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- Chesapeake INCOSE Nov 2015 Newsletter
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(COTF)

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Pembelajaran berasaskan masalah (PBL) adalah merupakan satu pendekatan pembelajaran yang

digunakan bersandarkan kepada penyelesaian masalah yang akan diberikan oleh guru kepada

pelajar. Adakah PBL sesuai untuk kurikulum masa depan? Bincangkan

References

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics#cite_note-4)

https://fhssrsc.byu.edu/SitePages/ANOVA,%20t-tests,%20Regression,%20and%20Chi

%20Square.aspx

Point of view on statistics in research

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics

ANOVA VERSUS ANCOVA

Akademi Khan

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/statistics-probability

Descriptive Statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide

simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis,

they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. With descriptive statistics you

are simply describing what is, what the data shows.

Inferential Statistics investigate questions, models and hypotheses. In many cases, the

conclusions from inferential statistics extend beyond the immediate data alone. For instance, we

use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the population thinks. Or, we

use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference

between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study.

Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions;

we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.

In most research studies, the analysis section follows these three phases of analysis. Descriptions

of how the data were prepared tend to be brief and to focus on only the more unique aspects to

your study, such as specific data transformations that are performed. The descriptive statistics

that you actually look at can be voluminous. In most write-ups, these are carefully selected and

organized into summary tables and graphs that only show the most relevant or important

information. Usually, the researcher links each of the inferential analyses to specific research

questions or hypotheses that were raised in the introduction, or notes any models that were tested

that emerged as part of the analysis. In most analysis write-ups it's especially critical to not "miss

the forest for the trees." If you present too much detail, the reader may not be able to follow the

central line of the results. Often extensive analysis details are appropriately relegated to

appendices, reserving only the most critical analysis summaries for the body of the report itself.

Inferential Statistics

With inferential statistics, you are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate

data alone. For instance, we use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the

population might think. Or, we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that

an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by

chance in this study. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more

general conditions; we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.

Here, I concentrate on inferential statistics that are useful in experimental and quasi-experimental

research design or in program outcome evaluation. Perhaps one of the simplest inferential test is

used when you want to compare the average performance of two groups on a single measure to

see if there is a difference. You might want to know whether eighth-grade boys and girls differ in

math test scores or whether a program group differs on the outcome measure from a control

group. Whenever you wish to compare the average performance between two groups you should

consider the t-test for differences between groups.

Most of the major inferential statistics come from a general family of statistical models known as

the General Linear Model. This includes the t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of

Covariance (ANCOVA), regression analysis, and many of the multivariate methods like factor

analysis, multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, discriminant function analysis, and so on.

Given the importance of the General Linear Model, it's a good idea for any serious social

researcher to become familiar with its workings. The discussion of the General Linear Model

here is very elementary and only considers the simplest straight-line model. However, it will get

you familiar with the idea of the linear model and help prepare you for the more complex

analyses described below.

One of the keys to understanding how groups are compared is embodied in the notion of the

"dummy" variable. The name doesn't suggest that we are using variables that aren't very smart or,

even worse, that the analyst who uses them is a "dummy"! Perhaps these variables would be

better described as "proxy" variables. Essentially a dummy variable is one that uses discrete

numbers, usually 0 and 1, to represent different groups in your study. Dummy variables are a

simple idea that enable some pretty complicated things to happen. For instance, by including a

simple dummy variable in an model, I can model two separate lines (one for each treatment

group) with a single equation. To see how this works, check out the discussion on dummy

variables.

One of the most important analyses in program outcome evaluations involves comparing the

program and non-program group on the outcome variable or variables. How we do this depends

on the research design we use. research designs are divided into two major types of designs:

experimental and quasi-experimental. Because the analyses differ for each, they are presented

separately.

analyzed with the simple t-test or one-way ANOVA. The factorial experimental designs are

usually analyzed with the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Model. Randomized Block Designs

use a special form of ANOVA blocking model that uses dummy-coded variables to represent the

blocks. The Analysis of Covariance Experimental Design uses, not surprisingly, the Analysis of

Covariance statistical model.

ones in that they don't use random assignment to assign units (e.g., people) to program groups.

The lack of random assignment in these designs tends to complicate their analysis considerably.

For example, to analyze the Nonequivalent Groups Design (NEGD) we have to adjust the pretest

scores for measurement error in what is often called a Reliability-Corrected Analysis of

Covariance model. In the Regression-Discontinuity Design, we need to be especially concerned

about curvilinearity and model misspecification. Consequently, we tend to use a conservative

analysis approach that is based on polynomial regression that starts by overfitting the likely true

function and then reducing the model based on the results. The Regression Point Displacement

Design has only a single treated unit. Nevertheless, the analysis of the RPD design is based

directly on the traditional ANCOVA model.

When you've investigated these various analytic models, you'll see that they all come from the

same family -- the General Linear Model. An understanding of that model will go a long way to

introducing you to the intricacies of data analysis in applied and social research contexts.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide

simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis,

they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data.

Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from inferential statistics. With descriptive

statistics you are simply describing what is or what the data shows. With inferential statistics,

you are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone. For instance,

we use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the population might think.

Or, we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference

between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study.

Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions;

we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.

research study we may have lots of measures. Or we may measure a large number of people on

any measure. Descriptive statistics help us to simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way.

Each descriptive statistic reduces lots of data into a simpler summary. For instance, consider a

simple number used to summarize how well a batter is performing in baseball, the batting

average. This single number is simply the number of hits divided by the number of times at bat

(reported to three significant digits). A batter who is hitting .333 is getting a hit one time in every

three at bats. One batting .250 is hitting one time in four. The single number describes a large

number of discrete events. Or, consider the scourge of many students, the Grade Point Average

(GPA). This single number describes the general performance of a student across a potentially

wide range of course experiences.

Every time you try to describe a large set of observations with a single indicator you run the risk

of distorting the original data or losing important detail. The batting average doesn't tell you

whether the batter is hitting home runs or singles. It doesn't tell whether she's been in a slump or

on a streak. The GPA doesn't tell you whether the student was in difficult courses or easy ones, or

whether they were courses in their major field or in other disciplines. Even given these

limitations, descriptive statistics provide a powerful summary that may enable comparisons

across people or other units.

Univariate Analysis

Univariate analysis involves the examination across cases of one variable at a time. There are

three major characteristics of a single variable that we tend to look at:

the distribution

the central tendency

the dispersion

Copyright 2006, William M.K. Trochim, All Rights Reserved (Web Center For Social Research

Method: Research Method Knowledge Base) diakses pada 01.05.2017 di

https://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php

(b) Discuss the difference between T-Test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Chi-Square

Chi Square

compares observed frequencies to expected frequencies

ex: Is the distribution of sex and voting behavior due to chance or is there a difference

between the sexes on voting behavior?

t-Test

looks at differences between two groups on some variable of interest

the IV must have only two groups (male/female, undergrad/grad)

ex: Do males and females differ in the amount of hours they spend shopping in a given

month?

ANOVA

tests the significance of group differences between two or more groups

the IV has two or more categories

only determines that there is a difference between groups, but doesnt tell which is

different

ex: Do SAT scores differ for low-, middle-, and high-income students?

ANCOVA

same as ANOVA, but adds control of one or more covariates that may influence the DV

ex: Do SAT scores differ for low-, middle-, and high-income students after controlling for

single/dual parenting?

What is statistics?

Statistics like many other sciences is a developing discipline. It is not nothing static. It has

gradually developed during last few centuries. In different times, it has been defined in different

manners. Some definitions of the past look very strange today but those definitions had their

place in their own time. Defining a subject has always been difficult task. A good definition of

today may be discarded in future. It is difficult to define statistics. Some of the definitions are

reproduced here:

The kings and rulers in the ancient times were interested in their manpower. They conducted

census of population to get information about their population. They used information to

calculate their strength and ability for wars. In those days statistics was defined as

statistics is the science of counting

This definition places the entries stress on counting only. A common man also thinks as if

statistics is nothing but counting. This used to be the situation but very long time ago. Statistics

today is not mere counting of people, counting of animals, counting of trees and counting of

fighting force. It has now grown to a rich methods of data analysis and interpretation.

science of averages

This definition is very simple but it covers only some area of statistics. Average is very simple

important in statistics. Experts are interested in average deaths rates, average birth rates, average

increase in population, and average increase in per capita income, average increase in standard of

living and cost of living, average development rate, average inflation rate, average production of

rice per acre, average literacy rate and many other averages of different fields of practical life.

But statistics is not limited to average only. There are many other statistical tools like measure of

variation, measure of correlation, measures of independence etc Thus this definition is weak

and incomplete and has been buried in the past.

This definition covers a major part of statistics. It is close to the modern statistics. But it is not

complete because it stress only on probability. There are some areas of statistics in which

probability is not used.

A definition due to W.I. King is the science of statistics is the method of judging collection,

natural or social phenomena from the results obtained from the analysis or enumeration or

collection of estimates. This definition is close to the modern statistics. But it does not cover the

entire scope of modern statistics. Secrist has given a detailed definition of statistics in plural

sense. His definition is given on the previous. He has not given any importance to statistics in

singular sense. Statistics both in the singular and the plural sense has been combined in the

following definition which is accepted as the modern definition of statistics.

statistics are the numerical statement of facts capable of analysis and interpretation and the science

of statistics is the study of the principles and the methods applied in collecting, presenting, analysis

and interpreting the numerical data in any field of inquiry.

statistics.html#ixzz4gHDZBFbH

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is a software package used in statistical

analysis of data. It was developed by SPSS Inc. and acquired by IBM in 2009. In 2014, the

software was officially renamed IBM SPSS Statistics. The software was originally meant for the

social sciences, but has become popular in other fields such as health sciences and especially in

marketing, market research and data mining.

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences is a widely used program for statistical analysis in

social sciences, particularly in education and research. However, because of its potential, it is

also widely used by market researchers, health-care researchers, survey organizations,

governments and, most notably, data miners and big data professionals.

Aside from statistical analysis, the software also features data management, which allows the

user to do case selection, create derived data and perform file reshaping. Another feature is data

documentation, which stores a metadata dictionary along with the datafile.

tests

factor analysis

Techopedia Inc. (2017) diakses pada 3/5/2017 di

https://www.techopedia.com/definition/12401/statistical-package-for-the-social-sciences-

spss

The normal distribution is the most important and most widely used distribution in statistics. It is

sometimes called the "bell curve," although the tonal qualities of such a bell would be less than

pleasing. It is also called the "Gaussian curve" after the mathematician Karl Friedrich Gauss. As

you will see in the section on the history of the normal distribution, although Gauss played an

important role in its history, Abraham de Moivre first discovered the normal distribution.

Strictly speaking, it is not correct to talk about "the normal distribution" since there are many

normal distributions. Normal distributions can differ in their means and in their standard

deviations. Figure 1 shows three normal distributions. The green (left-most) distribution has a

mean of -3 and a standard deviation of 0.5, the distribution in red (the middle distribution) has a

mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1, and the distribution in black (right-most) has a mean of

2 and a standard deviation of 3. These as well as all other normal distributions are symmetric

with relatively more values at the center of the distribution and relatively few in the tails.

The density of the normal distribution (the height for a given value on the x axis) is shown

below. The parameters and are the mean and standard deviation, respectively, and define the

normal distribution. The symbol e is the base of the natural logarithm and is the constant pi.

Since this is a non-mathematical treatment of statistics, do not worry if this expression confuses

you. We will not be referring back to it in later sections.

Seven features of normal distributions are listed below. These features are illustrated in more

detail in the remaining sections of this chapter.

mean.

distribution are equal.

less dense in the tails.

parameters, the mean () and the standard

deviation ().

one standard deviation of the mean.

distribution is within two standard deviations of

the mean.

http://onlinestatbook.com/2/normal_distribution/intro.html

Developed by Rice University (Lead Developer), University of Houston Clear Lake, and Tufts

University

69

HubPages

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Iamsam more

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Statistics

Statistics is an old discipline, as old as the human activity. Its utility has been increasing as the

ages goes by. In the olden days it was used in the administrative departments of the states and

the scope was limited. Earlier it was used by governments to keep record of birth, death,

population etc., for administrative purpose. John Graunt was the first man to make a systematic

study of birth and death statistics and the calculation of expectation of life at different age in the

17th century which led to the idea of Life Insurance.

The word 'Statistics' seems to have been derived from the Latin word 'status' or Italian word

'statista' or the German word 'Statistik' each of which means a political state. Fields like

agriculture, economics, sociology, business management etc., are now using Statistical Methods

for different purposes.

"Microsoft reported 80% growth in the revenue during the 3rd quarter",

Above statements are statistical conclusions. These statements are very convenient for the reader

or listener to understand the net effect. These statements also help to make policies in the

respective areas. To prepare these numerical statements, we need to be familiar with those

methods and techniques which are used in data collection presentation, organization and analysis

and interpretations. The study of these techniques and method is the science of Statistics.

Definition of Statistics.

Statistics has been defined differently by different writers. According to Webster "Statistics are

the classified facts representing the conditions of the people in a state. Specially those facts

which can be stated in numbers or any tabular or classified arrangement."

According to Bowley statistics are "Numerical statements of facts in any department of enquiry

placed in relation to each other."

According to Yule and Kendall, statistics means quantitative data affected to a marked extent by

multiplicity of causes.

More broad definition of statistics was given by Horace Secrist. According to him, statistics

means aggregate of facts affected to marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically

expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy, collected in a

systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.

This definition points out some essential characteristics that numerical facts must possess so that

they may be called statistics. These characteristics are:

accuracy

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