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References
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics#cite_note-4)
https://fhssrsc.byu.edu/SitePages/ANOVA,%20t-tests,%20Regression,%20and%20Chi
%20Square.aspx
Point of view on statistics in research
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics
ANOVA VERSUS ANCOVA
Akademi Khan
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/statistics-probability

(a) Discuss the types of statistics.

Descriptive Statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide
simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis,
they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. With descriptive statistics you
are simply describing what is, what the data shows.

Inferential Statistics investigate questions, models and hypotheses. In many cases, the
conclusions from inferential statistics extend beyond the immediate data alone. For instance, we
use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the population thinks. Or, we
use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference
between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study.
Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions;
we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.
In most research studies, the analysis section follows these three phases of analysis. Descriptions
of how the data were prepared tend to be brief and to focus on only the more unique aspects to
your study, such as specific data transformations that are performed. The descriptive statistics
that you actually look at can be voluminous. In most write-ups, these are carefully selected and
organized into summary tables and graphs that only show the most relevant or important
information. Usually, the researcher links each of the inferential analyses to specific research
questions or hypotheses that were raised in the introduction, or notes any models that were tested
that emerged as part of the analysis. In most analysis write-ups it's especially critical to not "miss
the forest for the trees." If you present too much detail, the reader may not be able to follow the
central line of the results. Often extensive analysis details are appropriately relegated to
appendices, reserving only the most critical analysis summaries for the body of the report itself.

Inferential Statistics

With inferential statistics, you are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate
data alone. For instance, we use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the
population might think. Or, we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that
an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by
chance in this study. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more
general conditions; we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.

Here, I concentrate on inferential statistics that are useful in experimental and quasi-experimental
research design or in program outcome evaluation. Perhaps one of the simplest inferential test is
used when you want to compare the average performance of two groups on a single measure to
see if there is a difference. You might want to know whether eighth-grade boys and girls differ in
math test scores or whether a program group differs on the outcome measure from a control
group. Whenever you wish to compare the average performance between two groups you should
consider the t-test for differences between groups.

Most of the major inferential statistics come from a general family of statistical models known as
the General Linear Model. This includes the t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of
Covariance (ANCOVA), regression analysis, and many of the multivariate methods like factor
analysis, multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, discriminant function analysis, and so on.
Given the importance of the General Linear Model, it's a good idea for any serious social
researcher to become familiar with its workings. The discussion of the General Linear Model
here is very elementary and only considers the simplest straight-line model. However, it will get
you familiar with the idea of the linear model and help prepare you for the more complex
analyses described below.

One of the keys to understanding how groups are compared is embodied in the notion of the
"dummy" variable. The name doesn't suggest that we are using variables that aren't very smart or,
even worse, that the analyst who uses them is a "dummy"! Perhaps these variables would be
better described as "proxy" variables. Essentially a dummy variable is one that uses discrete
numbers, usually 0 and 1, to represent different groups in your study. Dummy variables are a
simple idea that enable some pretty complicated things to happen. For instance, by including a
simple dummy variable in an model, I can model two separate lines (one for each treatment
group) with a single equation. To see how this works, check out the discussion on dummy
variables.

One of the most important analyses in program outcome evaluations involves comparing the
program and non-program group on the outcome variable or variables. How we do this depends
on the research design we use. research designs are divided into two major types of designs:
experimental and quasi-experimental. Because the analyses differ for each, they are presented
separately.

Experimental Analysis. The simple two-group posttest-only randomized experiment is usually


analyzed with the simple t-test or one-way ANOVA. The factorial experimental designs are
usually analyzed with the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Model. Randomized Block Designs
use a special form of ANOVA blocking model that uses dummy-coded variables to represent the
blocks. The Analysis of Covariance Experimental Design uses, not surprisingly, the Analysis of
Covariance statistical model.

Quasi-Experimental Analysis. The quasi-experimental designs differ from the experimental


ones in that they don't use random assignment to assign units (e.g., people) to program groups.
The lack of random assignment in these designs tends to complicate their analysis considerably.
For example, to analyze the Nonequivalent Groups Design (NEGD) we have to adjust the pretest
scores for measurement error in what is often called a Reliability-Corrected Analysis of
Covariance model. In the Regression-Discontinuity Design, we need to be especially concerned
about curvilinearity and model misspecification. Consequently, we tend to use a conservative
analysis approach that is based on polynomial regression that starts by overfitting the likely true
function and then reducing the model based on the results. The Regression Point Displacement
Design has only a single treated unit. Nevertheless, the analysis of the RPD design is based
directly on the traditional ANCOVA model.

When you've investigated these various analytic models, you'll see that they all come from the
same family -- the General Linear Model. An understanding of that model will go a long way to
introducing you to the intricacies of data analysis in applied and social research contexts.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide
simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis,
they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.

Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from inferential statistics. With descriptive
statistics you are simply describing what is or what the data shows. With inferential statistics,
you are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone. For instance,
we use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the population might think.
Or, we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference
between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study.
Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions;
we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.

Descriptive Statistics are used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form. In a


research study we may have lots of measures. Or we may measure a large number of people on
any measure. Descriptive statistics help us to simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way.
Each descriptive statistic reduces lots of data into a simpler summary. For instance, consider a
simple number used to summarize how well a batter is performing in baseball, the batting
average. This single number is simply the number of hits divided by the number of times at bat
(reported to three significant digits). A batter who is hitting .333 is getting a hit one time in every
three at bats. One batting .250 is hitting one time in four. The single number describes a large
number of discrete events. Or, consider the scourge of many students, the Grade Point Average
(GPA). This single number describes the general performance of a student across a potentially
wide range of course experiences.

Every time you try to describe a large set of observations with a single indicator you run the risk
of distorting the original data or losing important detail. The batting average doesn't tell you
whether the batter is hitting home runs or singles. It doesn't tell whether she's been in a slump or
on a streak. The GPA doesn't tell you whether the student was in difficult courses or easy ones, or
whether they were courses in their major field or in other disciplines. Even given these
limitations, descriptive statistics provide a powerful summary that may enable comparisons
across people or other units.

Univariate Analysis

Univariate analysis involves the examination across cases of one variable at a time. There are
three major characteristics of a single variable that we tend to look at:

the distribution
the central tendency
the dispersion

Copyright 2006, William M.K. Trochim, All Rights Reserved (Web Center For Social Research
Method: Research Method Knowledge Base) diakses pada 01.05.2017 di
https://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
(b) Discuss the difference between T-Test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Chi-Square

Chi Square
compares observed frequencies to expected frequencies
ex: Is the distribution of sex and voting behavior due to chance or is there a difference
between the sexes on voting behavior?

t-Test
looks at differences between two groups on some variable of interest
the IV must have only two groups (male/female, undergrad/grad)
ex: Do males and females differ in the amount of hours they spend shopping in a given
month?

ANOVA
tests the significance of group differences between two or more groups
the IV has two or more categories
only determines that there is a difference between groups, but doesnt tell which is
different
ex: Do SAT scores differ for low-, middle-, and high-income students?

ANCOVA
same as ANOVA, but adds control of one or more covariates that may influence the DV
ex: Do SAT scores differ for low-, middle-, and high-income students after controlling for
single/dual parenting?

What is statistics?
Statistics like many other sciences is a developing discipline. It is not nothing static. It has
gradually developed during last few centuries. In different times, it has been defined in different
manners. Some definitions of the past look very strange today but those definitions had their
place in their own time. Defining a subject has always been difficult task. A good definition of
today may be discarded in future. It is difficult to define statistics. Some of the definitions are
reproduced here:
The kings and rulers in the ancient times were interested in their manpower. They conducted
census of population to get information about their population. They used information to
calculate their strength and ability for wars. In those days statistics was defined as

A.L. Bowley defined statistics as


statistics is the science of counting

This definition places the entries stress on counting only. A common man also thinks as if
statistics is nothing but counting. This used to be the situation but very long time ago. Statistics
today is not mere counting of people, counting of animals, counting of trees and counting of
fighting force. It has now grown to a rich methods of data analysis and interpretation.

A.L. Bowley has also defined as

science of averages

This definition is very simple but it covers only some area of statistics. Average is very simple
important in statistics. Experts are interested in average deaths rates, average birth rates, average
increase in population, and average increase in per capita income, average increase in standard of
living and cost of living, average development rate, average inflation rate, average production of
rice per acre, average literacy rate and many other averages of different fields of practical life.
But statistics is not limited to average only. There are many other statistical tools like measure of
variation, measure of correlation, measures of independence etc Thus this definition is weak
and incomplete and has been buried in the past.

Prof: Boddington has defined statistics as

science of estimate and probabilities

This definition covers a major part of statistics. It is close to the modern statistics. But it is not
complete because it stress only on probability. There are some areas of statistics in which
probability is not used.

A definition due to W.I. King is the science of statistics is the method of judging collection,
natural or social phenomena from the results obtained from the analysis or enumeration or
collection of estimates. This definition is close to the modern statistics. But it does not cover the
entire scope of modern statistics. Secrist has given a detailed definition of statistics in plural
sense. His definition is given on the previous. He has not given any importance to statistics in
singular sense. Statistics both in the singular and the plural sense has been combined in the
following definition which is accepted as the modern definition of statistics.
statistics are the numerical statement of facts capable of analysis and interpretation and the science
of statistics is the study of the principles and the methods applied in collecting, presenting, analysis
and interpreting the numerical data in any field of inquiry.

Read more: http://www.emathzone.com/tutorials/basic-statistics/definition-of-


statistics.html#ixzz4gHDZBFbH

(c) Discuss the difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA.

(d) Discuss briefly about SPSS.


The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is a software package used in statistical
analysis of data. It was developed by SPSS Inc. and acquired by IBM in 2009. In 2014, the
software was officially renamed IBM SPSS Statistics. The software was originally meant for the
social sciences, but has become popular in other fields such as health sciences and especially in
marketing, market research and data mining.

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences is a widely used program for statistical analysis in
social sciences, particularly in education and research. However, because of its potential, it is
also widely used by market researchers, health-care researchers, survey organizations,
governments and, most notably, data miners and big data professionals.

Aside from statistical analysis, the software also features data management, which allows the
user to do case selection, create derived data and perform file reshaping. Another feature is data
documentation, which stores a metadata dictionary along with the datafile.

Statistical methods usable in the software include:

Descriptive statistics Frequencies, cross tabulation, descriptive ratio statistics

Bivariate statistics Analysis of variance (ANOVA), means, correlation, nonparametric


tests

Numeral outcome prediction Linear regression

Prediction for identifying groups Cluster analysis (K-means, two-step, hierarchical),


factor analysis
Techopedia Inc. (2017) diakses pada 3/5/2017 di
https://www.techopedia.com/definition/12401/statistical-package-for-the-social-sciences-
spss

(e) Bincangkan apa yang dimaksudkan dengan taburan normal?


The normal distribution is the most important and most widely used distribution in statistics. It is
sometimes called the "bell curve," although the tonal qualities of such a bell would be less than
pleasing. It is also called the "Gaussian curve" after the mathematician Karl Friedrich Gauss. As
you will see in the section on the history of the normal distribution, although Gauss played an
important role in its history, Abraham de Moivre first discovered the normal distribution.

Strictly speaking, it is not correct to talk about "the normal distribution" since there are many
normal distributions. Normal distributions can differ in their means and in their standard
deviations. Figure 1 shows three normal distributions. The green (left-most) distribution has a
mean of -3 and a standard deviation of 0.5, the distribution in red (the middle distribution) has a
mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1, and the distribution in black (right-most) has a mean of
2 and a standard deviation of 3. These as well as all other normal distributions are symmetric
with relatively more values at the center of the distribution and relatively few in the tails.

Figure 1. Normal distributions differing in mean and standard deviation.

The density of the normal distribution (the height for a given value on the x axis) is shown
below. The parameters and are the mean and standard deviation, respectively, and define the
normal distribution. The symbol e is the base of the natural logarithm and is the constant pi.
Since this is a non-mathematical treatment of statistics, do not worry if this expression confuses
you. We will not be referring back to it in later sections.

Seven features of normal distributions are listed below. These features are illustrated in more
detail in the remaining sections of this chapter.

1. Normal distributions are symmetric around their


mean.

2. The mean, median, and mode of a normal


distribution are equal.

3. The area under the normal curve is equal to 1.0.

4. Normal distributions are denser in the center and


less dense in the tails.

5. Normal distributions are defined by two


parameters, the mean () and the standard
deviation ().

6. 68% of the area of a normal distribution is within


one standard deviation of the mean.

7. Approximately 95% of the area of a normal


distribution is within two standard deviations of
the mean.

David M. Lane Introduction to Normal Distributions


http://onlinestatbook.com/2/normal_distribution/intro.html

Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study

Developed by Rice University (Lead Developer), University of Houston Clear Lake, and Tufts
University
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Education and Science

Math

Meaning and definition of Statistics

Updated on November 11, 2013

Iamsam more

Contact Author

Statistics
Statistics is an old discipline, as old as the human activity. Its utility has been increasing as the
ages goes by. In the olden days it was used in the administrative departments of the states and
the scope was limited. Earlier it was used by governments to keep record of birth, death,
population etc., for administrative purpose. John Graunt was the first man to make a systematic
study of birth and death statistics and the calculation of expectation of life at different age in the
17th century which led to the idea of Life Insurance.

The word 'Statistics' seems to have been derived from the Latin word 'status' or Italian word
'statista' or the German word 'Statistik' each of which means a political state. Fields like
agriculture, economics, sociology, business management etc., are now using Statistical Methods
for different purposes.

Meaning and Definition of Statistics

Please note the statements below:


"Microsoft reported 80% growth in the revenue during the 3rd quarter",

"Population growth in the country is 2%"

Above statements are statistical conclusions. These statements are very convenient for the reader
or listener to understand the net effect. These statements also help to make policies in the
respective areas. To prepare these numerical statements, we need to be familiar with those
methods and techniques which are used in data collection presentation, organization and analysis
and interpretations. The study of these techniques and method is the science of Statistics.

Definition of Statistics.

Statistics has been defined differently by different writers. According to Webster "Statistics are
the classified facts representing the conditions of the people in a state. Specially those facts
which can be stated in numbers or any tabular or classified arrangement."

According to Bowley statistics are "Numerical statements of facts in any department of enquiry
placed in relation to each other."

According to Yule and Kendall, statistics means quantitative data affected to a marked extent by
multiplicity of causes.

More broad definition of statistics was given by Horace Secrist. According to him, statistics
means aggregate of facts affected to marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically
expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy, collected in a
systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.

This definition points out some essential characteristics that numerical facts must possess so that
they may be called statistics. These characteristics are:

1. They are enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of


accuracy

2. They are affected by multiplicity of factors

3. They must be numerically expressed

4. They must be aggregate of facts

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