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MAESTRA: GLORIA TORRES

ESCUELA
ALUMNA:BINLIGUE TAZUMAL | Grado: 10
DORIS ROCKHOLM
/16

The way the brain works


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The abstract
In this report there is 5 literature reviews that all are related of how the brain works. To start with, the first literature
review explains how the brain works by parts and what other things are fundamental to keep the brain from
sending information to the body. It expresses how not many brains have the ability to think. Although these other
brain have survival instincts. Only higher mammals have the capacity to think. In addition, you will find the next
literature review that is about how there are a lot of myths about the brain. Which, people believe them as if they
were true. The reality about that myth is told. However, some of the myths s bit of a truth behind it. But, I could
guess it was only a misunderstanding with the information about the brain. You might wonder why the brain works
as it does. Well, the brain has a great capacity to store memory. And even sleeping is great for the memory. Indeed,
it is great for the brain because the information you had throughout the day is repeated again and again while you
are sleeping. Which makes us remember more stuff in a long-termed time. On one hand people like believing in
those myths because they make it sound like it isnt their fault that they cant develop a better capacity
And that is the reason they cant be smart enough to release this task. Despite the fact there are so many myths that
arent true about the brain. There is still a lot of surprising facts that are true about the brain or that at least they
havent been proven wrong until today. Which are how the brain can do a lot of amazing things. The power of the
brain still cant be completely compared with the intelligence of the human brain. But Artificial intelligence is
already good enough to be equally the human intelligence. The brain is complex, and perceives the reality different
From all the different brains there are.
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The way the brain works


Name : (Doris Rockholm ; Escuela Bilinge Tazumal )
Date : September 30th, 2016
It`s functions by parts

To start with, the brain is an organ that makes the whole body function. Every single animal it, thought it may
seem the size of the animal doesnt permit it, but as a matter of a fact it does. The size of the brain doesnt
resemble the capacity of storage that the animal has to hold on to. In fact, the human brain isnt the biggest brain
there is and it still has the ability to do different tasks in an organized way. In this literature review you will be able
to see: the functions of the brain by the parts that composes it.

The brains have the following parts: the brain stem, the cerebellum, the hypothalamus, the cerebrum 1 .
Each part of the brain has its own function like: Controlling the movement your body does, processing the
coordination of your body, remembering the needs your body has in a physical and emotional way, retaining
information of long term memories and being able to control and express emotions; which not all brains have that
ability to retain that information only some mammals can e.g., humans. Other animals dont do a lot of thinking
however these animals have instincts to survive.

The lower parts of the brain can seen as something separate from the brain. Their functions are more basic but still
crucial. They give information to other parts of the brain like: breathing, sleep, auditory control, Regulating blood
pressure and others. The stem of the brain is also the one supporting the brain, which might be the reason why it is
taken for granted. The lower part of the brain is the one allowing the communication between the brain and the
body. It has sensory, sensory and motor path that creates involuntary actions. e.g, knee-jerk reflex.

The brain has many cells named neurons besides, the neurons in the brain are really important to transmit
information to the rest of the body, in fact they look different depending what function they have. These neurons
create a nervous system, which is so complex. These cells in the brain die all the time, however it is normal that it
occurs, because the brain has the power to regenerate these cells. The brain has this fluid that makes it float with in
the skull that protects it in addition, it has membranes that prevents the brain from touching the bones.

The human brain is a unique organ that has an unbelievable organization. As you read the parts of the brain has
different functions, even the lower part of the brain carries out important functions. All the functions the
brain has, are not only meant for the sake of surviving, but for something more profound. Not only humans have
the ability to think, speak and have emotions, but all humans are different and we all have the same abilities. The
brain is something so complicated that there is still a lot of things scientists dont yet know about the brain.

1. Boyd, R. & Freudenrich, C. (2001) "How Your Brain Works" HowStuffWorks.com.


http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/brain.htm
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The way the brain works


Name : (Doris Rockholm ; Escuela Bilinge Tazumal )
Date : September 30th, 2016
Myths vs. Reality
For ages people have believed many myths about the brain, which some people keep thinking they are facts about
the brain. In this literature review some myths will be unraveled and explained. Some one the myths mentioned
are: The 10% usage of the brain, Being left-brained & being right-brained, the way how people believe listening
to Mozart enhances intelligence and how some students aren`t able to learn because they arent taught in the way
they are able to learn1. Some of these myths have some truth behind it and some are really known because of the
marketing they have done about it.

Generally speaking people tend to believe the myth that the human use only 10% of their brain, even some
neuroscience students think that statement is true. This myth has been proven wrong. According to many cases of
accidents, less than the 90% of their brains was damaged; causing severe damage and making them unable to think.
That shouldnt happen if humans only used 10% of their brain. Although half of the brain could be removed by
surgery at an early age and even when they turn into adults it would work fine. As a results of the plasticity it has
and the ability to adapt.

Being left-brained, and others being right-brained has a bit of truth to it, because both halves of the brain work
individually. To put it in another way, doing certain actions or activities frequently makes you use the part of the
brain from where the information is sent, which makes you use that part more. But it doesnt mean if you are
artistic you are right brain or because you are analytical that makes you a left brain person. The information about
the parts of the brain have been misunderstood for ages. People still believe these myths are true.

People believe that playing classical music for their babies will make them smarter. Which isnt true because the
type of music has no relation to intelligence. No results were found of infants becoming smarter because of
listening to Mozart. However, students feel that they are able to acquire information because teachers don`t teach
the information in the way they are able to learn. Indeed, they do learn easier when taught in an easy way for them,
but it is proven that all students have the same capacity to learn information as any other student unless he has
some disability.

Humans like to believe the myths about the brains to make themselves believe that they arent capable to do some
things not because they don`t want to. But, because they were already with that limitation and that there is nothing
they can do about it. Maybe sometimes we like to believe them to think we can get smarter by doing certain things.
There is a lot of things that we may state as facts right now. But, in the future they can be proved wrong. It is
something we dont know all about. It makes it a much more interesting organ. So that`s the reason we do many
assumptions about it

1. Beyerstein, B.; Lilienfeld. S. ; Lynn, S.; Ruscio, J. (2009) 50 great myths of popular psycology:shattering
widespread misconceptions about human behavior. new jersey, united states: wiley-blackwell.
http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/50-Great-Myths-of-Popular-Psychology.pdf
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The way the brain works


Name : (Doris Rockholm ; Escuela Bilinge Tazumal )
Date : September 30th, 2016
The reason the brain works that way
There are a lot of things we would want to know the reason our brain functions a certain way. The human brain
has its own way of processing information. It is such a divine organ. Because, how it is able to function so
perfectly. Well, In this literature review some of those doubts will be cleared. The events that will be shown is: The
Dj vu, How the information is easier to learn when its has a familiarity to it, which explains why children are
able to learn faster than adults and the way sleeps makes us rememember things we have forgotten during the day.

We have all experienced an event where we feel that what we are doing has already occurred before. That is called
a D j vu which means: French word for already seen 1. It is said that this happens because the way you store
information and the event brings familiarity to your brain which makes you think you are living and occasion all
over again. In fact, the neurons that transmit information to the brain make a relation between what is happening in
the moment and something that might remind along term memory. The brain decides to pick up the second
information which creates the d j vu.

The information our brain collects information is very peculiar because it becomes easier for the brain to gain
information about a topic when the brains seems its familiar. On one hand it makes it practical for that instance,
but when your brain isnt familiarized with the topic it makes it difficult to retain that information. This oftenly
occurs to adults, but children have fewer knowledge and dont really have trouble with learning because how they
lack of information they dont have anything to familiarize it with. It explains why children can learn languages
and other stuff faster than adults.

The brain is able to remember memories that we had forgotten when we were awake. You may wonder the way the
brain recalls the information. It is simple the brain repeats the information while it is resting. Besides, it helps the
brain to remember in general. There is a lot of it that cant be explain yet. But its believe that dreams are related of
what happened in your day which combines it all into a dream. Dreams can mean many things. It is topic yet to be
explored. If the information you are trying to learn is not sinking in. Just take a break and sleep, because it is more
possible to remember what you just studied.

The brain has some special features, that humans might not understand the purpose of them. Although all the
features are useful somehow. Long-term memory is something that not all brains are capable of achieving. And the
dj vu is a clear example how the human brain is good at remembering familiar aspects. Besides the way of
remembering memories isnt only by the event of the dj vu, but on top of that sleeping is a great way the brain
remembers events that happened throughout the day. Mostly the brain is great to hold on to familiar information

1. Butler, C.; Illman, N.; Moulin C. & Souchay, C. (2012) Dj Vu experiences in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Advance online publication. doi: 10.1155/2012/539567
http://neurosciencenews.com/deja-vu-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-4040/
Keinath, A.; Liu, X.; Popov, V.& Reder, L. (2015) Building knowledge requires bricks, not sand: the critical role
of familiarconstituents in learning. Advance online publication. doi: 10.3758/s13423-015-0889-1
http://neurosciencenews.com/familiarity-memory-learning-2433/
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The way the brain works


Name : (Doris Rockholm ; Escuela Bilinge Tazumal )
Date : September 30th, 2016
Surprising facts
You might know you brain does somethings you can only wonder why it does them and why does my brain make
me think that way? Well, it is simple. In this literature review some facts you might or might not know will be
mentioned and explained. Some of this facts are: About the wiring of the brain & and how it can be rewired, How
the brain processes information & how it processes it in different states & How human imperfections is linked of
how we like other people. There are other surprising facts that are within the ones that were mention.

The wiring of the brain can vary from if you are an introverted or extroverted person. Extroverts tend to take risks
and push the limit while, introverts are more likely to solving problems. But it doesn`t mean it`s wiring can`t be
changed. it can be changed by meditation. Because it brings peace, better focus, creativity. The organization of
your brain is changed when you exercise. Exercise is related with being happy. When you start exercising it is
stressful at the start. but after exercising it clears up your thoughts that leads to having better memory, good at
solving problems, and other activities.

We humans are tired the brain is better with the creative work. You might be wondering why, well when we are
tired we can get distracted easily. However, that makes us think outside the box and give different ways to do stuff.
Sleeping is still fundamental for the brain. Indeed, naps improve our memory. In fact, that helps when we are
learning, because will one part is resting; the other part is processing the information. It is surprising how the brain
relies mostly on the eyesight to process information. Even though it isnt that good to detect everything. Because,
you can just assume it is that way because of your eye sight.

Just like human`s eyesight. People aren`t perfect, but it is the reason why people tend to like people that make
mistakes. They feel more human to them which makes them like that type of person more than a person that might
even seem perfect. People cant even multi task, despite the fact you may believe you can but what you are actually
doing is only changing from 1 task to another. It doesnt make you finish things faster as opposed to handling 1 tasj
at the time you put more concentration in it. There is no need to stress over multiple tasks. Besides stress creates
PTSD: Post Traumatic Stress Dissorder1

The brain Has so many wonderful facts about how it works. If We still dont know all about the brain. The only
thing we can do is to imagine what other wonder it can do. It might not be perfect. While it might seem perfect
because of many features that were mentioned about it. Makes it sound as a magical organ it does has it`s
imperfections of how it may fail in so ways like relying on the eyes. When they arent always right. It is important
to take care of our brain. As a matter of a fact emotional health is important. For the reason that stress affects your
brain.

1. Cooper, B.B. (2013) 10 surprising facts about how our brains work. bufferapp
https://blog.bufferapp.com/10-surprising-facts-about-how-our-brain-works
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The way the brain works


Name : (Doris Rockholm ; Escuela Bilinge Tazumal )
Date : September 30th, 2016
Brain power & mind over matter
The brain Can perceive things in the way it wants to. As mentioned before eyesight is the sense we use the most to
send information to the brain. It has a reason why sometimes we assume things that arent actually there. Or why
can the brain be tricked so easily. In this literature review it will be explain how brain are like a finger print; they
are all different, and how the brain power of a human is a against artificial intelligence and how it will keep
improving through the years. What the brain believes will be the signals it will send to the rest of your body.

The mind is really easy to trick. As a result of the brain relying more on eyesight. Magic tricks are all about
illusions and they can be tricky. It can even make you think something happened even when it didnt happen.
Because, the brain is able to detect motion even if it isnt actually there. It is a survival mechanism.1
In other words, it is way our body would feel something is coming to attack it when that not by be the case. But, it
is more preferable to prevent a non-existing situation that not being able to so an attack if there actually was one.

The way human brain has work has always been proven smarter that artificial intelligence. Because all of the
emotions, and how artificial intelligence gets confused by many commands. As Artificial intelligence keeps
improving. The question everyone makes is if it will be able to replace us humans someday. As a result, machines
now a days have the capacity to act as human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has the purpose to be able to do
other jobs. To be honest it doesnt seem so good that humans arent getting any smarter & that s only making them
lazier.

The human pain is something is quite weird how it works because you can only feel as much as you think. In other
words, that it isnt true it is all I the mind is the meaning of mind over matter. There are ways to treat that pain
physically and emotionally treating a stimulation on the part were pain is stimulated. The way the brain functions
with time perception is fascinating how some moments in time feel as if they were in slow motion. Or how
sometimes time seems to pass really fast. The realities of each of the humans brain are different of how they
perceive the world.

To End the literature review I would like to mention how the brain has such big understanding in things. The way it
works is unbelievable. In fact, the reasons of how it works that way, are still a big mystery. The brain can be
complex. But, that is why humans are only able to function with their brain. Because of the signals it sends to the
body. Artificial intelligence may seem it will get a head of someday. But, they might not evert have that emotion
and understanding of terms. As people do. The Artificial intelligence will keep on advancing. Hopefully are brains
wont be replaced completely by them.

1. Bicks, M.; Eagleman, D.; Holt, S.; Randall, T. & Seftel, J.(2011) How does the brain work? Nova science
now
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qq6VuttQzh4