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overall heat transfer coefficients for wellbore, heat losses comprising both

transient heat resistance in the formation and near well bore heat resistance,

estimation of wellhead temperature in flowing oil well, and to evaluate the

suitability and power requirements for heating a well bore using electrical

resistance hardware. The heat transfer process in wells is complex, a

hundred or more interacting variables must either be entered and/or

calculated by computer algorithms in order to complete an analysis and, as

no two wells are the same, the analysis is unique to each well.

object or surface of lower temperature by three mechanisms by conduction,

convection and radiation, the characteristics of Heat transfer can be

calculated by knowing:

Well fluids properties.

Electrical heating:

excitation converting electrical energy into heat, this is done by creating an

electric potential gradient between a low conductive element, an electric

current is created. The current pass through the low conductive element it

face the restriction and this therefore is converted into heat. This is

explained by the Joule principal of heating; which says that any current

passing through a resistor will convert the electrical energy into heat. There

are several ways to convert electrical energy into heat, as it is explained by

Gasbarri et al. where they classified the electrical heating into three main

categories,Low Frequency currents, which include Resistive and Ohmic

heating, Low-Medium Frequency current, which includes Inductive heating

techniques, and the High Frequency current, which includes Microwave and

Electromagnetic heating.

there are two types of electrical circuts avaiable for heaters , parallel

resistive element and serise resistive element there also two independant

variables for heat transfer, a power (energy ) source watts and temperature

source

Well Data:

Depth (1530 m) ,tubing (ID=62mm,OD=73mm),reservoir

pressure(2074,08 psia, reservoir temperature=59.66c.

crude oil property analysis:

Formation: AG Interval: 1598.0-1603.0m1606.0-

1609.0m1618.0-1622m/3

Sampled Date: Jan 23 2013 Date Sent to lab: Jan 23 2013

Date Analyzed: Jan 23 2013 Position Sampled: Wellhead outlet

Test No: 2013-001

Remark:

Property Analysis

Item Analysis Result

Sediment(V%)(Sand) 0.00%

Water (V %) 0.30%

Water&Sediment (V %) 0.30%

API 36.09

15.6 0.8431

Density

20

(g/cm3)

50 0.8179

Acid Number(mgKOH/g) 0.13

Pour Point () 48

Rheological Property (mPa.s)

Shear Rate (s-1) 29 30 35 40 50 55 70 80

100 23

RIG: Rig 2077 Analyst: Ayman - Abdelrahman

Supervisor: Abubaker abd alla Signature:

Sample Provider: Date: Jan 24 2013

Gradient Survey Curve:-

Temperature Gradient Curve:

Depth(mKB) Pressure(Psia) Temperature(DegC)

1530.0 2074.08 59.66

1500.0 2030.19 59.33

1400.0 1887.05 56.87

1300.0 1742.38 54.31

1200.0 1597.92 52.30

1100.0 1453.20 50.09

1000.0 1307.89 48.04

900.0 1162.34 46.25

800.0 1016.63 44.83

700.0 870.90 43.51

600.0 725.10 41.88

500.0 579.25 39.46

400.0 434.86 37.44

300.0 291.92 36.12

200.0 150.28 34.79

100.0 112.19 33.77

0.0 12.92 34.98

Correlation Curve between Pressure and Depth:

Well Bara_5 issue:

Bara_5 have a problem of high pour point, about 48c and

at depth of 1000 m the oil reach its pour point

temperature, and thus the oil is no longer move. Even

after applied PCP pump see figure(####)

MODELING SEQUENCE:

The mode heat transfer in an oil well is largely depend

on: length of conduit, convective area, thermal

conductivity, specific heat, viscosity, reservoir and

geothermal gradient temperature, conduit roughness and

the desired production rate.

Microsoft excel sheet was used at The first step to

calculate heat over all coefficient by using equation:

1

]

rt 0 r co rh

r t 0 ln r ln r ln

1

U= +

hf [ tub

rt 1

+

h rc ,an (

1 r ln r ci /ri

1

+

) r ci

cas

+

r co

cem

Q = U * A * T

Effect of geothermal gradient:

Temperature inside formations increase from downstream

to upstream by .025 c/meter ,and it can be calculated

by the following equation :

T@d =T@s+G*d

Temperature affect oil production by the following

sequences:

1.oil temperature is a main factor influence on oil

viscosity, low temperature leads to _ high viscosity, high

temperature leads to _ low viscosity ) inverse

relationship).

surface, low viscosity Leads to_ low restrictions (direct

relationship).

3. high restrictions _ increase pressure drop by direct

relationship.

4.pressure difference between upstream and downstream

is a reason why the flow occurs, therefor if the pressure

drop increase will drastically reduce the production rate

by inverse relationship.

Production estimation:

ANSYS Fluent simulator used to predict temperature and

pressure gradient versus depth with the effect of

geothermal gradient based on assumption that the flow

is one phase we used the first law of thermodynamic

yield the following equation :

g 2 Fu 2 L

P=P 1P 2= z+ u2 +

gc 2 gc gcD

TPR curve, and therefore we got new operating point.

temperature we used the below equation:

P =Q * * T * a

Simulation Result:

Madis downhole heaters system specifications was used

for Bara_5 ,the heating cable output power about 45

watt/foot heated oil to reach the desired well head

temperature of 62c which sustain production rate of 340

bbl/day .

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