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Lesson 1 Classroom Assessment, Measurement, and 0

Evaluation

Lesson 1
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION

bjective
to gain an in-depth understanding of the basic concepts of assessment

Introduction

Teachers and other people in the field of education are continuously involved in
making decisions about students welfare. In such decision-making, sound judgment
based on scientifically collected data are most crucial. Here is where evaluation of data
collected through tests and other measurement devices are most needed. Nevertheless,
most beginning teachers use important concepts in assessment interchangeably. These
concepts include measurement, evaluation and assessment. The objective of this first
lesson therefore is to get beginner teachers like you familiarized with the basic concepts,
which will be used throughout the course.

Measurement

Measurement can be defined as the process by which information about the


attributes or characteristics of things are determined and differentiated. For example,
length and temperature can be differentiated as long or short and hot or cold. To arrive at
such differentiation, we use devices such as meter sticks and thermometers .This process
of determining the quantity of something and the device that we use in expressing the
quantity of the attribute is called measurement.
In education, measurement is the device or instrument that we used to measure
students achievement, skills, attitude, intelligence, personality or anything that can be
expressed quantitatively. Tests are the most common device used in measuring students
achievement, skills and other attributes. Tests, such as achievement tests are useful in
measuring qualities like knowledge and skills, or the attributes that are readily defined.
On the other hand, non-tests such as interview and checklists are those we use to
measure qualities like attitude and values, or the attributes that are not readily defined.
However, unlike physical attributes such as length and temperature, students
attributes which are mostly psychological in nature cannot just be measured by means of
observation. Neither can they be easily be quantified. The task of the teacher is to
express this attribute in quantities to make it less ambiguous and subjective.
Quantification reduces subjectivity and ambiguity as when achievement is
expressed as 90th percentile rather than just by giving descriptions such as good student,
whose interpretation will surely differ from one person to another. To be most useful in
quantifying students attributes, a measurement device therefore should be both relevant
and accurate- relevant to what is being measured and accurate in terms of the scores or
measures it reveals.
The following items summarize key concepts about measurement:
- systematic process of assigning numbers to performance
-is used to determine how much trait, attribute or characteristic an individual
possesses
Lesson 1 Classroom Assessment, Measurement, and 1
Evaluation

- techniques used include tests, ratings, observations, and interviews

Evaluation

Evaluation, on the other hand, can be defined as the process of summing up the
results of measurements or tests, giving them some meaning based on value judgment.
From the educational standpoint, we defined evaluation as a systematic process of
determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved by the students
(Grondlund, 1981). Objectives are the intended learning outcomes and it is the
paramount consideration in evaluation.
These definitions suggest that evaluation is much more comprehensive and
inclusive than measurement. Measurement is limited to the quantitative description of
the attribute, as in Student A got 90 on the test, and does not include qualitative
description as in whether the particular score is good or bad for a particular purpose. In
other words, evaluation involves interpretation of scores or measurement data because
scores themselves do not have any meaning. One way of interpreting the score is to
assign a grade using a fixed standard like a score of 90 receives a grade of 1.25. It could
also be interpreted in relation to the students rank in the class. Evaluation therefore
includes quantitative description (measurement) or qualitative description and value
judgment concerning the result of measurement.

Below summarizes the important elements of evaluation:


- Once measurement is used, you need to place some degree or value on different
numbers
- Evaluation involves judging about quality how good the behavior or
performance is
- Involves interpretation of what has been gathered through measurement
- Performance standards are used to determine whether a performance is good or
bad
- Criteria are the specific dimensions that are evidenced to successfully attain the
standard

Assessment

If measurement is the process of quantifying the quality of the attribute and


evaluation is the process of interpreting the results measurement, assessment involves the
process of organizing quantitative (tests) and qualitative (non-tests) data. It is also defined
as the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes
and beliefs. After the attribute has been determined and differentiated through tests and
non-tests measures, assessment involves the systematic collection and organization of
data in order for evaluation or giving meaning is facilitated. Assessment is very
important because if data are not organized properly, judging and making decisions about
students performance or achievement will be prone to ambiguity and subjectivity.
In broader terms, classroom assessment refers to the collection, evaluation and
use of information that will help teachers make better decisions. Thus, measurement
(collection) and evaluation (interpretation) are components of classroom assessment.
Lesson 1 Classroom Assessment, Measurement, and 2
Evaluation

Purpose of Classroom Assessment

Classroom assessment starts from a clear and well-defined purpose of doing the
assessment. We need to have clear answers to the following questions:
a. Why are you doing the assessment?
b. What will be gained by it?
c. What teacher decision is enhanced by the information gathered through
assessment?
d. How will student learning be enhanced by this assessment?
e. Will your assessment deliberately improve student performance or simply to
audit them?
f. Has the assessment motivated students to learn?
g. Does the assessment provide a realistic estimation of what the students are
able to do?

Use of Assessment Data

Assessment data can be used in three broad areas: diagnosis, grading and
instruction.

Diagnosis . Assessment data allows the teacher to determine the specific area that needs
further attention. For example, the students still find difficulty in accomplishing specific
intended learning outcome even after the teacher had revised instruction, a diagnostic test
can be given to identify the specific weakness. Assessment of why a student may be
having difficulty is essential so that more appropriate instructional activities can be
prescribed.

Grading. Grades that teachers assigned to students performance are based on


measurement-driven information. At the end of each period, semester or academic year,
grades are the direct and concrete evidence of students learning. In the classroom, some
teachers use grading to control students behavior and some teachers use grades to
motivate students to achieve more. For parents and students, uses of grades are many.

Instruction. Assessment helps teachers make instructional decisions. If the objectives


of the lesson are not satisfied, as evidenced by unsatisfactory student performance, say
for example in a quiz, the teacher has to examine the methods and strategies utilized,, or
check whether the objectives are realistic and attainable. Furthermore, the teacher can
gain immediate feedback whether the students understand the lesson or not (even before
at the end of instruction) by giving oral questioning or recitation so that he/she can
immediately adjust his instructional procedures and activities.

The diagram below summarizes the components of classroom assessment.

Purpose Measureme Evaluatio Use


nt n
Classroom assessment refers to the collection, evaluation and use of
information that will help teachers make better decisions
Lesson 1 Classroom Assessment, Measurement, and 3
Evaluation

NAME ___________________________________ SCORE________


YEAR/SECTION__________________________ DATE_________
Lesson 1 Classroom Assessment, Measurement, and 4
Evaluation

Activity 1.

A. Identify whether the following is measurement or evaluation. Write M for


measurement and E for evaluation.
___1. Quiz ___6. Best in research presentation
___2. Grade in Math 100 = 2.75 ___7. First term exam = 95
___3. Most outstanding teacher ___8. Interview
___4. Graded recitation ___9. Student A failed in English 100
___5. Excellent teaching performance ___10. Highest during the exam

B. Identify whether the following refer to one of the four components on classroom
assessment: Write P for purpose, M for measurement, E for evaluation and U for
use.
___1. Last meeting, I determined that my students did not know much about computing
for the standard deviation of a set of scores
___2. This grading period, I want to see if I can assess students attitude
___3. Test that I gave helped me to identify my students weaknesses
___4. I intend to combine several different assessment to determine students grades
___5. I will give a short quiz to determine feedback whether they understand the
concepts I presented to class
___6. Carlo was advised to enroll in some form of remedial class to help him cope
with the lessons
___7. This test can help me to assess students readiness to learn the new lesson
___8. Tina did an excellent performance in the final examination
___9. I will try to modify my methods of teaching to help my students accomplish the
goals of the learning task
___10. Today, we will have a graded recitation on the lesson Climate change and
Global warming.

Activity 2.
Lesson 1 Classroom Assessment, Measurement, and 5
Evaluation

Answer the following questions briefly.

1. What was your concept of assessment, measurement and evaluation before reading this
lesson?

2. How does classroom assessment influence teachers decision-making?

3. In a short paragraph, share the essential insights that you have gained from this lesson.