A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING WRITING OF ENGLISH RECOUNT TEXT TO THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 2 BAKI IN 2009
/2010 ACADEMIC YEAR
Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department
RATIH WULANDARI A 320 060 336
SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA 2010
A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING WRITING OF ENGLISH RECOUNT TEXT TO THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 2 BAKI IN 2009/2010 ACADEMIC YEAR
RESEARCH PAPER by
RATIH WULANDARI A 320 060 336
Approved to be Examined by Consultant
Anam Sutopo, S. Pd, M. Hum.
Drs. Djoko Srijono, M. Hum.
A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING WRITING OF ENGLISH RECOUNT TEXT TO THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 2 BAKI IN 2009/2010 ACADEMIC YEAR
RESEARCH PAPER by
RATIH WULANDARI A 320 060 336 Accepted and Approved by the Board of Examiner School of Teacher Training and Education Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta on July 7 , 2010
Team Examiner: 1. Drs. Djoko Srijono, M. Hum. (Chair Person) 2. Anam Sutopo, S. Pd, M. Hum. (Member I) 3. Dra. Dwi Haryanti, M. Hum. (Member II) ( )
Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M. Si. NIK.547
Herewith, I testify that in this research paper, there is no plagiarism of the previous literary work which has been raised to obtain bachelor degree of a university, nor there are opinions or masterpieces which have been written or published by others, except those in which the writing are referred in the manuscript or mentioned in literary review and bibliography. In the next day, if it is proven that there are some untrue statements in this testimony hence, I will hold fully responsibility. Surakarta, June 2010 The Researcher
Actually, Allah will never change men’s destiny, unless they make an effort to change it themselves. (Ar Ro’du: 11) A kind person is a man who is honest in doing everything. (The Researcher)
This research paper is wholly dedicated to: My beloved parents, My beloved big family, and All of my friends.
Assalamu’alaikum wr.wb Alhamdulillahirobbil’alamin, praised to be Allah SWT, the owner of this universe, the most merciful who gives a million blessings, miracles and uncountable gifts to the researcher, so she can accomplish her research paper entitled “A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING WRITING OF ENGLISH
RECOUNT TEXT TO THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 2 BAKI IN 2009/2010 ACADEMIC YEAR” as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for getting bachelor degree of education in English department of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. Peace be upon Muhammad, the last massager of Allah, who will be hero for all his followers in the life after. The researcher realizes that this research paper would never been possible without other people’s help, so that the research would like to thank to the people who have supported her personally over the years and during the making of this research paper, they are: 1. Drs. Sofyan Anif, M.Si, as the Dean of the School of Teacher Training and Education of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, 2. Titis Setyabudi, S.S, as the chief of English Department who has permitted her to conduct this research paper,
3. Drs. Djoko Srijono, M. Hum., as the first consultant who has given a valuable guidance and suggestion during the completion of this research paper, 4. Anam Sutopo, S. Pd., M. Hum., as the second consultant for being best consultant and giving the researcher suggestion, precious time in correcting this research paper, 5. All of the lecturers of English Department, thank for precious knowledge given to her, 6. Dra. Hj. Praptinah, as the headmaster of SMP Negeri 2 Baki who has permitted her to conduct this research paper, 7. Hayati, S. Pd., as the English teacher of the 8th year students of SMP Negeri 2 Baki who has helped her in collecting the data, 8. All of the students at the 8th year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki, thank for helping her in collecting the data, 9. Her dearest father and mother, Bapak Suranto and Ibu Sri Suwarni “I learn to be though and more patients from you”. Thank for every single thing you did. Absolutely, I cannot do anything without love and prays. 10. Her special relationship, Adhi Gayuh Laksono, A. Md.. You are her only one. Thank for your support and love to her to finished her paper and accompany her wherever she goes, 11. Her best friends in English Department Henita, Vika, Yulia, Puspa, Desi, Linda, Yunita, Angil, Fauzi, Zouvan. Thanks for your support. She will never
forget when the course end, and Tri Wahyuningsih in Sukoharjo, thank for your patient, who has borrowed your paper to me as the reference, 12. Her friends in her environment, Kiki, Indra, Adji, Maya. Keep fight and spirit to our friendship, and 13. All of the people, who can not mention one by one, thank for everything. Deep down on the researcher’s heart, she realizes that this research paper is so far from being perfect. The researcher invites comments and suggestions from the readers for the betterment of this research paper. Hopefully, this research paper will be useful for those who are interested in investigating the materials. Wassalamu’alaikum wr.wb. Surakarta, June 2010
TABLE OF CONTENT
page TITLE ………………………………………………………………………………i APPROVAL ………………………………………………………………………..ii ACCEPTANCE ………………………………………………………………...…..iii TESTIMONIAL STATEMENT ……………………………………………………iv MOTTO …………………………………………………………………………….v DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………………..vi ACKNOWLEDGMENT …………………………………………………………...vii TABLE OF CONTENT ………………………………………………………...….x SUMMARY …………………………..……………………………………………xiii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………...1 A. Background of the Study………………………………………...1 B. Problem of the Study…………………………………………….3 C. Objective of the Study …………………………………………..3 D. Limitation of the Study ………………………………………….4 E. Benefit of the Study ……………………………………………..4 F. Research Paper Organization ……………………………………5 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ………………………….6 A. Previous Study ………………………………………………….6 B. Notion of Teaching ……………………………………………..7
C. Notion of Writing ……………………………………………… 8 1. Approach of Teaching Writing ………………………………9 2. Roles of Teacher in Teaching Writing ……………………….11 3. Writing as an Interactive Process …………………………….12 D. Notion of Recount Text ………………………………………….12 E. Techniques for Generating Ideas …………………………………14 F. Notion of Genre …………………………………………………..16 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD…………………………………………….19 A. Type of the Research …………………………………………...19 B. Subject of the Study …………………………………………….19 C. Object of the Study ……………………………………………..20 D. Data and Data Source…………………………………………...20 E. Method of Collecting Data ……………………………………..20 F. Technique for Analyzing Data ………………………………….21 CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ……………………..21 A. Research Finding ……………………………………………….22 1. Teaching Writing of English Recount Text a. The Goal of Teaching Writing ……………………………22 b. Teaching Material ………………………………………...24 c. Teaching-learning Process ………………………….……24 d. The Means of Assessment/ Evaluation …………...............37 2. Problem Faced by the Teacher in Teaching Writing…………38
3. Problem Faced by the Students in Learning Process ………...40 B. Discussion ……………………………………………………...42 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ……………………………...48 A. Conclusion ……………………………………………………….48 B. Suggestion ………………………………………………………..49 BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………………...50 APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………..52
SUMMARY Ratih Wulandari. A. 320 060 336, A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING WRITING OF ENGLISH RECOUNT TEXT TO THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 2 BAKI IN 2009/2010 ACADEMIC YEAR. Research Paper. Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. 2010. This research aims at describing the teaching writing of English recount text to the eight year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki in 2009/ 2010 academic year, describing the problems faced by the teacher in teaching writing, and classifying the problems faced by the students in learning writing of English recount text. The researcher uses descriptive qualitative method. The method of collecting data is observation, interview, and document analysis. The data are the goal of teaching writing, teaching materials, teaching learning process, the means of assessment. The research was done on 1st up to 8th March 2010. The collected data are analyzed by using descriptive analysis. The results of this research show that: (a) the goals of teaching writing in SMP Negeri 2 Baki are to enable the students in understanding English as a means of communication and to enable the students to practice in using English written form, (b) the teacher does not only use the text book as the material but also use a worksheet to make the students understand the materials more, (c) in conducting the teaching learning-process of writing, the researcher conducts four steps, namely building of knowledge, modeling of text, joint construction of text, and individual construction of text, (d) the techniques implemented by the teacher in teaching writing are clustering and WH-Questions, (e) the means of assessment in teaching writing is from the writing product.
Anam Sutopo, S. Pd., M. Hum. Dean,
Drs. Djoko Srijono, M.Hum.
Drs. Sofyan Anif, M. Si.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language is a means of communication among individuals. It is a system of sounds which is structured and is used to communicate people‟s feelings, intentions and purpose. It is a special characteristic of human or it can also be regarded as one of human character. English is an international language. Nowadays, people‟s life get involved with a lot of written English, like English notice in public places such as; No Parking, No Smoking, Enter, In, Out, Sale, Discount, Music Language, and ATM (Automatic Teller Machine). Therefore, the abilities to write and read are very important. In global era, literacy in English has important role in education. For English teacher, globalization has given the big challenge to teach their students to survive in modern society life. Now, English education has adopted literacy approach, which prepares their students to participate and create English texts. So, the teacher should have the ability to teach their students with many facilities available in their schools. Teaching writing is done by using different methods and techniques which should be appropriate to the education level. The educational level can be divided into Elementary School, Junior High School, Senior High School, and Collage. The most important reason for teaching writing is that it is a basic skill, as important as speaking, listening, and reading. In writing activity the students need not only the
correct application of linguistic aspects but also ability to organize ideas or thought well, to construct the sentences, to use punctuation and spelling well. Teaching English in Indonesia is focused on the ability of student‟s communication. The communication can be in oral and written forms. Oral communication is easier because it rarely uses standard grammar. People can imitate speaking when they get interaction everyday in their life; it means that oral language is mostly used in face to face situations. The examples of oral communication can be found when we watch TV, listen to radio or talk to someone. On the contrary, communication in writing should use standard grammar. We can find examples of written language in public places such as, announcement, news, pamphlet, and advertisement. In Indonesia the learners of English language should be capable of developing the four language skills; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The learners should have abilities in reading and listening to support their speaking and writing. Teaching method and technique are needed in the teaching-learning process, especially in teaching writing. Methods are treated at the level design in which the roles of teachers, learners, and instructional materials are specified. The techniques that can be done in teaching writing are; clustering, brainstorming, free writing, and WH- Question. In learning writing of recount text, the 8th year students of SMP Negeri 2 Baki often face the difficulties for example; the students write “I am studies last night”.
This sentence is wrong; it should be “I studied last night”. It seems that the first problem faced by the students is on grammar of the sentence. Based on the description above, the researcher is interested in conducting a research entitled A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING WRITING OF ENGLISH RECOUNT TEXT TO THE EIGHT YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 2 BAKI IN 2009/2010 ACADEMIC YEAR. B. Problem Statement Based on the background of the study above, the researcher formulates the following problems: 1. What is the implementation of teaching writing of English recount text to the 8th year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki in 2009/2010 Academic Year? 2. What are the problems faced by the teacher in teaching writing of English recount text to the 8th year student in SMP Negeri 2 Baki in 2009/2010 Academic Year? and 3. What are the problems faced by the students in learning writing of English recount text to the 8th year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki in 2009/2010 Academic Year? C. Objective of the Study Based on the problem statements above, the objectives of the study are as follows: 1. to describe the implementation of teaching writing of English recount text to the 8th year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki,
2. to describe the kinds of problems faced by the teacher in teaching writing of English recount text to the 8th year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki, and 3. to classify the problems faced by the students in learning writing of English recount text by using the teachers‟ instruction. D. Limitation of the Study In this research, the researcher only focuses on teaching writing of recount text to the 8th year students of SMP Negeri 2 Baki especially in 2009/2010 Academic Year. E. Benefit of the Study After completing the study, the researcher hopes this study may have the following benefits: 1. Practically a. for the researcher herself: She can get larger knowledge about study of writing of English recount text in teaching and learning process. b. for the teacher: The researcher hopes that this research may increase the teacher‟s ability in the teaching learning process, especially in teaching writing. c. for the students: The students can improve their writing ability and to solve the problem in learning English especially in learning writing of English recount text.
2. Theoretically a. The result of the research paper can be useful input in English teachinglearning process especially for teaching writing. b. The result of this research can be used as a reference for those who want to conduct a research in English teaching-learning process. F. Research Paper Organization Chapter I is introduction. This chapter involves background of the study, problem statement, objective of the study, limitation of the study, benefit of the study, research paper organization. Chapter II is underlying theory. It delivers previous study, the notion of writing, aspect of writing, the notion of teaching, the notion of recount text, technique of generating idea. Chapter III is research method that presents type of the study, subject of the study, object of the study, data and data source, method of collecting data, technique for analyzing data. Chapter IV is research finding and discussion. This chapter discusses result of research and discussion. The research finding is divided into teaching writing of recount text, problem faced by the teacher and problem faced by the students. Chapter V draws conclusion and suggestion.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Previous Study In accomplishing her research, the researcher uses the previous research dealing with the topic of her study as her guidance. There are two previous researches. The first is conducted by Wulansari (UMS, 2007) entitled A Descriptive Study on the Method of Teaching Writing Applied by the Teacher at SMA Negeri Kebak Kramat in 2006/2007 Academic Year shows that the objectives of teaching writing at SMA Negeri Kebak Kramat are to improve the writing competence of the students, prepare the students to face the National Examination in Indonesia it is called Ujian Akhir National (UAN) and prepare the students to continue their study to university. The approaches adopted by the teacher at SMA Negeri Kebak Kramat are process-based approach and product-based approach. The second research is written by Wahyuni (UMS, 2008) entitled Teaching Writing Based on School Level- Based Curriculum to the 1st Year Students in SMA Negeri 1 Sukoharjo in 2997/2008 Academic Year. The result of her research is that the goals of teaching writing in SMA Negeri 1 Sukoharjo are to enable the students in understanding English as a means communication and to enable the students to practice in using English in written form. The approaches adopted by the teacher are product-based approach and process-based approach. All the studies above have the similarities with the researcher‟s studies because all the data are analyzed based on the teaching writing. The differences from
the studies above, the researcher presents her study focused on teaching writing of recount text in 8th year students of SMP Negeri 2 Baki and it is supported by the research result of the previous studies. B. Notion of Teaching Teaching, according to Brown (1980: 7), is showing or helping some one learn how to do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing with the knowledge, causing to know or understand. Furthermore, Quina (1989: 5) reports a sample of list from teacher‟s responses in his university (Wayne State University) about good teaching as follows: 1. Share experience between students and the teacher Here, the teacher and the students discuss about something and the teacher gives some example based on his/ her experience for the students so it can help the students to imagine what they will write. 2. Impart information and critical thinking skill to others The teacher and the students give critic to each other so the students and the teacher can know that they make some errors and it helps to improve the student‟s skill. 3. Facilitate the learning process The teacher and the school have to facilitate to the students so it can help the students to improve their skill and the students will get good mark. 4. Practice the art of analyzing content and distributing the information to others The teacher analyzes the student‟s product to measure that the students have understood of the material or not. 5. Guide students to be critical thinkers and enabling them to evaluate their world The teacher gives motivation for the students that they are clever students so it can motivate the students to more diligent study and asked the students to not be afraid when share their opinion for their friends or the teacher.
6. Convey their facts of information through machine or person The teacher gives some information by bring the authentic proof for example the teacher brings newspaper, radio, and native speaker. 7. Show, share, and explore aspects of life The teacher and the students discuss anything what they have done in the past time and it can be done by telling in front of the class so all of the students pay attention of it. 8. Motivate students to use their full potential The teacher gives motivation that all of the students have capable to do the assignment by self and explore their skill as much as. 9. Help students to find knowledge within them selves The teacher asks the students to get information as much as by reading newspaper, listening radio, and browsing internet. 10. Perform art The teacher asks the students to show their result in front of the class to the teacher and the other students can correct if there are errors together and to know what they students have understood or not. It can be concluded that there are interaction and communication between the students and the teacher so it can help the students to improve their skill and get good mark especially in learning writing and the students will feel more comfort with the teacher if the teacher sees the students as his/ her friends not as a speaker and listener. C. Notion of Writing According to Nunan (2003: 88), writing is both physical and mental act. At the most basic level it is a physical act of community words or an email message typed into a computer. On the other hand, writing is the mental work of inventing ideas. Thinking about how to express the idea and organizing the idea into statements and paragraph are needed by the writer to make a good paragraph.
Nunan (2003: 88) defines writing as both a process and a product. The writer images, organizes, drafts, edits, reads, and rereads. The process of writing is often cyclical sometimes disorderly. Ultimately, what the learners see, whether it‟s an instructor or wider audience is a product. It can be on essay, letter, story, or research report. According the explanation above, it can be concluded that writing is a process of expressing ideas by producing a sequence of sentences arranged in particular order and linked together in certain ways to convey meaning. 1. Approach of Teaching Writing Fauziati (2005: 148-150) defines there are two approaches in teachingwriting, namely: Product-based approach and Process-based approach. a. Product-based Approach In the product based approach, the main purpose of the learner‟s writing activity is to catch the grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. In the advanced classes, the students are given composition or other kind of the text to write based on certain topics. Then the teacher takes the student‟s work grade especially based on the grammatical errors. Finally the teacher returns the students work with some comments and corrections. The students will get a good score if the texts are free from errors or have only just very few errors. That will be make the students often avoid writing what they can control to avoid errors. In product- based approach, writing quality is judge on the basis of final products and grammatical and linguists accuracy. Furthermore, due to this product focus, students pay little attention to the whole process of writing. They know little about how to generate ideas for writing. Consequently, they struggle with the text organization, independent thinking, and generating ideas.
The major concerns of product-based approach are form and correctness. The teacher provides drill work on specific skills, makes many of the major writing decisions for the students (topic, form, lengthy, ect) and serves as the only audiences to judge. In the writing class the students work alone on their writing assignment. They try to get their writing right, because the paper turned in will be only version. The teacher marks all the mechanical errors in circle of the essay. b. Process-based Approach In the process-based approach, students are taught strategies that should help them to finally reach a decent product. The process approach encourages students to experiment with ideas through writing to share the writing with their classmate and to get opinion from several people to help them figure out what to say it. In teaching writing as a process, consequently, the students may produce several drafts or version of their writing with the emphasis on the process of writing and on getting feedback from classmate. The new emphasis on the process, however, must be seen in the perspective of a balance between product and process. “The product is, after all, the ultimate goal; it is the reason that we go through the process of prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing” (Brown, 1994: 322) in Fauziati (2005: 150). Caudery (1995) in Fauziati (2005: 150) argues that the process of writng includes planning, drafting, and revising. Brown (1994) in Fauziati (2005: 150) states that prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing take place throughout the process of writing. The major elements of the process approach are student‟s awareness and teacher intervention. The process-based approach concerns how writers generate ideas, record them and refine them in order to form a text. Feed back is important in this approach. Diverse
types of feedback are recommended to help the students become more active writers. Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that there are communication and interaction between the students and the teacher in order to get good result in writing class and the process of learning more effective. 2. Roles of Teacher in Teaching Writing Fauziati (2005: 151) in classroom technique the teacher has roles in teaching writing, as follows: a. Instructional should be focused on the writing process. The teacher should prepare to intervene in the students writing process with suggestion and correction to help the students overcome difficulties encountered in each of the stages. b. Conferencing is an important part of the classroom activity. It occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. Such an activity provides students with immediate and meaningful response to their writing. c. A facilitator The teacher no longer focuses just on error in the product but is free to respond to number facets of students writing. Based on Patricia it can be concluded that the teacher as the central of role in the classroom so the students have to pay attention what the teacher asks and tells for them. The teacher should give the information and commend correctly and clearly.
3. Writing as an Interactive Process According to Patricia (2003: 102), writing is an interactive process, involving three basic components: a. First, the writer brings to the process his or her own values, relationships, experiences, prior knowledge, culture, culture dreams, goals, and expectation. But, the writer must also consider one additional category: the audience. Writers must anticipate the possible reactions, backgrounds, of those who will be reading and creating meaning out of what is being produced. b. Second, the interactive process of writing includes other writers at home, in school, (mainly the teacher and peers, some of whom will probably be more advanced) and in the community and beyond. Good writers often consult or conference with other writers to ask for their reactions, comments, and suggestions. c. Finally, the interactive process of writing includes other texts, written, and oral-stories, drama, essays, novels, poems, formal speeches, informal written communication, song lyrics, periodicals, miscellaneous books, and so on that can serve both as sources of information and as models. . The writing process itself involves; brainstorming for topics of interest and discussing them with others, gathering information; allowing that information to settle into some sort of overall plan (clustering and other graphic organizers might be useful in planning), putting the words down on paper, and consulting with others again. D. Notion of Recount Text Recount is a reconstruction of something happened in the past. It is unfolding sequence of events over time and the purpose is to tell what happened. Recounts begin by telling the reader who was involved, what happened where this event took
lace and when it happened. The sequence of event is then described in some sort of order, for instance a time order (http://understandingtext. what-is-recount.html). According to Siswanto (2005: 202) recount is a text that tells someone‟s past experience in a chronological order. A recount is the unfolding of a sequence of events overtimes. It is used to tell past events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. Its focus is on a sequence of events. The generic structure of a recount text consists of three parts; they are the setting or orientation, series of event, and the conclusion. The setting or orientation is the background information answering who, when, where, and why. It is also where you give an outline of what you are writing about. Events are where you write about the things that happened and are identified and described in chronological order. And the conclusion expresses a personal opinion regarding the events described. In other words this is where you bring your writing to close by saying how thing occurred, what saying what you feel about the things that happened and mentioning something which will or may happen later. A recount has a title, which taken by the main idea of the text. Since recount tells about past experience, it uses past tenses; as simple past, past perfect, past continuous tense, and past perfect continuous tenses. It can be concluded that recount text is text tells about the last experience for someone and it has general structure to arrange into good text and can be understood easily.
E. Techniques for Generating Ideas Smalley (2001: 4-7) states that there are some techniques for generating ideas: 1) Brainstorming A brainstorm is a sudden insight or connection. Brainstorming is a way to associate ideas and stimulate thinking. To brainstorm, star with a word or phrase and let your thoughts go in whatever direction they will. For a set period of time, do not attempt to think logically but write a list of ideas as quickly as possible, putting down whatever comes to mind without looking back or organizing. After the set time is up, look over what you have listed to see if any of the ideas are related and can be grouped. If so, the groupings suggest a topic or area of support. It means that the students are given a topic by the teacher. Then the students write down every single think that exist or comes into their minds. They can write their ideas in phrases or single words in complete sentence. 2) Free Writing Free writing is writing without stopping. It means writing whatever comes to your mind without worrying about whether the ideas are good or the grammar is correct. It purposes is to free up your mind to let it make association and connection. In free writing, the teacher asks the students to write nonstop on a topic for a set time. Then they stop to read and consider what they have written and then written nonstop again for another set amount of time.
3) WH- Question When newspaper reporters write articles, they try to answer the following questions in the first sentence of the report: who, what, when, where, why, and sometimes how. You can use these same questions to generate materials for your writing. Asking these questions allows you to see your topic from different points of view and may help to clarify your position on the topic. To use this technique, write out as many WH- questions as you can. Then answer them as fully as you can. The teacher gives the students a set of questions to guide their writing. By answering the question, the students can stimulate their thinking, drawing on their experience, and developing and shaping their ideas. 4) Clustering Clustering is making a visual map of your ideas. It frees you from following a strictly linear sequence; thus it may allow you to think more creatively and make new association. To use this technique, begin with your topic circled in the middle an idea associated with the topic. Circle this idea and from it draw lines and write ideas associated with it. Continue to map or cluster until you can not think of any more ideas. When you have finished, study your map to find new associations about your topic and to see the relationship of ideas. In clustering the teacher asks the students to write down their idea (whatever comes to their mind). Then, they make lists every word related to the idea. Then, they can develop their writing based on their words list. From the explanation above, it can be concluded that the teacher usually has some methods in teaching-learning process, especially in teaching writing. The
method is theoretically related to an approach and is organizational determined by design (fauziati, 2001: 5). F. Notion of Genre Based on Swales (1990: 58) in Fauziati (2009: 211) identified a genre as “a class of communicative events, the members of which share come set of communicative purposes”. His definition offers the basic idea that there are certain conventions or rules which are generally associated with a writer‟s purpose. For example, a personal letter tells about private stories and film reviews analyze movies for potential viewers. Most genre use conventions related to communicative purposes; a personal letter starts with a cordial question in a friendly mood because its purpose is to maintain good relationships, and an argument essay emphasizes its thesis since it aims at making an argument. They are the examples of written genres. Meanwhile, according to Yusak (2004: 24), the types of genre involve spoof, recount, report, analytical exposition, news items, anecdote, narrative, procedure, descriptive, explanation, and discussion. a. Spoof The social function of spoof is to retell an event with a humorous twist. The generic structures are orientation, events, and twist. b. Report The social function of report is to describe the things are, with reference to a range of natural, man made, and social phenomena in our environment. The generic structure of is general classification and description.
c. Recount The social function of recount text is to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. The generic structures are orientation, events, and reorientation. d. News Items The social function of news items is to inform reader, listener, or viewer about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. the generic structures are newsworthy events, background events, and sources. e. Anecdote The social function of anecdote is to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident. The generic structures are abstract, orientation, crisis, incident, and coda. f. Narrative The social function of narrative is to amuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways; narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution. The generic structures are orientation, complication, and resolution. g. Procedure The social function of procedure text is to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence or steps. The generic structures are materials needed and the steps. h. Explanation The social function of explanation is to explain the processes involved in the information or working of natural or socialcultural phenomena. The generic structures are general statement to position the reader and explanation. i. Description The social function of description text is to describe a particular person, place, or things. The generic structures are identification and description. j. Discussion The social function of discussion is to present (al least) two points of view about an issue. The generic structures are issue and argument for points and elaborations. It means that genre is used to product the kinds of writing and the main idea of uses genre are to associate with a writer‟s purpose on their writing and to share come set of communicative purposes. The goal of using genre is to help the students
to do things with language independently through mastery of the text types based on the genre that used. In process of learning is a social activity that means there are collaboration between the teacher and the student and between the students and the student in the group.
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD
Research method is an important part in a research. It is used for the researcher to apply an appropriate method. It is needed in order to reduce the possible mistake. In conducting a research, the researcher presents the points of research method, namely, (a) Type of the Research, (b) Subject of the Study, (c) Object of the Study, (d) Data and Data Source, (e) Methods of Collecting Data, (f) Technique for Analyzing Data. A. Type of the Research In this research the reseacher uses qualitative research. Qualitative research is a research which does not use statistic data, it is associated with hypothesis generating and developing an understanding. Moleong (1995: 2) states that qualitative research is a type of research which does not include any calculation or numerating. In this research, the researcher conducts descriptive qualitative research which describes teaching writing. So in this case the researcher describes without giving any calculation or statistic procedure. B. Subject of the Study The subject of this research is the English teacher and the 8th year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki.
C. Object of the Study The object of the study is teaching methods used in teaching writing of English recount text to the 8th year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki in 2009/2010 academic year. The content of the object of the study is the problem faced by the teacher in teaching writing and the problem faced by the students in learning writing. D. Data and Data Source In this research, there are two sources of data: 1) Event, the English writing teaching-learning process. 2) Informant, the English teacher of 8th year students at SMP Negeri 2 Baki. The data are document, writing material, and syllabus. E. Method of Collecting Data The researcher uses some ways to collect the data as follows: 1. Observation Observation is the way to observe something important in order to get the understanding about objects that observed. 2. Interview Interview is a verbal communication to collect the data through face to face relationship between interviewer and interviewee. 3. Document Analysis It means that the researcher analyzes the related document with method used in teaching writing. It consists of reports, syllabus, and learning materials.
F. Technique for Analyzing Data Technique for analyzing data of this research is descriptive qualitative research. To know the process of teaching writing the researcher applies the following steps: a. Collecting the data taken from observation and interview Here the researcher uses some techniques to collect the data that consists of: (1) the goal of teaching writing, (2) teaching materials, and (3) teaching-learning process, and (4) the means of assessment. b. Classifying the data of the observation and interview. The researcher wants to classify the result of data based on observation and interview. c. Analyzing the data from the result of observation and interview. The researcher wants to describe the result of doing observation and interview. d. Drawing conclusion and giving suggestion. The researcher draws the conclusion based on the result and giving suggestion for the teacher to increase to student‟s knowledge in teaching writing.
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter, the researcher presents the data which have been collected from the observation, interview, and document analysis. The data are the teaching writing English of recount text, problem faced the teacher, and the students in teaching learning process of recount text. In the implementation teaching writing of English recount text, the researcher presents and discusses the goal of teaching writing, teaching materials, the teaching learning process, and the means of assessment. A. Research Finding In the research finding, there are data found in the field necessary to be presented. The data are the goal of teaching writing, teaching materials, the teaching learning process, and the means of assessment. 1. Goal of Teaching Writing From the interview and observation in the classroom at the eight year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki, the goal of the language teaching is to develop the communicative competence of the students. Specifically, the goal of the language teaching is to master the four skills, namely speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Here, the researcher just focuses on writing skill.
Based on the syllabus, the standard of competence, the general objective of the language teaching writing at the Junior high School is to express the meaning of functional written text and simple short essay on recount and narrative form to make interaction in environment. The specific objective of the language teaching learning process at SMP Negeri 2 Baki is to make the students active in the language class both in oral/spoken and written. The goals of teaching writing at SMP Negeri 2 Baki are to enable the students in understanding English as a means of communication and to enable the students to practice English in written form. It is hoped that the students would produce a good essay. Besides, the students would have a good Basic English before the continued their study in class nine. 2. Teaching Material The syllabus for the eight year students at SMP Negeri 2 Baki is based on School Level-based Curriculum. The syllabus is just a guideline so the teacher must develop it by themselves. Material has very important role in the teaching-learning process. The material should be appropriate to the syllabus. It must be able to develop the students‟ competence and knowledge. The role of material reflects the decision concerning to the primary goal of the material. It can facilitate the ability to express the ideas, feeling, and opinion.
The materials of English Subject are listed in the syllabus but the sometimes the teacher teaches her students based on the topic and sub-topic in the main textbook. The textbook is an English textbook for Junior High School entitled “Lets Talk” published by Balai Pustaka. This book focuses on improving the student‟s English language skills and using these skills as a medium to broaden their knowledge. There are four basic language skills covered in this book. They are listening, writing, reading, and speaking. This book also provides example, exercises, and passage which are relevant to the student‟s real life. In the textbook, the students are given material such as writing, speaking, reading, and listening. Beside that book, the students are given a work sheet entitled “English for Elementary School” published by CV. Cahaya Alam. This booksheet provides the summary of materials, examples, exercises, daily test, and semester/UAS (Ujian Akhir Sekolah or School Examination) exercises. In the worksheet, the writing materials are such as write small recount text and narrative text. The students also should have to bring a dictionary in every meeting. This is meant to make the process of teaching and learning run well. 3. Teaching-learning Process In writing class, the teacher should use the time approximately to meet the purposes of the lesson. The time duration is 80 minutes. The school has 4X40 minutes per week scheduled in English subject.
Observation is suggested as way of gathering information about teaching writing. This observation was done four times. In this section, the researcher describes some activities that had been done by the teacher and the students during observation. The description of each observation will be explained as follows: 1. First observation, Monday 1st March 2010 a. Opening the class The teacher used opening session to focus the student‟s attention on the learning aims of the lesson. The opening took 5 minutes. The teacher came to the class and let the students to pray together. Then she greeted and asked the students about their attendance list, asked the students to prepare the book, and dictionary. Before, the lesson was started, the teacher introduced the observer. The teaching learning process was held in the language laboratory. This purpose is to control the laboratory situation. b. BKOF (Building Knowledge of Field) To begin the lesson, teacher asked to the students about recount. “What do you know about recount? teacher asked. Students answered “it is a kind of genre.” “Yes, it is right or it can be called as type of text” teacher said. “Then, can you mention the kinds of genre? the teacher said. Students answered,” narrative, descriptive, recount, explanation
and report”. The teacher added the other genres namely anecdote, exposition, news items, procedure, and review. c. MOT (Modeling of Text) Teacher gave a short story text entitled ”Having Sickness” to the students. After all of the students have received the text, the teacher began to read the text by himself and instructed her students to listen and read their own text carefully. After the teacher finished reading the text, she asked one of the students to read the text. A student read the text and the other students listened. d. JCOT (Joint Construction of Text) After a student finished reading the text that was instructed by the teacher, the teacher wrote the difficult words on the white board in front of the class. The difficult words are stomachache, drug store, injection, prescription, headache, and called. After she finished writing the words, she gave an opportunity to the students to look for those words meaning using their own dictionary. This makes not all the students look for the word‟s meaning. Several times later, the teacher asked them “Have you finished? The students answered “Yes”. Then, they discussed together the word‟s meaning by giving opportunity for students to answer it. If the student‟s answer is not correct, the teacher is corrected by giving the right meaning. For example the teacher corrects the meaning of the word “went” it means go or pergi (Indonesian).
Almost of the students participate actively in doing the exercise. After discussing the word‟s meaning, the teacher said “OK”. After the students explained the difficult words, she asked the students to answer the questions using complete answer with their group. 8 minutes later the students had completed the answer and then the teacher asked students to write on white board and then discuss and correct the answers of those questions. Hare the researcher only takes an example of question below: 1. Did you ever get sickness? 2. Did you go to the doctor? 3. What time did you go to the doctor’s house? 4. Who did accompany you? 5. What did you feel the next morning? e. ICOT (Individual Construction of Text) After the students and teachers discussed and corrected the answer, the teacher asked students to make a new text based on their experience in the past with theme “Getting Sickness”. This individual assignment is taken home so the students had more chance to arrange the sentences into good text and develop their skill of writing. f. Closing the class: In the last step, the teacher gave comment, such as thankfulness to the student‟s attention, gave some advices and information about what
they will learn tomorrow. The, teacher closed the class by wishing “Thank you for your attention and see you”. 2. Second observation, Wednesday 3rd March 2010 a. Opening the class The teacher used opening session to focus the student‟s attention on the learning aims of the lesson. The opening took 5 minutes. The teacher came to the class and let the students to pray together. Then she greeted and asked the students about their attendance list, asked the students to prepare the book, dictionary. Before, the lesson was started, the teacher introduced the observer. The teaching learning process was held in the language laboratory. This purpose is to control the laboratory situation. b. BKOF (Building Knowledge of Text) Today the teacher asked the students to collect the home works. And then the teacher asked the students to open the work sheet and then she explained the past tense. 5 minutes later, the teacher gave chance to the students to ask if they found difficulties. No one of them asked her because the teacher‟s explanation was clear enough and the students could open the dictionary if they had difficult word. c. MOT (Modeling of Text) Here, the teacher explains about the use of grammar especially in past tense. The teacher gives some examples based on the textbook
and the teacher gives other example of sentences too. The students pay attention for the teacher‟s explanation and they are active on discussing that materials d. JCOT (Joint Construction of Text) The teacher asked the students to work in pairs. She asked them to write a paragraph using past tense and the topic is free. Here, the students discussed about that assignment with his/ her partner. They should cooperate in making a text. But in fact, there were students who ignored it. They did some activities which made the others disturbed, for example making noisy and gossiping. After the students did that assignment, she asked three of students to write their text on the white board. After they wrote their work, the teacher and the students discussed and corrected their text. Here, the example of the sentences: 1. I went to Jogja last Sunday with my family. 2. Father bought new bicycle for me. 3. My brother cut his hair last week. 4. The students got good mark 5. The teacher gave homework for the students e. ICOT (Individual Construction of Text) Here, the teacher asked the students to back their chairs and asked them to open the work sheet and then asked them to answer the questions using past tense based on their experience. The questions were
ready on the worksheet. Because the time was over, she told them to continue their work at home and arrange that questions into a good text. f. Closing the class: In the last step, the teacher gave comment, such as thankfulness to the student‟s attention, gave some advices and information about what they will learn tomorrow. Teacher also remembered them to submit their assignment in next meeting. Then, teacher closed the class by wishing “Thank you for your attention and see you. 3. Third Meeting, Saturday 6 March 2010 a. Opening the class: The teacher used opening session to focus the student‟s attention on the learning aims of the lesson. The opening took 5 minutes. The teacher came to the class and let the students to pray together. Then he greeted and asked the students about their attendance list, asked the students to prepare the book, and dictionary. b. BKOF (Building Knowledge of Text) Today, the teacher asked the students to collect the homework first. The teacher reviewed the generic structure of recount text by pointing the students. The teacher explained that the generic structure of recount text that consists of title, orientation, series of events, and reorientation. In fact, the students still remembered the generic structure, it means that they memorize and understand it well. Teacher asked the
students to make group. Each group should consist of three students. Teacher asked each group to make a paragraph. Then, the teacher gave them recount text entitled” The Holliday that Make Me Happy”. c. MOT (Modeling of Text) After all of group received the text, the teacher read the text firstly and she asked the students to listen carefully. After she finished reading the text, she asked one representative of the student‟s groups to read the text, while the other group listened carefully. This activity was take place for 10 minutes. d. JCOT (Joint Construction of Text) Teacher asked each group to discuss and determine the generic structure of recount text have been given by the teacher. When the students do their assignment, the teacher controlled their student‟s group activities by exchanging them. She also helped the students, if they got difficulties in understanding anything related to the material. After the students finished their discussion, the teacher asked them present their result in front of the class. The representative of each group read only one paragraph, and they also determined the part of the story of the paragraph he read. There were five paragraphs that should be determined the generic structure of the story. When all of the representatives finished reading and determining the part of story, teacher tried to make them understand about the content of the story by
translating the language and storytelling well. In listening the story was told by teacher, students looked interested and enthusiastic. Here, the example of the text: A Holliday That Make Me Happy We were very happy in that holiday On Thursday, we visited the temples in Prambanan. There were three big temples, the Brahmana, the Syiwa, and the Wisnu temples. They were really amazing. We visited only Brahma and Syiwa temples, because Wisnu temple was renovated. I was very happy looked this temples. On Wednesday, we went to Yogyakarta. We stayed at Dirgahayu Hotel which was not far from Malioboro. In the Second semester holiday, at VIII class, my friends and I spent to Yogyakarta and Magelang for three days, from Wednesday to Friday. On Friday morning, we went to Jogja Kraton. We spent about two hours there. We were lucky because we were led by a smart and friendly guide. Then we continued our journey to Borobudur. In the evening we left for Tegal by wisata bus.
e. ICOT (Individual Construction of Text) After students group discussed and determined the generic structure of recount text that has been given by the teacher step, the teacher asked students to work individually. She asked students to write the sentences as the result of group‟s discussion from the assignment before into a recount text in their own notebook. The teacher‟s guidelines were given before they began do this assignment as follows: 1) write the story into a good recount text; 2) identify the generic
structure. Students finished their assignment individually and silently in their own chairs. f. Closing the class: In the last step, teacher gave comment, such as thankfulness to the student‟s attention, gave some advices and information about what they will learn tomorrow. The, teacher closed the class by wishing “Thank you for your attention and see you”. 4. Fourth Observation, Monday 8th March 2010 a. Opening the class The teacher used opening session to focus the student‟s attention on the learning aims of the lesson. The opening took 5 minutes. The teacher came to the class and let the students to pray together. Then she greeted and asked the students about their attendance lists, asked the students to prepare the book, dictionary, textbook, and worksheet. b. BKOF (Building Knowledge of Text) That day the teacher memorized the generic structure of recount text and to make sure that all of the students understood of the generic structure of recount text and the students still remembered it. The teacher gave some examples of theme in recount text, such as holliday, birthday party, camping, and funny experience.
c. MOT (Modeling of Text) The teacher gave recount text to the students entitled “My Birthday Party”. After all of students have received the text, the teacher began to read the text and asked the students to listen carefully. She told story well, she made the students are enthusiastic to join the class. After she read the text, she asked students to read together the vocabulary related to the text that is available under of the text. The teacher read vocabulary firstly and students repeated after her. The vocabulary are presents, candle, made a wind, cut, and sang. After students read and understand the vocabulary used in the text, the teacher asked them “Do you understand the content of that story?”. Students answered “Not Yet” for thus reason they discussed together the content of the story by translating the language and the teacher told the story well. Finally they understand the content of story. d. JCOT (Joint Construction of Text) To measure the student‟s understanding of the content of the story, the teacher gave an opportunity to student to answer the questions that are available on the text. Before they began to answer the question, the teacher gave guidelines namely he said “You have read the passage. Now, write full answers to these questions. Try to answer them in your own words. Be careful of changes in tenses”. Then, the students did their assignment silently while the teacher
controlled their activities in front of class. Sometimes he came to his students to help and to manage them. After they finished their assignment, the teacher asked them to discuss the student‟s answer together. She gave an opportunity to students to answer the question by showing them. There are ten questions that must be answered by them and they could answer almost of the questions correctly. If there is a wrong answer or students can not answer the question, the teacher corrected the question and helped them if they got difficulties in the teaching process. Here the example of those questions: 1. Did you ever celebrate birthday party? 2. When did you celebrate birthday party? 3. Where did you do? 4. How many persons that you invite? 5. Who were they? 6. What did your friends bring to you? 7. Did your friends sing birthday song? 8. What did you do after your friends sang? 9. Did you give a slice of cake for your parents? 10. Did your friends enjoy your party? 11. What did you feel when celebrated birthday party? 12. Would you forget that party?
e. ICOT (Individual Construction of Text) In this step, teacher gave other assignment to the student. She asked them to write a composition based on the available pictures on the text. There are six pictures that can lead them to write a composition. Before students began to do it, the teacher explained about what they have to do. She said “Look carefully at the six pictures. Now, answer the questions by using long answer. Sometimes there can be more than one answer to a question. In this case, give as many answer as possible”. After they comprehended the teacher explanation or guidelines about what they have to do, she asked students to answer the questions based on their imagination. In the next session, after they finished answering the questions, the teacher gave previous assignment namely she asked student to write a short composition. Before students begin to do it, the teacher gave some guidelines for them. The guidelines given are such as: 1) Connect all your sentences smoothly into one paragraph, 2) Then, divide your material into three paragraphs. Remember to begin a new paragraph for each new event or step in the story, 3) Write your composition by using past tense, 4) keep the length of your composition within 80 words. The teacher provided some vocabulary that can help them to find the correct words that can be used to write a composition. After the teacher finished explaining the guidelines, students do their assignment immediately while teacher
controlled their activities. Several minutes‟ later the students have finished doing their assignment; teacher asked them to submit their assignment in front of the class. f. Closing the class: In the last step, teacher gave comment, such as thankfulness to the student‟s attention, gave some advices and information about what they will learn tomorrow. Then, teacher closed the class by wishing „Thank you for you attention and see you”. 4. Means of Assessment/ Evaluation Evaluation is very important. It is the way to know how far the students understand the material. It is necessary for the teacher to evaluate and measure the effectiveness of the teaching process. In writing evaluation, the teacher measures and evaluates the students‟ achievement from their writing product. Their writing products are taken from several assignments. They are responsible in team working and writing assignment for individual. The way to give score at responsibility in teamwork can be taken from the result of the product. Responsibility in teamwork is a group work for other students to create a product. So, compactness and creativity are a sign post to evaluate the student‟s achievement. The teacher does not ignore the score which is from their result of writing product. In teaching writing itself, the teacher evaluates the product of the students in writing skill from the content of paragraph (whether or not the
content of paragraph is appropriate to the topic or the title), grammar (the arrangement of the sentences is appropriate to grammar or not?), and connector (it is right or wrong in using connector in writing?). 5. Problem Faced by the Teacher in Teaching Writing of Recount Text. There are some problems faced by the teacher in teaching and learning process. It also occurs in teaching writing in this school. The following are some problems faced by the teacher in teaching writing of recount text. a. Limited Time The English schedule in senior high school is 3 X 40 minutes in a week. This time is used to teach all language skills, namely, writing, reading, listening, and speaking. So, the time is not enough for all the language skills. Moreover, the numbers of the students make the teacher more difficult to manage the time. For example, when the teacher asked the students to present their work in front of the class, not all students could present their work because of limited time. Beside that, based on the interview with the teacher, the school condition also influences a lack of time. For example, at lesson time, students are forced to go home because there is a family from teacher or workers which pass away, holding a meeting, and disaster. b. Different Capability of the Students Each student has different capability in receiving the materials. Some of them could learn the material fast and others learned it slowly.
This situation will make the teaching learning process does not run well. For example, when the teacher explained the material to the students, some of the slow learners did not understand what the material she has explained. While the general or fast learners understood it well. If the slow learners do not ask the teacher about their difficulties, the teacher will not know that they still do not understand. Consequently, the slow learners should be given much attention rather than the general students. The teacher should recognize the capability of her students well. c. Classroom Management Every classroom consists of more than 35 students. The numbers of students are too crowded. It makes the teacher get difficulties to manage the class. For example, the teacher gave the students an exercise. He used group work activity. He got difficulties to control all students‟ activities. Some students participated actively and the others did not. They were noisy such as chatting and gossiping so they disturbed their friends. d. Interest of the Students Some of the students are not interested in studying recount text, based on their opinion, study of recount text need a lot of energy; they have to concentrate of using correct grammar to arrange good sentences and easy to understand the meaning of the passage for the readers and choose the correct diction of words that they will use. The students have to have high concentration for arranging the sentences on their writing.
6. Problem Faced by the Students in Learning Process There are some difficulties faced by the students in learning writing recount text process: a. Using Grammar Recount text is the text that tells about the past experience. To write English recount text we have to use the past tense. There are some kinds of past tense such as simple past tense, past perfect tense, past future tense, and past continuous tense. This sentence is using the V2. Some of the students are confused to change V1 becomes V2 and choose the regular verb or irregular verb. Another case, the students get the problem in using personal pronoun as the subject or as the object, some of them use personal pronoun as object for personal pronoun as personal subject. The students were still confused in making the agreement between subject and verb. It could be because in Indonesian language there is no agreement between subject and verb. The students were still confused in differentiating whether to use the definite or indefinite articles. It could be because in Indonesian language grammar there is no definite article. The students are still confused in deciding which preposition should be used, to use in, on, or at. The students over generalized the pluralization of nouns. They just added the-s/-es without considering that there are some irregular forms of nouns pluralization. The students are still confused in deciding which
pronoun should be used to substitute nouns, whether it is personal, relative, possessive, or demonstrative pronouns. b. Limited Time The time of teaching writing in junior high school is 3 x 40 minutes a week. It is not maximal because this time is used to study another subject kills for example, reading, speaking, and listening. In one session the students have to do the assignment given by the teacher. When the students are still confused to arrange the sentences of recount text, the time is over. It is not maximal because the students do not know whether their sentences are correct or incorrect because the teacher does not have time to discuss the student‟s sentences together. c. The Class Situation The situation of the class is an important aspect for teaching English process. If the situation is crowded it will make the students difficult to pay attention for the teacher‟s explanation, the students will pay attention to the situation out of the class. So, the crowded situation out the class will make the understanding of students need a long time for learning recount text. Because learning recount text need serious attention.
d. Choose the Theme Some of students get confusions in choosing the theme for their writing. They always choose same theme with their friends. For examples, most of them, when write recount text, choose theme about holliday, some of them seldom choose the theme about funny experience, their last birthday party, and their last school. e. Generic Structure of Recount Text Here, some of the students are confused to different between orientation and series of event. Based on their opinion, sentences of orientation near similar with series of events. Sometime, they write some of series of events in orientation. The students are also confused to write how many events that they will write. B. Discussion of the Finding Based on the research finding above, the researcher discuses the general objective of teaching-learning process is to develop the
communicative competence of students in written and in spoken form. The objective of teaching writing at SMP Negeri 2 Baki are enable the students in understanding English as means of communication and enable the students in being active of practicing English in written form. The techniques which are used by the teacher are clustering and W-H questions. By using those techniques, it can open the students‟ imagination to master language more. Besides, the students are easier to produce the writing
product. Those techniques can also stimulate the student‟s creativity in making a writing product. Beside that, the students have to be competent in English writing and master English in written form. It is used to prepare the students to face the Final Examination. The teacher uses some books as the materials sources, entitled “Lets Talk” and “English for Elementary School”. The materials of the book support the students to improve their abilities in English. That book consists of materials and exercises so it can make the students understand the materials more. Beside that, the students are also given worksheet and they have to bring a dictionary to make the teaching- learning process run well. Based on the observation, the teacher uses six steps of teaching learning process of writing. They are opening the class, building knowledge of field, modeling of text, joint construction of text, and individual construction of text and closing the class. The researcher concludes that teaching learning process of writing can create the interaction between the teacher and the students. The teacher instruction is not monotonous because the teacher‟s instruction is variation for example, in producing writing product; the teacher asks the students work individually and group work. By using those, the students do not feel bored and surfeited. They are more enjoyable in receiving the materials. Here, the students are easier to understand and master the writing materials which are given by the teacher because in teaching learning process of
writing, the teacher does not only explain the materials but also the teacher gives the example to make the students more understand.
Based on interview, the teacher evaluates and measures the students‟ proficiency in understanding the writing materials by the product of writing. The product of writing can be taken from group work, individual work, and writing assignment. Here, the teacher can asses the students‟ writing product involving the content of the product, grammar, punctuation, and connector in writing product in which they are competent or not in producing a product. The teacher has some problems in teaching learning. The problems faced by the teacher are classroom management, limited time, different capability of the students, and interest of the students. In classroom management, the teacher uses group activity so that the teacher gets difficulties to control the class. In this case, the teacher is less to control the class so the students are lack to concentrate the teacher‟s explanation. It is caused by the students which do not have respect to the teacher. Beside that, there are some students which underestimate the lesson. The second problem is limited time. It means that the teacher is lack of time to implement the techniques, process in learning, especially writing because the time duration of teaching writing is not enough to every student in presenting the writing product. To anticipate a lack of time because of the
condition of school, it can be giving additional time or extra time to substitute the time which is expelled. The third is different capability. It means that every student has different capability in receiving the materials. Here, the teacher can do the grouping of the students. It means that the teacher joins the students between the students which have less capability in mastering the lesson in responsibility in group work. The last is interest of the students. It means that every student has different interest to study recount text. Some of them dislike studying recount text because it needs much energy and concentration when using the past tense to make good paragraph. The students have some problems in learning recount text. In using grammar, the students work in group so that the students who do not understand of using grammar can get information from their friends by sharing when the assignments are done. It is more effective because the teacher has not need a lot of time to explain the use of grammar especially V2. The second problem is limited time. It means that when the students has still confused on doing the assignment from the teacher the time is over so the students do not know what his/her result is correct or incorrect because the teacher has not time to discuss together.
The third problem is the class situation. It means that sometimes the situation is crowded. It breaks the student‟s attention. When the situation is crowded it needs long time for the teacher to explain the material more detail. The fourth is choosing the theme. It means that some of the students are difficult to choose the theme for their writing product. Some of them do not want to have same theme from their friends but their difficulties to determine the theme that is appropriate with their mind. The last is generic structure. It means that the students have difficulties to definite between orientation and series of events. Sometimes they think that between orientation and series of events are similar and they are confused how many series of events that they will write.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
This chapter presents the conclusion of the study and suggestion for developing teaching-learning process to the eight year students in SMP Negeri 2 Baki. A. Conclusion From the result of the research, the researcher concludes that: 1. The implementations of teaching writing of recount text are: a. The techniques implemented by the teacher in teaching writing are clustering and WH Questions. Beside that, the students have to be competent in English writing and master English in written form. b. The goals of teaching writing in SMP Negeri 2 Baki are to enable the students in understanding English as a means of communication and to enable the students to practice in using English written form. c. The teacher does not only use the text book as the material but also use a worksheet to make the students understand the materials more. d. In conducting the teaching learning-process of writing, the researcher conducts six steps, namely opening the class, building of knowledge, modeling of text, joint construction of text, and individual construction of text and closing the class.
e. The means of assessment in teaching writing is from the writing product. The teacher evaluates the content of paragraph, grammar, punctuation, and connector. 2. The problems faced by the teacher in teaching writing are classroom management, limited time, different capability of students, and the student‟s interest. 3. The problems faced by the students are limited time, grammar, the class situation, and generic structure. B. Suggestion In order to make the teaching-learning process run effectively, the researcher likes to propose suggestion to the teacher, the students, school, and the other researcher. 1. To the teacher and school a. The teacher should motivate the students to be more active in using English written form. b. The teacher may use the various techniques not only clustering and WH Questions but also the teacher may use the other techniques to combine teaching writing method to make the students will not get bored. c. The school should facilitate with adequate material, media, and sources of learning. For example, in the library, the school should add the English material such as magazine, newspaper, books in English written form.
2. To the students a. Each student should practice using English in written form. b. The students should be more creative in producing English written product. c. The students should study more about the grammar and enrich the vocabulary to increase their knowledge. 3. To the other researcher It is expected that the other researcher can develop this research based on their own views. In other words, they can use it as the reference to get some information and find the books which are related to their research paper.
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