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Wentworth Chapter 8 Answers

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1. General Properties

P8.1: In free space, a wave propagating radially away from an antenna at the origin has

Is

Hs cos 2 a ,

r

where the driving current phasor Is = Ioej. Determine (a) Es, (b) P(r,) and (c) Rrad.

Is

E s a P H s oa r cos 2 a ,

r

o I s

( a )E s cos 2 a

r

1 1 I e j I e j

P Re E s H*s Re o o cos 2 a o cos 2 a

2 2 r r

2

1 I

(b) P r , , o o cos 4 a r

2 r

Now to find Rrad:

1

Prad P (r , , )gdS I o2 Rrad ,

2

2

1 cos

4

1

Prad o I o2 2 a r gr 2 sin d d a r o I o2 cos 4 sin d d

2 r 2 0 0

o I o2 2 1

cos5 o I o2 I o2 Rrad

Prad

5 0 5 2

Solving:

2

120 I o2

Rrad 5 96 2

1 2

Io

2

(c ) Rrad 950

P8.2: What is the pattern solid angle and the directivity for an isotropic antenna? How

about for a semi-isotropic antenna, that radiates equally in all directions above = /2,

but is zero otherwise?

2

P Pn , d (1)sin d d 4

0 0

4

P 4 , and Dmax 1.

P

For a semi-isotropic antenna:

8-2

2 2

P 0

(1)sin d d 2 ,

0

and Dmax 2.

P8.3: Sketch an appropriate cross-section of the radiation pattern and determine the

beamwidth, pattern solid angle and directivity for the following normalized radiation

intensities:

(a ) Pn , cos for 0 2, 0 otherwise.

(b) Pn , cos2 for 0 2, 0 otherwise.

(c ) Pn , cos3 for 0 2, 0 otherwise.

% MLP0803

% Polar Plots for P8.03

%

% The polar plot function doesn't allow multiple

% plots. So we have to let the angle theta loop

% around several times, changing the rho function

% each time.

%

for i=1:100

theta(i)=-pi/2+i*pi/100;

rho(i)=cos(theta(i));

end

for j=101:200

theta(j)=(-pi/2)+j*pi/100;

rho(j)=0;

end

for i=201:300

theta(i)=-pi/2+i*pi/100;

rho(i)=(cos(theta(i)))^2;

end

for j=301:400

theta(j)=-pi/2+j*pi/100;

rho(j)=0;

end

for i=401:500

theta(i)=-pi/2+i*pi/100;

rho(i)=(cos(theta(i)))^3;

end Fig. P8.3

for j=501:600

8-3

theta(j)=-pi/2+j*pi/100;

rho(j)=0;

end

polar(theta,rho)

(a) Beamwidth: solving for cos = 0.5, we find = 60, and beamwidth =2 = 120.

2

0

u cos , du sin d , so

2

P 2 udu u 2 cos 2 sr.

0

4

Dmax 4

P

(b) Beamwidth: solving for cos2 = 0.5, we find = 45, and beamwidth =2 = 90.

2

P cos sin d d 2

2

cos

2

sin d

0

u cos , du sin d , so

2

2 3 2 2

P 2 u du

2

u cos3 sr

3 3 0 3

4

Dmax 6

P

(c) Beamwidth: solving for cos3 = 0.5, we find = 37.5, and beamwidth =2 = 75.

P cos3 sin d d 2 u 3du

where u cos and du -sin d ,

2

2

P cos 4 sr

4 0 2

4

Dmax 8

P

8-4

P8.4: Sketch an appropriate cross-section of the radiation pattern and determine the

beamwidth, pattern solid angle and directivity for the following normalized radiation

intensities:

(a ) Pn , sin

(b) Pn , sin 2

(c) Pn , sin 3

1 1

(a) Pn sin , sin 1 30o.

2 2

Now, since the beam is maximum at = 90, the beamwidth is from 30 to 150, or BW =

120.

2

P Pn d sin sin d d sin 2 d d

0 0

1 4

so P 2 1 cos 2 d 2 sr , Dmax 1.27

0

2 P

1 1

(b) Pn sin 2 , sin 1 45 , BW 135 45 90

o o o o

2 2

P Pn d sin 2 sin d d 2 1 cos 2 sin d

0

P 2 sin d 2 cos 2 sin d

0 0

2 4 8

2 cos 0 cos3 4 sr

3 0 3 3

4

so Dmax 1.5

P

(c) Pn

1

2

sin 3 , sin 1 1 2 3 52.5o, BW 180o 52.5o 52.5o 75o

1

1 1

P 2 sin 4 d 2 1 cos 2 d 1 2 cos 2 1 cos 4 d

2

0 0

4 2 0 2

Plots are generated using MLP0804:

% MLP0804

%

% Generate polar plots

%

clc

clear

for i=1:100

theta(i)=i*pi/50;

Fig. P8.4

8-5

rho(i)=abs(sin(theta(i)));

end

for i=101:200

theta(i)=i*pi/50;

rho(i)=(sin(theta(i)))^2;

end

for i=201:300

theta(i)=i*pi/50;

rho(i)=abs(sin(theta(i))^3);

end

polar(theta,rho)

P8.5: (JustAsk): You are given the following normalized radiation intensity:

Pn , sin 2 sin 3 for 0 ,

0 otherwise.

Find the beamwidth, pattern solid angle, and directivity.

1

The beam is pointing in the ay direction, and we have BW

2

BW BW .

To find BW, we fix = /2 and set sin2 equal to . Then,

1

sin 1

45o, so BW 180o 45o 45o 90o.

2

To find BW, we fix = /2, and set sin3 = , giving us

sin 1 1 2

1

3

52.5 ,o

so BW 180o 52.5o 52.5o 75o.

1

Finally, BW

2

90o 75o 82.5o.

The pattern solid angle is

P Pn d sin 2 sin 3 sin d d ,

P sin 3 d sin 3 d , (note limits on )

0 0

y sin 3 xdx 1 cos 2 x sin xdx sin xdx cos 2 x sin xdx.

0 0 0 0

sin xdx cos x

0

0

2

1

cos x sin xdx u 2 du u 3 , where u cos x, du sin xdx.

2

0

3

8-6

1 1 2

so cos 2 x sin xdx cos 3 x (1 1) .

0

3 0 3 3

So we have

2 4

y sin 3 xdx 2 ,

0

3 3

4 4 16

and P sin 3 d sin 3 d 1.78sr.

0 0 3 3 9

4 4

Dmax 7.1

P 1.78

Pn , sin 2 sin .

2

Determine the beamwidth, direction of maximum radiation, pattern solid angle and

directivity.

1

BW

2

BW BW ,

BW: Fix = , sin2 = 1/2, = 45, BW = (180 45) 45 =90.

BW: Fix = /2, sin(/2)=1/2, BW = (360 60) 60 = 240

BW = (90+240)/2=165

direction).

2

P sin 2 sin sin d d sin d sin 3 d

2 0

2 0

Do each integral separately:

2 2

0 2

sin d 2 cos

20

2(1 1) 4

sin

3

d 1 cos sin dx sin d cos 2 sin d

2

0 0 0 0

1 1 2 4

cos 0 cos3 (1 1) (1 1) 2

3 0 3 3 3

4 16 4 3

So P (4) , and Dmax 2.4

3 3 P 4

8-7

1

Eos Hos ,

j o

to find Eos from (8.46) without assuming the far-field condition. Then, show that this

value of Eos reduces to (8.50) in the far-field.

I sl 2

A .

4

1 j 1

HOS sin Ae j r 2 sin a r

r sin r r

1 j 1

rAe j r 2 sin a

r r r r

Well break these up and do them separately:

ar derivative:

Ae j r j 1 e j r j 1

r sin r r

2 sin 2 a r 2 A 2 cos a r .

r r r

a derivative:

A sin je j r e j r A sin j r e j r j e j r

a e a

r r 2 r r 2 r

2r 2

Ae j r 1 j

1 sin a

r r

2

2 r

Ae j r j2 2 1 j

HOS 2

cos a r 1 2 sin a

r r r r

2

r

Now,

1

EOS HOS , so

j o

A e j r j2 2 1 j

EOS

2

cos a r 1 2 sin a .

j o r r r r r

2

This is EOS without assuming the far-field condition. For far-field, we only need to

consider the single 1/r term (1/r2<<1/r). So we have

A e j r I l 2 e j r

EOS sin a s sin a

j o r j 4 o r

upon reinserting our value for A from above. Rearranging, we have

I sl e j r

EOS j sin a .

o 4 r

8-8

o o o

o , so

o o o

I sl e j r

EOS jo sin a ,

4 r

which is equation (8.50) for the far-field.

A os o I o e j y a z .

Find Hos, Eos, and the time-averaged power density vector P.

BOS A OS

y

o Ioe j y a x j o I oe j y a x .

BOS

HOS j I oe j y a x .

o

EOS oa y HOS oa y j I o e j y a x jo I o e j y a z .

1

P Re EOS H*OS , so

2

1 1

P Re jo I o e j y a z j I o e j y a x o I o a y .

2

2 2

Note that this problem is not very realistic, but is good to teach the mechanics of going

from AOS to P.

P8.9: (JustAsk): Suppose a Hertzian dipole antenna is 1.0 cm long and is excited by a 10.

mA amplitude current source at 100. MHz. What is the maximum power density radiated

by this antenna at a 1.0 km distance? What is the antennas radiation resistance?

c 3 x108 m s

cf, 3m.

f 100 x106 1 s

o 2 I o2 l 2 120 2 0.010 0.010

2 2 2

pW

Pmax 0.052 2

32 r 2 2

32 32

2

1000 2

m

2 2

l 0.01

Rrad 80 2 80 2 8.8m

3

8-9

P8.10: A 1.0 cm long, 1.0 mm diameter copper wire is used as a Hertzian dipole radiator

at 1.0 GHz. (a) Find Rrad. (b) Estimate Rdiss by considering the skin effect resistance of

the wire. (c) Find efficiency, e. (d) Find the maximum power gain Gmax.

c 3 x108 m s

0.3m

f 1x109 1 s

2 2

l 0.01

Rrad 80 80 2

2

0.877

.3

From Example 8.2 we have Cu 1GHz 2.09 x10 m

6

1l 1 0.01

Rdiss 0.026

S 5.8 x10 6.57 x109

7

Rrad 0.877

e 0.97

Rrad Rdiss 0.877 0.026

Gmax eDmax 0.97 1.5 1.46

P8.11: Evaluate the curl of Aos (equation (8.59)) to find Hos. Now apply a far-field

approximation to verify (8.60).

o I s S

2

Eqn. (8.59): A OS 1 j r e j r sin a

4 r

Since AOS only has an A component, we have

1 1

A OS

r sin

sin A a r

r r

rA a

A A jA j r

Well let A 2 1 j r e

j r

sin 2 e j r sin e sin ,

r r r

I S

where A o S .

4

We break up the derivative into two parts:

A j r jA j r sin jA j r

2

A

1.

sin A 2 e

r

r

e

r

2 e j r

r

e 2sin cos

or

2A j 2 A j r

r r

e sin cos

1 2A j 2 A j r

r sin

sin A a r 3 e j r cos

r r 2

e cos a r

A

2.

r

rA e j r sin jA e j r sin ,

r r

8-10

e j r e j r j e j r A j r jA j r

A sin A sin 2 e sin e sin

r r r 2

r r r

and the right derivative is

jA sin e j r jA sin j e j r A 2e j r sin

r

So

1 A j r jA j r A 2 j r

r r

rA a 3 e sin 2 e sin e sin a

r r r

2A j 2 A j r

A OS 3 e j r cos 2

e cos a r

r r

A j r jA j r A 2 j r

3 e sin 2 e sin e sin a

r r r

Now, reinserting our value for A, we can find HOS as

1 1 2 o I s S j r j 2 I S

H OS A OS 3 e cos 2 o s e j r cos a r

o o r 4 r 4

1 o I s S j r j o I s S j r o I s S j r

2

3 e sin 2 e sin e sin a

r 4 r 4 r 4

and reducing we find

IS j I s S j r

H OS s 3 e j r cos e cos a r

2 r 2 r 2

I s S j r j I s S j r 2 I s S j r

e sin e sin e sin a

4 r 4 r 4 r

3 2

With the far-field approximation, only the 1/r term will be significant and we have

2 I s S j r

H OS e sin a

4 r

Now, making use of o o and o o o , we find

2 I s S o I s S

,

4 r 40 r

o I s S j r

so H OS e sin a , which is Equation (8.60).

40 r

P8.12: Neglecting resistive losses in the wire, how much current must drive a loop

antenna of radius 2.0 cm at 60 MHz to radiate 1.0 W of power? Repeat for a 20 turn

loop.

8-11

c 3 x108

At 60 MHz, 5m . So at 2 cm radius, we have the small loop situation.

f 60 x106

2

4 3 I 2 S

For a small loop: Prad o o 2 ,

3

Here,

S a 2 0.02m 1.257 x103 m 2 .

2

2

3Prad 2

(a) I o 159 A

4o 3 S

with N=20,

1 159

(b) I o 159 A 2

8A

N N

I e j r

Hos s sin cos a

4 r

where Is = Ioej. What is the radiation resistance of this antenna at 100 MHz?

o I s e j r

EOS oa r H OS sin cos a

4 r

2

1 1 I o

P (r , , ) Re EOS H OS o

*

sin cos a r

2 2

2 2 4 r

Note also that P (r , , ) Pmax Pn ( , )a r , where here

2

1 I o

Pmax o , and Pn , sin cos .

2 2

2 4 r

Then, P Pn ( , )d .

2 4

Referring to P8.5, sin d 2 , and

3

0

3 3

2

1

cos d d cos 2 d .

2

0

2

4

So, P Pn ( , )d sr

3

2 1 I o 4

2

Prad r Pmax P r o

2

.

2 4 r 3

Using o 120 and 2 , we find

8-12

20 2 I o2

Prad .

2

1 2 2P 40 2

Finally, Prad I o Rrad , so Rrad rad ,

2 I o2 2

and since for this problem, c f 3m, Rrad 40 9 44

2

P8.14: Suppose in the far-field for a particular antenna at the origin, the electric field is

e j r

Eos o I o sin a .

r

What is the radiation resistance of this antenna?

1 2

Well use: Prad I o Rrad r 2 Pmax P , so we must find Pmax and p.

2

1 e j r e j r

H S a r o I o sin a I o sin a

o r r

1 1 1

P Re EOS H*OS o I o2 sin 2 a r ,

r

2

2 2

so

1 1

Pmax o I o2 , and Pn sin 2 .

r

2

2

2

P Pn d sin d d 2 1 cos 2 sin d

3

0 0 0

1 8

P 2 sin d cos 2 sin d 2 cos 0 cos 2 sr

0 0 3 0

3

2 2 1 1 8 8 (120 )8

Rrad 2 r 2 Pmax P 2 r 2 o I o2 o 320

r 3 3 3

2

Io Io 2

P8.15: Derive the expressions for radiated power (equation (8.64)) and radiation

resistance (equation (8.65)) for a small loop antenna.

1 2

Well use: Prad I o Rrad r 2 Pmax P

2

2 o 2 I o2 S 2 2

From (8.63) we have Pmax

32o 2 r 2

and

2

8

P sin 2 d sin 3 d d sr (see integral solution of P8.14)

0 0

3

8-13

Now,

2 o 2 I o2 S 2 2 8

Prad r 2 Pmax P r 2 2 2

32o r 3

o

Using the conversions: o o , 2 , and o o

we arrive at:

2

4 3 2 S 1

Prad o I o 2 I o2 Rrad

3 2

Solving for Rrad,

2

4 S

Rrad 320 2

3. Dipole Antennas

P8.16: MATLAB: Develop a routine to calculate the beamwidth for a dipole antenna of

arbitrary length between 0.1and 1.

% MLP0816

%

% Determine beamwidth for an arbirary length

% dipole antenna. Equation (8.74) is used.

%

% 2/10/03 Wentworth

%

% Variables

% L dipole length in wavelengths

% th(i) theta angle (degrees)

% num,den calculation variables

% F(i) function F from (8.74)

% Fmax maximum F(i)

% thmax angle where Fmax occurs

% diff(i) calculation variable used to find BW

% diffmin calculation variable used to find BW

% thhalf theta at the half-power point

%

clc

clear

% dipole length

L=1; %dipole length in wavelengths

% initialize settings

diffmin=.1;

8-14

% perform calculations

bL=2*pi*L;

% Find Fmax

for i=1:1:180

th(i)=i*pi/360;

num=cos((bL/2)*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL/2);

den=sin(th(i));

F(i)=(num/den)^2;

end

Fmax=max(F);

% Find thmax

for i=1:1:180

if F(i)>=Fmax

Fmax=F(i);

thmax=180*th(i)/pi;

end

end

for i=1:1:180

Pn(i)=F(i)/Fmax;

diff(i)=abs(Pn(i)-0.5);

if diff(i)<diffmin

diffmin=diff(i);

thhalf=180*th(i)/pi;

end

end

BW=2*abs(thhalf-thmax)

L = 0.1 0 BW = 90

L = 0.25 BW = 87

L = 0.50 BW = 78

L = 0.75 BW = 64

L = 1.0 BW = 48

P8.17: How long is a 1.5 long dipole antenna at 1.0 GHz? Suppose this antenna is

constructed using AWG#20 (0.406 mm radius) copper wire. Determine Rdiss, e, and Gmax.

8-15

c 3 x108

0.3m, L 1.5 0.45m

f 1x109

1l

Rdiss

S

From example 8.2, the skin depth for this wire at 1 GHz is 2.09x10 -6m. Then, the cross-

sectional surface over which we consider the current to be conducted is:

S 2 r Cu 5.33 x109 m 2

Then:

1 0.45m

Rdiss 7 1

1.456

5.8 x10 5.33x109 m 2

m

30

Now we need radiation resistance, Rrad F max P , and we use Matlab 0804 to find

P = 8.08 (and Dmax = 1.55), and Fmax = 1.366. Therefore, Rrad = 105.

The efficiency is

Rrad

e 0.986

Rrad Rdiss

Finally, Gmax = e Dmax = 1.53.

One approach is to carefully plot the pattern and then estimate the beamwidth (see Figure

P8.18). A more exact method is as follows.

cos 2 cos

Here we have

Pn 2 1 , or 2 cos 2 cos sin 2

sin 2

2 2

We can define a function

F ( ) 2 cos 2 cos sin 2 , and then

2

dF ( )

4 cos cos sin cos sin 2sin cos .

d 2 2 2

Rearranging, we have

dF

F '( ) 2 sin cos cos sin cos 2sin cos .

d 2 2

Now we can apply the Newton Raphson routine to converge onto a solution:

F (i )

i 1 i .

F '(i )

Newton-Raphson routine:

% MLP0818

%

8-16

% on half wavelength dipole antenna.

%

% 2/10/03 Wentworth

clc

clear

N=20;

th(1)=45; %initial wild guess for th

thr(1)=th(1)*pi/180;

for i=1:N

F=2*cos((pi/2)*cos(thr(i)))^2-sin(thr(i))^2;

dF=2*pi*sin(thr(i))*cos((pi/2)*cos(thr(i)))*sin((pi/2)*sin(t

hr(i)))-2*sin(thr(i))*cos(thr(i));

thr(i+1)=thr(i)-F/dF;

end

th=180*thr(N+1)/pi;

BW=2*(90-th)

BW =

78.0777

>>

So BW = 78

Fig. P8.18

P8.19: A 2.45 GHz /2 dipole

antenna is driven by a 2.0 A

amplitude current source. Find the maximum power density at a distance of 1.0 km.

15 I o2 15(2) 2 W

Pmax 19 2

r 2

(1000) 2

m

P8.20: Given a z-polarized half-wave dipole antenna at the origin, and a driving current

i(t) = 10cos(2x109t) A, find the instantaneous electric and magnetic fields at a point 2.0

km distant and angle =60.

To find Hos we modify equation (8.71) by considering (L/2)=/2:

8-17

jI o e j r cos 2 cos

H os a

2 r sin

o

j (10) e j (20.944)(2000) cos 2 cos 60

a 6.5 x104 e j156oa A

2 2000 sin 60 o

m

V o

Eos oar H os 0.245e j156 a

m

Converting to instantaneous form:

V

E 0.245cos t 156o a

m

mA

H 0.65cos t 156o a

m

These equations can also be written in terms of sin as:

V

E 0.245sin t 114o a

m

mA

H 0.65sin t 114o a

m

P8.21: MATLAB: Modify MATLAB 8.4 to calculate directivity and radiation resistance

for an arbitrary length dipole antenna. Evaluate these properties for a 0.75 dipole

antenna.

% M-File: MLP0821

% Modify ML0804 to calculate D and radiation resistance.

% All that is needed is a line to calculate Rrad

% using Equation (8.79).

%

clc %clears the command window

clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables

L=.75;

bL2=pi*L;

N=90;

% Perform calculations

i=1:1:N;

dth=pi/N;

8-18

th(i)=i*pi/N;

num(i)=cos(bL2.*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL2);

den(i)=sin(th(i));

F(i)=((num(i)).^2)./den(i);

Fmax=max(F);

Pn=F./Fmax;

omegaP=2*pi*dth*sum(Pn)

Dmax=4*pi/omegaP

Fmax

% Calculate Rrad

Rrad=(30/pi)*Fmax*omegaP

omegaP =

6.6769

Dmax =

1.8821

Fmax =

2.9142

Rrad =

185.8086

>>

P8.22: (JustAsk): Find a 3.0 m long dipole antennas directivity and radiation resistance if

it is operated at (a) 250 MHz, (b) 500 MHz, and (c) 750 MHz.

c 3 x108 m s 3m

(a) 1.2m, L = 2.5

6

f 250 x10 / s 1.2m

Now we use this information in MLP0821. Plugging in L = 2.5, we have

omegaP =

7.4529

D=

1.6861

Fmax =

8-19

1.6969

Rrad =

120.7662

>>

Following the same approach for the other two frequencies, we arrive at the following

table of results:

f(MHz) L() Dmax Rrad()

250 2.5 1.69 121

500 5.0 2.37 342

750 7.5 2.23 154

What is the VSWR looking into this antenna? Design a shorted shunt stub network to

impedance match the antenna to the 50 line.

the VSWR with the Smith chart. Or we can calculate it as follows:

Z Z o 73.2 j 42.5 50 o

L ant 0.3715e j 42.3

Z ant Z o 73.2 j 42.5 50

1 L

VSWR 2.18

1 L

The stub matching solution uses the approach of chapter 6. We first locate the

normalized load (z = 1.46+j0.85) at point a, convert it to a normalized admittance at point

b, and move along the constant gamma circle to point c (distance traveled is 0.215)

where the admittance is y = 1+j1.8. Then we move from a short in the admittance chart

to the point 0-j1.8, moving a distance 0.142.

8-20

(b)

Fig. P8.23

P8.24: MATLAB: Use MATLAB 8.2 to generate plots like those of Figure 8.19 for a

dipole antenna of length 3.

Fig. P8.24

8-21

P8.25: A 0.485 dipole antenna is constructed for operation at 4.0 GHz. (a) How long is

the antenna? (b) What impedance is required of a quarter-wave transformer to match this

antenna to a 50 impedance line?

c 3x108 0.075m

0.075m, L 0.485 0.0364m, L 3.6cm

f 4 x10 9

From section 8.3 describing the half-wave dipole, we know that a 0.485 dipole has Zant =

73. A quarter wavelength matching section will have an impedance:

Z (73)(50) 60

P8.26: MATLAB: Modify MATLAB 8.3 to run the movie from 0.1 up to 4.

% M-File: MLP0826

%

% Modifies ML0803 to extend movie for L

% up to 4 wavelengths

%

clc %clears the command window

clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables

N=360;

th=1:1:N;

thr=th*pi./180;

L=0.1;

polar(0,10); %sets scale for polar plot

T=num2str(L);

S=strvcat('Length',T,'wavelengths');

text(10,10,S)

axis manual

title('Linear Antenna Radiation Pattern')

hold on

pause

L=0.1:0.02:4;

for n=1:196

polar(0,10)

axis manual

8-22

T=num2str(L(n));

S=strvcat('Length',T,'wavelengths');

text(10,10,S)

hold on

num=cos(pi*L(n)*cos(thr))-cos(pi*L(n));

den=sin(thr);

F=(num./den).^2;

polar(thr,F)

hold off

M(:,1)=getframe;

end

The figure shows a snapshot of the movie when the angle reaches 4.

Fig. P8.26

P8.27: MATLAB: Using MATLAB 8.4, generate data of the pattern solid angle versus

number of increments N to see the function convergence. Consider a 1.25 dipole. Try

N = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128.

N WP

2 9.87

4 5.182

6 3.868

8 3.83

16 3.828

8-23

32 3.828

10

8

Pattern Solid Angle (sr)

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

N iterations

Fig. P8.27

The function converges above N = 8, so data from the N = 64 and 128 runs was omitted.

4. Monopole Antennas

P8.28: Consider a 1.0 nC charge at (0.0, 0.0, 5.0m) above a conductive sheet occupying

the x-y plane at z = 0. Use image theory to find the electric field intensity at the point

(0.0, 5.0m, 5.0m).

Q1 Q2

EP a aR2

4 o R12 R1

4 o R22

where R1 = 5ax and R2 = 5ax + 10az.

Also, R2 125m.

Evaluating the field from Q1:

1x109 C

E1 a

4 10 9

F

36 m

5m

2 x

V

0.36a x .

m

from Q2:

1x109 C 5a x 10a z

E2

9 3

4 10 F 125m

36 m Fig. P8.28

V

0.032a x 0.064a z .

m

The total field is then EP = 0.33ax 0.064az V/m.

8-24

In problem P8.18, we found the bandwidth for a /2 dipole antenna was 78. For the

/4 monopole, the bandwidth will be half that of the /2 dipole, or 39.

P8.30: MATLAB: Devise a routine to give a polar plot of the normalized power radiated

for an arbitrary length monopole antenna. Use your program to generate the polar plot

for a half-wave monopole.

% MLP0830

% Modify ML0802 to plot the normalized power radiated

% for an arbitrary length dipole.

% We remove the current distribution plot, and plot for

% theta from -90 to +90.

%

clc %clears the command window

clear %clears variables

clf %clear figure

% Initialize variables

Lmono=0.5;

L=2*Lmono;

bL2=pi*L;

N=180;

th=1:.1:N;

thr=(th-90)*pi./180;

F=((cos(bL2.*cos(thr))-cos(bL2))./sin(thr)).^2;

Fmax=max(F);

Pn=F./Fmax;

% Generate Plots

polar(0,1)

hold on

polar(thr,Pn)

T=num2str(Lmono);

S=strvcat('Monopole length',T,'wavelengths');

text(1.0,.8,S)

8-25

Fig. P8.30

P8.31: Determine the pattern solid angle, directivity and radiation resistance for a half-

wave monopole antenna.

P = 5.21 sr

Dmax = 2.41

Rrad = 200

1 1

p p , Dmax monopole

2 Dmax dipole

, Rrad monopole

Rrad dipole

,

monopole 2 dipole 2

So,

P = 2.6 sr

Dmax = 4.8

Rrad = 100

P8.32: How long is a 0.75monopole antenna at 1.0 GHz? Suppose this antenna is

constructed using AWG#20 (0.406 mm radius) copper wire. Determine Rdiss, e and Gmax.

Compare your results with the 1.5 dipole antenna of problem P8.17.

8-26

c 3 x108 m s 3

9

0.30m, L 0.225m 22.5cm

f 1x10 / s 4

1l

Rdiss

S

From example 8.2, the skin depth for this wire at 1 GHz is 2.09x10 -6m. Then, the cross-

sectional surface over which we consider the current to be conducted is:

S 2 r Cu 5.33 x109 m 2

Then, for the monopole,

1 0.225m

Rdiss 7 1

0.73

5.8 x10 5.33x109 m 2

m

To find e and Gmax, we need P, Dmax and Rrad. We can find these by running Matlab 8.4

for a 1. dipole, and then use

1 1

p p , Dmax monopole 2 Dmax dipole , Rrad monopole Rrad dipole .

monopole 2 dipole 2

We find

P = 4.04 sr

Dmax = 3.10

Rrad = 52.7 (half that of a 1.5 dipole)

So

Rrad 52.7

e 0.986 (same as a 1.5 dipole)

Rrad Rdiss 52.7 0.73

and

Gmax = eDmax = 3.04 (twice that of a 1.5 dipole)

P8.33: What is the VSWR looking into a quarter-wave monopole antenna if the feed line

has a 50 impedance? Design an open-ended shunt stub matching network to match

this antenna to the line.

Z Z o 36.6 j 21.5 50 o

ant 0.282e j108

Z ant Z o 36.6 j 21.5 50

1 1 0.282

VSWR 1.79

1 1 0.282

The Smith Chart solution for the open-ended stub matching network is shown in the

figure. After locating zL, we find yL and notice it is almost on the the 1 jb circle, at

about 1 j0.6. So we dont need a through line. The stub needs to give us y = 0 + j0.6,

or a length 0.086 is required.

8-27

Fig. P8.33

P8.34: Given a 1 GHz quarter-wave monopole antenna at the origin, excited by a 1.0 A

amplitude current, find the amplitudes for the electric and magnetic field intensities at a

point 1.0 km distant at an angle = 80.

j r cos cos

jI o e 2 a and E j H a

H os os

2 r sin

os o

2 1x109 / s cos cos80o

2 0.978

20.94 rad m , r 1000m, o

c 3x108 m s sin 80

H os

1A 0.978 156 A , E 120 H 59 mV

2 1000m

os os

m m

5. Antenna Arrays

P8.35: (JustAsk): Find and plot the far-field radiation pattern at = /2 for a two element

dipole antenna array given the following:

1. the dipoles are driven in-phase

2. each dipole is 1 in length oriented in the z-direction

3. the pair of dipoles are 1 apart on the x axis.

Also find the maximum time-averaged power density, in W/m2, 1.0 km away from the

array if each antenna is driven by a 1.0 A amplitude current source at 1.0 GHz.

8-28

% M-File: MLP0835a

% application of ML0804

%

clc %clears the command window

clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables

L=1.0;

bL2=pi*L;

N=90;

% Perform calculations

i=1:1:N;

dth=pi/N;

th(i)=i*pi/N;

num(i)=cos(bL2.*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL2);

den(i)=sin(th(i));

F(i)=((num(i)).^2)./den(i);

Fmax=max(F);

Pn=F./Fmax;

omegaP=2*pi*dth*sum(Pn)

D=4*pi/omegaP

Fmax

omegaP = 5.2121

D = 2.4110

Fmax = 4

>>

15 I o2 15 I o2 60 I o2

Pmax F 4 Funit

r2 max

r2 r2

Then, for the array we have

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos 2 cos

2

60 I o2

P r , , 2

4 cos 2 cos ,

2 r

8-29

or

240 1

2

60 I o2 240 I o2 W

Pmax 2

4 76.4 2

r r 1000

2 2

m

The far-field radiation pattern (plot of

cos2(cos)):

%MLP0835b

clc

clear

phi=.5:.5:360;

phir=phi*pi./180;

Psi=2*pi*cos(phir);

Pn=(cos(Psi./2)).^2;

polar(phir,Pn)

Fig. P8.35

P8.36: Repeat problem P8.35 if the dipoles are 180 out of phase.

60 I o2

Funit .

r2

Then, for the array we have

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos 2 cos +

2

240 I o2 2

P r , , cos cos ,

2 r 2

2

or

W

Pmax 76.4 2

m

The far-field radiation pattern (plot of cos2(cos)):

%MLP0836

clc

clear

phi=.5:.5:360;

phir=phi*pi./180;

Psi=2*pi*cos(phir)+pi;

8-30

Fig. P8.36

Pn=(cos(Psi./2)).^2;

polar(phir,Pn)

P8.37: Repeat P8.35 for the case where the dipoles are 90 out of phase, 1.5 in length,

and separated by /2.

% M-File: MLP0837a

% modify ML0804

clc %clears the command window

clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables

L=1.5;

bL2=pi*L;

N=90;

% Perform calculations

i=1:1:N;

dth=pi/N;

th(i)=i*pi/N;

num(i)=cos(bL2.*cos(th(i)))-cos(bL2);

den(i)=sin(th(i));

F(i)=((num(i)).^2)./den(i);

Fmax=max(F);

Pn=F./Fmax;

8-31

omegaP=2*pi*dth*sum(Pn)

D=4*pi/omegaP

Fmax

Now:

15 I o2 15 I o2

Pmax F max 1.366 Funit

r2 r2

Then, for the array we have

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos cos

2 2

2

15 I o

P r , , (1.366)4 cos 2 cos

2 r 2

2 4

or

15 1

2

W

Pmax (1.366)4 26 2 .

1000

2

m

Then we plot:

Pn cos 2 cos ,

2 4

Fig. P8.37

P8.38: Two z-polarized /2 dipole antennas are spaced /4 apart, centered at the origin on

the x-axis. (a) If the dipole located at x = -/8 is driven by Is1 = Ioej0, what phase shift

would you employ on the other dipole (Is2 = Ioej) to get maximum power at a far-field

point on the +x axis? (b) If the dipole antennas are each driven by 1.0 A amplitude

currents at 500 MHz, with the phase shift from part (a), find the time-averaged power

density vector at 2.0 km on the x-axis.

(a)

Farray 4 cos 2 , where d cos .

2

2

On the x-axis, = 0 so

4 2

8-32

1.

2

We want maximum Farray, or Farray = 4, when cos

2

This occurs when 0, , 2 ...,

2 4 2

satisfied when = -/2 or 3/2. So we employ a -90 or a +270 phase shift.

2

2 cos cos

15I o 2 a.

(b) P (r , ) unit

r sin

2 r

15I o2

At = /2, we then have Funit .

r2

The radiated power vector is then

15 1

2

15 I o2

P (r , ) array 2

4a r 4a r 4.78Wa r

r 2000

2

P8.39: Two small loop antennas, each oriented in the x-y plane, are centered at /2 on

the x-axis. They each have a 1.0 cm radius and are driven in-phase by a 10. mA current

source at 500. MHz. Find and plot the radiation pattern at = /2 and determine the

maximum time-averaged power density at a distance 100. m from the array.

2

Farray 4 cos 2 , d cos cos 0o 2 cos

2

so Farray 4 cos 2 cos , Farray 4

max

2

1 o I o S

Pmax 1 loop ,

32o r

where

2 c 3 x108

0.6m, S a 2 0.01

2

,

f 5 x10 8

so

2 500 x106 4 x107 0.01 2 0.6 0.01 2

2

1

Pmax 1 loop

32 120 100

Pmax 1 loop 14.2 pW 2

m

Pmax Pmax 1 loop 4 57 pW 2

m

A plot of cos2(cos) gives the same result at P8.35.

8-33

P8.40: Given a pair of dipole antennas separated by /4 and driven in-phase, determine,

for = /2, (a) the values for at the nulls in the radiation pattern, and (b) the values of

where the radiated power is maximum.

2

(b) d cos cos 0o cos

4

Pn cos cos cos ,

2 2

and maximum Pn occurs at = /2, 3 /2.

(a)To find the location for the minimum Pn, we must take a derivative of the Pn function:

dPn

sin sin cos 0 at 0, (for Pn min )

d 2 2

P8.41: MATLAB: Create a movie to plot the radiated power pattern in the x-y plane for

the pair of dipoles in Example 8.7 as the separation distance varies from /10 to 4.

% MLP0841

% Show in a movie how the radiated power pattern

% in the x-y plane varies with separation distance

% between a pair of in-phase dipoles.

%

% Wentworth, 2/11/03

%

clc %clears the command window

clear %clears variables

% Initialize variables

N=360;

phi=1:1:N;

phir=phi*pi./180;

L=0.1;

polar(0,1);

T=num2str(L);

S=strvcat('Separation distance:',T,'wavelengths');

text(1.0,1.0,S)

axis manual

8-34

hold on

pause

L=0.1:0.01:4.0;

for n=1:391

polar(0,1)

axis manual

title('dual element dipole array radiation pattern')

T=num2str(L(n));

S=strvcat('Separation distance:',T,'wavelengths');

text(1.0,1.0,S)

hold on

P=(cos(pi*L(n)*cos(phir))).^2;

polar(phir,P)

hold off

M(:,1)=getframe;

end

P8.42: Plot the normalized radiation pattern at = /2 for 3 dipole antenna elements

spaced /2 apart with progressive phase steps of 90.

8-35

%MLP0842

clc

clear

phi=.5:.5:360;

phir=phi*pi./180;

Psi=pi*cos(phir)+pi/2;

N=3;

num=(sin(N.*Psi./2)).^2;

den=(sin(Psi./2)).^2;

Pn=(num./den)./(N^2);

polar(phir,Pn)

Fig. P8.42

spaced /2 apart with all currents driven at the same phase. Plot the radiation pattern, and

find the maximum broadside power density (i.e. at = = /2) at a distance of 10. km if

the antenna is driven by 10.A current sources at 2.45 GHz.

15 I o2 15 10 2 W

2

Pmax Funit Farray N

2

2

102 480 2

max

r 10, 000 m

Pn 2

1 sin

2 N

2 , d cos cos

N sin 2

2

So we plot

1 sin 5 cos

2

Pn

100

sin 2 cos

2

%MLP0843

clc

clear

phi=.5:.5:360;

phir=phi*pi./180;

Psi=pi*cos(phir);

N=10;

Fig. 8.43

8-36

num=(sin(N.*Psi./2)).^2;

den=(sin(Psi./2)).^2;

Pn=(num./den)./(N^2);

polar(phir,Pn)

spaced /2 apart with a progressive phase shift of 90 to each antenna. Plot the radiation

pattern, and find the maximum endfire power density (i.e. at = /2 and = 0) at a

distance of 10. km if the antenna is driven by 10A current sources at 2.45 GHz.

W/m2). In the MATLAB routine of

P8.43, we use

cos .

2

P8.45: Consider a pair of half-wave

dipole antennas operating at 2.45 GHz,

separated by 50. m and aligned for

maximum power transfer. If the

output power must be at least -35 dBm

to be detectable, calculate how much

power is required to drive the

transmitting antenna. Assume the

antennas are 100% efficient. Fig. P8.44

c 3 x108

At f = 2.45 GHz we have 0.122m

f 2.45 x109

Also, for half-wave dipoles the maximum directivity is 1.64.

Applying the Friis Equation:

2

2 0.122

2

Prec W

Dmax1 Dmax 2 1.64

102 x109

Prad 4 R 4 50 W

or -70dB.

Now, with Prec = -35 dBm, we have Prad = -35 dBm + 70 dB = 35 dBm, or 3.2 W.

oriented in the z direction. Show in a sketch where would you place a small loop

antenna, 100 m distant, to receive the maximum power. (Hint: consider both radiation

pattern and polarization to achieve maximum power transfer.) Calculate the power

transfer ratio for the maximum power transfer case at 800 MHz if the small loop antenna

has a 2.0 cm diameter.

8-37

Maximum radiation occurs at = 90, so we choose, for instance, a point on the y-axis.

Then, we know for a small loop antenna the polarization will be in a plane containing the

loop. For maximum power transfer the polarizations must match. Therefore the loop can

be parallel to the y-z plane or to the x-z plane, but not to the x-y plane. Figure P8.46

shows a suggested orientation.

Fig. P8.46

Now, to find the power transfer ratio we apply the Friis equation. We first find

c 3x108

0.375m

f 0.800 x109

and we also know for a half-wavelength dipole Dmax = 1.64. Since the loop diameter is

small compared to the wavelength, we have for the small loop Dmax = 1.5. So

2

Prec

2

0.375 9 W

Dmax1 Dmax 2 1.64 1.5

219 x10

Prad 4 R 4 100 W

So the power transfer ratio is Prec/Prad = -67 dB.

P8.47: A pair of z-polarized dipole antenna with lengths indicated is shown in Figure

8.50. If the 3.0 m dipole is driven by a 50. MHz source, calculate the power transfer

ratio.

2

Prec

D , D ,

Prad 4 R

where c f 6m and R = 4000m.

P , P , 4

D , n n Pn , Dmax Pn ,

Pn , avg p 4 p

For the transmitter,

8-38

cos 2 cos

Pnt 60o, 2 0.667

sin 2

For the receiver, a 4 cm length dipole is much smaller than the wavelength, so we can

consider this antenna to be a Hertzian dipole. Then,

Pnr 120o, sin 2 0.750

and Dmax = 1.5 for the Hertzian dipole.

So,

2

Prec 6 W

1.64 0.667 1.50 0.750

17.5 x109

Prad 4 4000 W

or

Prec

77 dB

Prad

P8.48: Consider a pair of half-wave dipole antennas operating at 1.0 GHz and separated

by 100. m on the y-axis. Initially, both antennas are aligned in the z-direction for

maximum power transfer. Now to test the effect of polarization, the antenna at the origin

is allowed to rotate an angle in the x-z plane as shown in Figure 8.51. Plot the power

transfer ratio versus from =0 (maximum transfer case) to = 90.

2

Pout

e p D1 , D2max

Pin 4 R

cos 2 cos

D1 , Dmax Pn , , Pn , 2

sin

2

Inspecting the problems geometry, we see that the angle in our Pn equation is

referenced to the axis of the dipole. For simplification, well let be the angle the dipole

makes with the z-axis and then let be the angle from the dipole axis to a line drawn to

the second antenna. Figure P8.48a shows this situation. Then we have

cos 2 cos

2 2

Pn ,

sin 2

2

8-39

Fig. P8.48a

Fig. P8.48b

At 1 GHz, we have l = 0.3 m. And for half-wave dipoles we have Dmax = D2max = 1.64.

% MLP0848

clc

clear

D=1.64;

lambda=0.3;

R=100;

B=(lambda/(4*pi*R))^2;

alpha=1:1:88;

alphar=alpha*pi./180;

A=cos((pi/2)*cos((pi/2)-alphar));

Pn=A.^2./(sin((pi/2)-alphar)).^2;

D1=D.*Pn;

ep=(cos(alphar)).^2;

Prat=ep.*D1.*D.*B;

PdB=10*log10(Prat);

plot(alpha,PdB)

xlabel('angle(degrees)')

ylabel('(Pout/Pin) dB')

grid on

8-40

P8.49: Design an open-ended shunt stub matching network to match a half-wave dipole

transmitting antenna to a source with 50 impedance. Now suppose this antenna

network is to be used as a receiver. Use a Smith Chart to determine the impedance

looking into the matching network from the antenna.

The impedance matching network is solved similar to approach used in P8.23, only now

the shunt stub is open-ended instead of shorted. The solution is shown in FigP8.49a.

(a) (b)

Now we need to find the input impedance looking into the matching network from the

antenna, as indicated in Fig P8.49c.

8-41

First, looking into the open-ended stub of length 0.392 we see normalized admittance ya

= -j0.8. Adding this to the load admittance (yload = 1+j0) we have point b: yb = 1-j0.8. We

move from this point (at 0.344 on the WTG scale) a distance 0.215 towards the

generator to the point 0.0559. Then we move to the impedance chart and see zin = 1.5

j0.8. De-normalizing, we find: Zin = 75 j40 . This is close the the theoretical Z in =

Zant* = 73 j42 .

P8.50: Referring to Figure 8.52, suppose a source voltage with amplitude 12.V and

source resistance 50 drives a half-wave dipole transmitting antenna at 500 MHz. An

identical receiving antenna, 100. meters away and aligned for maximum power transfer,

is coupled to a 50 load resistance. Clearly neither antenna is impedance-matched to

the transmit and receive circuitry. Calculate the voltage amplitude across this load

resistor.

1 vs 12V

Prad i 2 Rrad , i 0.092 A,

2 Z o Z ant 50 73.2 j 42.5

1

.092 73.2 310mW

2

Prad

2

c

Now we find the transfer ratio by applying the Friis equation where 0.6 m :

f

2

Prec

2

0.6

Dmax t Dmax r 1.64 1.64

613 x109

Prad 4 R 4

100

So Prec = 190 nW.

Now we calculate Voc by assuming a matched load:

V2

Prec oc , Voc 4 Rrad Prec 7.46mV

4 Rrad

8-42

Zo 50

vL Voc 7.46mV 2.9mV

Z o Z ant 50 73.2 j 42.5

P8.51: Design open-ended shunt stub matching networks for both the transmitter and

receiver of problem P8.50. Now recalculate the voltage amplitude across the load

resistor.

Now we calculate Prad:

1 v

Prad i 2 Z o , i s 120mA, Prad 360mW

2 2Z o

The power transfer ratio is:

Prec

613 x109 , from P8.50.

Prad

Therefore, Prec = 220.7nW.

Now, since the receiver is matched, half the power must be dissipated in the load, or

1 1 vL2

Prec , vL Prec Z o 3.3mV

2 2 Zo

7. Radar

P8.52: Manipulate (8.125) using (8.113) to arrive at (8.126).

4

D , 2 Ae ,

This can be inserted into (8.125) for D(), or

2

Prec1 s 2 4 s

4 2 e

Ae , A , .

2

4

Prad 1 4 R

3 2

4 R

P8.53: (JustAsk): Suppose a 2 GHz radar antenna of effective area 6.0 m 2 transmits 100

kW. If a target with a 12 m 2 radar cross section is 100 km away, (a) what is the round-trip

travel time for the radar pulse? (b) What is the received power? (c) What is the

maximum detectable range if the radar system has a minimum detectable power of 2.0

pW?

f = 2GHz, so = 0.15m

Ae = 6.0m2

Prad1 = 100 kW

8-43

s = 12m2

R=100 km

R

(a) t 2 0.67 ms

c

s 12m 2

2

6m 1.53 pW

2

P

(b) rec1 P A 2

100 kW

4 R 4 100km 0.15m

rad 1 4 2 e 4

Prad 1 s 100kW 12m 2

2

6m 76.4 x1018

2

R

4

Ae

2

Prec1 4 2

2 pW 4 0.15m

R = 93 km.

P8.54: A half-wave dipole antenna is used in a radar system to determine range to a target

that has a 1.0 m2 radar cross section. Consider that 1.0 kW is available to drive the

antenna at 300 MHz. What power is received if the target is (a) 100 m distant? (b) 1.0

km distant?

Now we use (8.125):

Prec1 s 2 1m 2 1m

2

2 2

D , 1.64

Prad 1 4 R 4

3

4 R 4

3

1.355

Prec1

R4

(a) Prec1 = 13.6 nW

(b) Prec1 = 1.36 pW

determine the distance to the moon. The moon, with radius 1.74 x 10 6 m, has a measured

radar cross section of 6.64 x 1011 m2. A 27 pW echo signal is received 2.56 seconds after

transmission. (a) What is the distance to the moon, and (b) approximately how much

power was radiated?

f = 10 GHz (and therefore = 0.030 m)

Ae = 100m2

s = 6.64x1011 m2

Prec = 27 pW

t = 2.56 sec

8-44

(b)

Prec1 s 6.64 x1011 m 2

2

A 2

100 m 27 x1018

Prad 1 4 R 4 384 x10 m 0.030m

4 2 e 4 2

6

Prec1 27 x1012

Prad 1 1MW

27 x1018 27 x1018

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