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(BFC 32002)





Surface runof
Muhammad Nor Alif Bin Mat Zali

Faculty Of Civil And Environmental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,
Batu Pahat, Malaysia


Hydraulic roughness coefficients have been derived from runoff plot data
originally collected for erosion studies. The data were collected from different
agricultural and natural surfaces by applying constant rainfall rates from rainfall
simulators. The derived roughness coefficient is actually an effective
roughness coefficient that includes: the effect of raindrop impact; the effect of
channelization of flow; the effects of obstacles such as litter, crop ridges, rocks,
and roughness from tillage; the frictional drag over the surface; and the erosion
and transport of sediment. A ready reference of friction factors for overland flow
is presented in tabular format with a description of the various surfaces and land
uses. Surface conditions varied from very smooth asphalt to extremely rough,
litterstrewn agricultural and rangeland areas.

Keywords: Surface Runoff, Through Flow, Catchment Area


Surface runoff is water from rain, snowmelt, or other sources that flows over the land
surface, and is a major component of the water cycle. Runoff that occurs on surfaces
before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. A land area which produces runoff
draining to a common point is called a watershed. When runoff flows along the ground, it
can pick up soil contaminants such as petroleum, pesticides, or fertilizers that become
discharge or overland flow.

Urbanization increases surface runoff, by creating more impervious surfaces such as

pavement and buildings do not allow percolation of the water down through the soil to
the aquifer. It is instead forced directly into streams, where erosion and siltation can be
major problems, even when flooding is not. Increased runoff reduces groundwater
recharge, thus lowering the water table and making droughts worse, especially for
farmers and others who depend on water wells.(1)

There are a variety of factors that affect runoff. Some of those include
a) Amount of Rainfall
-The amount of rainfall directly affects the amount of runoff. As expected, if more
rainfall hits the ground, more rainfall will turn into runoff. The same
can be said about snowmelt. If a large amount of snow melts in a short time
period, there will be a large amount of runoff.

b) Permeability
-The ability of the ground surface to absorb water will affect how much surface
runoff occurs. If you have ever poured water onto sand, you may have noticed it
sinks into the sand almost instantaneously. On the other hand, if you pour water
on the street, the water will not sink but runoff to the gutter or a ditch. The less
water the ground can absorb, the more runoff on the surface there will be. This is
called permeability.
A surface with high absorption ability has high permeability, and a surface with
low absorption ability has low permeability

c) Vegetation
-Vegetation needs water to survive, and a plant's root system is designed to
absorb water from the soil. There is less runoff in highly vegetated areas because
the water is used by the plants instead of flowing off the surface of the ground.

d) Slope
-The slope of a surface is also important to the amount of runoff there will be. The
steeper a surface is, the faster it will flow down the slope. A flat surface will allow
the water time to absorb.(2)

2.1 Through flow

Through flow is the sporadic horizontal flow of water within the soil layer (Figure 1). It
normally takes place when the soil is completely saturated with water. This water then
flows underground until it reaches a river, lake, or ocean. Rates of water movement via
through flow are usually low. Rates of maximum flow occur on steep slopes and in
pervious sediments. The lowest rates of flow occur in soils composed of heavy clays.
Rates of through flow in these sediments can be less than 1 millimeter per day.
(Figure 1)

- Hydrologic movement of water beneath the Earth's surface. Water usually enters the
surface sediments as precipitation. This water then percolates into the soil layer. Some of
this water flows horizontally as throughflow. Water continuing to flow downward
eventually reaches a permanent store of water known as the groundwater. The
movement of groundwater horizontally is called groundwater flow.

2.2 Ground Water Storage


Groundwater occurs in two main forms. Unconfined groundwater occurs when the flow of
subterranean water is not confined by the presence of relatively impermeable layers
(Figure 2). The presence of an impermeable layer beneath this type of groundwater can
cause the formation of a perched water table. These features are elevated some distance
above the surface's main water table. Springs that flow from underground to the Earth's
surface are often formed when a perched water table intersects the surface.

(Figure 2)

In some cases, groundwater can become confined between two impermeable layers
(Figure 3). This type of enclosed water is sometimes called artesian. If conditions are
right, a confined aquifer can produce a pressurized ground to surface flow of water
known as an artesian well. In an artesian well, water flows against gravity to the earth's
surface because of hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is created from the fact
that most of the aquifer's water resides at an elevation greater than the well opening.
The overlying weight of this water creates the hydrostatic pressure. (3)

4.0 REFERENCES (1) (2) (3)