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14.

CURRENT ELECTRICITY
HOMEWORK SOLUTIONS

1. Given : d2
& A =
l = 25m 4
= 3.142 x 10-7 m Solution :
R = 25 The resistance of a wire R is given by
l
To Find : RP = P . P
AP
r = ?
lP
Solution : RP = P .
d
P2
l
R = 4
A PlP
4
RP = .... (i)
l dP2
A =
R Similarly resistance of wire Q is,
4QlQ
3.142 10 7 25 RQ = ... (ii)
A = dQ2
25
Dividing (i) by (ii)
A = r2 RP 4PlP d
Q2
= x
3.142 10 7 25 RQ dP2 QdQ
4
r2 =
25 RP P d
lP 2

r 2
= 10 10 8

RQ
=
Q
l
x ( dQ
)x Q

10 10 8 RP 2 5 2
r =
= 3.162 104 m

RQ
=
1
x
1
x
( 21 )
RP 5
r = 0.3162 mm =
RQ 2
2. Given :
P 2 3. Very similar to classwork problems
= A - (2)
Q 1
dP 2 R2 = n2 R1
=
dQ 1 R2 = 22 x 20
lP 5 R2 = 80
=
lQ 1
4. Given :
To Find :
E1 = 2 V and r1 = 1
RP
= ?
E2 = 1.5 V and r 2 = 1
RQ
R = 10
Formula :
To Find :
l
R = Current through external resistance (i1+i2)
A
and voltage drop = ?
Current Electricity
.. 156 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

Formula : - R5 (i1 + i2) - i1R3 + E1 - i1R1 = 0


i = 0 & iR
= E -100 (i1 + i2) - i1(100) + 10 - i1(100) = 0
Solution :
- 300i1 - 100i2 = -10
E1 1
3i1 + i2 = 0.10 ... (i)
A 2V i1 + i2
i1
B Applying loop theorem to ABFEA,
1V 1
i2
- R5 (i1 + i2) - i2R4 + E2 - i2R2 = 0
E2
-100 (i1 + i2) - i2(100) + 5 - i2(100) = 0
R = 10
- 100i1 - 300i2 = -5

Applying KVL to closed loop AE1BRA i1 + 3i2 = 0.05 ... (ii)


E1 + i1r1 + (i1+i2) R = 0 Adding (i) and (ii)
2 + i1(1) + (i1+i2) 10 = 0 4i1 + 4i2 = 0.15
i1 + 10i1 + 10i2 = 2 0.15
i1 + i2 = A
4
11i1 + 10 i2 = 2 (i)
150
Applying KVL to closed loop AE2BRA, i1 + i2 = x 10-3 A = 0.0375 A
4
E2 + i2 r2 + (i1 + i2) R = 0
i1 + i2 = 37.5 mA
1.5 + i2 (1) + (i1+i2) 10 = 0
10i1 + 11 i2 = 1.5 (ii) 6. Given :
Adding (i) and (ii), we get, E = 3V
21 i1 + 21 i2 = 3.5 r = 4
3.5 R1 =
10
i1 + i2 =
21 R2 =
24
35 1
i1 + i2 = = Amp To Find :
210 6
I, I10, I24 = ?
1
= x 1000 = 166.67 mA Solution :
6
Voltage drop across each resistance E r
= (i1 + i2) R A F
R1 C
1 I I
= x 10 I1
6
B E
= 1.667 volt I2
R2 D
5. Given :
Let I1 and I2 be the currents through
R1 A R2
D E resistors R1 and R2 I be the currrent
i1 i2 drawn from cell.
10 V (i1 + i2) R5 5V At node B, using Kirchoffs current law,
I I1 I2 = 0
C B F
i1 R3 R4 i2 I = I1 + I2 ... (i)
Applying loop theorem to ABCDA
Current Electricity
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 157

Applying Kirchoffs voltage law to loop, r = 1


ABCEFA, Substituting r in (i)
I1R1 Ir + E = 0 E = 0.5 (1 + 2)
10 I1 4(I1 + I2) + 3 = 0 (using (i)) = 1.5 V
14I1 + 4I2 = 3 ... (ii)
E = 1.5 V
Applying Kirchoffs voltage law to
BDECB, 8.
I2R2 + I1R1 = 0 To Find :
24I2 + 10I1 = 0 Ig = ?
I1 = 24I2 ... (iii) Solution :
B
I1 I g
Using (iii) in (ii), 10
5 Ig
(14 2.4)I2 + 4I2 = 3 I1
2A A 2A
37.6 I2 = 3 G
I2 G=1 0 C
3
I2 = = 0.0798 A ... (iv) 15 20
37.6
I2 +I g
D
Using (iv) in (iii)
I1 = 2.4 0.0798 Using Kirchoffs Voltage law,
I1 = 0.1915 A In Loop ABDA :
I = I1 + I2 5I1 10Ig + 15I2 = 0
5I1 + 15I2 = 10Ig
= 0.1915 + 0.0798
I1 + 3I2 = 2Ig ... (i)
I = 0.2713 A
In Loop BCDB :
10(I1 Ig) + 20 (I2 + Ig) + 10Ig = 0
7. I be the current
10I1 + 10Ig + 20I2 + 20Ig + 10Ig = 0
r be the internal resistance
I1 2I2 = 4Ig ... (ii)
E be the EMF of the cell Adding (i) and (ii), we get,
R be external resistance I2 = 6Ig ...(iii)
According to kirchoffs voltage law, From (ii),
I1 = 2I2 + 4Ig
E I (r + R) = 0
Using (iii),

In case (i), I = 0.5 A, R = 2
I1 = 2(6Ig) + (4Ig)
E = I (r + R) = 16Ig ...(iv)
E = 0.5(r + 2) ...(i) I1 + I2 = 2A ....(given)

In case (ii) I = 0.25 A, R = 5 16Ig + 6Ig = 2A
...using (iii) and (iv)
E = I (r + R)
22Ig = 2
E = 0.25(r + 5) ...(ii)
2
from (i) and (ii) Ig =
22
0.5 (r + 2) = 0.25(r + 5)
1
2r + 4 = r+5 Ig = A
11
Current Electricity
.. 158 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

9. B between two diagonally opposite corners of


I1 cube.
2 4
Ig
I1 I g
Let I be current supplied by the cell
A II 1 G C which gets divided in three equal parts I each
1
along AB, AD and AF as shown in Fig.
Applying Kirchhoffs second law to the mesh
I 3 I
II 1+I g ADCHEA
E = IR
D

I I I
E R R R=0
3 6 3

Applying KVL in loop ABCA ;


2V

1 1 1
IR = IR + +
3 3 6( )
5 5
2 2I1 4 (I1 Ig) = 0 R = R = 6
6I1 4Ig = 2 ... (i) 6 6
Applying KVL in loop ADCA ; RAH = R = 5
2 1(I I1) 3 (I I1 + Ig) = 0
11. Given :
4I1 + 4I + 3Ig = 2 ... (ii)
Let S be shunt across DC to balance
Applying KVL in loop ABDA ;
bridge B
2I1 10Ig + 1 (I I1) = 0
3I1 I + 10Ig = 0 ...(iii) 4 4
Solving equations (i), (ii) and (iii)
simultaneously, we get ; A C
S
69
I1 = A 4
12
200
429 D
I = A When bridge is balanced,
500
2 RAB RAD
=
Ig = A RBC RDC
145
4 4
=
10. Solution : 4 12||S
F I/6 R
G 12 x S
A
R
I/3 I/6
I/6 = 4
R I/3 12 + S
I/3 B
I/3 I/6 4(12 + S) = 12 x S
R
R
R 12S = 48 + 4S
I R E R H
I/6 I/3
8S = 48
R
D I/6 R C I/3 I S = 6

E 12. Given :
Let R be the resistance of each conductor =
10
and R be the resistance across AH i.e.
= 6 Q =
15
Current Electricity
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 159

S =
50 RAB RAD
R =
25 =
RBC RDC
To Find : 10 10
x = ? =
10 15|| S
Solution : 15|| S = 10
Let 15S
x = resistance connected in = 10
15 + S
parallel with S to balance 15 S = 150 + 10 S
the network 5S = 150
Sx S = 30
Resistance of parallel S and x =
S+x
14. Given :
for wheatstones Balanced n/w
Let X be unknown resistance in right
P R gap of metre bridge. When bridge is
= Sx
Q balanced then,
S+x 30 l1
=
10 25 X 100-l1
=
15 Sx 30 30
=
S+x X 100 - 30
Sx 25 15 75
30
=
3
= = X 7
S+x 10 2
30 7
50x 75 X =
= 3
50 + x 2
100 x = 75 50 + 75x X = 70
100 x 75 x = 75 50
15. Let G be unknown resistance in left gap
25 x = 75 50
and 18 in right gap of metre bridge.
75 50
x = Null point is obtained 55cm, from left
25
end of wire.
x = 150
lG = 55cm ;
13. Given : lR = 100 lG = 45
10 , 10 , 10 and 15 form
R = 18
Wheatstones newtork.
To Find : In Kelvins method when bridge is balanced,
Resistance to be connected in branch G lG
=
DC to balance network = ? R lR
Formula : RlG
Balancing condition for Wheatstones G =
100 - lG
bridge
18 x 55
Solution : G =
100 - 55
Let S be shunt connected across 15
to balance bridge
Current Electricity
.. 160 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

990 n = 10-6 m
G =
45
44 x 10-8 lm 2
G = 22
10-6
x
lm
x ( dd )
n

m
=
2
3
16. Given : 2
dn 2 1 10-6
i) Equal lengths of manganin & nichrome
are connected in left and right gaps of
( ) dm
=
3
x
44
x
10-8
2
10-8
ii)
metre bridge.
Null point is obtained 40cm from left end

( dd )
m

n
=
3 x 44
2
x
10-6
of bridge wire. 2
3 11 4
l1 = 40 cm

( dd )
m

n
=
2
102

iii) m = 44 x 10-8 m 33 4 33
= =
n = 10-6 m 2 100 50

To Find : dm 33
=
dm dn 50
= ?
dn
17. Given :
Formula :
Let R be resistance of given wire, R = 16.
l
i) R = If the wire is bent into circle, resistance
A &
2
between diametrically opposite points would
d
A = be.
4
R
ii) Balancing condition for metre bridge. =
2
|| R2
Solution :
Let Rm and Rn be resistances of manganin = 8 || 8
& nichrome wires connected in two gaps = 4
of metre bridge If the circular loop with diametrically opposite
Rm l1 points is connected in left gap and unknown
=
Rn 100-l1 resistance X in right gap to obtain null point at
middle of wire.
l
m . m

Am
l
=
40
100 40
R
2
( ) ( )
||
R
2 l1
n . n =
An X 100 - l1
4 50
m lm d2n/4 2 = (... d1 = 50cm)
. . = X 50
n ln d2m/4 3
X = 4
m lm 2
dn 2
.
n ln
.
( )
d 2m
=
3
18. Given :
R = 15
..
. lm = ln ,
lx = 40cm
Also m = 44 x 10-8 m
lr = 100 lx = 60cm
Current Electricity
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 161

Solution : 19.
Let x be the resistance of wire. When Solution :
the wire is bent in the form of ring and Let R1 and R2 be the resistance of two
connected in left gap with diametrically coil when they are in series in one gap,
opposite points between A and B the resistance becomes Rs = R1 + R2
The resistance is equivalent to two The null point is at the centre i.e. 50cm
x from either end
resistances each of half the resistance
2 R = 100
in parallel so the resistane in left gap is
X lx
given by, =
R 100 lx
1 1 1
= + Rs 50
Rp x x
= = 1
2 2 100 50
Rs = R1 + R2 = 100 ...(i)
1 2 2 4
= + = R2 = 100 R1
Rp x x x
x When two coils are connected in parallel
x 2 in one gap, the resistance beocmes,
Rp = A
4 B
R 1 .R 2 R 1 .R 2
x
Rp = R1 + R2 = Rs
2
The resistance in other gap is changed
Now from balancing condition of meter by 84 i.e R = 100 84
bridge But Rp is always less than Rs

Rp lx R < R
= 100 lx R = 100 84 = 16
R
RP 50
40 = = 1
= R 50
100 40
40 R 1 .R 2
= R1 + R2 = 16
60
2 R1 . R2 = 16 Rs ...from (i)
=
3 R1 (100 R1)= 16 100
2
2 100R1 R1 = 1600
Rp = R R12 100R1 + 1600 = 0
3
(R1 80) (R1 20) = 0
X 2
= 15 R1 = 80 or R1 = 20
4 3
X = 4 10 R2 = 20 or R2 = 80
X = 40 Thus resistance are 80 and 20

Current Electricity
.. 162 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

20. 21. Given :


Solution : lx 2
Case (1) : =
ly 3
R1 is connected in left gap
R2 in Right gap X + 30 5
=
lR = 70cm Y + 30 6
1
lx = 100 lR To Find :
1
= 100 70 = 30cm X = ?
Y = ?
R1 lR 1 70 Formula :
= =
R2 lx 30 lX
X
=
7 Y lY
= ...(i) Solution :
3
From 1st condition
7
R1 = R X 2
3 2 =
Case (2) : Y 3
3X = 2Y ... (i)
R1 = R1 2
R2 = R2 + 2 From 2nd condition
lR = 30cm X + 30 5
1
lx = 100 30 = 70 =
Y + 30 6
R 1 30 3 6 (X + 30) = 5 (Y + 30)
= =
R2 70 7 6X + 180 = 5 Y + 150
R1 2 3 2(3X) + 180 = 5 Y + 150
= ...(ii) 2 (2Y) + 180 = 5Y + 150
R2 + 2 7
7(R1 2) = 3(R2 + 2) 4Y + 180 = 5Y + 150
7R1 14 = 3R2 + 6 Y = 30 ... (ii)
7R1 3R2 = 20 From equation (i) and (ii)
7 3X = 2(30)
7 R 3R2 = 20 3X = 60
3 2
X = 20
49
3 3 R2 = 20 22. Given :

R = 20
49 9
R2 = 20 lX = 40 cm
3
lR = 60 cm
20 3 To Find :
R2 = = 1.5
40 Resistance of entire wire = ?
7 3 7 Formula :
R1 = = = 3.5
3 2 2
lX
R1 = 3.5 , R2 = 1.5 X = R.
lR
Current Electricity
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 163

Solution : Formula :
Let, length of smaller piece of wire = l lX
Length of larger piece of wire = 2 l X = R.
lR
Correspondingly resistance of the pieces Solution :
is R and 2R.
The wires are connected parallely in the lX
i) X = R.
left gap of meter bridge lR
lX
X = R 40
lR X = 30
60
40 40 X = 20
= 20 =
60 3
ii) a) When the resistance in both the
X = 13.3
gaps are increased by 15
In the left gap, equivalent resistance is
given by X1 = X + 15
1 1 1 = 20 +15 = 35
= + R1 = R + 15
X R 2R
= 30 + 15 = 45
1 3R
= Since lX + lR = 100
40 2R 2
lX = 100 lR
3
lX
3 3 X = R.
= lR
40 2R
2R = 40
100 lR
R = 20 35 = 45
lR
Now entire resistance of wire
= R + 2R = 3R 35 lR = 4500 45 lR
= 3 20 = 60 80 lR = 4500
lR = 56.25 cm
23. Given : lX = 100 56.25
R = 30 lX = 43.75 cm
lX = 40 cm Shift in null point = 43.75 40
lR = 60 cm Shift in null point = 3.75 cm towards
To Find : right
i) Unknown resistance (X) = ? b) When the resistance in each gap is
ii) Shift in the position of the null point shunted by a resistance of 8
a) when the resistances in both the new resistance in left gap
gaps are increased by 15 and 1 1 1
b) when the resistance in each gap = +
X2 20 8
is shunted by a resistance of 8
.

Current Electricity
.. 164 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

8 20 160 When 20 is shunted by 20 , the resistance


X2 = = in left gap becomes 10
8 + 20 28
X2 = 5.71 1 1 1 2 1
+ = = =
20 20 XP 20 10
New resistance in right gap
Xp = 10
1 1 1
= + Let l be the balancing length from left
R2 30 8 end.
30 8 240 XP l
=
R2 =
30 + 8
=
38 R 100 l
R2 = 6.31 10 l
=
30 100 l
lX
X2 = R2. l 1
lR =
100 l 3
100 lR 3l = 100 l
5.71 = 6.31 4l = 100
lR
l =25 cm from left end.

0.905 =
100 lR Shift null point is l l = 40 25 = 15 cm
lR towards left.
0.905 lR = 100 lR
25. Given :
1.905 lR = 100
lR = 52.5 l1 3
=
lX = 100 52.5 = 47.5 cm l2 1
lX = 47.5 cm d1 3
shift in null point = 47.5 40 =
d2 1
shift in null point = 7.5 cm towards right To Find :
lx = ?
24. Solution : Formula :
X = 20 , R = 30 l
R =
Let l be balancing length from left end A
of wire. lx
R1
X lx l =
= = R2 ly
R 100 lx 100 l
Solution :
20 l
= l
30 100 l
R =
l 2 A
=
100 l 3 .l l
3l = 200 2l R = =
r 2 d
2

l = 40 cm. from left end. 4

Current Electricity
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 165

4 l To Find :
R = 2
d i) K =
VAB
l L
R ii) E1 = Kl 1
d2
...(Since resistance wire of same material, Solution :
is same) VAB
i) K =
R1 l1 d 22 L
=
R2 d 21 l2 6V
K =
...(Where R1 and R2 are the resistances 10m
connected in left and right gap) K = 0.6 V/m
l1 d1
2
6 101
K = V/cm
= 102
l2 d2
K = 6 x 10-3 V/cm
2
1
= 3 ii) E1 = Kl 1
3
E1 = 0.6 x 1.8
R1 1 E1 = 1.08 V
=
R2 3
Now, By the balanced condition od 27. Given :
Wheatstone bridge, R = 10
R1 lx L = 10m
= ly
R2 E = 2V
K = 1V/mm
lx 1
= 10-6 V
ly 3 K =
10-3 m
ly = 3 lx ...(i)
Now, K = 10-3 V/m
lx + ly = 1 To Find :
...(Since its meter bridge)
Rh = ?
lx + 3lx = 1 ...From (i)
4lx = 1 Formula :
1 R
lx = i) =
4 L
lx = 0.25 m E
ii) i =
R + Rh
26. Given : iii) K = i.
L = 10m Solution :
VAB = 6V R
=
l1 = 180 cm = 1.8 m L

Current Electricity
.. 166 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

10 iii) Potential gradient along the wire,


=
10m VAB
K =
= 1 /m L
i.R
ii) K = i. K = =i.
L
10-3 = i . (1) 2
= x 7
i = 10-3 A 15
14
E = V/m
Also, i = 15
R + Rh
K = 0.933 V/m
2 0.933 V
0.001 = K =
10 + Rh 100 cm
2 = 9.33 x 10-3 V /cm
10 + Rh =
0.001
29. Given :
Rh = 1990
R = 20

28. Given : L = 10 m
E = 2V E = 5V
r = 1 r = 5
L = 2m E1 = 1.5 V
R = 14
E2 = 1.3 V
To Find :
(i) Potential gradient (K) = ? To Find :
Formulae : Balancing length (l1) for sum of E1 & E2
E R Balancing length (l2) for difference of E1
(i) i = (ii) = (iii) K = i .
R+r L & E2
Solution : Formula :
(i) Current flowing through potentiometer
R
wire, i) =
L
E
i = E
R+r ii) i =
2 2 R+r
i = = A
14 + 1 15 iii) K = i
ii) Also, resistance per unit length of iv) E1 + E2 = Kl1
potentiometer wire is v) E1 - E2 = Kl2
R
= Solution :
L
R
14 i) =
= L
2
= 7 / m 20
=
10 m
= 2/m
Current Electricity
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 167

ii) i =
E
R+r
r = 10 ( 150
90
-1)

10 ( - 1 )
5 5
i = r =
20 + 5 3
1 2
i = A = 0.2 A r = 10 x
5 3
iii) K = i. r = 6.67
1
K = x2 31. Given :
5
l2 = l1 - 25 % of l1
2
K = V/m l2 = 0.75 l1
5
3
K = 0.4 V/m l2 = l
4 1
iv) E1 + E2 = K l1
l1 4
2 =
1.5 + 3 = x l1 l2 3
5
R = 15
4.5 x 5
l1 = To Find :
2
r = ?
l = 11.25 m
Formula :
v) E1 - E2 = K l2

1.5 -1.3
0.2
=
=
0.4 x l2
0.4 l2
r = R ( ll - 1)
1

2
Solution :
1.5
l2 = The internal resistance of a cell is given by ,
0.4

l2 =
0.2
0.4
= 0.5 m
r = R
( ll - 1 )
1

30. Given :
r = 15
( 34 - 1 )
l1 = 150 cm 1
R = 10 r = 15 x
3
l2 = 90 cm
r = 5
To Find :
Internal resistance of cell (r) = ? 32. Given :
Formula : The individual cell method ,
l1 E1 = 1.8 V
r = R
(l2
-1
) l1 = 200 cm = 2m
Solution : E2 = 9V
l2 = ?
The internal resistance of cell is given by,
To Find :
l
r = R 1 -1
(
l2 ) l2 = ?
Current Electricity
.. 168 MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE

Formula : l = 3.333 m
E1 l1
= l l1 333.33 250
E2 l2 r = R1 = 10
l1 250
Solution :
In individual cell method , 83.33
=
E1 l1 25
=
E2 l2 r = 3.333
1.8 2
=
9 l2 34. Given :
2x9 E = 2V
l2 = r = 1
1.8
L = 2m
2
l2 = R = 14
0.2
To Find :
l2 = 10 m (i) Potential gradient (K) = ?
Formulae :
33. Given :
E R
l1 = 250cm (i) i = (ii) = (iii) K = i .
R+r L
R1 = 10 Solution :
R2 = 5 (i) current flowing through potentiometer
wire,
l2 = l1 50 = 250 50 = 200 cm
E
Solution : i =
R+r
Let l be the balancing length, when the 2 2
i = = A
cell is in open circuit r be the internal resistance 14 + 1 15
of cell ii) Also, resistance per unit length of
potentiometer wire is
l l1 l l2
r = R1 = R2 =
R
l1 l2 L
14
l 250 l 200 =
10 = 5 200 2
250
= 7 / m
2 ( l 250 ) l 200 iii) Potential gradient along the wire,
= VAB
5 4 K =
L
8 (l 250) = 5 (l 200) i.R
K = =i.
8l 2000 = 5l 1000 L
3l = 1000 =
2
x 7
15
1000
l= = 333.33 cm =
14
V/m
3 15

Current Electricity
MAHESH TUTORIALS SCIENCE .. 169

K = 0.933 V/m Formula :


0.933 V E1 = K l1
K =
100 cm VAB
K =
= 9.33 x 10-3 V /cm L
Solution :
35. Given : i) Potential gradient along the wire ,
= 1 /m VAB
E1 = 1.4 V K =
L
l1 = 280 m = 2.8 m 6V
E2 = 1.08 V K =
10 m
To Find : = 0.6 V / m
Current through the wire (i) = ? ii) E.M.F. of a cell,
Balancing length for cell of e.m.f. E1 = K l1
(E 2 = 1.08 V) = ? E1 = 0.6 x 1.8
Formulae : E1 = 1.08 V
i) E1 = Kl1
ii) K = i.
iii) E2 = Kl2
Solution :
E1 = Kl1
1.4 = K (2.8)
1.4
K =
2.8
1
= V/m ... (i)
2
Also , K = i.
1
= i . ... from (i)
2
1
i = A ... (... = 1)
2
= 0.5 A
Also , E2 = Kl2
1
1.08 = x l2
2
l2 = 2.16 m
l2 = 216 cm

36. Given :
L = 10 m
VAB = 6V
l1 = 180 cm = 1.8 m
To Find :
E.M.F. of a cell (E1) = ?
Current Electricity