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Soil-Pile Interaction in

FB-MultiPier
Dr. J. Brian Anderson, P.E.

Developed by: Florida Bridge Software Institute


Session Outline
Introduce FB-MultiPier Software
Identify and Discuss Soil-Pile Interaction Models
Precast & Cast Insitu Axial T-Z & Q-Z Models
Torsional T- Models
Lateral P-Y Models
Nonlinear Pile Structural Models
FB-MultiPier Input and Output
Example #1 Single Pile
FB-MultiPier
Nonlinear finite element analysis program
capable of analyzing multiple bridge pier
structures interconnected by bridge spans.
The full structure can be subject to a full
array AASHTO load types in a static
analysis or time varying load functions in a
dynamic analysis.
FB-MultiPier
Each pier structure is composed of pier
columns and cap supported on a pile cap
and piles/shafts with nonlinear soil.
FB-Multipier couples nonlinear structural
finite element analysis with nonlinear static
soil models for axial, lateral and torsional
soil behavior to provide a robust system of
analysis for coupled bridge pier structures
and foundation systems.
FB-MultiPier
FB-MultiPier performs the generation of the
finite element model internally given the
geometric definition of the structure and
foundation system as input graphically by
the designer.
Coupled Soil-Structure Interaction
Live and Dead Loading

Ship Impact
Scour Ship Impact
Scour
(Shallow Water)
(Deep Water)
Plumb Piles/Shafts Battered Piles
Earthquake
or Shafts
Coupled Soil-Structure Interaction

Soil
Florida Pier
FB-MultiPier
Florida Bride Software Institute
FB-MultiPier and other software for bridge
analysis and design developed and
supported by BSI
http://bsi-web.ce.ufl.edu
Good educational discounts (free)
Session Outline
Introduce FB-MultiPier Software
Identify and Discuss Soil-Pile Interaction Models
Precast & Cast Insitu Axial T-Z & Q-Z Models
Torsional T- Models
Lateral P-Y Models
Nonlinear Pile Structural Models
FB-MultiPier Input and Output
Example #1 Single Pile
Session Outline
Introduce FB-MultiPier Software
Identify and Discuss Soil-Pile Interaction Models
Precast & Cast Insitu Axial T-Z & Q-Z Models
Torsional T- Models
Lateral P-Y Models
Nonlinear Pile Structural Models
FB-MultiPier Input and Output
Example #1 Single Pile
Soil-Structure Interaction

Vertical Nonlinear Spring

Torsional Nonlinear Spring

Lateral Nonlinear Spring

Nonlinear Tip Spring


Driven Piles - Axial Side Model

t o ro
z r
t
r

to t
(Randolph &
Wroth)
z

s
t + D t /D r d r

dz s r + D s r/ D r d r
sr
t
s
dr
d
r
Driven Piles - Axial Side Model
r0
rm
Dz d z
DZ
Dr d r
Also: t G
z
dz
Substitute: t G
Dr dr
t t o ro
Rearrange: dz dr Previous t
G r
t o r0 t
2

Substitute: dz dr Also: G Gi 1
rG tf
t o r0
rm

Substitute: z t
2
dr
r Gi 1
r0

tf
Driven Piles - Axial Side Model

t 0 r0 rm rm r0 r0 t 0
z ln ,
Gi r0 rm r0 tf
T-Z (Along Pile)

1200
1000
tf = 1000psf
Tau 0 (psf)

800
600
400 Gi = 3 ksi
200
0
0 0.5 1 1.5
z - Displacement (inches)
Driven Piles - Axial Tip Model
(Kraft, Wroth, etc.)
P 1 -
z 2
Where:
P P = Mobilized Base Load
4 r0 G i 1 Pf = Failure Tip Load
Pf ro = effective pile radius
= Poisson ratio of Soil
T-Z (At Tip) Gi = Shear Modulus of Soil
300
250 Pf = 250 kips
Tip Load (kips)

200 Gi = 10 ksi
150 = 0.3
100 r0 = 12 inches
50
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
z - Displacement (inches)
Driven Piles - Axial Properties
Ultimate Skin Friction (stress), Tauf , along
side of pile (input in layers).
Ultimate Tip Resistance (Force), Pf , at pile
tip .
Compressibility of individual soil layers,
I.e. Shear Modulus, Gi , and Poissons ratio,
n.
Driven Piles - Axial Properties
From Insitu Data:
Using SPT N Values run SPT97, DRIVEN,
UNIPILE, etc. to Obtain: Tauf , and Pf
Using Electric Cone Data run PL-AID, LPC,
FHWA etc. to Obtain: Tauf , and Pf
Determine G or E from SPT correlations, i.e.
Mayne, ONeill, etc.
Florida: SPT 97 Concrete Piles
Skin Friction, tf (TSF) Ultimate Tip, Pf/Area(tsf)
Plastic Clay: Plastic Clay:
tf= 2N(110-N)/4006 q = 0.7 N
Sand, Silt Clay Mix: Sand, Silt Clay Mix:
tf = 2N(110-N)/4583
q = 1.6 N
Clean Sand:
tf = 0.019N
Clean Sand:
q = 3.2 N
Soft Limestone
tf = 0.01N Soft Limestone
q = 3.6 N
API Side Friction Model - Sand
tf = K p0 tan d
where
k = dimensionless coefficient of lateral earth
pressure (ratio of horizontal to vertical normal
effective stress(for unplugged K=0.8 and for
plugged K=1.0)
p0 = effective overburden pressure in stress
units
= friction angle between the soil and pile
wall, which is defined as d = f 5o
API Side Friction Model - Sand
API Side Friction Model - Clay
t f = a cu
where
cu = undrained shear strength
a = a dimensionless factor, which is defined
as
a = 0.5-0.5 1.0 for 1.0
a = 0.5-0.25 1.0 for > 1.0
= cu/p0
API Side Friction Model - Clay
API Tip Model - Sand
q = p0 Nq
where
p0 = effective overburden pressure in stress
units
Nq = etan(f)tan2(45 + f/2)
Qp = qA
Where
Qp is the total end bearing capacity
A is the cross sectional area
API Tip Model Sand
API Tip Model - Clay
q = 9cu
where
cu = undrained shear strength

Qp = qA
where
Qp is the total end bearing capacity
A is the cross sectional area
API Tip Model Clay
Cast Insitu Axial Side and Tip Models
For soil (sands and clays)
Follow FHWA Drilled Shaft Manual For Sands
and Clays to Obtain Tauf and Pf ( and cu)
Shape of T-Z cuve is given by FHWAs Trend
Lines.
User has Option of inputting custom T-z /
Q-z curves
Cast Insitu - Sand (FHWA):

L/2
sv = L/2

L D 1.5 .135 L/2) 0.5 1.2> >0.25

Qs = p D L sv

Qt = 0.6 NSPT p D 2 / 4 NSPT < 75


Cast Insitu - Clay (FHWA):

Qs = 0.55 Cu p D (L-5-D)
L D

Qt = 6 [1+0.2(L/D) ] Cu (p D 2 / 4)
Cast Insitu trend line for Sand
1.6
Mobilized Stress / Ultimate Stress

1.4
End Bearing
1.2
Side Friction
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Settlement / Diameter (%)
Cast Insitu trend line for Clay
1.6
Mobilized Stress / Ultimate Stress

1.4

1.2
End Bearing
1.0

0.8
Side Friction
0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10

Settlement / Diameter (%)


Session Outline
Identify and Discuss Soil-Pile Interaction Models
Precast & Cast Insitu Axial T-Z & Q-Z Models
Torsional T- Models
Lateral P-Y Models
Nonlinear Pile Structural Models
FB-MultiPier Input and Output
Example #1 Single Pile
Torsional Model (Pile/Shaft)

Hyperbolic Model
G and Tauf

Custom T-
Torsional Model (Pile/Shaft)

T (F-L) (dT/d)=1/a Gi

Tult =1/b

Tult = tf Asurf r
Tult = 2p r2 D L tult
T=/a+b
tult = Ultimate Axial
Skin Friction
(stress) (rad)
Session Outline
Introduce FB-MultiPier Software
Identify and Discuss Soil-Pile Interaction Models
Precast & Cast Insitu Axial T-Z & Q-Z Models
Torsional T- Models
Lateral P-Y Models
Nonlinear Pile Structural Models
FB-MultiPier Input and Output
Example #1 Single Pile
Lateral Soil-Structure Interaction
Y

Active State

Passive State
Near Field: Lateral (Piles/Shafts)
y

X
sr

P
sr r P r

Y=5
Y=0

F 2p
P sr r d
F 2p L
P sr r d 0
L 0 Sand &
Pu
Soft Clay

P=0 P Pr
Stiff
Clay

Y
P-y Curves - Reeses Sand
Pu is a function of
f, , and b
P
x = x4

x = x3

x = x2
pu u
x = x1
m m
pm yu
k
pk ym

yk
Y is a function ks x x=0
of b (pile diameter) b/60 3b/80
y
Matlocks Soft Clay

1.0
Pu is a function of
Cu, , and b
1/ 3
p y
0.5
pu y 50
P
PU 0.5

Y is a function of
0.0
y50 (50) 1.0 8.0 y
y 50
Reeses Stiff Clay Below Water
Pc is a function of S TATIC

C, , ks and b y
Soil Resistance, p (lb/in.) P 0 .5 P c ( y ) 0 . 5
50
y A s y 50 1 . 25
P offset 0 .055 p c ( A s y 50
)

0.5Pc

0 .0625 p c
E ss
y 50

Esi = k s x
Y is a function of
0 6Asy50
y50 (50) Asy50 y50 18Asy50
Deflection, y (in.)
ONeills Integrated Clay

Pu is a function of
c, and b

Fs is a function of 100
Yc is a function of b and 50
Soil Properties for Standard Curves
Sand:
Angle of internal friction, f
Total unit weight,
Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, k
Clay or Rock:
Undrained Strength, Cu
Total Unit Weight,
Strain at 50% of Failure Stress, 50
Optional: k, and 100
Soil Information
Help Menu EPRI (Kulhawy & Mayne)
P-y Curves from Insitu Tests

Cone Pressuremeter

Marchetti Dilatometer
Insitu PMT & DMT Testing
Cone Pressuremeter
Cone Pressuremeter
(Robertson, Briaud, etc.)
Marchetti Dilatometer
PMTPressuremeter
P-y Curves - Auburn
P-y Curves Auburn, Alabama

2000

1800

1600

1400
1m
2m
P (kN/mm)

1200
3m
1000 4m
800 6m
8m
600
10 m
400

200

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

y (mm)
DMT Dilatometer
P-y Curves P-y Curves-Auburn,
Auburn Alabama

2500

2000

0.6 m
1500 2.1 m
P(kN/m)

3m
4.2 m
1000
6.3 m
7.2 m
500

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

y (mm)
Auburn Predictions
Actual and Predicted Lateral Top of Shaft Deflections
Auburn, Alabama
1000

900

800 PMT
DMT
Lateral Load (kN)

700

600
CPT
Shaft 1
500
Shaft 2
400
Shaft 3
300 Shaft 6
200

100

0
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Lateral Deflection (mm)


P-y Curves for PMT1
PMT P-y Curves Pascagoula
Pascagoula, Mississippi
6

5
9.7
10.7
4
11.7
P (kN/mm)

12.7
13.8
3
14.8
15.8
16.8
2
17.8
18.8
1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

y (mm)
DMT P-y Curves Pascagoula
P-Y Curves from DMT 1
Pascagoula, Mississippi

1.8

1.6

1.4
9.6
1.2 10.8
y (kN/mm)

1 11.7
12.6
0.8
16.0
0.6 16.9
0.4 17.8

0.2

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

p (mm)
Pascagoula Predictions
4500

4000

3500

3000 DMT
Load (kN)

2500

2000 PMT
1500

1000
Actual
500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50

Deflection (mm)
Instrumentation & Measurements
Strain gages
Measure strain
Calculate bending moment, M = (EI/c), if EI
of section known
high tech
Slope inclinometer
Measures slope
Relatively low tech
Theoretical Pile Behavior
M
P Y(z) Y(z) M(z) M(z) P(z)

Pile Deflection Slope Moment Shear Soil Reaction


Strain Gages Bending Moment
Bending Moment versus Depth
Bending Moment (kN*m)

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200


0

1
Lateral
Load in
Kilonewtons
2
36
Depth (m)

62
3 93
121
153
4
182
211
258
5

6
Bending Moment vs. Depth
M
P Y(z) Y(z) M(z) M(z) P(z)

Pile Deflection Slope Moment Shear Soil Reaction


Two Integrals to Deflection
P
M
Y(z) Y(z) M(z) M(z) P(z)

Pile Deflection Slope Moment Shear Soil Reaction


Two Derivatives to Load

M z z
P Y(z) Y(z) M(z) M(z) P(z)

Pile Deflection Slope Moment Shear Soil Reaction


Non-linear Concrete Model
Test Pile T1

1.0E+06

8.0E+05
EI (kN-m )
2

6.0E+05

4.0E+05

2.0E+05

0.0E+00
0.0E+00 2.0E-03 4.0E-03 6.0E-03 8.0E-03 1.0E-02
Curvature, f (1/m)
P-y Curves from Strain Gages
140
D. to G.S.
120
(m)
100
1.0
p (kN/m)

80 2.0
3.0
60
4.1
40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, y (mm)
Slope Inclinometer Slope
Deflection versus Depth
Horizontal Displacement (m)

-0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07


-2

Lateral
0
Load in
Kilonewtons

2
36
Depth (m)

62
4 90
122
153
6 183
208
243
8

10
Slope Inclinometer Slope vs. Depth
M
P Y(z) Y(z) M(z) M(z) P(z)

Pile Deflection Slope Moment Shear Soil Reaction


One Integral to Deflection
P
M
Y(z) Y(z) M(z) M(z) P(z)

Pile Deflection Slope Moment Shear Soil Reaction


Three Derivatives to Load

M z z z
P Y(z) Y(z) M(z) M(z) P(z)

Pile Deflection Slope Moment Shear Soil Reaction


P-y Curves from Slope Inclinometer
140

120 D. to GS
(m)
100
1.0
p (kN/m)

80 2.0
3.0
60
4.0
40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, y (mm)
Comparison of P-y Curves
80

60 SG
inc
PMT/DMT
p (kN/m)

SPT
40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacement, y (mm)
Prediction of Pile Top Deflection
300

250 W. line
FLPIER-sg
200 FLPIER-inc
Load (kN)

150

100

50

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Top Displacement (mm)
P-y Curves Available in FB-Pier
Standard
Sand
ONeill
Reese, Cox, & Koop
Clay
ONeill
Matlock Soft Clay Below Water Table
Reese Stiff Clay Below Water Table
Reese & Welch Stiff Clay Above Water Table
P-y Curves Available in FB-Pier
User Defined
Pressuremeter
Dilatometer
Instrumentation
Strain Gages
Slope Inclinometer
Session Outline
Introduce FB-MultiPier Software
Identify and Discuss Soil-Pile Interaction Models
Precast & Cast Insitu Axial T-Z & Q-Z Models
Torsional T- Models
Lateral P-Y Models
Nonlinear Pile Structural Models
FB-MultiPier Input and Output
Example #1 Single Pile
Pile Element Model
h h
2 h 2
M1 M3

Universal Joint (Top View) Spring


Z
Y Rigid center-blocks
M2 M4

Rigid end Block


(Side View)
Curvature-Strain-Stress-Moment
N2
N1

a) Strain due to b) Strain due to c) Strain due to


z-axis bending y-axis bending axial thrust

Fi x

dAi

, dFi
, i
e) Stress-strain relationship
d) Combined strains
Stress-Strain Curves for Concrete & Steel
Strains -> Stress -> Moments
dFi=si*dAi

dF* y
y
Mx x
Integration_Points

dAi

dFi

d) Combined strains
Stiffness of Cross-Section: Flexure, Axial

M
y
x

dF* y
z
Mx
dAi
Integration_Points

dFi

d) Combined strains
Failure Ratio Calculation
Actual Length
P Failure Ratio =
Surface Length

Mx

Pactual
Mxo

My
Myo
Pile Material Properties
References:
Robertson, P. K., Campanella, R. G., Brown, P. T., Grof, I., and Hughes, J. M., "Design of
Axially and Laterally Loaded Piles Using In Situ Tests: A Case History, Canadian
Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp.518-527, 1985.
Robertson, P. K., Davies, M. P., and Campanella, R. G., "Design of Laterally Loaded Driven
Piles Using the Flat Dilatometer," Geotechnical Testing Journal, GTJODJ, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.
30-38, March 1989.
Reese, L. C., Cox, W. R. and Koop, F. D (1974). "Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Sand,"
Paper No. OTC 2080, Proceedings, Fifth Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston,
Texas, (GESA Report No. D-75-9).
Hoit, M.I, McVay, M., Hays, C., Andrade, P. (1996). Nonlinear Pile Foundation Analysis
Using Florida Pier." Journal of Bridge Engineering. ASCE. Vol. 1, No. 4, pp.135-142.
Randolph, M. and Wroth, C., 1978, Analysis of Deformation of Vertically Loaded Piles, ASCE
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 104, No. 12, pp. 1465-1488.
Matlock, H., and Reese, L., 1960, Generalized Solutions for Laterally Loaded Piles, ASCE,
Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Vol. 86, No. SM5, pp. 63-91.
Session Outline
Identify and Discuss Soil-Pile Interaction Models
Precast & Cast Insitu Axial T-Z & Q-Z Models
Torsional T- Models
Lateral P-Y Models
Nonlinear Pile Structural Models
FB-MultiPier Input and Output
Example #1 Single Pile