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<a href=Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy Application of a multi-zone combustion model to investigate the NOx reduction potential of two-stroke marine diesel engines using EGR Spiridon I. Raptotasios , Nikolaos F. Sakellaridis , Roussos G. Papagiannakis , Dimitrios T. Hountalas Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece Thermodynamic & Propulsion Systems Section, Aeronautical Sciences Department, Hellenic Air Force Academy (HAFA), Dekelia Air Force Base, Military Post 1010, Dekelia, Attiki, Greece highlights Application of a multi-zone combustion model on a 2-stroke marine diesel engine. The model was modified to consider EGR application. Model validation after calibration only at one load point without EGR. Model applied for prediction of EGR effect on NOx emissions and engine performance. Investigation of EGR effect on in-cylinder combustion and NOx formation mechanisms. article info Article history: Received 30 August 2014 Received in revised form 27 November 2014 Accepted 21 December 2014 Available online 22 January 2015 Keywords: Multi-zone combustion model Exhaust Gas Recirculation NOx emissions Two-stroke low-speed diesel engine Engine performance abstract The most promising solution for propulsion of marine vessels currently and for the near future is the two- stroke low-speed diesel engines. Despite its advantages, as far as specific fuel oil consumption, power density and reliability is concerned, it suffers from increased NOx emissions mainly because of its low rotational speed. But the upcoming NOx emission legislation (Tier III) in the marine sector requires con- siderable reduction of NOx emissions towards levels which have not yet been commercially achieved using primary methods. This creates new challenges for the development and application of innovative techniques that could reduce engine’s NOx emissions with the lowest possible fuel penalty. This is impor- tant considering current and future fuel prices. The large size of the 2-stroke marine engine makes the use of experimental techniques, to investigate this potential, expensive and time consuming. Modelling can significantly contribute towards this effort and result to reduction of research and development cost. Among the most effective in-cylinder techniques for NOx reduction is EGR, a proven technology for smal- ler engines used in the transport sector. In the present study, it is investigated via modelling, the potential to reduce NOx emissions of two-stroke marine engines using EGR. Despite the technological difficulties resulting mainly from the use of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which makes the application of conventional EGR techniques difficult, it is worthwhile investigating the NOx reduction potential, since significant progress has been achieved towards the development of new EGR gas cooling techniques and scrubber technolo- gies for removal of sulphur species from the exhaust gas. The present investigation makes use of an exist- ing well validated multi-zone combustion model, initially developed for high-speed DI diesel engines. The model has been successfully applied in the past, to investigate heavy duty diesel engine NOx reduc- tion via EGR, providing favourable results. Currently it is modified and applied on a two-stroke marine diesel engine using EGR. Model evaluation is based on experimental data acquired from the international literature, due to lack of experimental data for 2-stroke engines. The analysis of derived results reveals model’s ability to predict both engine performance and NOx emissions but most important the ability This paper is included in the Special Issue of Clean Transport edited by Prof. Anthony Roskilly, Dr. Roberto Palacin and Prof. Yan. ⇑ Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: raptosp@central.ntua.gr (S.I. Raptotasios), nikolaossak@ hotmail.com (N.F. Sakellaridis), papgian@central.ntua.gr (R.G. Papagiannakis), dx1961@central.ntua.gr (D.T. Hountalas). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.041 0306-2619/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. " id="pdf-obj-0-5" src="pdf-obj-0-5.jpg">

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Energy

<a href=Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy Application of a multi-zone combustion model to investigate the NOx reduction potential of two-stroke marine diesel engines using EGR Spiridon I. Raptotasios , Nikolaos F. Sakellaridis , Roussos G. Papagiannakis , Dimitrios T. Hountalas Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece Thermodynamic & Propulsion Systems Section, Aeronautical Sciences Department, Hellenic Air Force Academy (HAFA), Dekelia Air Force Base, Military Post 1010, Dekelia, Attiki, Greece highlights Application of a multi-zone combustion model on a 2-stroke marine diesel engine. The model was modified to consider EGR application. Model validation after calibration only at one load point without EGR. Model applied for prediction of EGR effect on NOx emissions and engine performance. Investigation of EGR effect on in-cylinder combustion and NOx formation mechanisms. article info Article history: Received 30 August 2014 Received in revised form 27 November 2014 Accepted 21 December 2014 Available online 22 January 2015 Keywords: Multi-zone combustion model Exhaust Gas Recirculation NOx emissions Two-stroke low-speed diesel engine Engine performance abstract The most promising solution for propulsion of marine vessels currently and for the near future is the two- stroke low-speed diesel engines. Despite its advantages, as far as specific fuel oil consumption, power density and reliability is concerned, it suffers from increased NOx emissions mainly because of its low rotational speed. But the upcoming NOx emission legislation (Tier III) in the marine sector requires con- siderable reduction of NOx emissions towards levels which have not yet been commercially achieved using primary methods. This creates new challenges for the development and application of innovative techniques that could reduce engine’s NOx emissions with the lowest possible fuel penalty. This is impor- tant considering current and future fuel prices. The large size of the 2-stroke marine engine makes the use of experimental techniques, to investigate this potential, expensive and time consuming. Modelling can significantly contribute towards this effort and result to reduction of research and development cost. Among the most effective in-cylinder techniques for NOx reduction is EGR, a proven technology for smal- ler engines used in the transport sector. In the present study, it is investigated via modelling, the potential to reduce NOx emissions of two-stroke marine engines using EGR. Despite the technological difficulties resulting mainly from the use of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which makes the application of conventional EGR techniques difficult, it is worthwhile investigating the NOx reduction potential, since significant progress has been achieved towards the development of new EGR gas cooling techniques and scrubber technolo- gies for removal of sulphur species from the exhaust gas. The present investigation makes use of an exist- ing well validated multi-zone combustion model, initially developed for high-speed DI diesel engines. The model has been successfully applied in the past, to investigate heavy duty diesel engine NOx reduc- tion via EGR, providing favourable results. Currently it is modified and applied on a two-stroke marine diesel engine using EGR. Model evaluation is based on experimental data acquired from the international literature, due to lack of experimental data for 2-stroke engines. The analysis of derived results reveals model’s ability to predict both engine performance and NOx emissions but most important the ability This paper is included in the Special Issue of Clean Transport edited by Prof. Anthony Roskilly, Dr. Roberto Palacin and Prof. Yan. ⇑ Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: raptosp@central.ntua.gr (S.I. Raptotasios), nikolaossak@ hotmail.com (N.F. Sakellaridis), papgian@central.ntua.gr (R.G. Papagiannakis), dx1961@central.ntua.gr (D.T. Hountalas). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.041 0306-2619/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. " id="pdf-obj-0-16" src="pdf-obj-0-16.jpg">

Application of a multi-zone combustion model to investigate the NOx reduction potential of two-stroke marine diesel engines using EGR q

<a href=Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy Application of a multi-zone combustion model to investigate the NOx reduction potential of two-stroke marine diesel engines using EGR Spiridon I. Raptotasios , Nikolaos F. Sakellaridis , Roussos G. Papagiannakis , Dimitrios T. Hountalas Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece Thermodynamic & Propulsion Systems Section, Aeronautical Sciences Department, Hellenic Air Force Academy (HAFA), Dekelia Air Force Base, Military Post 1010, Dekelia, Attiki, Greece highlights Application of a multi-zone combustion model on a 2-stroke marine diesel engine. The model was modified to consider EGR application. Model validation after calibration only at one load point without EGR. Model applied for prediction of EGR effect on NOx emissions and engine performance. Investigation of EGR effect on in-cylinder combustion and NOx formation mechanisms. article info Article history: Received 30 August 2014 Received in revised form 27 November 2014 Accepted 21 December 2014 Available online 22 January 2015 Keywords: Multi-zone combustion model Exhaust Gas Recirculation NOx emissions Two-stroke low-speed diesel engine Engine performance abstract The most promising solution for propulsion of marine vessels currently and for the near future is the two- stroke low-speed diesel engines. Despite its advantages, as far as specific fuel oil consumption, power density and reliability is concerned, it suffers from increased NOx emissions mainly because of its low rotational speed. But the upcoming NOx emission legislation (Tier III) in the marine sector requires con- siderable reduction of NOx emissions towards levels which have not yet been commercially achieved using primary methods. This creates new challenges for the development and application of innovative techniques that could reduce engine’s NOx emissions with the lowest possible fuel penalty. This is impor- tant considering current and future fuel prices. The large size of the 2-stroke marine engine makes the use of experimental techniques, to investigate this potential, expensive and time consuming. Modelling can significantly contribute towards this effort and result to reduction of research and development cost. Among the most effective in-cylinder techniques for NOx reduction is EGR, a proven technology for smal- ler engines used in the transport sector. In the present study, it is investigated via modelling, the potential to reduce NOx emissions of two-stroke marine engines using EGR. Despite the technological difficulties resulting mainly from the use of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which makes the application of conventional EGR techniques difficult, it is worthwhile investigating the NOx reduction potential, since significant progress has been achieved towards the development of new EGR gas cooling techniques and scrubber technolo- gies for removal of sulphur species from the exhaust gas. The present investigation makes use of an exist- ing well validated multi-zone combustion model, initially developed for high-speed DI diesel engines. The model has been successfully applied in the past, to investigate heavy duty diesel engine NOx reduc- tion via EGR, providing favourable results. Currently it is modified and applied on a two-stroke marine diesel engine using EGR. Model evaluation is based on experimental data acquired from the international literature, due to lack of experimental data for 2-stroke engines. The analysis of derived results reveals model’s ability to predict both engine performance and NOx emissions but most important the ability This paper is included in the Special Issue of Clean Transport edited by Prof. Anthony Roskilly, Dr. Roberto Palacin and Prof. Yan. ⇑ Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: raptosp@central.ntua.gr (S.I. Raptotasios), nikolaossak@ hotmail.com (N.F. Sakellaridis), papgian@central.ntua.gr (R.G. Papagiannakis), dx1961@central.ntua.gr (D.T. Hountalas). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.041 0306-2619/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. " id="pdf-obj-0-22" src="pdf-obj-0-22.jpg">

Spiridon I. Raptotasios a , , Nikolaos F. Sakellaridis a , Roussos G. Papagiannakis b , Dimitrios T. Hountalas a

a Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece b Thermodynamic & Propulsion Systems Section, Aeronautical Sciences Department, Hellenic Air Force Academy (HAFA), Dekelia Air Force Base, Military Post 1010, Dekelia, Attiki, Greece

highlights

Application of a multi-zone combustion model on a 2-stroke marine diesel engine. The model was modified to consider EGR application. Model validation after calibration only at one load point without EGR. Model applied for prediction of EGR effect on NOx emissions and engine performance. Investigation of EGR effect on in-cylinder combustion and NOx formation mechanisms.

article info

Article history:

Received 30 August 2014 Received in revised form 27 November 2014 Accepted 21 December 2014

Available online 22 January 2015

Keywords:

Multi-zone combustion model Exhaust Gas Recirculation NOx emissions Two-stroke low-speed diesel engine Engine performance

abstract

The most promising solution for propulsion of marine vessels currently and for the near future is the two- stroke low-speed diesel engines. Despite its advantages, as far as specific fuel oil consumption, power density and reliability is concerned, it suffers from increased NOx emissions mainly because of its low rotational speed. But the upcoming NOx emission legislation (Tier III) in the marine sector requires con- siderable reduction of NOx emissions towards levels which have not yet been commercially achieved

using primary methods. This creates new challenges for the development and application of innovative techniques that could reduce engine’s NOx emissions with the lowest possible fuel penalty. This is impor- tant considering current and future fuel prices. The large size of the 2-stroke marine engine makes the use of experimental techniques, to investigate this potential, expensive and time consuming. Modelling can significantly contribute towards this effort and result to reduction of research and development cost. Among the most effective in-cylinder techniques for NOx reduction is EGR, a proven technology for smal- ler engines used in the transport sector. In the present study, it is investigated via modelling, the potential to reduce NOx emissions of two-stroke marine engines using EGR. Despite the technological difficulties resulting mainly from the use of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), which makes the application of conventional EGR techniques difficult, it is worthwhile investigating the NOx reduction potential, since significant progress has been achieved towards the development of new EGR gas cooling techniques and scrubber technolo- gies for removal of sulphur species from the exhaust gas. The present investigation makes use of an exist- ing well validated multi-zone combustion model, initially developed for high-speed DI diesel engines. The model has been successfully applied in the past, to investigate heavy duty diesel engine NOx reduc- tion via EGR, providing favourable results. Currently it is modified and applied on a two-stroke marine diesel engine using EGR. Model evaluation is based on experimental data acquired from the international literature, due to lack of experimental data for 2-stroke engines. The analysis of derived results reveals model’s ability to predict both engine performance and NOx emissions but most important the ability

q This paper is included in the Special Issue of Clean Transport edited by Prof. Anthony Roskilly, Dr. Roberto Palacin and Prof. Yan. Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: raptosp@central.ntua.gr (S.I. Raptotasios), nikolaossak@ hotmail.com (N.F. Sakellaridis), papgian@central.ntua.gr (R.G. Papagiannakis), dx1961@central.ntua.gr (D.T. Hountalas).

0306-2619/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823

815

to predict the overall effect of EGR on NOx emissions in a qualitatively correct way. The results also reveal the strong potential of EGR to control NOx emissions of 2-stroke engines with relatively low fuel penalty compared to alternative techniques.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Since July 2005, the 53rd session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) agreed on the need to review Annex VI and the NOx Technical Code [1,2]. At its 58th session in October 2008, the MEPC approved the proposed amendments to the MAR- POL Annex VI regulations [2–4]. The revised Annex VI, and the associated NOx Technical Code, came into force on the 1st of July 2010 and defined the corresponding Tier I, Tier II and Tier III limits. Currently Tier II is applicable but Tier III, which will come into force for vessels launched after 1st of January 2016, will require significant reduction of NOx emissions for vessels operating in Emission Control Areas (ECA) to levels which have not yet been commercially achieved [2,3]. Meanwhile new Emission Control Areas are constantly desig- nated. Therefore several mandatory measures are adopted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from international ship- ping and to improve energy efficiency [2,5]. This introduces new challenges and the need for development of innovative techniques on marine diesel engine emission reduction. Such techniques should drastically reduce marine engine NOx emissions with the lowest engine operating and financial cost and with the lowest negative impact on greenhouse gas emissions. There exist various NOx abatement techniques currently applied on marine and stationary diesel engines and several others necessitated by the upcoming emission limits which are still under development and/or evaluation. The majority of these techniques or measures have been successfully applied in the past on Heavy Duty DI diesel engines in the transport sector. A classification of these techniques is provided in Fig. 1 [6–12]. The effectiveness of the aforementioned techniques is based on the nominal NOx reduction and on the corresponding effect on other pollutants and mostly on specific fuel consumption. The NOx reduction potential for the most important techniques is dis- played in Table 1 [7–9,12,13]. From this table it is concluded that to drastically reduce NOx and comply with future emission regulations, a combination of

measures is required. Specifically, the combination of a technique capable of massive NOx reduction such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) or Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) along with proven and easily applicable internal measures such as slide fuel valves, injection timing retard etc., could be a promising approach

[9–11,13,14].

Exhaust Gas Recirculation is, as already stated, widely used on diesel engines in the transport sector being one of the most effec- tive in-cylinder NOx reduction methods [15–24]. The overall effect of EGR on diesel engine combustion characteristics and NOx emis- sions is the outcome of the following three main mechanisms

[22,25–28]:

Thermal mechanism: The increase of charge mixture specific heat capacity (due to higher specific heat capacities of recircu- lated CO 2 and H 2 O) results to the reduction of in-cylinder gas temperature, drastically reducing NOx formation. Dilution mechanism: The Oxygen concentration of the intake air is decreased because of its displacement by CO 2 and H 2 O leading in most cases to the reduction of local combustion rate and temperature. However, the greatest impact constitutes the

Table 1

NOx reduction potential of abatement techniques.

NOx abatement techniques

NOx reduction

Alternative Fuels

50–60%

Emulsified Fuel – Water Addition

50–60%

Basic IEM – Slide Fuel Valves

20%

Injection timing retardation

30%

Compression Ratio Modification

10–30%

Injection System Modification

30%

Scavenge/Charge Air Cooling

14%

Scavenge/Charge Air Pressure Increase

10–40%

Direct Water Injection (DWI)

40–60%

Humid Air Motor (HAM)

70–80%

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

80–98%

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

80–99%

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 815 to predict the overall effect

Fig. 1. Schematic view of the currently applied and the developing NOx abatement techniques.

816

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823

reduction of local oxygen availability inside the fuel jet result- ing to the suppression of the kinetically-controlled local NOx formation rate. Chemical dissociation mechanism: The recirculated water vapour and CO 2 dissociate during combustion, directly affecting the combustion process and the in-cylinder NOx formation rate.

However, despite the beneficial NOx emission reduction which necessitates the use of EGR, the aforementioned mechanisms can result to an increase of specific fuel consumption and mainly par- ticulate emissions as a consequence of the well-known NOx-bsfc and NOx-Soot trade-offs [15–17,22,29–33]. It is reasonable to assume that the recirculation of a portion of exhaust gas inside the combustion chamber of a two-stroke low- speed diesel engine would have a similar positive effect on NOx emissions. This is verified by lab investigations where several cases have been examined and high EGR rates (up to 39%) have been implemented revealing that compliance with Tier III NOx emis- sions is feasible using only EGR [13,34]. These investigations have been conducted using high-pressure loop EGR. The required pres- sure increase of the exhaust gases (for the recirculation) is achieved using a high pressure EGR blower. The recirculated exhaust gases pass through a scrubber and an EGR cooler and pen- etrate into the charge air path upstream of the charge-air cooler and downstream of the compressor [13,34–36]. However, the use of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) in low-speed two- stroke diesel engines still imposes constraints for the commercial application of EGR. This is mainly attributed to the increased risk of corrosion wear of engine’s components due to the high sulphur content of the fuel, which results to formation of sulphuric acid [8,11,13,37]. Increased particulate matter from the use of EGR results to lube oil contamination and thus increase of deterioration and wear [6,8,11,15,22,33]. Last but not least an additional prob- lem is cooling of the EGR gas due to the increased risk of EGR cooler and charge-air cooler fouling. A possible solution to the previous technical issues appears to be the use of seawater EGR scrubbers, where significant progress has been achieved [12,13,34–36,38–40]. An experimental investi- gation conducted on a test engine demonstrated that SO 2 can be reduced up to 98% with a typical value of 90% while particulates can be reduced up to 92% with a typical value of 70–80% [9,12,34,38].In addition it is mentioned that suitable EGR cooling techniques are being developed revealing that it is feasible to achieve efficient EGR cooling without fouling issues. A service test for EGR utilization is currently in progress on- board a commercial vessel after retrofitting the EGR system on the M/E (main engine). The required configuration to make EGR application on two-stroke marine diesel engines feasible is described by detail in the literature [13].The results referring to NOx reduction appear to be encouraging without significant risk of wear [13]. Because of this, development of two stroke engines with EGR components integrated into the engine structure has initiated [34–36]. An engine equipped with an integrated high-pressure EGR system has already been installed on-board a 4500 teu (twenty-foot equivalent unit) container vessel. This system is com- prised of two turbochargers (one small and one large) which for Tier II operation are both active and the EGR components inactive. This is the economy engine running mode, which facilitates an approximate 4 g/kWh fuel–oil saving at part-load operation, com- pared to the standard Tier II engine, accomplished through a com- bination of sequential turbocharging, turbocharger cut-out and low EGR rates. In the EGR mode, which is IMO Tier III compliant mode for ECA operation the small turbocharger is by-passed and the EGR system is activated. Testing in this mode achieved a low bsfc pen- alty equivalent to 1–4 g/kWh, compared to the standard Tier II

engine. The EGR system layout for the different engine running modes is described by detail in the literature [34–36]. In this refer- ence it is also comprehensively described the engine outline with the various feasible integrated EGR configurations along with the necessary auxiliary systems for EGR operation [34–36]. Considering the previous it is thus worthwhile investigating via modelling the NOx reduction potential of two-stroke low-speed diesel engines using EGR and its impact on engine performance to avoid the extremely high cost and time consuming procedure of an experimental investigation. For this reason a theoretical investigation is performed in the present work to evaluate the effect of EGR on the performance characteristics and pollutant emissions of a low-speed two-stroke diesel engine using an existing well validated multi-zone combus- tion model [30,41]. The specific model has been initially developed for four stroke high-speed DI diesel engines and has been modified herein to properly describe the processes of the two-stroke operat- ing cycle and mainly the use of EGR on a two-stroke diesel engine [42,43]. The model has been successfully applied in the past, to investigate heavy duty diesel engine NOx reduction via EGR, pro- viding favourable results [29,44]. The results of the present work indicate the model’s ability to adequately predict both performance and NOx emissions of the two-stoke marine diesel engine considered at several engine oper- ating conditions comprising of variations in load and EGR rate. Fur- thermore it is verified the NOx reduction potential of two-stroke marine diesel engines using EGR which is accompanied by a rela- tively low fuel penalty.

2. Brief description of the model

Details concerning the main structure and the physical and chemical sub-models of the engine simulation code have been pre- sented in the past and can be retrieved from previous publications [29,41–44]. Herein focus is given on modifications of the model, which were necessary to describe the processes of the entire two-stroke diesel engine’s operating cycle. These are the following:

Modification of the gas exchange mechanism (method of filling and emptying) to comply with the two-stroke cycle. Introduction of a two-zone scavenging model for two-stroke turbocharged engines. Modification of the jet formation model to account for the dif- ferent geometry and jet axis location. Modifications in the mathematical treatment especially for the evaporation, mixing and combustion mechanisms to account for the low rotational speed (reduction of calculation time step to 0.1 deg CA). For the evaporation process of injected fuel an even lower time step has been used corresponding to 0.01 deg CA.

The scavenging model and the modifications of the gas exchange mechanism and jet formation model have been pre- sented by detail in previous publications [42,43]. Thus for the sake of space only a brief outline is presented in the following text. The combustion model used is a multi-zone phenomenological one where the fuel jet, resulting after injection, is divided into dis- crete volumes, called zones. The zones are extended in the three dimensions according to a concentric consideration. The pressure is considered uniform throughout the combustion chamber. Each zone has its own history of temperature, composition etc., which are determined by applying the first law of thermodynamics as well as the conservation equations for mass and momentum. This enables the detailed prediction of the local thermodynamic proper- ties of the in-cylinder mixture and their corresponding effect on the formation of NO.

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823

817

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 817 Fig. 2a. Zone formation on

Fig. 2a. Zone formation on the rz plane normal to injection direction.

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 817 Fig. 2a. Zone formation on

Fig. 2b. Zone formation on the xr plane.

A description of the method used to divide the jet into zones is given in Figs. 2a and 2b where a representative division into axial and radial zones can be observed. The number of axial zones is determined by the duration of fuel injection and the calculation time step used, while the number of zones in the two directions normal to it is determined by making trials and finding the number from which a further increase results to no modification of model results. In the present work, a number of five zones are used in the radial direction and eight in the circumferential direction. The contents of each zone are initially assumed to consist only of air and perfect combustion products (O 2 , N 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O). A complete chemical equilibrium scheme is then applied and the equilibrium mixture composition is calculated considering 11 chemical species (O 2 , N 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, H, H 2 , N, NO, O, OH, CO). The formation of nitric oxide is controlled by chemical kinetics. In the present work, the extended Zeldovich mechanism [16,45] is used involving the following three reactions which are given along with the corresponding forward reaction rate constants (k f ):

k 1f

O þ N 2 $ NO þ N;

k 2f

N þ O 2 $ NO þ O;

k

1f

¼

1:6 10 10

k 2f ¼ 6:4 10 6 T exp

3125

T

k 3f

N þ OH $ NO þ H; k 3f ¼ 4:2 10 10

ð1Þ

ð2Þ

ð3Þ

The variation of NO concentration in each zone is expressed by:

1 dð½NO ÞV

V

dt

2ð1 b 2 ÞR 1

1 þ b

R 1 R 2 þR 3

¼

ð4Þ

where R 1 = k 1 f [N] e [NO] e , R 2 = k 2 f [N] e [O 2 ] e , R 3 = k 3 f [N] e [OH] e and b ¼ ½NO =½NO e . In the previous relations index ‘‘e’’ denotes equilib- rium and [x] denotes concentration of x species. Integrating the pre- vious differential equation, we obtain the NO concentration inside each zone.

Table 2

4T50ME-X test engine specifications.

Bore

500 mm

 

Stroke

2200 mm

Connecting rod length

2885 mm

Compression ratio

18.2

MCR

speed

123 rpm

MCR

7050 kW

MCR

power Mean Effective Pressure

20 bar

  • 3. Description of the test engine – test cases examined

The present computational investigation is conducted on the MAN B&W Diesel 4T50ME-X test engine for which experimental data are obtained from the literature [14,37]. The specific engine is a four cylinder uni-flow scavenged two-stroke research diesel engine, equipped with full electronic-hydraulic control of the fuel injection and the exhaust valve timing. The characteristic geomet- rical parameters of the engine are summarized in Table 2. The test cases considered for this theoretical investigation are presented in Table 3. Initially the model was calibrated for the operating point of 75% load without EGR. Then model results for the remaining test cases were compared to the experimental ones to validate the model’s ability to predict the performance and NOx emissions at various operating conditions. Next it was examined the use of EGR as shown in Table 3 and the derived results of test case 2 were considered to investigate the effect of EGR on the com- bustion and NOx formation mechanisms.

  • 4. Model calibration – initial model validation

As already mentioned the model is initially evaluated concern- ing its ability to predict performance and NOx emissions at various operating conditions without EGR. Model evaluation is based on experimental data, for performance and emissions at four different operating conditions, acquired from the international literature [14,37,46]. The test cases considered where: I: 25% (78 rpm), II:

50% (98 rpm), III: 75% (112 rpm) and IV: 100% (123 rpm) of the maximum continuous rating (MCR) under the propeller law. The data used for initial model validation were the measured cylinder pressure, the respective heat release rate, global perfor- mance data (power, specific fuel consumption etc.) and tailpipe NOx (as equivalent NO 2 ) emissions. Model calibration was con- ducted at 75% load without EGR and then model constants were kept constant for the remaining operating points and for the con- sequent EGR investigation. An appropriate method to evaluate model’s ability to predict engine performance and the combustion mechanism is to compare the cylinder pressure and net heat release rate diagrams. In Fig. 3(a)–(d) is given the comparison between measured and calculated in-cylinder pressure histories. As observed, the simula-

tion code manages to accurately predict the cylinder pressure trace

at all engine operating conditions examined. To evaluate model’s capability to predict the combustion mech- anism a comparison is given in Fig. 4(a)–(d) between the measured and calculated cumulative net heat release. Model predictive abil-

Table 3

Test cases examined.

Test case 1: Load Variation, EGR rate 0%

Load %

25

50

75

100

 

Test case 2: EGR Variation, Load 75%

 

EGR rate (%)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

818

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823

(a) 25% of full engine load (b) 50% of full engine load (c) 75% of full
(a)
25% of full engine load
(b) 50% of full engine load
(c)
75% of full engine load
(d) 100% of full engine load

Fig. 3. Comparison between the calculated and measured in-cylinder pressure traces for: (a) 25%, (b) 50%, (c) 75% and (d) 100% of full engine load at 0% EGR.

ity is encouraging, despite the fact that the injection profile was not granted by the literature. To overcome this the injection rate was assumed to be constant which is partially responsible for the slight deviations observed at high load. In general the model appears to adequately predict the in cylinder cumulative net heat release providing a clear indication for models ability to ade- quately describe the combustion mechanism of the two-stroke low-speed diesel engine at all loads examined. To further validate model’s ability to predict overall engine per- formance, the calculated values of several basic engine perfor- mance parameters are compared against the corresponding measured ones. The comparison is depicted in Fig. 5(a)–(d), for the following parameters: (a) Power output, (b) brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc), (c) Peak firing pressure and compression pressure (d) and Turbine Inlet Temperature respectively. The evaluation is conducted for all four operating points examined (I: 25%–78 rpm, II: 50%–98 rpm, III: 75%–112 rpm and IV: 100%– 123 rpm of the maximum continuous rating) that cover the entire operating range of the engine. As shown the model accurately predicts the main engine oper- ating parameters. The calculated values of power output, brake specific fuel consumption, peak firing pressure and peak compres- sion pressure match well the measured ones. The maximum rela- tive errors are 3.4%, 3.3%, 0.6% and 2.4% for power output, brake specific fuel consumption, peak firing pressure and peak compres- sion pressure respectively. These peak relative errors refer to the low-load (25%) case while for the other loads they are below

0.5%. On the other hand, a higher relative error (up to 6%) is observed for turbine inlet temperature (Fig. 5(d)), whereas the overall trend of the temperature variation with engine load is cap- tured. This is normal considering the uncertainty of exhaust gas temperature measurement in general. It is thus demonstrated from Figs. 3–5, that the overall performance of the two-stroke low-speed diesel engine is adequately predicted by the model. Considering that the main purpose of the present study is to investigate the NOx reduction potential of two-stroke diesel engines using EGR, it is examined model’s ability to predict NOx emissions (as equivalent NO 2 ). The comparison between the exper- imental and predicted values of NOx emissions is depicted in Fig. 6, where an adequate convergence between measured and calculated values is observed. The relative errors are 3.5%, 5%, 0% and 7.5% for the 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of full engine load respectively which is encouraging since the main target when investigating NOx emis- sions is to capture trends. It is thus verified the predictive ability of the simulation for performance and NOx emissions of the specific two stroke marine diesel engine enabling its use for the examina- tion of EGR effect.

5. Model application for EGR effect on NOx emissions

In the present section it is evaluated model’s ability to predict the effect of EGR on NOx emissions and most important to examine the effect of EGR percentage on two-stroke slow speed diesel

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(a) 25% of full engine load (b) 50% of full engine load (c) 75% of full
(a)
25% of full engine load
(b) 50% of full engine load
(c)
75% of full engine load
(d) 100% of full engine load

Fig. 4. Comparison between the calculated and measured cumulative net heat release for: (a) 25%, (b) 50%, (c) 75% and (d) 100% of full engine load at 0% EGR.

engines. For this reason the application of EGR is focused at 75% load from which data were available. Another reason for selecting the specific load point i.e. 75% is its high weighting factor in the E3 test cycle which defines the maximum allowable NOx emission limits for marine diesel engines according to IMO regulations [4]. For the investigation it is assumed that the scavenge air pressure remains constant when introducing EGR resulting to the reduction of in-cylinder air/fuel equivalence ratio (lambda), since EGR replaces an equal amount of air. It is also assumed that the back- pressure remains constant, since EGR is assisted using an EGR blower. Model evaluation is conducted using available experimen- tal data for EGR rates up to 39% [13]. The results are depicted in Fig. 7. As observed the multi-zone combustion model predicts the effect of EGR on NOx emission with minor deviations which demonstrates the reliability of the model’s results. For the specific Tier-I engine EGR rates in the range of 18– 20% and 36–37% are required to achieve Tier-II and Tier-III emis- sion limits respectively. It is thus concluded that the multi-zone combustion model can become a useful tool for the investigation of EGR as a NOx reduction technique, providing fundamental infor- mation for the reduction mechanisms involved. Furthermore, as revealed in Fig. 7, in general there exists a linear correlation between EGR rate and NOx reduction (especially for EGR rates above 5%). The slope of this curve is 25% NOx reduction/10% EGR rate.

6. Effect of EGR on the combustion and NOx formation mechanisms

An advantage of the simulation model is that it can be used to obtain information for the fundamental effect of EGR on both the combustion and NOx formation mechanisms of two-stroke, slow speed marine diesel engines. Towards this direction, in Fig. 8 is provided the in-cylinder NOx formation for various EGR rates. As observed the NOx reduction rate is becoming slightly more intense with EGR rate increase. Moreover, it is noted that NOx formation freezes at almost the same crank angle degree, regardless of the EGR rate. This is an indication that EGR affects mainly the rate of NOx formation and not the formation period. To further investigate the effect of EGR on the combustion char- acteristics, the aforementioned main NOx formation mechanisms are considered. For this reason the in-cylinder histories of overall O 2 concentration inside the fuel jet, mean gas temperature, net heat release rate and cumulative net heat release versus EGR rates are given in Figs. 9–12. Fig. 9 which provides the total oxygen concentration inside the fuel jet provides an explanation for the effect of the dilution mech- anism. As observed, there is a significant reduction of O 2 percent- age with the increase of EGR, approaching the value of 50% for 40% EGR rate, which is the most important NOx reducing mecha- nism. However O 2 percentage reduction, results to the reduction

820

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823

(a) Brake Power (b) brake specific fuel consumption (c) Maximum Combustion and Compres- sion Pressure (d)
(a) Brake Power
(b) brake specific fuel consumption
(c) Maximum Combustion and Compres-
sion Pressure
(d) Turbine Inlet temperature

Fig. 5. Comparison between the calculated and measured values of (a) Brake Power (b) brake specific fuel consumption (c) maximum combustion and compression pressure (d) turbine inlet temperature.

820 S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 (a) Brake Power (b) brake

Fig. 6. Comparison between the calculated and measured values of NOx emissions.

of local combustion rate and thus gas temperatures reducing fur- ther NOx formation rate. The effect of EGR on the thermal mechanism due to the increase of the charge mixture heat capacity (higher specific heat capacities

of recirculated CO 2 and H 2 O) is shown in Fig. 10. From this it is evi- dent the reduction of the peak combustion temperature with EGR rate (which is mainly the result of the thermal mechanism) con- tributing significantly to the reduction of NOx. Finally the net heat release rate and the corresponding cumula- tive net heat release for various EGR rates are shown in Figs. 11 and 12. Generally the lack of oxygen (dilution mechanism), when EGR is applied, results to the reduction of combustion rate and to the increase of combustion duration. As a result, brake power is slightly decreased (for the same fuelling rate) whereas brake spe- cific fuel consumption and soot formation both increase (NOx-bsfc and NOx-Soot trade off). This is clearly observed in Fig. 13 where it is given the percentage variation of bsfc vs EGR rate. These effects are in accordance to the international literature, for application of EGR on high speed diesel engines [29–33,44]. It is to be stated that these negative effects appear to be less pronounced in the slow speed marine diesel engine due to the higher time duration of the in-cylinder processes as a result of the lower rotational speed and the higher air fuel ratios [13]. This is clearly observed in Figs. 11 and 12 where it is evident that the effect of EGR on the heat release rate becomes significant only for high EGR rates. Furthermore it is concluded from Fig. 13 that the bsfc increase for low EGR rates (up to 20%) is negligible, while for Tier III appli- cation (more than 35% EGR rate according to Fig. 7) the bsfc increase is in the range of 4%. The difference in absolute values is

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S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 821 Fig. 7. Comparison between calculated

Fig. 7. Comparison between calculated and measured NOx emissions vs EGR at 75% Load.

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 821 Fig. 7. Comparison between calculated

Fig. 8. Effect of EGR on calculated in-cylinder NOx Formation.

most possibly attributed to the uncertainties of engine data since as mentioned the last have been obtained from the literature. What is important is that order of magnitude is similar and most impor- tant the trend of bsfc variation vs. EGR rate is captured.

7. Conclusions

In the present study an existing well validated multi-zone com- bustion model, initially developed for high-speed DI diesel engines and successfully applied in the past has been applied on a two- stroke marine diesel engine to investigate the NOx reduction potential via EGR.

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 821 Fig. 7. Comparison between calculated

Fig. 9. Effect of EGR on calculated total O 2 Concentration inside the fuel jet.

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 821 Fig. 7. Comparison between calculated

Fig. 10. Effect of EGR on calculated mean in-cylinder gas Temperature.

S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 821 Fig. 7. Comparison between calculated

Fig. 11. Effect of EGR on calculated in-cylinder Net Heat Release Rate.

The model was modified to consider for application of EGR on two-stroke engines and calibrated at a single load point without EGR. It was then evaluated at various operating conditions to

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S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823

822 S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 Fig. 12. Effect of EGRBlasco Julian, Duran-Grados Vanesa, Hampel Miriam, Moreno-Gutirrez Juan. Towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of emissions from ships’ propulsion systems. Environ Int 2014(66):44–7 . [3] Report of the marine environment protection committee on its’ fifty-eighth session – revised MARPOL annex VI. Tech rep, International Maritime Organization; 17 October, 2008. [4] Report of the marine environment protection committee on its’ fifty-eighth session – revised NOx technical code. Tech rep, International Maritime Organization; 17 October, 2008. [5] Report of the marine environment protection committee on its’ sixty-second session. Tech rep, International Maritime Organization; 26 July, 2011. [6] Corbett James J, Fischbeck PE, Fischbeck Paul S. Commercial marine emissions and life-cycle analysis of retrofit controls in a changing science and policy environment. Naval Eng J 2002:93–106 . [7] Don DeMers, Lt Cdr Glenn Walters, Guide to exhaust emission control options, Rr32, MS3026, Tech rep; September, 1999. [8] Entec UK Ltd, Service contract on ship emissions: assignment, abatement and market-based instruments task 2b-NOx abatement. Tech rep, European Commission Directorate General Environment; August, 2005. [9] Johanna Wahlstrm, Niko Karvosenoja, Petri Porvari. Ship emissions and technical emission reduction potential in the Northern Baltic Sea, Tech rep, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki; August, 2006. [10] Deha Er Ismail. Overview of NOx emission controls in marine diesel engines. Energy Sources 2010;24(4):319–27 . [11] MAN B&W. Emission control two-stroke low-speed diesel engines. Tech rep. [12] Yang ZL, Zhang D, Caglayan O, Jenkinson ID, Bonsall S, Wang J, et al. Selection of techniques for reducing shipping NOx and SOx emissions. Transp Res Part D 2012:478–86 . [13] MAN Diesel & Turbo. Tier III compliance low speed engines, Copenhagen Denmark, Tech rep; July, 2010. [14] Anders Andreasen, Kirsten Braner Nyggard, Water-in-fuel emulsion as marine engine fuel for reduced NOx and particulate emissions. Tech rep, Danish Environmental Protection Agency; 2011. [15] Abd-Alla GH. Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review. Energy Convers Manage 2002(43):1027–42 . [16] Heywood JB. Internal combustion engine fundamentals. New York: McGraw- Hill; 1988 . [17] Roy Sumit, Banerjee Rahul, Bose Probir Kumar. Performance and exhaust emissions prediction of a CRDI assisted single cylinder diesel engine coupled with EGR using artificial neural network. Appl Energy 2014(119):330–40 . [18] Aithal SM. Modeling of NOx formation in diesel engines using finite-rate chemical kinetics. Appl Energy 2010(87):2256–65 . [19] Gan Suyin, Kiat Hoon, Pang Kar Mun. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion: implementation and effects on pollutants in direct injection diesel engines. Appl Energy 2010(88):559–67 . [20] Liu Haifeng, Li Shanju, Zheng Zunqing, Xu Jia, Yao Mingfa, et al. Effects of n - butanol, 2-butanol, and methyl octynoate addition to diesel fuel on combustion and emissions over a wide range of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Appl Energy 2013(112):246–56 . " id="pdf-obj-8-6" src="pdf-obj-8-6.jpg">

Fig. 12. Effect of EGR on calculated in-cylinder cumulative net heat release.

822 S.I. Raptotasios et al. / Applied Energy 157 (2015) 814–823 Fig. 12. Effect of EGRBlasco Julian, Duran-Grados Vanesa, Hampel Miriam, Moreno-Gutirrez Juan. Towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of emissions from ships’ propulsion systems. Environ Int 2014(66):44–7 . [3] Report of the marine environment protection committee on its’ fifty-eighth session – revised MARPOL annex VI. Tech rep, International Maritime Organization; 17 October, 2008. [4] Report of the marine environment protection committee on its’ fifty-eighth session – revised NOx technical code. Tech rep, International Maritime Organization; 17 October, 2008. [5] Report of the marine environment protection committee on its’ sixty-second session. Tech rep, International Maritime Organization; 26 July, 2011. [6] Corbett James J, Fischbeck PE, Fischbeck Paul S. Commercial marine emissions and life-cycle analysis of retrofit controls in a changing science and policy environment. Naval Eng J 2002:93–106 . [7] Don DeMers, Lt Cdr Glenn Walters, Guide to exhaust emission control options, Rr32, MS3026, Tech rep; September, 1999. [8] Entec UK Ltd, Service contract on ship emissions: assignment, abatement and market-based instruments task 2b-NOx abatement. Tech rep, European Commission Directorate General Environment; August, 2005. [9] Johanna Wahlstrm, Niko Karvosenoja, Petri Porvari. Ship emissions and technical emission reduction potential in the Northern Baltic Sea, Tech rep, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki; August, 2006. [10] Deha Er Ismail. Overview of NOx emission controls in marine diesel engines. Energy Sources 2010;24(4):319–27 . [11] MAN B&W. Emission control two-stroke low-speed diesel engines. Tech rep. [12] Yang ZL, Zhang D, Caglayan O, Jenkinson ID, Bonsall S, Wang J, et al. Selection of techniques for reducing shipping NOx and SOx emissions. Transp Res Part D 2012:478–86 . [13] MAN Diesel & Turbo. Tier III compliance low speed engines, Copenhagen Denmark, Tech rep; July, 2010. [14] Anders Andreasen, Kirsten Braner Nyggard, Water-in-fuel emulsion as marine engine fuel for reduced NOx and particulate emissions. Tech rep, Danish Environmental Protection Agency; 2011. [15] Abd-Alla GH. Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review. Energy Convers Manage 2002(43):1027–42 . [16] Heywood JB. Internal combustion engine fundamentals. New York: McGraw- Hill; 1988 . [17] Roy Sumit, Banerjee Rahul, Bose Probir Kumar. Performance and exhaust emissions prediction of a CRDI assisted single cylinder diesel engine coupled with EGR using artificial neural network. Appl Energy 2014(119):330–40 . [18] Aithal SM. Modeling of NOx formation in diesel engines using finite-rate chemical kinetics. Appl Energy 2010(87):2256–65 . [19] Gan Suyin, Kiat Hoon, Pang Kar Mun. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion: implementation and effects on pollutants in direct injection diesel engines. Appl Energy 2010(88):559–67 . [20] Liu Haifeng, Li Shanju, Zheng Zunqing, Xu Jia, Yao Mingfa, et al. Effects of n - butanol, 2-butanol, and methyl octynoate addition to diesel fuel on combustion and emissions over a wide range of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Appl Energy 2013(112):246–56 . " id="pdf-obj-8-11" src="pdf-obj-8-11.jpg">

Fig. 13. Effect of EGR on brake specific fuel consumption.

examine its ability to predict both engine performance and NOx emissions. After calibration model constants were kept constant for the entire investigation. The comparison between experimental and calculated values without EGR revealed that the multi-zone combustion model can adequately describe the combustion mechanism of a two-stroke marine diesel engine. Specifically the following parameters were compared:

Cylinder pressure. Cumulative Net heat release. Power output. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc). Maximum combustion pressure and compression pressure. Turbine Inlet Temperature. Exhaust NOx Emissions.

From this evaluation procedure model’s ability to capture both performance and NOx emissions of the two-stoke marine diesel engine considered was demonstrated. Then the model was applied to investigate the effect of EGR on performance and NOx emissions. The investigation was conducted at 75% load considering various EGR rates for which experimental data were available. As revealed the multi-zone combustion model predicts adequately the effect of EGR on NOx emissions, at least qualitatively.

The model was also used to examine the fundamental effect of EGR on the in-cylinder combustion and NOx formation mecha- nisms. Towards this direction, results have been provided for in- cylinder NOx formation vs. EGR rate. Using this procedure, it was possible to isolate the various mechanisms related with the effect of EGR on NOx formation. The significant effect of both the dilution and the thermal mechanisms has been depicted through the effect of EGR on the overall O 2 concentration inside the fuel jet and on in- cylinder gas temperature respectively. To provide an indication for the corresponding fuel penalty, results have been provided for the variation of bsfc vs EGR, as well as for the effect of EGR on net heat release rate, and the cumulative net heat release. As also stated in the literature, the negative effect of EGR is lower in the case of a two-stroke slow speed diesel engine compared to common HD high speed DI engines due to the higher time available for combustion and the higher air fuel ratios involved. From the derived results, which are promising, it is encouraged the further development and application of the model on other two-stroke marine diesel engine designs to develop a tool that could assist engine development. This is significantly important for large two-stroke marine engines which due to their size do not enable the extended use of experimental techniques.

References

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