who with Alexander scattered broadcast for them the seeds of the empire of the world yet they submit to endure such a reversal of fate and bow before those to whom Fortune has transferred her favours. Myriads of other nations, swelling with greater pride in the assertion of their liberty, have yielded. And will you alone disdain to serve those to whom the universe is subject ?

Look

;

;

:

'^

;

nabazus at home.
*

in

396-394

b.c.

were cut short by his

recall to

war

The goddess Fortune.

463

JOSEPHUS
TTOia

orrpaTia,

ttolol?

7T€rroL66r€^

ottAoi?;

ttov

fiev 6 CTToAo? Vfilv hLaXr]ip6fi€Pog

ras 'Pojiiaioju dai^apK€G0VT€<i

Xauuas;
362 drjGavpoi;

nov

8'

ol

rats"

cVtjSoAat?

irpos \lyv7Triovs 6.pa Kal rrpos "Apa/Sa?

oteode

Kivelv

tov iroXeyiOV
;

;

ov TrepLOKeipeoOe
rrjv

ttju

'Pojfiaiojv

-qyefjiouLav
;

ov fMerpiqaere
Kal
8e

iavrwv
^'^

dodevELav
idvojv
363 TTJs

ov ra

fxkv -qfjierepa^
rj
,*

twv

TTpoaoLKcov
lox^"^

rjTTTjBr]

ttoXXolkls,

€K€Lvajv

OLKOvpievqs dvLKrjTOS
.

fxdXXov be Kal ravr-qg

€^rp-rjodv ti TrXiov
Ei)(/>paTi7?

ov yap i^rjpK€G€V avTols opog^
duaroArjv,
17

VTTO

rrjv

ovde
Kal

rwv

npoa77po?

apKTLOJv 6 "larpos,
doLKiqTOjv

re

fjLeurjfi^pLV^

y-^XP^ "^^^

ipevvTjdelaa

Xi^vrj

FaSeipa

ionepav,
OLKOVfJL€vr)v

dAA'

VTrep

ojKeavov
Tojv

irepav
ovv

il,rjTr]Gav

Kal pL^xpL

dvLGTop-qrajv rrporepov
rl
;

36i Bperravdjv btrjveyKav

ra orrXa.
ttAciolis"
;

vp.els

TtXovGiujrepoL
'EAAt^vcov

YaXarojv,
Trdvrwv
eVatpei
;

LGX^porepoi
ra)V
rl

VepjjLavwv,

GVverwrepoL,
eark

Kara

rrjv

OLKOvpLevqv
365

ro Trertoidos

vfids

Kara

'Poj/i,ataji^

;)(aAe776v

ro hovXeveiu,
roGavrrjv

ipel Ti?.
TTavrojv
fiofievoL

TTOGco fjLdXXov "KXXrjGLV, ol rojv u^' rjXia)

rrpovxovres

evyeveta"
'Vojiiaicov

Kal

ve-

\ojpav e|

V77€lkovglv pa^Sot?,
ol biKaiorepov rl
:

TOGavraL? be Kal MaKeSop'e?
366 6<f)elXovTes
'

vpLcov
6'

eXevdeplas

dvrLTTOLelGdaL.
*

at

vfi^repa

MLC

'

Trpoi'XoiTes
Trf)Ovx(i-v

A

:

Niese, Destinon oXos mss. Lat. (vyiuda P Trpovxa-f fCyefeia coKOvuTe^ Kai fibres evyfptia (or €17. 7rpoi/X-) SoKoOvrex the rest.
:

»

The Danube.

'

Greek "Gadeira"; Cadiz.

464

.

JEWISH WAR,
"

II.

361-366
is

the armour, on Contrast the ?°smirces Roman seas ? the ^ '^;'i^^^f cost of your campaigns ? Do you really suppose that Roman you are going to war with Egyptians or Arabs ? Will ^™P'^^you shut your eyes to the might of the Roman empire and refuse to take the measure of your own weakness ? Have not our forces been constantly defeated even by the neighbouring nations, while theirs have never met with a reverse throughout the whole known world ? Nay, even that world has not sufficed for their ambition. For, not content with having for their frontiers on the east the Euphrates, on the north the Ister," on the south Libya explored into desert regions, on the west Gades,^ they have sought a new world beyond the ocean and carried their arms as far as the Britons, previously unknown to history. I ask you, then, are you wealthier than the Gauls, stronger than the Germans, more intelligent than the Greeks, more numerous than all the peoples of the world ? What is it which inspires you with confidence to defy the Romans ?
are the troops,
?

What

what

which you rely

Where is your fleet to sweep Where is your treasury to meet

much harder

hard to serve,' you will tell me. How for Greeks who, though noblest of all races under the sun and occupants of so vast a territory, are yet subservient to six rods or a Roman magistrate ^ A like number suffices to curb the Macedonians,^ who with better right than you might claim their liberty. And then the five hundred cities
"
'

It

is

other
besides
^J^^'^®

have bowi

^°™^'

!

Tiberius,

Achaea, since 27 b.c. (except under was an imperial province, and for a short period under Nero, when Greece was proclaimed free) was a senatorial province governed by a proconsul of praetorian rank, who was attended by six lictors. Another senatorial province.
'

The

lictor's fasces.

when

it

'^

465

;

JOSEPHUS
TTevTaKOGLai rrj? 'Aai'a? ttoAci?
;

era

TrpoGKVVovaiv
;

r)y€fi6i'a

Kal

ov blxa (f>povpd<; rag VTranKa?

'HvLoxovg re Kal KoXxovg BooTTopavovg re Kal ra TTepioLKa rod Tlovrov Kal rfjg MatojrtSo? edui]

pdpSovs
Kal ro

ri

xp'rj

Aeyett'

Twv Tavpojv
rrplv
vvi^

<f>vXov,

367 Trap'

of?

p,kv

oi)8'

oiKelog

iyiyvcooKero
vrroraoTrplv

heaTTorrjs,

8e

rpiGX^-Xioig
vrj€?

orrXiraig

oerai,

Kal

reooapaKOvra

jiaKpal rr^v

308 arrXojrov Kal aypiav elp-qvevovGL

OdXaoaav
eXevdepta?
;

.

TToaa

Bidwla

Kal KaTTTTahoKLa Kal r