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May 06, 2017

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Answer Tutorial_pharmaceutical Calculations

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Answer Tutorial_pharmaceutical Calculations

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a. 1 g/400 ml

1g

100

400 ml

0.25 w /v

b. 6.25 mg/5 ml

0.00625 g

100

5 ml

0.125 w /v

c. 1 : 2000 (w/v)

1

100

2000

0.05 w /v

250 g

100

6000 ml

4.17 w/ v

e. 250 mg/15 ml

0.25 g

100

15 ml

1.67 w /v

2. Normal saline solution contains 0.9% w/v NaCl. Calculate the weight (in grams) of NaCl

needed to make 2.5 liters of normal saline.

0.9 g

2500 ml

100 ml

= 22.5 g

1

3. A pharmacist has to prepare 25,000 ml of a suspension containing 0.5% w/v of

chloramphenicol. Instead of using pure chloramphenicol, she uses chloramphenicol palmitate,

which contains 57.5% w/w chloramphenicol. Calculate the weight (in grams) of chloramphenicol

palmitate needed for this suspension.

To prepare 25,000 ml of a 0.5% w/v suspension requires

0.5 g

25,000 ml=125 g of chloramphenicol(CMC)

100 ml

To obtain 125 g of CMC from CMC palmitate requires

125 g

100 g=217.39 g of CMC palmitate

57.5 g

4. Find the volume of alcohol 95% v/v needed to produce 2.5 liters of 50% v/v.

Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2

95 V1 = 50 2.5

50 2.5

V 1=

95

= 1.32 liters

Boric acid 2 parts by weight

Liquid petrolatum.. 1 part by weight

Petrolatum... 17 parts by weight

Calculate the amount of each ingredient needed (in grams) to prepare 2.5 kg of the

preparation.

Total number of parts = 2 + 1 + 17 = 20 parts

2

Boric acid= 2500 g=250 g

20

1

Liquid petrolatum= 2500 g=125 g

20

17

Petrolatum= 2500 g=2125 g

20

2

6. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of a 1:1000 epinephrine HCl solution needed to make

30 ml of 1:5000 solution.

C1 = 0.1%, V1 = ?, C2 = 0.02%, V2 = 30 ml

Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2

0.1 V1 = 0.02 30

0.02 30

V 1=

0.1

= 6 ml

7. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of a 1:200 stock solution that should be used to make

60 ml of a 0.025% solution.

C1 = 0.5%, V1 = ?, C2 = 0.025%, V2 = 60 ml

Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2

0.5 V1 = 0.025 60

0.025 60

V 1=

0.5

= 3 ml

8. Calculate the number of 30 gram tubes that can be filled from 5 lbs. of 10% ammoniated

mercury ointment after it has been diluted to 3% in strength. (Note: 1 kg = 2.2 lbs.)

C1 = 10%, W1 = 5 lbs, C2 = 3%, W2 = ?

Using C1 W 1=C 2 W 2

10 5 = 3 W2

10 5

W 2=

3

= 16.67 lbs

16.67

=7.5772kg=7577.2 g

2.2

7577.2

=252.57

30

252 tubes

3

9. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of a 2% stock solution of potassium permanganate that

should be used in compounding the following Rx.

Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2

2 V1 = 0.02 200

0.02 200

V 1=

2

= 2 ml

10. Calculate the weight (in grams) of coal tar and 1% coal tar ointment must be combined to

make 200 grams of 4% coal ointment.

100 3 (1) X

1

Coal tar= 200 g=6.06 g

4 33

1 96 (32) Y = 193.94 g

_______

99 (33) 200 g

4

11. Calculate the weight (in grams) of coal tar that must be added to 200 grams of 1% coal tar

ointment to make a 4% coal tar ointment.

100 3 (1) X

1

Coal tar= 200 g=6.25 g

32

4

1 96 (32) 200 g

_______

99 (33)

12. A 25% solution of ethyl alcohol may be used to bathe a small child for the purpose of

cooling and reducing fever. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of ethyl alcohol (95%) and distilled

water that must be combined to make 1,892 ml of the 25% ethyl alcohol solution.

95 25 (5) X 5

95 = 1,892 ml=497.89 ml

19

25 Distilled water=1,892497.89

= 1,394.18 ml (or more accurately, to 1,892 ml)

0 70 (14) Y

_______

95 (19) 1,892 ml

13. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of normal saline that must be added to 30 ml of 1%

phenylephrine HCl solution to reduce the strength to 0.25%.

5

1 0.25 (1) 30 ml

Normal saline=3 30 ml

0.25 = 90 ml (or more accurately, to 120 ml)

0 0.75 (3) Y

_______

Terpin hydrate, an expectorant,

water. Should the alcohol concentration fall below 40%, the terpin hydrate will precipitate out of

solution. Codeine sulfate is soluble in water but only slightly soluble in alcohol. Terpin hydrate and

codeine sulfate are frequently used in combination in cough preparations. In order to allow both

medications to remain in solution, the alcohol concentration must be 40% and 50%. Calculate the

volume (in millilitres) of high alcoholic elixir (75%) and low alcoholic elixir (10%) that must be

combined to make 3,785 ml (1 gallon) of 45% alcoholic elixir to be used as a vehicle for the two

medications.

75 35 (7) X 7

75 = 3,785 ml=2,038.08 ml

13

45 10 =3,7852,038.08 ml

= 1,746.92 ml

10 30 (6) Y

_______

65 (13) 3,785 ml

15. Calculate and explain how you would prepare 12 capsules containing 0.6 mg of colchicine,

with each capsule weighing 300 mg. SR of your balance is 6 mg. Accuracy in measurement

should not be less than 98%.

SR = 6 mg

2 6 mg

ensure that the error is not more than2 , =

100 X

X = 300 mg (minimum weighable quantity)

For 12 capsules:

Colchicine needed = 12 0.6 mg = 7.2 mg

6

Lactose needed = (12 300) 7.2 mg = 3,592.8 mg

To obtain 7.2 mg of colchicine:

324 mg 7.2 mg

=

X mg 300 mg

324 300

X= =13,500 mg

7.2

Therefore, lactose needed to form a triturate = 13,500 324 mg = 13,176 mg

The following steps should be used:

a. Weigh 324 mg of colchicine.

b. Weigh 13,176 mg of lactose. Mix with 324 mg of colchicine by doubling-up

method.

c. Weigh 300 mg of the triturate.

d. Weigh another (3,600 300) = 3,300 mg of lactose. Mix with the 300 mg

aliquot.

e. Fill in 12 capsules, each weighing 300 mg.

(NOTE: Theoretically above calculations are correct. However, since the amount of

colchicine needed is extremely small and high accuracy is needed, it is more

accurate if the calculations are made for a greater number of capsules as more

colchicine will be needed and mixing with large proportion of lactose will be easier).

16. Calculate and explain how you would prepare 8 capsules containing 0.5 mg of

mecobalamin, with each capsule weighing 250 mg. SR of your electronic balance is 0.01 g.

Accuracy in measurement should not be less than 95%.

SR = 10 mg

5 10 mg

ensure that the error is not more than5 , =

100 X

X = 200 mg (minimum weighable quantity)

For 8 capsules:

Mecobalamin needed = 8 0.5 mg = 4 mg

Lactose needed = (8 250) 4 mg = 1,996 mg

To obtain 4 mg of mecobalamin:

200 mg 4 mg

=

X mg 200 mg

200 200

X= =10,000mg

4

7

Therefore, lactose needed to form a triturate = 10,000 200 mg = 9,800 mg

The following steps should be used:

a. Weigh 200 mg of mecobalamin.

b. Weigh 9,800 mg of lactose. Mix with 200 mg of mecobalamine by doubling-up

method.

c. Weigh 200 mg of the triturate.

d. Weigh another (2,000 200) = 1,800 mg of lactose. Mix with the 200 mg

aliquot.

e. Fill in 8 capsules, each weighing 250 mg.

17. You are required to prepare 90 ml of 0.1% (w/v) copper sulphate solution, using freshly

boiled and cooled distilled water as the solvent. Calculate the amount of copper sulphate needed

and explain the method that you will use to prepare the solution. You have a triple beam balance

with SR of 0.1 g and copper sulphate is soluble in 3 parts of water at 20 oC. Error in weighing

should not be more than 5%.

18. Calculate the percentage concentration (% w/v) of a solution made by mixing a 40%, 25%,

10% and 5% w/v solution in 5:3:2:1 proportion.

Rx:

Cap. chlorpheniramine maleate 2 mg tds 3/7

powder and lactose. You have in your lab an electronic balance with Sensitivity R

equirement of 0.01 g. Show your step-by-step calculations in the preparation of the

capsules if the weight of one capsule is 200 mg.

20. Six theobroma oil suppositories (2 g), each containing 250 mg of paracetamol, are to be

prepared. The displacement value (DV) of paracetamol is 1.5. Write the complete formula for the

preparation.

PCM needed = 6 250 mg = 1,500 mg = 1.5 g

Theobroma oil needed = 6 2 g = 12 g

8

1.5 g

Theobroma oil displaced= =1 g

1.5

Theobroma oil actually needed = 12 g 1 g = 11 g

Therefore, a complete formula is:

Paracetamol 1.5 g

Theobroma oil 11 g

21. Calculate the quantity of ingredients needed and write a complete formula if you want to

prepare 8 aspirin suppositories (1 g) in theobroma oil base, containing 300 mg of aspirin each (DV

of aspirin = 1.1).

Aspirin needed = 8 300 mg = 2,400 mg = 2.4 g

Theobroma oil needed = 8 1 g = 8 g

2.4 g

Theobroma oil displaced= =2.18 g

1.1

Theobroma oil actually needed = 8 g 2.18 g = 5.82 g

Therefore, a complete formula is:

Aspirin .. 2.4 g

Theobroma oil 5.82 g

22. Prepare 10 theobroma oil suppositories, each containing 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV

= 2.5). If a 2 g mould is used, write the complete formula for the preparation of the suppositories.

butter is 1.5 and correction factor (CF) for glycerogelatin base is 1.2.

Glycerol Suppository BP

Gelatin BP 14% w/w

Glycerin BP 70% w/w

Distilled water qs 100% w/w

sodium (DV = 1.2), are to be prepared using a 2 g mould. However, the prescribing doctor

9

has requested that the amount of Gelatin BP to be increased to 18% to obtain a firmer

suppository. Write the complete formula for the preparation of the suppositories.

25. Calculate the quantity of ingredients needed and write the formula for preparation of 12

suppositories, in a 2 g mould, each containing 50 mg of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DV =

1.2) using Glycerogelatin BP as the base.

26. You are required to prepare 10 theobroma oil suppositories (2 g). Each suppository must

contain 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV = 2.5) and 10 mg of hydrocortisone acetate (DV = 1.5).

Write the complete formula for the preparation of the suppositories.

27. You are required to prepare 10 suppositories (1 g) using Glycerogelatin BP as the base

(CF = 1.2). Each suppository must contain 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV = 2.5) and 10 mg of

hydrocortisone acetate (DV = 1.5). Write the complete formula for the preparation of the

suppositories.

28. You are required to prepare 1,000 suppositories using a new base called Base A. Each

suppository should contain 20 mg of morphine hydrochloride and weigh 2 g. Using a calibrated 2-

g mould, you found that average weight of plain Base A suppository is 2.6 g. Inclusion of 200 mg

of morphine hydrochloride into 6 suppositories resulted in a total weight of 15.64 g.

a. Calculate the correction factor (CF) of the base.

b. Calculate the displacement value (DV) of morphine hydrochloride in Base A.

c. Write the complete formula for the preparation of the 1,000 morphine hydrochloride

suppositories. Show all the calculations.

2.6

a. CF= =1.3

2

b. Weight of plain supps = 6 2 1.3 = 15.6 g

Weight of medicated supps = 15.64 g

Weight of base in medicated supps = 15.64 1.2 = 14.44 g

Weight of base displaced by 1.2 g of morphine HCl = 15.6 14.44 = 1.16

1.2

DV =

1.16

= 1.03

c. To prepare 1,000 morphine HCl supps 20 mg:

10

Morphine HCl needed = 1,000 20 mg = 20,000 mg = 20 g

Base A needed = 1,000 2.6 =2,600 g

20 g

Base A displaced by morphine HCl= =19.42 g

1.03

Total base A needed = 2,600 g 19.42 g = 2,580.58 g

Morphine HCl . 20 g

Base A . 2,580.58 g

11

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