HAIGH DIAGRAM

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HAIGH DIAGRAM

© All Rights Reserved

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The alternating stress amplitude for a stress cycle is computed as half the stress

range in the cycle. The amount of damage caused by a stress cycle depends not only

on the alternating stress but also on the mean stress. For example, the two cycles

below have the same alternating stress but because they have different mean

stresses, they cause different amounts of damage.

The effect of mean stresses on the cycles to failure is illustrated by the following

diagram, called the Haigh diagram.

The mean stress is zero only when the load is fully reversible. The most

straightforward case is when an S-N curve with the same R-ratio as the loading is

provided. In this case, the S-N curve is directly used since no correction is needed. If

you define S-N curves with different R-ratios, the software accounts for the mean

stress by linear interpolation between the curves. If only one S-N curve with an R-ratio

that is different from the R-ratio of the loading is provided, a correction is needed.

Definitions

To discuss correction methods, let us define the following variables for a stress cycle:

Sa = alternating stress = (Smax - Smin)/2

The stress and amplitude ratios for some common loadings are listed:

Type Ratios

Fully R = -1, A = infinity

reversed

Zero to R = 0, A = 1

maximum

Zero to R = infinity, A = -1

Minimum

Correction methods

In the following let:

Su = ultimate strength

Method Equation

1. Goodman method- generally

suitable for brittle materials:

for ductile materials

most conservative

For both variable and constant amplitude events, the software calculates the mean

stress in addition to the alternating stress for each cycle and then it evaluates the

corrected stress using the specified criteria.

The Rainflow cycle counting method extracts the composition of a variable amplitude

load history. The software implements the method as follows:

2. Make the amplitudes of the first and last data points the same by appending a

data point if necessary.

3. Detect the highest peak and reorder the data such that the highest peak

becomes the first and last points.

a. Consider the first four peaks and troughs ( 1, 2, 3, and 4). A Rainflow

cycle is counted if the second segment is vertically shorter than the first

and the third segments (i.e. b is smaller than a and c).

b. If a cycle is counted, the program starts from the beginning of the record

ignoring peaks that have already been counted. If no peak is counted,

the program checks the next group of peaks (peaks 2, 3, 4, and 5) and

the process continues. At the end, each peak and each trough

corresponds to a Rainflow cycle.

c. Ignore and load cycles that are below the percentage specified in the

properties of the study.

d. Dividethe alternating and mean stress ranges into the number of bins

specified in the properties of the study. You can view the results by

viewing the Rainflow matrix chart.

Application of the Rainflow Cycle Counting Method

Fast Counting

Fast counting is used when the fatigue study refers to one static study and has only

one variable-amplitude event. In this case, the program extracts bins directly from the

original record. It then evaluates the damage resulting from each bin at each node

and calculates the accumulative damage.

Full Analysis

When multiple variable-amplitude events are used, the program calculates the

stresses at each point in time for each variable-amplitude record at every node. At

each node, the program combines the stresses and extracts the Rainflow bins that are

then used to evaluate the damage.

Full analysis is also used when a variable amplitude record is associated with more

than one study with the different shifts or intervals.

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