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ONGC-Mehsana Asset

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION TO THE MEHSANA FIELD

1.1 BRIEF DISCRIPTION ABOUT MEHSANA ASSET

Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. is one of the leading public sector
enterprises in the country with substantial contribution to the energy demand in
particular and industrial and economic growth in general. Born as a modest
corporate house in 1956 as commission, ONGC has grown today into a full-
fledged integrated upstream petroleum company with in-house service
capabilities and infrastructure in the entire range of oil and gas exploration and
production activities.

For practical implementation of the programmes, ONGC has


created a number of working units called projects (now asset) and execute its
various operational programmes spread throughout the length and breadth of the
country. MEHSANA project is one of such asset of the onshore area. Mehsana
project is covering an area of about 6000 sq kms. From the northern part of
Cambay basin between latitude23.23 and 23.45 and longitude 71.45 and
72.45east. It is situated at a distance of 72 kms of Ahmedabad city in the North
West direction.

EXPLORATION efforts around Mehsana date back to the year 1964.Though the
very first well drilled on Mehsana horst did not give encouraging results,
subsequent well Mehsana 2 in allora structure gave a lead for further
exploration.

Mehsana project is well known for heavy oil belt, characterised by high
viscosity crude .Due to viscous nature of crude resulting in the adverse mobility
ratio and low API gravity, the primary oil recovery factor is in the range of 6.5
to 15.8 %.The technique of IN-SITU combustion an enhanced oil recovery
process for this heavy oil field was successfully implemented at Mehsana
project on pilot basis in 1990.The success of process at the pilot project further
led to the commercialization scheme that are currently under various stage of
implementation at the Mehsana project. Under commercialization scheme a
major project named BALOL MAIN IN-SITU COMBUSTION PLANT has
been implemented to exploit the heavy crude oil of Balol oil fields. The
BALOL MAIN ICP has been commissioned on 15-01-99.

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The major oil fields under the MEHSANA ASSET are north kadi, Sobhasan,
Balol, Santhal, Jotana, Nandasan, Lanwa, Becharaji, Linch and others small
fields.

1.2- BRIEF ABOUT BALOL HEAVY OIL FIELD:

Balol oil field is the central part of this heavy oil belt with santhal field on the
southern and Lanwa on the northern side. There are two different pay sections in
this field namely Balol pay and kalol pay. The kalol pay is the main oil bearing
horizon extended through out the field. Main features of field are as follows.

Main pay sand is medium to coarse grained, clean well settled and
unconsolidated to semi consolidated in nature. It has an average
porosity of 28% and permeability of 5000 to 15000 md and has an
edge water drive.

The crude oil produced from this field has asphaltene base has an
average viscosity of 150 cp at reservoir condition in southern part.
The viscosity increases gradually as one move from southern part.
It has specific gravity of 0.96 (API - 16) and pour point 9 deg c.

1.3- EOR IN MEHSANA HEAVY OIL FIELDS

Four heavy oil fields:


Santhal, Balol, Lanwa & Becharaji

Total Area: About 70 Sq Km


OOIP :150 MMT approx.
API Gravity :130 180
Viscosity:50-1700 cps at reservoir condition

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CHAPTER-2

ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR)

Today when volatile oil price keeps the nations import bill ever rising, ONGC
has taken up the challenge to produce every drop of produced oil. ONGC has
employed the state-of art of EOR technique through IN-SITU combustion in
the western state of Gujarat(Mehsana).

2.1-WHAT IS EOR (ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY):

The variety of methods and techniques, which permit the recovery of higher
percentage of original oil in place than, would have been possible using only
primary recovery methods. The EOR terms replaces the old and confusing
terminology of secondary and tertiary recovery.

2.2- E.O.R. TECHNIQUES:

EOR processes are subdivided into following major categories-


1-THERMAL PROCESSES-
-Steam stimulation
-Steam flooding (including hot water injection)
-IN-SITU combustion
2-CHEMICAL PROCESS
-Surfactant injection
-Polymer flooding
-Caustic flooding
3-MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT PROCESSES
-Miscible hydrocarbon displacement
-CO2 injection
-Inert gas injection
4-MICROBIAL ENHANCED RECOVERY-

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CHAPTER3

IN-SITU COMBUSTION PROCESS:

CONCEPT: IN-SITU COMBUSTION IS A THERMAL METHOD OF


ENHANCED OIL RECOVSRY. THE THERMAL METHODS ARE BASED
ON THE PRINCIPLE OF IMPROVING OIL MOBILITY BY REDUCTION
OF THE VISCOSITY OF THE OIL BY ITS HEATING WITHIN THE
RESERVOIR. THIS HEATING OF THE OIL, ASSOCIATED WITH THE
CONTINUOUS INJECTION OF AIR AND WATER, PROVIDES GREATER
SWEEP EFFICIENCY, IMPROVED DISPLACEMENT EFFICIENCY BY
WAY OF CRUDE EXPANSION, STEAM DISTILLATION AND SOLVENT
EXTRACTION.

It is the process of generation of heat inside the reservoir by burning a part of


the reservoir oil. For generation of heat we apply two types of ignition process.

One is the spontaneous ignition, where the air is simply injected in a centrally
located well. This is called the inverted five spot patterns where the wells are
drilled in a geometric fashion having an equal distance of 320 meters. Such
thermal recovery is only suitable where the API gravity is less than 15 degree
and viscosity is very high. As we injected air in reservoir an oxidation process
starts which is by nature an exothermic reaction. This heating effect changes the
oil flow characteristics. Its mobility and sweep efficiency is increased and it
tries to move towards the production wells.

In artificial ignition, the ignition accessories are lowered along with a burner
and thermocouple wire into the sand face or the perforation face. Through wire
line some pyropheric chemicals near the well bore is lowered. As soon as fire is
initiated the thermocouple detects the temperature and convey to the ignition
trailer where monitoring is being done. Initially air is injected through annulus
and natural gas through the tubing. A combustible mixture is generated near the
sand face by changing the air / gas ratio through the ignition trailer. The
pyropheric compound catches fire in presence of air inside the burner, which is
the lowest part of the burner. After the trailer is disconnected air injection
through compressor plant is continued to propagate the heat away from the
ignition well and close to the production well. Initially rate of injection is
minimum, this rate increases at regular intervals and injection rate approaches
the peak rate in about 3 - 4 months. This phase of only air injection is called
DRY PHASE of IN-SITU. After this by the help of Work over Rig burner and

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ignition accessories are retrieved and well is made ready of injection of air and
water on cyclic way through tubing only. This process of injection of air and
water into wells in cyclic pattern of six-day air and one day water in a week is
called WET PHASE. Water injection is helpful to carry the heat away from the
well. Moreover the steam generated in the heat zone also helps to push the oil
towards the production well.

3.1- WHY IN-SITU COMBUSTION?

High mobility contrast between oil and water has resulted into low
primary recovery
More water production on application of Artificial Lift
Some wells had to be closed due to very high W/C
Sharp decline in oil production from Balol & Santhal .

3.2-FUNDAMENTAL PROCESS OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION:

FORWARD COMBUSTION- In it reservoir is ignited in the vicinity of air


injection well and combustion front propagates away from the well bore
.Continued injection of air drives combustion zone through reservoir to nearby
production wells.

REVERSE COMBUSTION- It is started in same manner as forward


combustion:-In this the reservoir is ignited in the vicinity of air injection
combustion, but after igniting fire, air injection is switched to adjacent wells.
This drives the oil towards initially ignited well, while the combustion front
travels in opposite direction. (No successful fields have been completed for
reverse combustion).
In-situ combustion is one of the most efficient methods for enhanced recovery
of heavy oil. However, it is very complicated from production monitoring point
of view.

3.3-LIMITATIONS

1- Main factor responsible for success of In-situ combustion is amount of


coke formed after burning of oil. If sufficient Coke is not available, the
combustion front cannot be sustained.

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2- If excessive coke is deposited, the rate of advance of combustion zone will be


slow, and the quantity of air required for sustaining combustion would be high.

3- Oil saturation and porosity must be high to minimize heat loss

4- Process tends to sweep through upper part of reservoir so that sweep


efficiency is poor in thick formation.

3.4-PRECAUTIONS:

1- Injection well casing and completion should be checked for its suitability,
any leakage, presence of sand, perforation, restriction etc.

2- Pressure gauges and thermometers and all the valves must be checked.

3- Production rates and gas composition from production wells mustbe checked
before starting of In-situ combustion.

4- All other surface facilities and units must be engineered, designed and
checked in accordance with normal laid down procedures.

The data generated in conjunction with the operation monitoring


parameters for injectors and producers for Balol Field are as follows-

3.5- PRODUCERS-

BURNING FRONT: The oil ahead of burning front is carbonised to produce


petroleum coke like deposit on the sand grain. This deposit constitutes the
principal fuel for the process. The burning front leaves behind hot, clean sand
that is used effectively to heat the injected air before the gas reaches the burning
zone. The maximum temperatures of 600 to 1500 degree Celsius have been
observed at the burning front in normal INSITU combustion process.

THERMAL CRACKING: Ahead the burning front the temperature is high


enough to vaporise lighter hydrocarbon and interstitial water which moves away
and condense in cooler part of the reservoir. At such a high temperature
cracking of heavy hydrocarbon left on the sand leads to the formation of
petroleum coke and hydrocarbon gases.

CONDENSING STEAM DRIVE: Steam is one of the products of combustion


reaction. Steam is also formed by the vaporization of interstitial water ahead of

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burning front at high temperature. The large amount of latent heat of steam
reduces the viscosity of oil greatly and mobility increases which in turn
enhances oil displacement.

MISCIBLE DRIVE: The hydrocarbons gases formed during normal distillation


or thermal cracking, condense ahead and mix with the oil, make the oil more
mobile and improve oil displacement.

GAS DRIVE: The combustion gases transfer heat to the oil. CO 2 partially
dissolve in the oil and reduces the viscosity of the oil further. The oil bank
ahead of steam zone is displayed physically by combustion gases.

THERMAL DRIVE: Thermal energy transfers to the formation above and


below and hence improvement in oil recovery of other layer is possible.

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CHAPTER-4

DESCRITION OF FACILITIES AT BALOL MAIN

Surface facilities for IN-SITU combustion can be broadly classified as follows


(as shown in fig.3)

Raw Water System


Air Compressor system
Air injection system
Instrument air system
Cooling water system
Water injection system

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4.1 RAW WATER SYSTEM

Treated effluent water from Lanwa oil fields is used as make up water for
cooling tower.

Two numbers of tanks 20-T-001 A and 20-T-001 B (one in service and other
standby for receiving effluent) of 2520 M3 capacity, each are installed for
holding treated effluent. Other than inlet for treated effluent tank also has
provision for bore well water. Float type level indicators are provided for
reading the levels in the tanks. Three nos of effluent water pumps (2 working
and 1 standby) are provided for transferring the effluent water from the holding
tanks to cooling tower basin.

The pumps are of Kirloskar make, horizontal, centrifugal type with discharge
line connected to a common header. A minimum flow recirculation line is
provided from each pump discharge through reduction orifice and connected to
holding tanks through common header. All these motors having running lamp
indication at control room panel in CWTP building.

4.2 AIR COMPRESSION SYSTEM:

Compressed air is required for air injection to wells at a pressure of 90-115


kg/cm2. 5 compressor train 20-k-002 a/b/c/d/e (3 trains operating and 2 trains on
standby). Each train consisting of one packaged integrally LP air compressor of
8100 m3/hr with discharge pressure of 8.701 kg/cm2, an intermediate buffer
vessel and one reciprocating air compressor of 8050 m3/hr with discharge
pressure of 122 kg/cm2 are provided.

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A closed circuit water cooling system is provided for the cooling requirements.
The LP air compressor aftercoolers and HP air compressor intercoolers and
aftercoolers are of air cooled and hence do not require any cooling water.

The closed circuit (secondary cooling water) cooling water system utilises
potable water for make up supplied by 2 inch line. This secondary cooling water
system comprises of the following.

- Potable water make-up tank for make up requirement.


- Secondary cooling water circulation pumps.
- Chemical dosing requirement to maintain the following level of
chemicals.
Sodium nitrate - 0.2 to 0.5 ppm
Borax - 0.2 to 0.5 ppm
- Two numbers of plate type heat exchanger containing titanium
plates for heat transfer with primary cooling water system.

Primary cooling water to plate exchangers is supplied at 34 deg c and returned


with 12 deg c temp. rise. The total requirement of cooling water is around 1260
m3/hr.
All instrumentation, control scheme and trip logic is provided for safe and
efficient operation of both LP and HP compressors together as a train. However
an interconnection between the intermediate buffer vessel to suction line of HP
compressor is provided by common interconnecting header line so that in case
one LP compressor is down its HP compressor will be able to take suction from
any one of the LP compressor and vice versa.

All compressors are provided with running lamp indication in control room. All
instrumentation and control logics of compressors are incorporated in local
panel.
The discharge lines of all the HP compressor are connected to HP surge vessel
through a 8 inch line. The surge vessel is of 30 m3 capacity and serves
important function in dampening pulsation from discharge line resulting in
essentially steady pressure in the system. It is also serves as a reservoir stock to
take care of sudden or unusually heavy demands in excess of the compressor
capacity and prevents too frequent loading and unloading of the compressors.

The surge vessel is provided with local level gauge glass for reading the water
level build up in the vessel. Also a level switch and level alarm high in the
control panel is provided. An air trap with automatic drain arrangement is
provided for periodic removal of moisture in the vessel.

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In case of emergency during power failures one additional diesel engine driven
emergency air compressor is provided. The emergency air compressor is rated
for 833.33 m3/ hr at 122 kg/cm2 discharge pressure. This compressor will
supply air during power failure to the well at a time at 10000 nm3/day.

4.3 AIR INJECTION SYSTEM:

Air is to be injected at the rate of 10000 to 85000 nm3/day per well at a pressure
of 90 to 120 kg/cm2. BALOL MAIN has earmarked 70 wells for injection of air.
However injection will take place presently in a maximum of 25 wells at any
given time.

Air injection is done in locations namely:


Main distribution centre
Distribution centre - 1
Distribution centre - 2

4.3.1 Main distribution centre air injection system:

Twenty four wells are located within the range of main distribution centre.
Compressed air from HP surge vessel is routed through an 8 inch header. From
this header compressed air to individual wells (24 nos) is supplied through
injection air manifold of 3 inch line size. The main header is provided with local
pressure and temperature gauges.
Pressure switches high and low with pressure alarm high and low are also
provided in the panel for compressed air high pressure and low pressure alarm.

Compressed airs to individual wells are supplied through injection air manifold
of 3 inch line size. Each manifold is provided with a flow transmitter with flow
indicator and controller. Air flows to individual wells are controlled by means of
control valves. Pressure gauges are provides on the down stream of flow control
valves to monitor the down stream pressure.

Six nos of 4 pen recorders are provided for recording of air flow to each wells.

4.3.2 Distribution centre -1:

There are 23 wells located near distribution centre 1. This distribution centre is
around 5 km from the main centre. An 8 inch line from the main injection centre
is routed to this distribution centre. This serves as the header from which
compressed air to individual wells is supplied through 3 inch injection air
manifold. Pressure gauge is provided to read the header pressure.

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ONGC-Mehsana Asset

Each manifold is provided with flow control valve flow transmitter (pneumatic
type) with flow recorders and flow indicators and controllers for indication in
local panel and control of valves. Pressure gauges are provided for local
pressure indicator at down stream of each manifold.
All instruments are pneumatically actuated.

Six nos of 4 pen recorders are provided for recording of air flow to
each well.

4.3.3 Distribution centre -2:

There are 23 wells located near distribution centre 2. This distribution centre is
around 5 km from the main centre. An 8 inch line from the main injection centre
is routed to this distribution centre. This serves as the header from which
compressed air to individual wells is supplied through 3 inch injection air
manifold. Pressure gauge is provided to read the header pressure.

Each manifold is provided with flow control valve flow transmitter (pneumatic
type) with flow recorders and flow indicators and controllers for indication in
local panel and control of valves.
Pressure gauges are provided for local pressure indicator at down stream of each
manifold. All instruments are pneumatically actuated.

Six nos of 4 pen recorders are provided for recording of air flow to each well.

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4.4 INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEM:

Instrument air at 7.5 kg/cm2 is required for instruments, both at main centre and
distribution centre1&2.

The instrument air dryer system of 150 nm3/ hr capacity is provided at the main
centre to supply instrument air to instruments control valves and compressors.
The system includes an air filtration package and air dryer. The air dryer is of
adsorption type using activated alumina as desiccant. Water molecules in
compressed air are removed by the means of adsorption. Activated alumina has
high adsorptive capacity and when compressed air flows through it water
vapour is abstracted by bed. For continual service two adsorber beds are used
with auto change over to facilitate the drying regenerative cycle.

A 2 inch tapping from plant air header line from HP surge vessel is routed to
instrument air system through a pressure control valve for reducing the pressure
from 122 kg/cm2 to 7.5 kg/cm2.

Also a 2 inch tapping intermediate buffer vessel is connected to the instrument


air system through a pressure control valve. This provision is given so that plant
air can be directly taken from LP compressor discharge at a low pressure itself.

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The outlet of instrument air dryer is routed as instrument air header with local
pressure gauge and pressure transmitter for panel indication and low pressure
switch with low pressure indicator in the panel.

Two more tappings of 2 inch line size from the main instrument air header is
tapped for the instrument air supply to main air compressor package and
emergency air compressor.

For instrument air at the two distribution centre tappings from the plant air
header at high pressure is provided. At distribution centre1&2, pressure
reducing valve and, adsorption type instrument air dryer of 100 m3/hr capacity
with a compressed air filter is provided. A 2 inch line tapped from the plant air
header supplies air to instrument air dryer at reduced pressure through a
pressure control valve.

The outlet air line from the instrument air dryer serves as the header from which
tappings are taken for individual instruments and the panel. Pressure indicator
is provided on the header to indicate the instrument air header pressure.

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4.5 COOLING WATER SYSTEM:

The cooling tower is of mechanical, induced draft, cross flow type


with two cells of 700 m3/hr capacity each. The overall dimension of cooling
towers is 14.25 m long x 16.97 m width. Total capacity of cooling tower is 1400
m3/hr. each cell is equipped with a motor driven induced draft fans of 20 kW
rating. Design supply temperature is 34 deg c whereas the hot water return is at
46 deg c. the cooling tower supplies primary cooling water to plate heat
exchanger using potable water as secondary coolant to cool interstage coolers of
the packaged LP air compressor, the lube oil coolers of both LP &HP air
compressors and for jacket cooling requirements in the reciprocating air
compressors.

This primary cooling water system is a open circuit recirculating system having
a total design circulating capacity of1400 m3/hr. also there is a provision of
sump drain. The basin is open gravity type.

Flow to cooling water basin is measured by flow transmitter with flow indicator.
Flow is indicated in the local panel at CWTP building. Pressure gauge indicates
the make up water header line pressure. A level transmitter with local level
indicator is provided in the basin for indicating water level in sump. Make-up
water flow is controlled by control valve which is activated by level indicator
and controller.

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Three cooling water recirculation pumps (two operating, 1 standby) of 700


m3/hr capacity each will be provided to supply cooling water to the consumers.
The discharge line of the pumps is connected to common header of 18 inch size
line. The header line is provided with the local temp. and pressure gauges, flow
transmitter, temp. element, pressure switch low & high etc.

4.6 WATER INJECTION SYSTEM:

Water is required to be injected at a rate of 5.75 to 69 m3/day per well at a


pressure of 50 to 115 kg/cm2. The water injection system shall be designed to
cater to the requirement of 1800 m3 / day injection water.
Though water injection rate per well is around 5.75 to 69 m3/day, 7 days
equivalent of injection water requirement will be injected in one day per well.
Water injection will take place in a total of 4 wells. The plant configuration
consists of a main distribution centre and two other distribution centres through
high pressure water injection pipe lines.

The source of injection water is cooling water system. Injection water filtration
package is provided to produce water of high quality for injection to wells.

The filtration scheme consists of 3 nos of primary dual media filter followed by
3 nos secondary dual media filter and 3 nos of cartridge filter.

Coagulation chemical fecl3 solution and flocculation chemical polyelectrolyte is


prepared and dosed on line prior to filtration by 2 nos of fecl3 dosing tank, mixer
and dosing pump and 2 nos of polyelectrolyte dosing tank, mixer and dosing
pump.

The filters are designed for a cycle time of 24 hours between two backwashes.
Raw water will be used for backwashing primary dual media filter and filtered
water from primary dual media filter will be used for backwashing secondary
dual media filter.

Following treatments are required to be carried out at the main centre before
injecting the water in to the wells. Oxygen removal, scale and corrosion
inhibitor, biocide injection.

4.6.1 OXYGEN REMOVAL:

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Ammonium bisulphide / sodium sulphite at 4 - 8 ppm per ppm of dissolved


oxygen shall be injected into the injection water as a 20% solution for removal
of oxygen. Oxygen scavenger dosing pumps are provided for this purpose.
These pumps are plunger type reciprocating pumps. These pumps are draw
suction from an Oxygen scavenger dosing tank and deliver to main injection
water pumps.

4.6.2 SCALE AND CORROSION INHIBITOR:

A 10 % formulation of 20 ppm HEDP shall be injected into the injection water


to inhibit scale and corrosion behaviour of wells. For this a set of inhibitor
dosing pumps and inhibitor dosing tank is provided. The dosing is done before
the suction to the main injection pump.

4.6.3 MAIN CENTRE DISTRIBUTION:

Main injection water pumps of 25 m3/hr capacity (each) are provided to inject
the treated water into the wells. These pumps are plunger type reciprocating
pumps and are motor driven. These pumps are connected to a 6 inch header
from the filtration package, a 4 inch suction line and deliver high pressure water
through 3 inch line. Pressure safety valves are provided to bypass the discharge
fluid to suction line in case there is no take off of water or any abnormal
situation. These pressure control valves are actuated by individual pressure
transmitter along with pressure indicator and controller. A pressure transmitter
with pressure indicator and pressure switches high and low with pressure alarm
high and low is provided on the panel for cautioning injection water pressure
high and low alarms.
Two more branches of 6 inch line size is taped from the main header line. These
branch lines serve as header in distribution centre 1&2 for water injection
purpose. The main header line after branching is reduced to 4 inch line.
Injection water to individual well is supplied through 24 nos injection water
manifold of 3 inch line size. Each manifold is provided with flow transmitter
along with flow indicator and controller. Water flows to individual wells are
controlled by flow control valves. Pressure gauges are provided at the
downstream of control valves to indicate the exit pressure.

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4.6.4 DISTRIBUTION CENTRE 1:

There are 23 wells located near distribution centre 1. This distribution centre is
around 5 km from the main centre. A 6 inch line from the main injection centre
is routed to this distribution centre. This serves as the header from which water
is injected to individual wells through a 3 inch injection water manifold.
Pressure gauge is provided to read the header pressure.

Each manifold is provided with flow control valve flow transmitter (pneumatic
type) with flow recorders and flow indicators and controllers for indication in
local panel and control of valves.
Pressure gauges are provided for local pressure indicator at downstream of each
manifold.
All instruments are pneumatically actuated.

4.6.5 DISTRIBUTION CENTRE 2 :

There are 23 wells located near distribution centre 2. This distribution centre is
around 5 km from the main centre. A 6 inch line from the main injection centre
is routed to this distribution centre. This serves as the header from which water
is injected to individual wells through

a 3 inch injection water manifold. Pressure gauge is provided to read the header
pressure.

Each manifold is provided with flow control valve flow transmitter (pneumatic
type) with flow recorders and flow indicators and controllers for indication in
local panel and control of valves.
Pressure gauges are provided for local pressure indicator at down stream of each
manifold.
All instruments are pneumatically actuated.

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CHAPTER 5

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM


5.1 SYSTEM PROFILE:

Electric power at 66 KV is received at plant switchyard through 66 KV


overhead lines from GEB Sankhari substation located at about 15 Kms from the
switchyard. Voltage is stepped down to 6.6 KV by means of two H.T
transformer of 1600 KVA, 3 Phase, 66KV/6.6KV, 50 Hz for distribution within
the complex.
Electrical power received at plant switchyard at 66KV is stepped down to 6.6
KV by the means of two H.T transformers of 1600 KVA, 3 Phase, 66KV/6.6KV,
50 Hz for distribution within the complex.

Major equipment are installed at 66KV switchyard of the plant

(a) 60 KV Lightning Arrestor


(b) 60 KV/110 V P.T
(c) 66 KV, 3 Phase, 630 A Isolator

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(Double Break Centre rotating type with earthing switch)


(d) 66 KV, 200A, 3-25 KA SF6 Circuit Air Breaker
(e) 66 KV, Single phase, 1 core 25KA C.T
(100/1 Amp Burden 30 VA)
(f) 66KV/6.9KV, 1600 KVA Power Transformer
(With on load tap changer and remote OLTC panel)

5.2 DISTRIBUTION PROFILE:

Power supply at 6.6 KV is fed to five high pressure compressor each having 6.6
KV induction motor of 1025 KW, 1374 HP, 117A, 745 RPM and also to five
low pressure compressor each having 6.6KV induction motor of 1000KW, 1340
HP, 107 AMP, 2975 RPM through associated switchgears and controls.
Relaying metering and controls are provided on the panels in the switchyard
control room which in turn is located by the side of switchyard. Annunciation
system is also provided on 66kv Relay and Metering panel.
6.6KV is stepped down to 415 volts by means of 1600 KVA,3 Phase, 50 Hz,
H.T Transformer and one 500 KVA, 3 Phase, 50 Hz, transformer.

5.3 DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS OF TRANSFORMER


TRANSFORMER TR-101 TR-102 TR-O21 TR-022 TR-023
VOLT VOLT VOLT VOLT VOLT
MAKE AMP AMP AMP AMP AMP
KVA 16,000 16,000 1,600 1,600 500
PHASE 3 3 3 3 3
VOLTAGE RATIO H.V 66 K.V 66 K.V 6.6 K.V 6.6 K.V 6.6 K.V
L.V 6.6 K.V 6.6 K.V O.433 K.V 0.433 K.V 0.433 K.V
F.L CURRENT RATIO
H.V 139.6 A 139.6 A 139.69 A 139.69 A 138.69 A
L.
V 338.78 A 338.78 A 2133.40 A 213340 A 666.68 A
YEAR OF
MANUFACTURE 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996
VECTOR GROUP DYN 11 DYN 11 DYN 11 DYN 11 DYN 11
TYPE OF COOLING ON AN ON AN ON AN ON AN ON AN
OUTDOOR/ INDOOR O/DOOR O/DOOR O/DOOR O/DOOR O/DOOR
SERIAL NUMBER 3853/1 3853/2 3993/1 3993/2 3394

STAND BY/ EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY

DIESEL- GENERATING SET:


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250 KVA, 3 PHASE, 415 V AC, 50 HZ, 1 NO

ENGINE:
MAKE: CATERPILLAR HINDUSTAN POWER PLUS
MODEL: 3406 B DIT HP/KW: 306/228
RPM:1545 SERIAL NO:2 RJ 01799

ALTERNATOR:
MAKE: JYOTI
KVA: 250 VOLTS: 415
PHASE-3 RPM: 1500
P.F: 0.8 AMP: 348
SERIAL NO: 12018

CHAPTER 6

Instrumentation system

6.1 PRESSURE GAUGE:

A pressure gauge is a measurement device which determines the pressure in a


compressed gas or liquid. A very common type of pressure gauge is the
Bourdon tube, which consists of a flexible tube which moves in response to
pressure. Diaphragms which respond to suitable pressure changes can be used
as well.
GENERAL PURPOSE:

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For Industrial & Process Application. Designed for Valve Positioners, Air Filters
& Regulators, Small Boilers, Fire Extinguishers, Pharmaceutical & Food
Processing Equipments, Pumps, Compressors, Hydraulic & Pneumatic Systems,

Available in Bottom, Back Connection, Direct Surface, Panel Clamp mountings;


available in all standard process connections. Accuracy 2%. Dial size 40, 50,
63, 100, 150, 200 & 250 mm.
INDUSTRIAL PURPOSE

Commonly used in Chemical Processing, Petroleum Refinery, Petrochemical,


Fertilizer, Thermal & Nuclear Power Generating industries. Bourdon tube made
of Brass or SS 316. Weatherproof and Dustproof. Dial size 63, 100, 150 mm.
Accuracy 1.6% for 63 mm, 1% for 100 and 150 mm. Ranges upto 1000
kg/cm2, -760 mm Hg to 0 (vacuum).

6.2 TEMPERATURE GAUGES:

The temperature gauges are based on the change in the physical properties,
which is simple thermal expansion due to temperature
BIMETAL TEMPERATURE GAUGES

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This type temperature gauge employs the principle of solid expansion and it
consists of a bimetal strip. In response to the temperature change, the bimetal
expands and helical bimetal rotates at its free ends.

The bi-metallic element consists of two strips of different metals, with


different thermal expansion coefficients, inseparably joined together. This
strip is spirally or helically wound with one end fixed to the body of the
thermometer, and the other attached to the axis of a pointer. Measurement of
temperature is made with the bi-metallic system inside the temperature
sensor. Temperature variation influences the bi-metallic strip such as to
rotate the pointer; this rotation is indicated on a dial.

50C to 400C

Accuracy: 1% FSD

Mercury / Gas Filled Temperature Gauges

These gauges are designed using transmitting capillary & coiled bourdon tube
or flat bourdon, which are pressurized with mercury/inert gas. Variation in
ambient temperature is compensated by a Bi-metal link between bourdon tube
and movement mechanism

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Uses the principle of Mercury Expansion

Temperature range -30C to 600C

Available in Rigid Stem & Capillary Type for remote sensing

6.3 SENSORS:

A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical


quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an
instrument.

TEMPERATURE SENSOR:
THERMOCOUPLE

A thermocouple consists of two conductors of different materials (usually


metal alloys) that produce a voltage in the vicinity of the point where the two
conductors are in contact. The voltage produced is dependent on, but not
necessarily proportional to, the difference of temperature of the junction to other
parts of those conductors.

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PLATINUM THERMOCOUPLE:

Platinum thermocouple assemblies are most commonly used in high


temperature process heating applications. These assemblies are available with a
variety of process mountings, fittings and assembly options

These are also available with double protection tubes. Sheath is cemented inside
supporting stainless steel collar for mounting in the terminal head.

RTD

Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature


detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature by correlating the
resistance of the RTD element with temperature. The RTD element is made
from a pure material, platinum, nickel or copper. The material has a predictable
change in resistance as the temperature changes; it is this predictable change
that is used to determine temperature.

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RTDs can be bent as required

More robust and vibration resistant

Single and Dual element

Lengths upto 10 metres

0 to 400C standard rating

6.4Level Switches & Controllers

Vibrating Fork Type :

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Vibrating Fork Type Level Switch VFT 160 Series, is used for detecting both
high & low level of free flowing solids such as powder, cement, raw meal,
sugar, nylon / PVC chips and pellets, food grains, chemical powders, fertilizers
etc.The switch consists of vibrating fork, piezoelectric element and switching
electronics integrated into a weatherproof/Ex-proof housing suitable for
installing directly on the vessel, minimizing the cost of installation.

Level Measuring Instruments

Displacer Level Indicator and Transmitter


The Analog DLIT is an advanced, intrinsically safe, two-wire or four-wire
instrument, utilizing simple buoyancy principle to detect and convert liquid
level change into a stable 4-20 mA output signal. The linkage between the
level sensing element and output electronics provides a simple mechanical
design and construction. The vertical in-line design of the transmitter results in
low instrument weight and simplified installation.
Tubular Level Indicator:

Tubular Level Gauge for visual liquid level observation is very common in
process industry. It is mounted parallel, along the side of tank. As the process
level fluctuates, the level in the transparent glass tube changes accordingly and
gives local liquid indication. It is flange mounted to the tank. As the liquid
level rises in the tank, the liquid also rises inside the glass tube and one can see

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the liquid level in the tank


Application Liquids
Design Temperature Upto 80c
Design Pressure Upto 7 Kg/cm and full vacuum
C/C Distance Upto 3000 mm
Connection Flanged to ASA/BS/DIN/ Socket Weld/

6.5 Flow Measuring Instruments:

Orifice plate:

A fluid passing though an orifice constriction will experience a drop in pressure


across the orifice. This change can be used to measure the flow rate of the fluid.

Orifice plate

An obstruction (orifice) is placed in a pipe filled with fluid. The pressure of the
fluid is measured at two different points: 1) just upstream of the orifice and, 2)
close to the contraction of the fluid (vena contracta). The difference in these two
pressures is known as differential pressure. The differential pressure across an
obstruction (orifice) in a pipe of fluid is proportional to the square of the
velocity of the fluid.

MASS FLOW METER:


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A mass flow meter, also known as an inertial flow meter is a device that
measures mass flow rate of a fluid traveling through a tube. The mass flow rate
is the mass of the fluid traveling past a fixed point per unit time.

There are several meters which measure mass flow rate such as
the Rotameter and a Coriolis flow meter, described below.

Coriolis flow meter

Advantages

1. The principle of universal application to measure the flow of liquids and


Gases.

2. Direct measurement of mass flow (no pressure and temperature


compensation).The principle of measurement is independent of the density and
viscosity of the fluid.

3. The measuring accuracy is very high (typically 0.1% vl).

4. The sensor is multivariable, measures the mass flow, density and temperature.

5. It is insensitive to changes in the velocity profile.

Disadvantages:

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1. The cost of installation can be considerable, depending on model and


manufacturer.

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