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# 8-1

## Solutions for Chapter 8 Problems (11/15/04)

1. General Properties
P8.1: In free space, a wave propagating radially away from an antenna at the origin has
Is
Hs cos 2 a ,
r
where the driving current phasor Is = Ioej. Determine (a) Es, (b) P(r,) and (c) Rrad.

Is
E s a P H s oa r cos 2 a ,
r
o I s
( a )E s cos 2 a
r
1 1 I e j I e j
P Re E s H*s Re o o cos 2 a o cos 2 a
2 2 r r
2
1 I
(b) P r , , o o cos 4 a r
2 r
1
2
2
1 cos
4
1
Prad o I o2 2 a r gr 2 sin d d a r o I o2 cos 4 sin d d
2 r 2 0 0

o I o2 2 1
cos5 o I o2 I o2 Rrad

5 0 5 2
Solving:
2
120 I o2
1 2
Io
2

P8.2: What is the pattern solid angle and the directivity for an isotropic antenna? How
about for a semi-isotropic antenna, that radiates equally in all directions above = /2,
but is zero otherwise?

2
P Pn , d (1)sin d d 4
0 0

4
P 4 , and Dmax 1.
P
For a semi-isotropic antenna:
8-2

2 2
P 0
(1)sin d d 2 ,
0
and Dmax 2.

P8.3: Sketch an appropriate cross-section of the radiation pattern and determine the
beamwidth, pattern solid angle and directivity for the following normalized radiation
intensities:
(a ) Pn , cos for 0 2, 0 otherwise.
(b) Pn , cos2 for 0 2, 0 otherwise.
(c ) Pn , cos3 for 0 2, 0 otherwise.

## The patterns are drawn using MLP0803:

% MLP0803
% Polar Plots for P8.03
%
% The polar plot function doesn't allow multiple
% plots. So we have to let the angle theta loop
% around several times, changing the rho function
% each time.
%
for i=1:100
theta(i)=-pi/2+i*pi/100;
rho(i)=cos(theta(i));
end
for j=101:200
theta(j)=(-pi/2)+j*pi/100;
rho(j)=0;
end
for i=201:300
theta(i)=-pi/2+i*pi/100;
rho(i)=(cos(theta(i)))^2;
end
for j=301:400
theta(j)=-pi/2+j*pi/100;
rho(j)=0;
end
for i=401:500
theta(i)=-pi/2+i*pi/100;
rho(i)=(cos(theta(i)))^3;
end Fig. P8.3
for j=501:600
8-3

theta(j)=-pi/2+j*pi/100;
rho(j)=0;
end
polar(theta,rho)

(a) Beamwidth: solving for cos = 0.5, we find = 60, and beamwidth =2 = 120.

2

## P Pn , d cos sin d d 2 cos sin d

0

u cos , du sin d , so
2
P 2 udu u 2 cos 2 sr.
0

4
Dmax 4
P

(b) Beamwidth: solving for cos2 = 0.5, we find = 45, and beamwidth =2 = 90.

## Pattern solid angle:

2

P cos sin d d 2
2
cos
2
sin d
0
u cos , du sin d , so
2
2 3 2 2
P 2 u du
2
u cos3 sr
3 3 0 3
4
Dmax 6
P

(c) Beamwidth: solving for cos3 = 0.5, we find = 37.5, and beamwidth =2 = 75.

## Pattern solid angle:

P cos3 sin d d 2 u 3du
where u cos and du -sin d ,
2
2
P cos 4 sr
4 0 2
4
Dmax 8
P
8-4

P8.4: Sketch an appropriate cross-section of the radiation pattern and determine the
beamwidth, pattern solid angle and directivity for the following normalized radiation
intensities:
(a ) Pn , sin
(b) Pn , sin 2
(c) Pn , sin 3

1 1
(a) Pn sin , sin 1 30o.
2 2
Now, since the beam is maximum at = 90, the beamwidth is from 30 to 150, or BW =
120.
2
P Pn d sin sin d d sin 2 d d
0 0

1 4
so P 2 1 cos 2 d 2 sr , Dmax 1.27
0
2 P
1 1
(b) Pn sin 2 , sin 1 45 , BW 135 45 90
o o o o

2 2

P Pn d sin 2 sin d d 2 1 cos 2 sin d
0

P 2 sin d 2 cos 2 sin d
0 0

2 4 8
2 cos 0 cos3 4 sr
3 0 3 3
4
so Dmax 1.5
P

(c) Pn
1
2
sin 3 , sin 1 1 2 3 52.5o, BW 180o 52.5o 52.5o 75o
1

1 1
P 2 sin 4 d 2 1 cos 2 d 1 2 cos 2 1 cos 4 d
2

0 0
4 2 0 2
Plots are generated using MLP0804:
% MLP0804
%
% Generate polar plots
%
clc
clear
for i=1:100
theta(i)=i*pi/50;

Fig. P8.4
8-5

rho(i)=abs(sin(theta(i)));
end
for i=101:200
theta(i)=i*pi/50;
rho(i)=(sin(theta(i)))^2;
end
for i=201:300
theta(i)=i*pi/50;
rho(i)=abs(sin(theta(i))^3);
end
polar(theta,rho)

Pn , sin 2 sin 3 for 0 ,
0 otherwise.
Find the beamwidth, pattern solid angle, and directivity.

1
The beam is pointing in the ay direction, and we have BW
2
BW BW .
To find BW, we fix = /2 and set sin2 equal to . Then,
1
sin 1
45o, so BW 180o 45o 45o 90o.
2
To find BW, we fix = /2, and set sin3 = , giving us

sin 1 1 2
1
3
52.5 ,o
so BW 180o 52.5o 52.5o 75o.
1
Finally, BW
2
90o 75o 82.5o.
The pattern solid angle is
P Pn d sin 2 sin 3 sin d d ,

P sin 3 d sin 3 d , (note limits on )
0 0

## Each integral is solved as follows:

y sin 3 xdx 1 cos 2 x sin xdx sin xdx cos 2 x sin xdx.
0 0 0 0

sin xdx cos x
0
0
2

1
cos x sin xdx u 2 du u 3 , where u cos x, du sin xdx.
2

0
3
8-6

1 1 2
so cos 2 x sin xdx cos 3 x (1 1) .
0
3 0 3 3
So we have

2 4
y sin 3 xdx 2 ,
0
3 3

4 4 16
and P sin 3 d sin 3 d 1.78sr.
0 0 3 3 9
4 4
Dmax 7.1
P 1.78

## P8.6: You are given the following normalized radiation intensity:

Pn , sin 2 sin .
2
Determine the beamwidth, direction of maximum radiation, pattern solid angle and
directivity.

1
BW
2
BW BW ,
BW: Fix = , sin2 = 1/2, = 45, BW = (180 45) 45 =90.
BW: Fix = /2, sin(/2)=1/2, BW = (360 60) 60 = 240
BW = (90+240)/2=165

## By inspection, the direction of maximum radiation is at = and = /2. (i.e. the ax

direction).
2

P sin 2 sin sin d d sin d sin 3 d
2 0
2 0
Do each integral separately:
2 2

0 2
sin d 2 cos
20
2(1 1) 4

sin
3
d 1 cos sin dx sin d cos 2 sin d
2

0 0 0 0

1 1 2 4
cos 0 cos3 (1 1) (1 1) 2
3 0 3 3 3
4 16 4 3
So P (4) , and Dmax 2.4
3 3 P 4

8-7

## P8.7: Use the phasor form of Amperes Circuit Law,

1
Eos Hos ,
j o
to find Eos from (8.46) without assuming the far-field condition. Then, show that this
value of Eos reduces to (8.50) in the far-field.

## To make the calculations easier, well let

I sl 2
A .
4
1 j 1
HOS sin Ae j r 2 sin a r
r sin r r

1 j 1
rAe j r 2 sin a
r r r r

Well break these up and do them separately:
ar derivative:
Ae j r j 1 e j r j 1

r sin r r
2 sin 2 a r 2 A 2 cos a r .
r r r
a derivative:
A sin je j r e j r A sin j r e j r j e j r
a e a
r r 2 r r 2 r

2r 2
Ae j r 1 j
1 sin a
r r
2
2 r

Ae j r j2 2 1 j
HOS 2
cos a r 1 2 sin a
r r r r
2
r
Now,
1
EOS HOS , so
j o
A e j r j2 2 1 j
EOS
2
cos a r 1 2 sin a .
j o r r r r r
2

This is EOS without assuming the far-field condition. For far-field, we only need to
consider the single 1/r term (1/r2<<1/r). So we have
A e j r I l 2 e j r
EOS sin a s sin a
j o r j 4 o r
upon reinserting our value for A from above. Rearranging, we have
I sl e j r
EOS j sin a .
o 4 r
8-8

## The term in parenthesis can be manipulated:

o o o
o , so
o o o
I sl e j r
EOS jo sin a ,
4 r
which is equation (8.50) for the far-field.

## P8.8: Suppose, for a particular antenna in free space,

A os o I o e j y a z .
Find Hos, Eos, and the time-averaged power density vector P.

BOS A OS
y
o Ioe j y a x j o I oe j y a x .
BOS
HOS j I oe j y a x .
o
EOS oa y HOS oa y j I o e j y a x jo I o e j y a z .
1
P Re EOS H*OS , so
2
1 1
P Re jo I o e j y a z j I o e j y a x o I o a y .
2

2 2
Note that this problem is not very realistic, but is good to teach the mechanics of going
from AOS to P.

P8.9: (JustAsk): Suppose a Hertzian dipole antenna is 1.0 cm long and is excited by a 10.
mA amplitude current source at 100. MHz. What is the maximum power density radiated
by this antenna at a 1.0 km distance? What is the antennas radiation resistance?

c 3 x108 m s
cf, 3m.
f 100 x106 1 s
o 2 I o2 l 2 120 2 0.010 0.010
2 2 2
pW
Pmax 0.052 2
32 r 2 2
32 32
2
1000 2
m
2 2
l 0.01
Rrad 80 2 80 2 8.8m
3
8-9

P8.10: A 1.0 cm long, 1.0 mm diameter copper wire is used as a Hertzian dipole radiator
at 1.0 GHz. (a) Find Rrad. (b) Estimate Rdiss by considering the skin effect resistance of
the wire. (c) Find efficiency, e. (d) Find the maximum power gain Gmax.

c 3 x108 m s
0.3m
f 1x109 1 s
2 2
l 0.01

2
0.877
.3
From Example 8.2 we have Cu 1GHz 2.09 x10 m
6

## S d Cu 0.001m 2.09 x106 m 6.57 x109 m 2

1l 1 0.01
Rdiss 0.026
S 5.8 x10 6.57 x109
7

e 0.97
Gmax eDmax 0.97 1.5 1.46

P8.11: Evaluate the curl of Aos (equation (8.59)) to find Hos. Now apply a far-field
approximation to verify (8.60).

o I s S
2
Eqn. (8.59): A OS 1 j r e j r sin a
4 r
Since AOS only has an A component, we have
1 1
A OS
r sin
sin A a r
r r
rA a
A A jA j r
Well let A 2 1 j r e
j r
sin 2 e j r sin e sin ,
r r r
I S
where A o S .
4
We break up the derivative into two parts:
A j r jA j r sin jA j r
2
A
1.

sin A 2 e
r

r
e
r
2 e j r
r
e 2sin cos

or
2A j 2 A j r

## sin A 2 e j r sin cos

r r
e sin cos

1 2A j 2 A j r
r sin
sin A a r 3 e j r cos
r r 2
e cos a r

A
2.
r
rA e j r sin jA e j r sin ,
r r
8-10

## the left-most derivative is

e j r e j r j e j r A j r jA j r
A sin A sin 2 e sin e sin
r r r 2
r r r
and the right derivative is

jA sin e j r jA sin j e j r A 2e j r sin
r
So
1 A j r jA j r A 2 j r

r r
rA a 3 e sin 2 e sin e sin a
r r r

## Putting this all together

2A j 2 A j r
A OS 3 e j r cos 2
e cos a r
r r
A j r jA j r A 2 j r
3 e sin 2 e sin e sin a
r r r
Now, reinserting our value for A, we can find HOS as
1 1 2 o I s S j r j 2 I S
H OS A OS 3 e cos 2 o s e j r cos a r
o o r 4 r 4
1 o I s S j r j o I s S j r o I s S j r
2

3 e sin 2 e sin e sin a
r 4 r 4 r 4
and reducing we find
IS j I s S j r
H OS s 3 e j r cos e cos a r
2 r 2 r 2

I s S j r j I s S j r 2 I s S j r
e sin e sin e sin a
4 r 4 r 4 r
3 2

With the far-field approximation, only the 1/r term will be significant and we have
2 I s S j r
H OS e sin a
4 r
Now, making use of o o and o o o , we find
2 I s S o I s S
,
4 r 40 r
o I s S j r
so H OS e sin a , which is Equation (8.60).
40 r

P8.12: Neglecting resistive losses in the wire, how much current must drive a loop
antenna of radius 2.0 cm at 60 MHz to radiate 1.0 W of power? Repeat for a 20 turn
loop.
8-11

c 3 x108
At 60 MHz, 5m . So at 2 cm radius, we have the small loop situation.
f 60 x106
2
4 3 I 2 S
For a small loop: Prad o o 2 ,
3
Here,
S a 2 0.02m 1.257 x103 m 2 .
2

2
(a) I o 159 A
4o 3 S
with N=20,
1 159
(b) I o 159 A 2
8A
N N

## P8.13: Suppose in the far-field for an antenna at the origin,

I e j r
Hos s sin cos a
4 r
where Is = Ioej. What is the radiation resistance of this antenna at 100 MHz?

o I s e j r
EOS oa r H OS sin cos a
4 r
2
1 1 I o
P (r , , ) Re EOS H OS o
*
sin cos a r
2 2

2 2 4 r
Note also that P (r , , ) Pmax Pn ( , )a r , where here
2
1 I o
Pmax o , and Pn , sin cos .
2 2

2 4 r
Then, P Pn ( , )d .

2 4
Referring to P8.5, sin d 2 , and
3

0
3 3
2
1
cos d d cos 2 d .
2

0
2
4
So, P Pn ( , )d sr
3

2 1 I o 4
2

Prad r Pmax P r o
2
.
2 4 r 3

Using o 120 and 2 , we find
8-12

20 2 I o2
2
1 2 2P 40 2
2 I o2 2
and since for this problem, c f 3m, Rrad 40 9 44
2

P8.14: Suppose in the far-field for a particular antenna at the origin, the electric field is
e j r
Eos o I o sin a .
r
What is the radiation resistance of this antenna?

1 2
Well use: Prad I o Rrad r 2 Pmax P , so we must find Pmax and p.
2
1 e j r e j r
H S a r o I o sin a I o sin a
o r r
1 1 1
P Re EOS H*OS o I o2 sin 2 a r ,
r
2
2 2
so
1 1
Pmax o I o2 , and Pn sin 2 .
r
2
2
2
P Pn d sin d d 2 1 cos 2 sin d
3

0 0 0

1 8
P 2 sin d cos 2 sin d 2 cos 0 cos 2 sr
0 0 3 0
3
2 2 1 1 8 8 (120 )8
Rrad 2 r 2 Pmax P 2 r 2 o I o2 o 320
r 3 3 3
2
Io Io 2

resistance (equation (8.65)) for a small loop antenna.

1 2
2
2 o 2 I o2 S 2 2
From (8.63) we have Pmax
32o 2 r 2
and
2
8
P sin 2 d sin 3 d d sr (see integral solution of P8.14)
0 0
3
8-13

Now,
2 o 2 I o2 S 2 2 8
Prad r 2 Pmax P r 2 2 2
32o r 3
o
Using the conversions: o o , 2 , and o o
we arrive at:
2
4 3 2 S 1
3 2
2
4 S

3. Dipole Antennas
P8.16: MATLAB: Develop a routine to calculate the beamwidth for a dipole antenna of
arbitrary length between 0.1and 1.

% MLP0816
%
% Determine beamwidth for an arbirary length
% dipole antenna. Equation (8.74) is used.
%
% 2/10/03 Wentworth
%
% Variables
% L dipole length in wavelengths
% th(i) theta angle (degrees)
% num,den calculation variables
% F(i) function F from (8.74)
% Fmax maximum F(i)
% thmax angle where Fmax occurs
% diff(i) calculation variable used to find BW
% diffmin calculation variable used to find BW
% thhalf theta at the half-power point
%
clc
clear
% dipole length
L=1; %dipole length in wavelengths
% initialize settings
diffmin=.1;
8-14

% perform calculations
bL=2*pi*L;

% Find Fmax
for i=1:1:180
th(i)=i*pi/360;
num=cos((bL/2)*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL/2);
den=sin(th(i));
F(i)=(num/den)^2;
end
Fmax=max(F);

% Find thmax
for i=1:1:180
if F(i)>=Fmax
Fmax=F(i);
thmax=180*th(i)/pi;
end
end

for i=1:1:180
Pn(i)=F(i)/Fmax;
diff(i)=abs(Pn(i)-0.5);
if diff(i)<diffmin
diffmin=diff(i);
thhalf=180*th(i)/pi;
end
end

BW=2*abs(thhalf-thmax)

## Running the program for several values of L:

L = 0.1 0 BW = 90
L = 0.25 BW = 87
L = 0.50 BW = 78
L = 0.75 BW = 64
L = 1.0 BW = 48

P8.17: How long is a 1.5 long dipole antenna at 1.0 GHz? Suppose this antenna is
constructed using AWG#20 (0.406 mm radius) copper wire. Determine Rdiss, e, and Gmax.
8-15

c 3 x108
0.3m, L 1.5 0.45m
f 1x109
1l
Rdiss
S
From example 8.2, the skin depth for this wire at 1 GHz is 2.09x10 -6m. Then, the cross-
sectional surface over which we consider the current to be conducted is:
S 2 r Cu 5.33 x109 m 2
Then:
1 0.45m
Rdiss 7 1
1.456
5.8 x10 5.33x109 m 2
m
30
Now we need radiation resistance, Rrad F max P , and we use Matlab 0804 to find

P = 8.08 (and Dmax = 1.55), and Fmax = 1.366. Therefore, Rrad = 105.
The efficiency is
e 0.986
Finally, Gmax = e Dmax = 1.53.

## P8.18: Find the half-power beamwidth of a /2 dipole antenna.

One approach is to carefully plot the pattern and then estimate the beamwidth (see Figure
P8.18). A more exact method is as follows.

cos 2 cos
Here we have
Pn 2 1 , or 2 cos 2 cos sin 2

sin 2
2 2
We can define a function

F ( ) 2 cos 2 cos sin 2 , and then
2
dF ( )
4 cos cos sin cos sin 2sin cos .
d 2 2 2
Rearranging, we have
dF
F '( ) 2 sin cos cos sin cos 2sin cos .
d 2 2
Now we can apply the Newton Raphson routine to converge onto a solution:
F (i )
i 1 i .
F '(i )

Newton-Raphson routine:
% MLP0818
%
8-16

## % Use Newton-Raphson to solve for BW

% on half wavelength dipole antenna.
%
% 2/10/03 Wentworth
clc
clear
N=20;
th(1)=45; %initial wild guess for th
thr(1)=th(1)*pi/180;

for i=1:N
F=2*cos((pi/2)*cos(thr(i)))^2-sin(thr(i))^2;
dF=2*pi*sin(thr(i))*cos((pi/2)*cos(thr(i)))*sin((pi/2)*sin(t
hr(i)))-2*sin(thr(i))*cos(thr(i));
thr(i+1)=thr(i)-F/dF;
end
th=180*thr(N+1)/pi;
BW=2*(90-th)

## Running the program:

BW =
78.0777
>>

So BW = 78

Fig. P8.18
P8.19: A 2.45 GHz /2 dipole
antenna is driven by a 2.0 A
amplitude current source. Find the maximum power density at a distance of 1.0 km.

15 I o2 15(2) 2 W
Pmax 19 2
r 2
(1000) 2
m

P8.20: Given a z-polarized half-wave dipole antenna at the origin, and a driving current
i(t) = 10cos(2x109t) A, find the instantaneous electric and magnetic fields at a point 2.0
km distant and angle =60.

## We have c (2 )(1x109 ) 3 x108 20.944 / m

To find Hos we modify equation (8.71) by considering (L/2)=/2:
8-17

jI o e j r cos 2 cos
H os a

2 r sin

o
j (10) e j (20.944)(2000) cos 2 cos 60
a 6.5 x104 e j156oa A

2 2000 sin 60 o
m

V o
Eos oar H os 0.245e j156 a
m
Converting to instantaneous form:
V
E 0.245cos t 156o a
m
mA
H 0.65cos t 156o a
m
These equations can also be written in terms of sin as:
V
E 0.245sin t 114o a
m
mA
H 0.65sin t 114o a
m

P8.21: MATLAB: Modify MATLAB 8.4 to calculate directivity and radiation resistance
for an arbitrary length dipole antenna. Evaluate these properties for a 0.75 dipole
antenna.

% M-File: MLP0821
% Modify ML0804 to calculate D and radiation resistance.
% All that is needed is a line to calculate Rrad
% using Equation (8.79).
%
clc %clears the command window
clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables
L=.75;
bL2=pi*L;
N=90;

% Perform calculations
i=1:1:N;
dth=pi/N;
8-18

th(i)=i*pi/N;
num(i)=cos(bL2.*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL2);
den(i)=sin(th(i));
F(i)=((num(i)).^2)./den(i);
Fmax=max(F);
Pn=F./Fmax;

omegaP=2*pi*dth*sum(Pn)
Dmax=4*pi/omegaP
Fmax

omegaP =
6.6769

Dmax =
1.8821

Fmax =
2.9142

185.8086

>>

## So we have Dmax = 1.88 and Rrad = 186 .

P8.22: (JustAsk): Find a 3.0 m long dipole antennas directivity and radiation resistance if
it is operated at (a) 250 MHz, (b) 500 MHz, and (c) 750 MHz.

c 3 x108 m s 3m
(a) 1.2m, L = 2.5
6
f 250 x10 / s 1.2m
Now we use this information in MLP0821. Plugging in L = 2.5, we have
omegaP =
7.4529

D=
1.6861

Fmax =
8-19

1.6969

120.7662
>>
Following the same approach for the other two frequencies, we arrive at the following
table of results:
250 2.5 1.69 121
500 5.0 2.37 342
750 7.5 2.23 154

## P8.23: A 50 impedance line is terminated in a 3.0 m long dipole antenna at 50 MHz.

What is the VSWR looking into this antenna? Design a shorted shunt stub network to
impedance match the antenna to the 50 line.

## At 50 MHz, = 6 m so the antenna is a /2 dipole and Zant = 73.2+j42.5 . We can find

the VSWR with the Smith chart. Or we can calculate it as follows:
Z Z o 73.2 j 42.5 50 o
L ant 0.3715e j 42.3
Z ant Z o 73.2 j 42.5 50
1 L
VSWR 2.18
1 L
The stub matching solution uses the approach of chapter 6. We first locate the
normalized load (z = 1.46+j0.85) at point a, convert it to a normalized admittance at point
b, and move along the constant gamma circle to point c (distance traveled is 0.215)
where the admittance is y = 1+j1.8. Then we move from a short in the admittance chart
to the point 0-j1.8, moving a distance 0.142.
8-20

(b)
Fig. P8.23

P8.24: MATLAB: Use MATLAB 8.2 to generate plots like those of Figure 8.19 for a
dipole antenna of length 3.

## Inserting L = 3 in the Matlab routine generates the following figure.

Fig. P8.24
8-21

P8.25: A 0.485 dipole antenna is constructed for operation at 4.0 GHz. (a) How long is
the antenna? (b) What impedance is required of a quarter-wave transformer to match this
antenna to a 50 impedance line?

c 3x108 0.075m
0.075m, L 0.485 0.0364m, L 3.6cm
f 4 x10 9

From section 8.3 describing the half-wave dipole, we know that a 0.485 dipole has Zant =
73. A quarter wavelength matching section will have an impedance:
Z (73)(50) 60

P8.26: MATLAB: Modify MATLAB 8.3 to run the movie from 0.1 up to 4.

% M-File: MLP0826
%
% Modifies ML0803 to extend movie for L
% up to 4 wavelengths
%
clc %clears the command window
clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables
N=360;
th=1:1:N;
thr=th*pi./180;

## % Generate Reference Frame

L=0.1;
polar(0,10); %sets scale for polar plot
T=num2str(L);
S=strvcat('Length',T,'wavelengths');
text(10,10,S)
axis manual
hold on
pause

## % Make the Movie

L=0.1:0.02:4;
for n=1:196
polar(0,10)
axis manual
8-22

T=num2str(L(n));
S=strvcat('Length',T,'wavelengths');
text(10,10,S)
hold on
num=cos(pi*L(n)*cos(thr))-cos(pi*L(n));
den=sin(thr);
F=(num./den).^2;
polar(thr,F)
hold off
M(:,1)=getframe;
end

The figure shows a snapshot of the movie when the angle reaches 4.

Fig. P8.26

P8.27: MATLAB: Using MATLAB 8.4, generate data of the pattern solid angle versus
number of increments N to see the function convergence. Consider a 1.25 dipole. Try
N = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128.

## The following data is generated:

N WP
2 9.87
4 5.182
6 3.868
8 3.83
16 3.828
8-23

32 3.828

10

8
Pattern Solid Angle (sr)

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
N iterations

Fig. P8.27

The function converges above N = 8, so data from the N = 64 and 128 runs was omitted.

4. Monopole Antennas
P8.28: Consider a 1.0 nC charge at (0.0, 0.0, 5.0m) above a conductive sheet occupying
the x-y plane at z = 0. Use image theory to find the electric field intensity at the point
(0.0, 5.0m, 5.0m).

## Letting Q2 be the image charge, the total field at P is

Q1 Q2
EP a aR2
4 o R12 R1
4 o R22
where R1 = 5ax and R2 = 5ax + 10az.
Also, R2 125m.
Evaluating the field from Q1:
1x109 C
E1 a
4 10 9
F
36 m
5m
2 x

V
0.36a x .
m
from Q2:
1x109 C 5a x 10a z
E2

9 3
4 10 F 125m
36 m Fig. P8.28
V
0.032a x 0.064a z .
m
The total field is then EP = 0.33ax 0.064az V/m.
8-24

## P8.29: Find the half-power beamwidth for a quarter-wave monopole antenna.

In problem P8.18, we found the bandwidth for a /2 dipole antenna was 78. For the
/4 monopole, the bandwidth will be half that of the /2 dipole, or 39.

P8.30: MATLAB: Devise a routine to give a polar plot of the normalized power radiated
for an arbitrary length monopole antenna. Use your program to generate the polar plot
for a half-wave monopole.

% MLP0830
% Modify ML0802 to plot the normalized power radiated
% for an arbitrary length dipole.
% We remove the current distribution plot, and plot for
% theta from -90 to +90.
%
clc %clears the command window
clear %clears variables
clf %clear figure

% Initialize variables
Lmono=0.5;
L=2*Lmono;
bL2=pi*L;
N=180;

## % Calculate normalized power function

th=1:.1:N;
thr=(th-90)*pi./180;
F=((cos(bL2.*cos(thr))-cos(bL2))./sin(thr)).^2;
Fmax=max(F);
Pn=F./Fmax;

% Generate Plots
polar(0,1)
hold on
polar(thr,Pn)
T=num2str(Lmono);
S=strvcat('Monopole length',T,'wavelengths');
text(1.0,.8,S)
8-25

Fig. P8.30

P8.31: Determine the pattern solid angle, directivity and radiation resistance for a half-
wave monopole antenna.

P = 5.21 sr
Dmax = 2.41

## Now, for a /2 monopole,

1 1
p p , Dmax monopole
2 Dmax dipole
,
monopole 2 dipole 2
So,
P = 2.6 sr
Dmax = 4.8

P8.32: How long is a 0.75monopole antenna at 1.0 GHz? Suppose this antenna is
constructed using AWG#20 (0.406 mm radius) copper wire. Determine Rdiss, e and Gmax.
Compare your results with the 1.5 dipole antenna of problem P8.17.
8-26

c 3 x108 m s 3
9
0.30m, L 0.225m 22.5cm
f 1x10 / s 4

## (from P8.17 solution)

1l
Rdiss
S
From example 8.2, the skin depth for this wire at 1 GHz is 2.09x10 -6m. Then, the cross-
sectional surface over which we consider the current to be conducted is:
S 2 r Cu 5.33 x109 m 2
Then, for the monopole,
1 0.225m
Rdiss 7 1
0.73
5.8 x10 5.33x109 m 2
m
To find e and Gmax, we need P, Dmax and Rrad. We can find these by running Matlab 8.4
for a 1. dipole, and then use
1 1
p p , Dmax monopole 2 Dmax dipole , Rrad monopole Rrad dipole .
monopole 2 dipole 2
We find
P = 4.04 sr
Dmax = 3.10
Rrad = 52.7 (half that of a 1.5 dipole)

So
e 0.986 (same as a 1.5 dipole)
and
Gmax = eDmax = 3.04 (twice that of a 1.5 dipole)

P8.33: What is the VSWR looking into a quarter-wave monopole antenna if the feed line
has a 50 impedance? Design an open-ended shunt stub matching network to match
this antenna to the line.

## For a /4 monopole, we have Zant = 36.6 + j21.25 .

Z Z o 36.6 j 21.5 50 o
ant 0.282e j108
Z ant Z o 36.6 j 21.5 50
1 1 0.282
VSWR 1.79
1 1 0.282
The Smith Chart solution for the open-ended stub matching network is shown in the
figure. After locating zL, we find yL and notice it is almost on the the 1 jb circle, at
about 1 j0.6. So we dont need a through line. The stub needs to give us y = 0 + j0.6,
or a length 0.086 is required.
8-27

Fig. P8.33

P8.34: Given a 1 GHz quarter-wave monopole antenna at the origin, excited by a 1.0 A
amplitude current, find the amplitudes for the electric and magnetic field intensities at a
point 1.0 km distant at an angle = 80.

j r cos cos
jI o e 2 a and E j H a
H os os
2 r sin
os o

2 1x109 / s cos cos80o
2 0.978
20.94 rad m , r 1000m, o
c 3x108 m s sin 80

H os
1A 0.978 156 A , E 120 H 59 mV
2 1000m
os os
m m

5. Antenna Arrays
P8.35: (JustAsk): Find and plot the far-field radiation pattern at = /2 for a two element
dipole antenna array given the following:
1. the dipoles are driven in-phase
2. each dipole is 1 in length oriented in the z-direction
3. the pair of dipoles are 1 apart on the x axis.
Also find the maximum time-averaged power density, in W/m2, 1.0 km away from the
array if each antenna is driven by a 1.0 A amplitude current source at 1.0 GHz.
8-28

## Well first use ML0804 to find p, D and Fmax.

% M-File: MLP0835a
% application of ML0804
%
clc %clears the command window
clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables
L=1.0;
bL2=pi*L;
N=90;

% Perform calculations
i=1:1:N;
dth=pi/N;
th(i)=i*pi/N;
num(i)=cos(bL2.*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL2);
den(i)=sin(th(i));
F(i)=((num(i)).^2)./den(i);
Fmax=max(F);
Pn=F./Fmax;

omegaP=2*pi*dth*sum(Pn)
D=4*pi/omegaP
Fmax

omegaP = 5.2121
D = 2.4110
Fmax = 4
>>

## Using Eqn. (8.76) for a dipole of length L = at an angle = /2, we have

15 I o2 15 I o2 60 I o2
Pmax F 4 Funit
r2 max
r2 r2
Then, for the array we have

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos 2 cos
2
60 I o2
P r , , 2
4 cos 2 cos ,
2 r
8-29

or
240 1
2
60 I o2 240 I o2 W
Pmax 2
4 76.4 2
r r 1000
2 2
m
The far-field radiation pattern (plot of
cos2(cos)):

%MLP0835b
clc
clear
phi=.5:.5:360;
phir=phi*pi./180;
Psi=2*pi*cos(phir);
Pn=(cos(Psi./2)).^2;
polar(phir,Pn)

Fig. P8.35

P8.36: Repeat problem P8.35 if the dipoles are 180 out of phase.

## From P8.35 we have p=5.212, D =2.411 and Fmax=4, and

60 I o2
Funit .
r2
Then, for the array we have

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos 2 cos +
2
240 I o2 2
P r , , cos cos ,
2 r 2
2
or
W
Pmax 76.4 2
m
The far-field radiation pattern (plot of cos2(cos)):
%MLP0836
clc
clear
phi=.5:.5:360;
phir=phi*pi./180;
Psi=2*pi*cos(phir)+pi;
8-30

Fig. P8.36
Pn=(cos(Psi./2)).^2;
polar(phir,Pn)

P8.37: Repeat P8.35 for the case where the dipoles are 90 out of phase, 1.5 in length,
and separated by /2.

## Well first use ML0804 to find p, D and Fmax.

% M-File: MLP0837a
% modify ML0804
clc %clears the command window
clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables
L=1.5;
bL2=pi*L;
N=90;

% Perform calculations
i=1:1:N;
dth=pi/N;
th(i)=i*pi/N;
num(i)=cos(bL2.*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL2);
den(i)=sin(th(i));
F(i)=((num(i)).^2)./den(i);
Fmax=max(F);
Pn=F./Fmax;
8-31

omegaP=2*pi*dth*sum(Pn)
D=4*pi/omegaP
Fmax

## Executing the program we find p= 8.087, D =1.554 and Fmax= 1.366.

Now:
15 I o2 15 I o2
Pmax F max 1.366 Funit
r2 r2
Then, for the array we have

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos cos
2 2

2
15 I o
P r , , (1.366)4 cos 2 cos
2 r 2
2 4
or
15 1
2
W
Pmax (1.366)4 26 2 .
1000
2
m
Then we plot:

Pn cos 2 cos ,
2 4

Fig. P8.37

P8.38: Two z-polarized /2 dipole antennas are spaced /4 apart, centered at the origin on
the x-axis. (a) If the dipole located at x = -/8 is driven by Is1 = Ioej0, what phase shift
would you employ on the other dipole (Is2 = Ioej) to get maximum power at a far-field
point on the +x axis? (b) If the dipole antennas are each driven by 1.0 A amplitude
currents at 500 MHz, with the phase shift from part (a), find the time-averaged power
density vector at 2.0 km on the x-axis.

(a)

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos .
2
2
On the x-axis, = 0 so
4 2
8-32

1.
2
We want maximum Farray, or Farray = 4, when cos
2

This occurs when 0, , 2 ...,
2 4 2
satisfied when = -/2 or 3/2. So we employ a -90 or a +270 phase shift.

2

2 cos cos
15I o 2 a.
(b) P (r , ) unit
r sin
2 r

15I o2
At = /2, we then have Funit .
r2
The radiated power vector is then
15 1
2
15 I o2
P (r , ) array 2
4a r 4a r 4.78Wa r
r 2000
2

P8.39: Two small loop antennas, each oriented in the x-y plane, are centered at /2 on
the x-axis. They each have a 1.0 cm radius and are driven in-phase by a 10. mA current
source at 500. MHz. Find and plot the radiation pattern at = /2 and determine the
maximum time-averaged power density at a distance 100. m from the array.

2
Farray 4 cos 2 , d cos cos 0o 2 cos

2
so Farray 4 cos 2 cos , Farray 4
max

## For magnetic dipoles we have:

2
1 o I o S
Pmax 1 loop ,
32o r
where
2 c 3 x108
0.6m, S a 2 0.01
2
,
f 5 x10 8

so
2 500 x106 4 x107 0.01 2 0.6 0.01 2
2
1
Pmax 1 loop
32 120 100

Pmax 1 loop 14.2 pW 2
m

Pmax Pmax 1 loop 4 57 pW 2
m
A plot of cos2(cos) gives the same result at P8.35.
8-33

P8.40: Given a pair of dipole antennas separated by /4 and driven in-phase, determine,
for = /2, (a) the values for at the nulls in the radiation pattern, and (b) the values of
where the radiated power is maximum.

2
(b) d cos cos 0o cos
4

Pn cos cos cos ,
2 2
and maximum Pn occurs at = /2, 3 /2.
(a)To find the location for the minimum Pn, we must take a derivative of the Pn function:

dPn
sin sin cos 0 at 0, (for Pn min )
d 2 2

P8.41: MATLAB: Create a movie to plot the radiated power pattern in the x-y plane for
the pair of dipoles in Example 8.7 as the separation distance varies from /10 to 4.

% MLP0841
% Show in a movie how the radiated power pattern
% in the x-y plane varies with separation distance
% between a pair of in-phase dipoles.
%
% Wentworth, 2/11/03
%
clc %clears the command window
clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables
N=360;
phi=1:1:N;
phir=phi*pi./180;

## % Generate Reference Frame

L=0.1;
polar(0,1);
T=num2str(L);
S=strvcat('Separation distance:',T,'wavelengths');
text(1.0,1.0,S)
axis manual
8-34

hold on
pause

## % Make the Movie

L=0.1:0.01:4.0;
for n=1:391
polar(0,1)
axis manual
title('dual element dipole array radiation pattern')
T=num2str(L(n));
S=strvcat('Separation distance:',T,'wavelengths');
text(1.0,1.0,S)
hold on
P=(cos(pi*L(n)*cos(phir))).^2;
polar(phir,P)
hold off
M(:,1)=getframe;
end

## Fig. P8.41: snapshot at end of movie

P8.42: Plot the normalized radiation pattern at = /2 for 3 dipole antenna elements
spaced /2 apart with progressive phase steps of 90.

## We will use Equation (8.103).

8-35

%MLP0842
clc
clear
phi=.5:.5:360;
phir=phi*pi./180;
Psi=pi*cos(phir)+pi/2;
N=3;
num=(sin(N.*Psi./2)).^2;
den=(sin(Psi./2)).^2;
Pn=(num./den)./(N^2);
polar(phir,Pn)

Fig. P8.42

## P8.43: A particular broadside antenna array consists of 10 /2 dipole antenna elements

spaced /2 apart with all currents driven at the same phase. Plot the radiation pattern, and
find the maximum broadside power density (i.e. at = = /2) at a distance of 10. km if
the antenna is driven by 10.A current sources at 2.45 GHz.

15 I o2 15 10 2 W
2
Pmax Funit Farray N
2
2
102 480 2
max
r 10, 000 m

Pn 2
1 sin
2 N

2 , d cos cos
N sin 2

2
So we plot
1 sin 5 cos
2

Pn
100
sin 2 cos
2
%MLP0843
clc
clear
phi=.5:.5:360;
phir=phi*pi./180;
Psi=pi*cos(phir);
N=10;

Fig. 8.43
8-36

num=(sin(N.*Psi./2)).^2;
den=(sin(Psi./2)).^2;
Pn=(num./den)./(N^2);
polar(phir,Pn)

## P8.44: A particular endfire antenna array consists of 10 /2 dipole antenna elements

spaced /2 apart with a progressive phase shift of 90 to each antenna. Plot the radiation
pattern, and find the maximum endfire power density (i.e. at = /2 and = 0) at a
distance of 10. km if the antenna is driven by 10A current sources at 2.45 GHz.

## This has the same Pmax as P8.43 (480

W/m2). In the MATLAB routine of
P8.43, we use

cos .
2

## 6. The Friis Transmission Equation

P8.45: Consider a pair of half-wave
dipole antennas operating at 2.45 GHz,
separated by 50. m and aligned for
maximum power transfer. If the
output power must be at least -35 dBm
to be detectable, calculate how much
power is required to drive the
transmitting antenna. Assume the
antennas are 100% efficient. Fig. P8.44

c 3 x108
At f = 2.45 GHz we have 0.122m
f 2.45 x109
Also, for half-wave dipoles the maximum directivity is 1.64.
Applying the Friis Equation:
2
2 0.122
2
Prec W
Dmax1 Dmax 2 1.64
102 x109
Prad 4 R 4 50 W
or -70dB.

Now, with Prec = -35 dBm, we have Prad = -35 dBm + 70 dB = 35 dBm, or 3.2 W.

## P8.46: (JustAsk): A half-wave dipole transmitting antenna is centered on the z-axis

oriented in the z direction. Show in a sketch where would you place a small loop
antenna, 100 m distant, to receive the maximum power. (Hint: consider both radiation
pattern and polarization to achieve maximum power transfer.) Calculate the power
transfer ratio for the maximum power transfer case at 800 MHz if the small loop antenna
has a 2.0 cm diameter.
8-37

Maximum radiation occurs at = 90, so we choose, for instance, a point on the y-axis.
Then, we know for a small loop antenna the polarization will be in a plane containing the
loop. For maximum power transfer the polarizations must match. Therefore the loop can
be parallel to the y-z plane or to the x-z plane, but not to the x-y plane. Figure P8.46
shows a suggested orientation.

Fig. P8.46

Now, to find the power transfer ratio we apply the Friis equation. We first find
c 3x108
0.375m
f 0.800 x109
and we also know for a half-wavelength dipole Dmax = 1.64. Since the loop diameter is
small compared to the wavelength, we have for the small loop Dmax = 1.5. So
2
Prec
2
0.375 9 W
Dmax1 Dmax 2 1.64 1.5
219 x10
Prad 4 R 4 100 W
So the power transfer ratio is Prec/Prad = -67 dB.

P8.47: A pair of z-polarized dipole antenna with lengths indicated is shown in Figure
8.50. If the 3.0 m dipole is driven by a 50. MHz source, calculate the power transfer
ratio.

2
Prec
D , D ,
where c f 6m and R = 4000m.
P , P , 4
D , n n Pn , Dmax Pn ,
Pn , avg p 4 p
For the transmitter,
8-38

cos 2 cos
Pnt 60o, 2 0.667
sin 2

## and Dmax = 1.64 for the /2 dipole.

For the receiver, a 4 cm length dipole is much smaller than the wavelength, so we can
consider this antenna to be a Hertzian dipole. Then,
Pnr 120o, sin 2 0.750
and Dmax = 1.5 for the Hertzian dipole.
So,
2
Prec 6 W
1.64 0.667 1.50 0.750
17.5 x109
or
Prec
77 dB

P8.48: Consider a pair of half-wave dipole antennas operating at 1.0 GHz and separated
by 100. m on the y-axis. Initially, both antennas are aligned in the z-direction for
maximum power transfer. Now to test the effect of polarization, the antenna at the origin
is allowed to rotate an angle in the x-z plane as shown in Figure 8.51. Plot the power
transfer ratio versus from =0 (maximum transfer case) to = 90.

2
Pout
e p D1 , D2max
Pin 4 R

cos 2 cos
D1 , Dmax Pn , , Pn , 2
sin
2

Inspecting the problems geometry, we see that the angle in our Pn equation is
referenced to the axis of the dipole. For simplification, well let be the angle the dipole
makes with the z-axis and then let be the angle from the dipole axis to a line drawn to
the second antenna. Figure P8.48a shows this situation. Then we have

cos 2 cos
2 2
Pn ,

sin 2
2
8-39

Fig. P8.48a

Fig. P8.48b

## The polarization efficiency term is seen to be ep = cos2.

At 1 GHz, we have l = 0.3 m. And for half-wave dipoles we have Dmax = D2max = 1.64.

% MLP0848
clc
clear

D=1.64;
lambda=0.3;
R=100;
B=(lambda/(4*pi*R))^2;

alpha=1:1:88;
alphar=alpha*pi./180;

A=cos((pi/2)*cos((pi/2)-alphar));
Pn=A.^2./(sin((pi/2)-alphar)).^2;
D1=D.*Pn;
ep=(cos(alphar)).^2;

Prat=ep.*D1.*D.*B;
PdB=10*log10(Prat);

plot(alpha,PdB)
xlabel('angle(degrees)')
ylabel('(Pout/Pin) dB')
grid on
8-40

P8.49: Design an open-ended shunt stub matching network to match a half-wave dipole
transmitting antenna to a source with 50 impedance. Now suppose this antenna
network is to be used as a receiver. Use a Smith Chart to determine the impedance
looking into the matching network from the antenna.

The impedance matching network is solved similar to approach used in P8.23, only now
the shunt stub is open-ended instead of shorted. The solution is shown in FigP8.49a.

(a) (b)

## Fig P8.49 a & b

Now we need to find the input impedance looking into the matching network from the
antenna, as indicated in Fig P8.49c.

## Fig P8.49 b & c

8-41

First, looking into the open-ended stub of length 0.392 we see normalized admittance ya
move from this point (at 0.344 on the WTG scale) a distance 0.215 towards the
generator to the point 0.0559. Then we move to the impedance chart and see zin = 1.5
j0.8. De-normalizing, we find: Zin = 75 j40 . This is close the the theoretical Z in =
Zant* = 73 j42 .

P8.50: Referring to Figure 8.52, suppose a source voltage with amplitude 12.V and
source resistance 50 drives a half-wave dipole transmitting antenna at 500 MHz. An
identical receiving antenna, 100. meters away and aligned for maximum power transfer,
is coupled to a 50 load resistance. Clearly neither antenna is impedance-matched to
the transmit and receive circuitry. Calculate the voltage amplitude across this load
resistor.

## Using FigP8.50a we see that

1 vs 12V
2 Z o Z ant 50 73.2 j 42.5
1
.092 73.2 310mW
2
2
c
Now we find the transfer ratio by applying the Friis equation where 0.6 m :
f
2
Prec
2
0.6
Dmax t Dmax r 1.64 1.64
613 x109
100
So Prec = 190 nW.
Now we calculate Voc by assuming a matched load:
V2
Prec oc , Voc 4 Rrad Prec 7.46mV
8-42

## Finally, we calculate vL (see Figure P8.50b):

Zo 50
vL Voc 7.46mV 2.9mV
Z o Z ant 50 73.2 j 42.5

P8.51: Design open-ended shunt stub matching networks for both the transmitter and
receiver of problem P8.50. Now recalculate the voltage amplitude across the load
resistor.

## The matching networks are the same as for P8.49.

1 v
2 2Z o
The power transfer ratio is:
Prec
613 x109 , from P8.50.
Therefore, Prec = 220.7nW.
Now, since the receiver is matched, half the power must be dissipated in the load, or
1 1 vL2
Prec , vL Prec Z o 3.3mV
2 2 Zo

P8.52: Manipulate (8.125) using (8.113) to arrive at (8.126).

## Rearranging (8.113) we find

4
D , 2 Ae ,

This can be inserted into (8.125) for D(), or
2
Prec1 s 2 4 s
4 2 e
Ae , A , .
2
4
3 2
4 R

P8.53: (JustAsk): Suppose a 2 GHz radar antenna of effective area 6.0 m 2 transmits 100
kW. If a target with a 12 m 2 radar cross section is 100 km away, (a) what is the round-trip
travel time for the radar pulse? (b) What is the received power? (c) What is the
maximum detectable range if the radar system has a minimum detectable power of 2.0
pW?

## The given information is:

f = 2GHz, so = 0.15m
Ae = 6.0m2
8-43

s = 12m2
R=100 km

R
(a) t 2 0.67 ms
c
s 12m 2
2
6m 1.53 pW
2
P
(b) rec1 P A 2
100 kW
4 R 4 100km 0.15m
rad 1 4 2 e 4

## (c) To find Rmax if (Prec)min = 2.0pW, we rearrange the radar equation as

Prad 1 s 100kW 12m 2
2
6m 76.4 x1018
2
R
4
Ae
2

Prec1 4 2
2 pW 4 0.15m
R = 93 km.

P8.54: A half-wave dipole antenna is used in a radar system to determine range to a target
that has a 1.0 m2 radar cross section. Consider that 1.0 kW is available to drive the
antenna at 300 MHz. What power is received if the target is (a) 100 m distant? (b) 1.0
km distant?

## At 300 MHz we have = 1m.

Now we use (8.125):
Prec1 s 2 1m 2 1m
2

2 2
D , 1.64
3
4 R 4
3

## With Prad1 = 1 kW, we then have

1.355
Prec1
R4
(a) Prec1 = 13.6 nW
(b) Prec1 = 1.36 pW

## P8.55: Suppose a 10 GHz radar antenna of effective area 100 m 2 is to be used to

determine the distance to the moon. The moon, with radius 1.74 x 10 6 m, has a measured
radar cross section of 6.64 x 1011 m2. A 27 pW echo signal is received 2.56 seconds after
transmission. (a) What is the distance to the moon, and (b) approximately how much

## The given information is:

f = 10 GHz (and therefore = 0.030 m)
Ae = 100m2
s = 6.64x1011 m2
Prec = 27 pW
t = 2.56 sec

## (a) we know that t = 2R/c, so R = tc/2 = 384x106 m

8-44

(b)
Prec1 s 6.64 x1011 m 2

2
A 2
100 m 27 x1018
Prad 1 4 R 4 384 x10 m 0.030m
4 2 e 4 2
6

Prec1 27 x1012