Exercises

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

Exercises

© All Rights Reserved

- sol. sameer bansal.pdf
- Foundations of Algebra in Elementary School - Wu - 2008
- CAT-14 Prep Planner
- 27 LIMITS PART 1 of 1.pdf
- 314c04
- Combinotorics
- Overview
- 12 Maths CBSE Exam Papers 2015 Patna Set 1
- creating websites project 3 lesson plan
- MAC2233_2010_Summer_T3A
- SSC Algebra Specimen Paper - II
- Greedy Algorithms
- PH2130 2001
- Operations Research
- data_str_1
- Solution 2
- Series Solutions Beamer
- FRAME stiffness method
- 7069380
- Mathematics_SL_paper_1_TZ1 (14).pdf

You are on page 1of 10

Difference Equations

Z. Aliyazicioglu

Cal Poly Pomona

Equations

Example:

Determine the response y ( n), n 0 of the system described by

the second-order difference equation

y ( n) = 0.7 y ( n 1) 0.1 y ( n 2) + 2 x ( n) x ( n 2)

to the input x ( n ) = 4 n u ( n)

The homogenous solution is

y ( n) 0.7 y ( n 1) + 0.1 y ( n 2) = 0

n 0.7 n 1 + 0.1 n 2 = 0

n + 2 ( 2 0.7 + 0.1) = 0 1 = 0.5 and 2 = 0.2

ECE 308-9 2

1

Solution of Linear Constant-Coefficient Difference

Equations

Particular Solution:

y p ( n) = K 4 n u ( n )

K 4n u (n) 0.7 K 4 n 1 u (n 1) + 0.1K 4n 2 u (n 2) = (2)4n u (n) 4n 2 u (n 2)

n=2

K 42 0.7 K 41 + 0.1K 40 = 2(4)2 40

16 K 2.8K + 0.1K = 32 1

31

y p (n) = 2.33(4) n u (n) K= = 2.33

13.3

ECE 308-9 3

=

Solution of Linear Constant-Coefficient Difference

Equations

To find c1 and c2 From difference equation,

For n=0: y (0) = 0.7 y (0 1) 0.1 y (0 2) + 2 x(0) x (0 2)

y (0) = 2

From the total solution, y (0) = c1 + c2 + 2.33

,

For n=1: From difference equation,

y (1) = 0.7 y (1 1) 0.1 y (1 2) + 2 x (1) x (1 2)

y (1) = 1.4 + 8 = 9.4

From difference equation, y (1) = 0.5c1 + 0.2c2 + 9.32

c2 = 0.807 c1 = 0.466

ECE 308-9 4

2

The Impulse Response of a LTI recursive system

In general case

n

y zs (n) = h(k ) x(n k ), n 0

k =0

coefficient difference equation. That is the solution of

homogeneous equation and particular solution to the excitation

function. In the case where the excitation function is an impulse

function. The particular solution is zero y p (n) = 0 , since x ( n) = 0 for

n>0.

ECE 308-9 5

y ( n) 3 y (n 1) 4 y (n 2) = x (n) + 2 x( n 1)

The homogenous solution is

yh (n) = C1 (1) n + C2 4n

The particular solution is zero when x ( n) = ( n )

homogenous solution for n=0 and n=1.( y ( 1) = 0, y ( 2) = 0,

since the system must be relaxed)

y (0) = 1 y (0) = C1 + C2 6 1

C2 = C1 =

5

y (1) = 3 y (0) + 2 = 5 y (1) = C1 + 4C2 5

1 6

The impulse response is h(n) = (1) n + 4n u ( n)

5 5 ECE 308-9 6

3

Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems

difference equation.

Lets consider the first order system

y (n) = a1 y (n 1) + b0 x(n) + b1 x(n 1)

The system can be described by two systems in cascade. The

first is a nonrecursive system described by the equation

v(n) = b0 x(n) + b1 x(n 1)

The second part is recursive system

y (n) = a1 y (n 1) + v(n)

x(n) b0 v(n) y(n) This is called a

+ +

direct form I

z-1 z-1 structure.

b1 -a1

ECE 308-9 7

the recursive and nonrecursive system

+ +

z-1 z-1

-a1 b1

w(n-1) w(n-1)

x(n) w(n) b0 y(n)

+ +

z-1

-a1 b1

w(n-1)

requirement. It is called the direct form II structure

ECE 308-9 8

4

Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems

In general form, The difference equation is given by

N N

y (n) = ak y (n k ) + bk x(n k )

k =1 k =0

v(n) = bk x(n k )

k =0

N

y ( n ) = ak y ( n k ) + v ( n )

k =1

N

w(n) = ak w(n k ) + x(n)

k =1

N

The nonrecursive system is y (n) = bk w(n k )

k =0

ECE 308-9 9

x(n) y(n) + +

b0

+ +

z-1

z-1 z-1 -a1 b1

b1 -a1 + +

+ +

z-1

z-1 z-1 -a2 b2

b2 -a2 + +

+ +

z-1

z-1 z-1 -aN-1 bM

bM -aN +

z-1

-aN

w(n-N)

Step-1 Step-3

ECE 308-9 10

5

Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems

A special case of general case

N

ak = 0, k = 1,2,..., N y ( n) = bk x( n k )

k =0

coefficients bk

b 0 k M

h( k ) = k

0 otherwise

The second part, set M=0 to obtain the general case difference

equation

N

y (n) = ak y (n k ) + b0 x(n)

k =1

ECE 308-9 11

The crosscorelation of x(n) and y(n) is s sequence rxy (l ) is

defined as

rxy (l ) = x(n) y(n l ), l = 0, 1, 2,...

n =

Or

rxy (l ) = x(n + l ) y (n), l = 0, 1, 2,...

n =

ryx (l ) = y (n) x(n l ), l = 0, 1, 2,...

n =

Or

ryx (l ) = y (n + l ) x(n), l = 0, 1, 2,...

n =

rxy (l ) = ry x ( l )

ECE 308-9 12

6

Crosscorrelation and Autocorrelation Sequence

So, that

rxx (l ) = x ( n) x ( n l ) Or

rxx (l ) = x(n + 1) x(n)

n =

n =

Example:

x ( n ) = {...0,0, 2, 1,3,7,1, 2, 3,0,0,...}

y ( n ) = {...0,0,1, 1, 2, 2, 4,1, 2,5,0,0,...}

rxy (0) = x(n) y (n) = 0 + 0 + 2 + 6 14 + 4 + 2 + 6 + 0 + 0 = 7

n=

rxy (1) = x(n) y(n 1) = 0 + 0 + 1 3 + 14 2 + 8 3 + 0 + 0 = 13

n =

ECE 308-9 13

Problem Solutions

Problem 43.a Determine the direct form II realization for the

following LTI system

1 1 3

y ( n) + y (n 1) 2 y (n 3) = x(n) + x(n 5)

2 2 2

y(n)

+ 1/2 +

x(n)

z-1

+ -1/2

z-1

z-1

z-1

z-1 3/2

ECE 308-9 14

7

Problem Solutions

Problem 44.a Compute the first samples of its impulse response

x(n) y(n)

+ +

z-1

1/2

x( n) = ( n) 1 3

y (1) = y (0) + x(1) + x(0) =

2 2

x( n) = {1, 0, 0,...}

1 3

y (2) = y (1) + x(2) + x(1) =

2 4

1 1 3

y ( n) = y (n 1) + x(n) + x(n 1) y (3) = y(2) + x(3) + x(2) =

2 2 8

y (0) = x(0) = 1

3 3 3 3 3 3

y (n) = 1, , , , , , ,...

2 4 8 1`6 32 64

ECE 308-9 15

Problem Solutions

Problem 44.b Find the input output relation

1

y ( n) = y (n 1) + x(n) + x(n 1)

2

1 5

x( n) = {1,1,1,...} y (1) = y (0) + x(1) + x(0) =

2 2

1 13

y (2) = y (1) + x(2) + x(1) =

1 2 4

y (n) = y (n 1) + x(n) + x(n 1)

2 1 29

y (3) = y (2) + x(3) + x(2) =

y (0) = x(0) = 1 2 8

ECE 308-9 16

8

Problem Solutions

Problem 44.d Use convolution

n

y (n) = u (n0* h(n) = u (k )h(n k ) = h(n k )

k =0 k =0

y (0) = h(0) = 1

5

y (1) = h(0) + h(1) =

2

13

y (2) = h(0) + h(1) + h(2) =

4

29

y (3) = h(0) + h(1) + h(2) + h(3) =

8

ECE 308-9 17

Problem Solutions

Problem 54 Find the y(n) for the following equation

x( n) = ( 1) n u ( n)

2 4 + 4 = 0 1 = 2, 2 = 2

The homogenous solution is yh (n) = c1 2n + c2 n2n

k (1)n u (n) 4k (1)n1 u (n 1) + 4k (1)n 2 u (n 2) = (1)n u (n) (1)n 1 u (n 1)

For n=2

k + 4k + 4k = 1 + 1 2

k=

9

ECE 308-9 18

9

Problem Solutions

The total solution is

2

y ( n ) = yh (n ) + y p (n ) = c1 2n + c2n 2n + ( 1) n u(n )

9

y (0) 4 y (1) + 4 y (2) = x(0) x(1) y (1) 4 y (0) + 4 y (1) = x(1) x(0)

n=0 n=1

y (0) = 1 y (1) = 2

2 2 2

y (0) = c1 + =1 y (1) = c1 2 + c2 2 =2 y (1) = c1 2 + c2 2 =2

9 9 9

c1 = c2 =

9 3 7 1 2

y (n) = 2n + n2n + (1) n u (n)

9 3 9

ECE 308-9 19

Problem Solutions

Problem 55 Find the impulse response h(n) for the following

equation

y(n) 4 y(n 1) + 4 y(n 2) = x(n) x(n 1)

The homogenous solution is

y h ( n ) = c1 2 n + c2 n 2 n

y (0) 4 y ( 1) + 4 y (2) = (0) (1) y (1) 4 y (0) + 4 y (1) = (1) (0)

y (0) = 1 y (1) = 3

y (0) = c1 = 1 y (1) = c1 2 + c1 2 = 3

1

1 h( n) = 2 n + n 2 n u ( n)

c2 = 2

2 ECE 308-9 20

10

- sol. sameer bansal.pdfUploaded bySAURAV kumar
- Foundations of Algebra in Elementary School - Wu - 2008Uploaded byDennis Ashendorf
- CAT-14 Prep PlannerUploaded byShreeleena Bakshi
- 27 LIMITS PART 1 of 1.pdfUploaded byMathematics
- 314c04Uploaded byLouis Guy
- CombinotoricsUploaded byMadhur Sahu
- OverviewUploaded byfuck
- 12 Maths CBSE Exam Papers 2015 Patna Set 1Uploaded byGeeteshGupta
- creating websites project 3 lesson planUploaded byapi-259091787
- MAC2233_2010_Summer_T3AUploaded byllllo
- SSC Algebra Specimen Paper - IIUploaded byAsif Turk
- Greedy AlgorithmsUploaded byEduardo Alapisco
- PH2130 2001Uploaded bybbteenager
- Operations ResearchUploaded byranvirsingh76
- data_str_1Uploaded byRavi Verma
- Solution 2Uploaded byShivani Patel
- Series Solutions BeamerUploaded byRajneil Baruah
- FRAME stiffness methodUploaded byRoif Samsul
- 7069380Uploaded byAndreas Rousalis
- Mathematics_SL_paper_1_TZ1 (14).pdfUploaded byAndrea Guaylupo
- 00 Session PlanUploaded byVinda Patricia
- 2 Relations and Functions Lecture 3Uploaded byNavin Thakur
- Ch 2 SolutionsUploaded bymarvelomarvelo
- Advanced Mathematical Physics-WithoutTensorsUploaded bysivamadhaviyam
- Module 6 Essay Integration and Reflection RES600 ClassUploaded byanhntran4850
- Jadwal Training MahasiswaUploaded byCitra Kusuma Parahita
- 2Uploaded bySalmanAnsari
- z TransformUploaded byAntonio Leon
- Alg GraphingUploaded bykushwah_770145566
- 7_2_14.pdfUploaded byAner Godoy

- DxDiagUploaded byPedro Toro Romero
- Timeline of RoboticsUploaded byArturo Aguirre
- prt%3A978-1-4614-5491-5%2F1Uploaded byHammadi
- Engine GlossaryUploaded byM Syahral Rudy
- Construction Scheduling Using Constraint Satisfaction Problem MethodUploaded byRaneesh Mohamed
- NFPA 13 - Resumen de Cambios Al 2019Uploaded byJohan Cordero Albrecht
- Bar Bending Schedule [BBS] Estimate of Steel in Building ConstructionUploaded byYazer Arafath
- Comparison of Surface ResistivityUploaded byarnella_h
- Piaggio X7 250 i.e - WorkshopUploaded byZoilo Dominguez
- Examples Aircraft Perf 1Uploaded byJosé Miguel Quispe Poma
- Reactor Design Scale UpUploaded byMarcel Chevalier
- Thermal-Fluids Lab Report - Group 3Uploaded byKelvin Xu
- BQUploaded byDaniel Evans
- Aether Diode - Heretical Builders_Is Vacuum Needed for Drawing Aetheric PowerUploaded bybaywatch80
- H. Bhasin - Python Basics A Self-Teaching Introduction-Mercury (2019).pdfUploaded byAbrahão E Laíla Silva
- 70C1043Uploaded byEmmanuel Entzana Hdz
- Bteq EnvironmentUploaded byPriya Dash
- 21531sm Finalnew Vol2 Cp12 CHAPTER 12Uploaded byPrin Prinks
- NMR602.10 SAT Plan & ProcedureUploaded bySorin Oprea
- EEE40014 JoyStick Control Report (Challenge)Uploaded byMuhammad Ali Tehseen
- The Monastery at Qubbat All-Hawa:Uploaded byNabil Roufail
- Lesson 03 - Radar Principles IUploaded bysabeer
- ignition SystemUploaded byblackbird
- RRU3008 User Guide-(V300R008_03)Uploaded byJoaquin Efrain Ramos
- NACA 4 Digit Airfoil Generator (NACA 5412 AIRFOIL)Uploaded byeng1n1nj4
- Installing Arista vEOS on VMware Workstation-.pdfUploaded byMichele Brunelli
- Unix Systems ProgrammingUploaded byAnil Madhure T
- CV Design Aspects -Critic Applic Part1Uploaded byAbdelhamid Laroussi
- RAC Entropy Hand Out 01Uploaded bySohaib Irfan
- TutorialUploaded byMazree Ahamad