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Welding Inspection

Defects/Repairs
Course Reference WIS 5
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Definition
A perfect butt weld joint, when subjected to an external
force, provide a distribution of stress throughout its
volume which is not significantly greater than parent
metal.

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Definition

This is achieved as long as the following features


apply :-

Welds should consists of solid metal throughout a cross


section at least equal to that of parent metal.
All parts of a weld should be fully fused to the parent
metal.
Welds should have smoothly blended surfaces.

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Weld Defects
Defects which may be detected by visual inspection can
be grouped under five headings
Cracks

Lack of solid metals

Lack of fusion

Lack of smoothly
blended surfaces

Miscellaneous

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Cracks

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Cracks
Cracks that may occur in welded materials are caused
generally by by many factors and may be classified by
shape and position, cracks are classed as planar.

Classified by Shape Classified by Position


Longitudinal HAZ
Transverse Centreline

Branched Crater

Chevron Fusion zone


Parent metal

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Process Cracks

HAZ hydrogen cracking

Weld metal hydrogen cracking

Solidification cracking (Hot Tearing)

Lamellar tearing

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Cracks

Weld metal hydrogen cracking


HAZ hydrogen cracking

Solidification cracking Lamellar Tearing


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Transverse crack Longitudinal crack
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LACK OF SOLID METALS

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POROSITY
Description : Gas pores trapped within the weld metal

Causes : Preventation :
Damp fluxes/ corroded electrode Use dry electrodes in good
Grease/hydrocarbon/water condition
contamination of prepared surface Optimise gas flow
Air entrapment in gas shield Use electrode with sufficient
deoxidation activity
Too high arc voltage/arc length
Reduce arc voltage or arc length
Incorrect/insufficient deoxidant
in electrode, filler or parent metal
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Gas Cavities

Porosity

Root piping
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Cluster porosity Herring bone porosity
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Crater Pipe
A shrinkage cavity at the end of a weld run where the arc is
terminated

Causes : Preventation :
Lack of welder skill due to using Retrain welder
processes with too high current.
Use correct crater filling
Inoperative crater filler ( GTAW ) technique

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Crater Pipe/Cracks

Crater Cracks

Crater pipe

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Root concavity
A shallow groove, which may occur in the root of a butt weld

Causes : Preventation :
Insufficient arc power to produce Raise arc energy
positive bead
Reduce gas pressure
Excessive backing pressure ( GTAW )
Retraint welder
Lack of welder skill
Tilt work to prevent slag
Slag flooding in backing bar groove flooding
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root concavity
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Underfill
A weld with thickness less than that of the parent metal

Causes : Preventation :
Insufficient weld metal Increase number of weld run
Irregular weld bead surface Retrain welder

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Incomplete filled groove
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Slag Inclusions
Slag or other matters trapped during welding. The imperfection is of
an irregular shape and thus differs in appearance from a gas pore

Causes : Preventation :
Heavy millscale/rust on work surface Grind surface prior welding
Incomplete slag removal from Improve interun slag removal
underlying surface of multipass weld
Position work to gain control of
Slag flooding ahead of the arc slag
Entrapment of slag in work surface Dress work surface smooth
Unfused flux due to damage coating Use electrode in good condition
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Interpass slag inclusions Elongated slag lines
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Inter- run Imperfections
Irregular along the fusion line between weld beads

Causes : Preventation :
Low arc current resulting in low Increase current
fludity of weld pool
Reduce travel speed
Too high travel speed
Retrain welder
Inaccurate bead replacement

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Lack of Fusion

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Incomplete root penetration
Failure of the weld metal to extend into root of a joint

Causes : Preventation :
Excessively thick root face, insufficient root gap Improved back gouging and edge
or failure to cut back sound metal in a back preparation
gouging operation
Increase arc power or decrease travel
Low heat input speed
Excessive inductance in GMAW dip transfer Improve electrical settings and possibly
SMAW electrode too large( low current density ) switch to spray transfer

Use of vertical down welding Reduce electrode size


Switch to vertical up procedure
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Root Defects

Lack of root fusion Lack of root Penetration

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Lack of root penetration Lack of root fusion
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Lack of sidewall fusion
Lack of fusion between weld metal and parent metal at one side of weld

Causes : Preventation :
Low heat input to weld Increase arc energy or increase travel
Molten metal flowing ahead of arc speed

Oxide or scale on weld preparation Improve electrode angle and work


position
Excessive inductance in GMAW dip transfer
welding Improve edge preparation procedure
Reduce inductance, even if this increase
spatter
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Lack of Smoothly
Blended Surfaces

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Surface porosity
Gas pores which break the surface of the weld

Causes : Preventation :
Damp or contaminated surface of electrode Clean surface and dry electrodes
Low fluxing activity Use a high activity flux
Excess sulphur ( particularly free cutting steels) Use high manganese to produce MnS,
producing sulphur oxide note free cutting should not normally be
Loss of gas shield gas due to long arc or high welded
breezes ( GMAW ) Reduce arc length

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Excess Weld Metal ( Reinforcement )
Reinforcement is the extra metal which produces convexity in fillet
welds and a welds thickness than the parent metal plate in butt welds.

Causes : Preventation
Excess arc energy ( GMAW,SAW ) Reduction of energy input
Shallow edge preparation Deepen edge preparation
Faulty electrode manipulation Improve welder skill
Incorrect electrode size Reduce electrode size

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Excess cap reinforcement
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Excessive Penetration
Projection of the root penetration bead beyond a specified limit

Causes : Preventation

Weld input energy too high Reduce arc power/increase weld speed
Improve work piece preparation
Incorrect weld preparation i.e excessive root
gap, thin edge preparation, lack of backing Use correct electrode position

Use electrode unsuited to welding position Retrain welder

Lack of welder skill

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Excessive root penetration
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Undercut
An irregular groove at the toe of a run in the parent metal or in
previously deposited welding, cause by welding

Causes :
Melting of top edge due to too high welding Preventation
current ( especially at free edge) or high Reduce power input,especially
travel speed approaching a free edge where
overheating can occur
Attempting an HV fillet weld leg length
Weld in a flat position or use multirun
>9.0 MM technique
Excessive/Incorrect weaving Direct arc towards thicker member
Incorrect electrode angle
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Cap Undercut

Measured in both Length & Depth

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Root undercut Cap undercut
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Overlap
An Imperfection at the toe of a weld caused by metal flowing on to the
surface of the parent metal without fusing to it

Causes : Preventation
Poor electrode manipulation Retrain welder

High energy input/low travel speed Reduce the heat input or limit size of
causing surface flow of fillet weld fillet weld to 9.0 mm leg by using multi
run weld
Incorrect positioning of weld Change the flat position
Electrode having too high a fluidity Change to less fluid weld metal

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Profile Defects

Poor stop/starts

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Miscellaneous

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Misalignment
The non alignment of two abutting edges in a butt joint

Causes : Preventation :
Inaccuracies in assembly procedures or Adequate checking of alignment prior to
distortion from other welds welding coupled with the use of clamps
and wedges
Excessive out of flatness' in hot rolled
Check accuracy of rolled section prior to
plate or sections
welding

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Arc strikes
Random areas of fused metal where the electrode, the holder, or
current return clamp accidentally touched the work and produced a
short duration arc

Causes : Preventation :
Poor Access to work Improve access ( modify assembly
sequence )
Missing insulation on electrode holder
or torch Institute a regular inspection scheme for
electrode holders and torches
Failure to provide an insulated resting Provide an insulated resting place
place for the electrode holder or torch
when not in use Regularly maintain current return clamp

Loose current return clamp


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Spatter
Small droplets of electrode material can be projected clear of the weld
and may fused to the parent metal

Causes: Preventation :

High arc power Reduce arc power

Magnetic arc blow Reduce arc length or swith to AC power


Modify electrical settings ( but be careful
Incorrect setting for GMAW process to maintain full fusion
Damp electrodes Use dry electrodes
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Burn Through
A localized collapse of the weld pool due to excessive
penetration resulting in a hole in the root run

High Amps/volts

Small Root face

Large Root Gap

Slow Travel Speed


Burn through

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Root Defects

Burn
Through

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Burn through Faisal Yusof
Root Coking/Oxidized Root

Loss or insufficient back


purging gas

Most commonly occurs


when welding stainless
steels

Purging gases include


argon, helium and
occasionally nitrogen

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Mechanical Damage

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Mechanical Damage
Mechanical damage can be defined as any surface material
damage cause during the manufacturing process.
This can included damage caused by:

Grinding

Hammering

Chiselling

Chipping

Breaking off welded attachments (torn surfaces)

Using needle guns to compress weld capping runs

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Parent Material Defects
A welding inspector should also inspect the parent
material for any visible defects

Mechanical damage Lap

Lamination

Segregation line

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Plate Lamination

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Any
Any Questions?
Questions?

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Questions
QU 1. Give two main causes for the occurrence of a burn through

QU 2. Give two main causes for the occurrence of excessive root


penetration on a single-V butt weld

QU 3. Give five defects, which may occur when welding carbon


steel using the MMA welding process with the current
setting to low

QU 4. Give three possible causes for the occurrence of lack of


side wall fusion

QU 5. Sketch the following defects


a. Lack of root wall fusion b. Lack of root penetration
c. Incomplete filled groove d. Concave root

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Weld Repairs

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Welding Repairs

In the event of repair

Authorization for repair

Removal and preparation for repair

Testing of repair - visual and NDT

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Weld Repairs
A weld repair may be used to improve weld profiles or
extensive metal removal
Repairs to fabrication defects are generally easier than
repairs to service failures because the repair procedure
may be followed
The main problem with repairing a weld is the
maintenance of mechanical properties
During the inspection of the removed area prior to welding
the inspector must ensure that the defects have been
totally removed and the original joint profile has been
maintained as close as possible
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Weld Repairs
The specification or procedure will govern how the defective
areas are to be removed. The method of removal may be

Grinding
Chipping
Machining
Filing
Oxy-Gas gouging
Arc air gouging
Arc air gouging
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