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SCHOOL OF

ENGINEERING

DIPLOMA IN
INDUSTRIAL & OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT

P01 Utilizing Space

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

Utilizing Space

There is presently a theatre building in the city centre, commissioned by the Arts Council, to host
premier arts and cultural events.

After running the facility for two years, there has been feedback from the management of the
theatre building that the facility has not been fully utilized. The management committee has
commissioned your company to propose improvements to the theatres upper level layout. The
main objective is to add vibrancy to the theatre while fully utilizing space.

After some research, your company proposed introducing these features. These are
1) A small video library for visitors to browse and borrow classic and art videos
2) 1 Facilitation room and 1 Conference room for meeting and discussion
3) A visual art gallery to showcase art exhibits.
4) An open-air cafeteria for food and drinks.

Below is the floor layout for the upper level of the theatre. Your team will need to study how the
above features can be incorporated into the layout to achieve the objective that the theatre
management has mentioned.

Utilizing Space.vsd

Your team shall present your proposed layout for the theatre building to the Arts Council for
consideration.

Page 2 of 2
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P01 Utilizing space

School of Engineering
Facilities Planning and Design
Facilities planning is a complex and broad subject that cuts
across several engineering disciplines - civil, electrical,
industrial, mechanical, etc.

Examples of facilities planning applications:


Building a new hospital
Layout a production line
Retrofitting an existing warehouse
Designing the baggage department of an airport

Facilities planning determines how physical assets support the


facility objective.

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Objectives of Facilities Planning
Effectively utilizing people, equipment, space, energy

Provide for continuous improvement throughout facility


life cycle

Promote user safety and satisfaction

Facilitate productivity gains and cost reduction

Promote ease of maintenance

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Motivations for Facility Planning

1. Productivity gains and cost savings in areas of material


handling, personnel and equipment utilization, inventory
levels.
2. Employee health and safety

3. Energy conservation

4. Community considerations, fire protection, security, etc

School of Engineering 4
Facilities Planning Hierarchy
Facilities planning covers both facilities location and facilities
design.
Facilities
Location

Facility
System
Design
Facilities
Planning

Facilities Layout
Design Design

Handling
Systems
Design

School of Engineering 5
Facilities Location
Facilities location refers to the place with respect to
customer, suppliers and other facilities with which it
interfaces.

Some factors influencing location:


Proximity to raw material source
Customer markets
Transportation system
Economic development (financial) incentives

School of Engineering 6
Facilities Design
Facilities design consists of the facility systems, layout and
handling system:
o Facility systems structural, atmospheric, enclosure,
lighting, electrical, communications, safety and sanitation
systems
o Layout equipment, machinery, furnishings and fittings
within the facility envelope
o Handling system the mechanisms needed to satisfy the
required movements within the facility
Material handling is important to the facility design activity. The
choice of material handling equipment will greatly influence the
suitability of the facility design.

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Facilities Planning Process
Applying the engineering design approach:
Steps
1. Define the problem
Define (or redefine) the objective of the facility
Specify the primary and support activities to be performed
in accomplishing the objective
2. Analyze the problem
Determine the inter-relationships among all activities
3. Determine the space requirements for all activities
Generate alternative facilities plans

School of Engineering 8
Facilities Planning Process

4. Evaluate the alternatives


Evaluate alternative facilities plans
5. Select the preferred design
Select a facilities plan
6. Implement the design
Implement the facilities plan
Maintain and adapt the facilities plan
Redefine the objective of the facility (if needed)

School of Engineering 9
Facilities Design

Dimensions for Improvement:

o Physical factors fittings, equipment, layout, furnishings,

human factor interactions

o Time factor traffic flows, ingress, egress

o Safety aspect security, hazard avoidance

School of Engineering 10
P01 Sample Solution

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Sample Solution

There is no unique, best solution to this problem,

only many good ones!

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Sample Solution
Visual Art Gallery
Purpose: Showcase art pieces for visitors

Effectiveness- Location: Good- visible


Effectiveness- Systems Design: Good- adequate humidity control
Alternative 1 (Visual emphasis)
Physical: Ample lighting on the art pieces for viewing
Time: Use colors to identify different zones of different type of art pieces.
Safety: Art pieces may need to be secure. There should be a mark out zone.

Alternative 2 (Functional emphasis)


Physical: Need to cater space in front of the art pieces for viewing.
Time: Clear direction flow to highlight important art piece.
Safety: Differentiate emergency signs from the surroundings

School of Engineering 13
Sample Solution
Facilitation/Conference rooms

Purpose: Area for discussion and meeting sessions

Effectiveness- Location: Good - accessible


Effectiveness- Systems Design: Well equipped with facilitation equipment

Alternative 1 (Visual emphasis)


Physical: Long table to be at centre of the room. Good lighting for room.
Time: Use colors to identify exit and entrance to room
Safety: All exposed ceilings should be covered. Ample ventilation in the room.

Alternative 2 (Functional emphasis)


Physical: Layout the tables for discussions. Accessible to white board.
Time: Change table design to allow easier movements and discussion
Safety: Increase to two doors for each class to provide emergency exits
Ensure free access for facilitation/conference room at all times

School of Engineering 14
Sample Solution
A video library

Purpose: Place for video storage and retrieval of art and culture material and
discussion

Effectiveness- Location: Good- Spacious, visible, accessible


Effectiveness- Systems Design: Opportunity to explore other alternatives

Alternative (Functional emphasis)


Physical: Discussion tables at the video library section
Newspaper racks should to be located at Level 1 instead
Time: Use colors to differentiate different section (eg. Reference, Video)
Indicates the direction to other parts of the facilities clearly
Safety: Mark out emergency exit doors clearly
Indicates locations of safety equipment clearly

School of Engineering 15
Sample Solution

An open-air cafeteria

Purpose: Area for food and drink consumption.


Effectiveness- Location: Good Accessible, ventilated.
Effectiveness- Systems Design: Opportunity to explore other alternatives
Alternative (Functional emphasis)
Physical: Install ventilators
Ensure good lighting and space at each tables
Change door swing orientation for toilets
Time: Ensure all toilets are available at any time
More prominent directions/ signage to the toilets
Safety: Remove swinging doors at the toilets

School of Engineering 16
Learning Objective

Identify different design components of a


facility (location, types of physical
systems)
Recognize different physical systems in a
facility and how they functions
Know the objectives of planning and laying
out a facility
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

DIPLOMA IN
INDUSTRIAL & OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT

P02 LOCATION! LOCATION!


LOCATION!

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

Location! Location! Location!

Angie has been operating her theme restaurant, Iron Rock Cafe for a number of years and
it has attracted a large number of faithful patrons. She has decided that it is time to expand
her business and she is keen to expand to a neighboring country. This will not only
increase her customer base but it will also serve to increase awareness to her theme
restaurant. After much consideration, she narrows down to 3 possible locations in the
region to expand her restaurant: Perth (Australia), Bangkok (Thailand) and Jakarta
(Indonesia).

Angie wants her new restaurant to start well and be sustainable. She attributes the
success of an F&B business to successful selection of a strategic location for the theme
restaurant.

Instinctively, she considered factors such as human traffic flow, cost and vibrancy of the
sites when she assessed the different locations for her restaurant.

She is still not confident that she has considered all the factors in selecting the most
strategic location. And since some sites are better when she considered one factor, but
not as well when she considered another, she is having difficulty in deciding on the best
site.

What can she do to decide on the best site for her theme restaurant?

Page 2 of 2
E212 Facilities Planning and Design
P02 Location! Location!
Location!

School of Engineering
Location Selection
Recall from P01
Facilities location refers to the place with respect to customer,
suppliers and other facilities with which it interfaces.

General objective when selecting location:


To minimize
regional costs
outbound distribution costs
inbound distribution costs

2
Type of Analysis

Macro analysis

To evaluate alternative countries, regions, communities

Micro analysis
To evaluate specific sites in the selected community

3
Factors Affecting Location Selection
Regional factors
International Company = country
National Company = section of country or state
Local Company = country or city
Market location
Important for service firms / manufacturers of fragile or perishable goods
Cost of shipping to customers
Firms that are suppliers for JIT process
Customer identification with firm due to proximity
Location of competitors
Raw material and supplier proximity
For example, manufacturers that use perishable raw materials locate near
source

4
Factors Affecting Location Selection
Transportation facilities (less important now than before 1950s)
Airports, Seaports, Highways.
Labour climate
Labour force is crucial to operation of the firm
Availability: large pool
Skills must match needs of firm
Cost: wage rate in that area; level of unionization
Quality of life
- Customer profile
Government
Taxes & Incentives

5
Factors affecting Site Selection
Typical engineering considerations
Sufficient land to build and expand
Availability of utilities / infrastructure
Waste disposal
Transportation access
Legal and other impediments
Proximity to supporting industries

Land Lease Cost

Land Zoning

6
Factor Analysis Technique

Popular, subjective- decision making tool, relatively easy


to use
First assign an appropriate weight to the 5 factors (typically
between 0 to 1) based on the relative importance of each.
Then assign a score (typically between 0 to 100) to each location
with respect to each factor identified in (a)
A weighted score for each factor for each location can then be
obtained by multiplying the weight with the score
Finally, the sum of the weighted scores can be obtained and
selection done based on these scores.

7
FAT Example
Weight Factor Perth Kuala Bangkok Jakarta
Lumpur
0.30 Lease Cost 80 70 60 65

0.25 Customer volume 60 75 70 80

0.10 Competition in 75 65 70 65
area
0.25 Suitability of 85 80 75 90
location
0.10 Customer profile 70 75 70 85

W=1

8
Pairwise Comparison
(Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP)
Involves prioritization of potential alternate solutions through
evaluation of a set of criteria element
Elements can be sub divided into sub-elements and so on, forming a
hierarchy tree
Once Hierarchy definition is established, criteria are weighted
individually at each level with each other
Prioritization of the alternate solutions are then evaluated based on
these weights
Software which makes use of AHP Expert Choice

9
Example of a Hierarchy Structure

10
An Example of Pairwise Comparison
of Factors
Assuming that there are 3 factors: Cost, Availability and
Human Traffic

11
An Example of Pairwise Comparison of
Alternatives
Assuming that there are 3 alternatives: RP, CP and WM

12
Problem Objectives

Identify possible objectives of a facility


Determine factors for selecting a site based on
the objectives of the facility
Select an appropriate site for a facility after
considering the importance of each factors and
how well each alternative site fare for each
factor

13
Factors for F&B Outlet
(Theme Resturant)
More emphasis placed on the customers and location:
1) Customers Volume drive sales
2) Strategic Location (where the place is located)
3) Operation/ Lease Cost
4) Business Sustainability (Long-term survival)
5) Availability of location (Tenure)
6) Accessibility to complementary business / supplies
7) Surrounding Business (Compete vs Complementary)
8) Customers profile

Though there are many factors, not all factors need to be


used.

14
Choose Jakarta
Using FAT
Weight Factor Perth Bangkok Kuala Jakarta
Lumpur

0.30 Lease Cost 80 x 18 21 19.5


0.30
=24
0.25 Customer volume 15 17.5 18.75 20

0.10 Competition in area 7.5 7 6.5 6.5

0.25 Suitability of 21.25 18.75 20 22.5


location
0.10 Customer profile 7 7.5 7 8.5

W=1 Sum of Weighted 74.75 68.75 73.25 77


Score
15
Using AHP (Expert Choice)
6) Get Solution!!!
3) Insert Alternatives

4) Select pairwise to
enter numeric pairwise
comparison of factors

5) Enter in numeric pairwise


comparison of alternatives
1) Insert project goal

2) Insert factors by adding


child nodes to Goal or sibling Insert description
nodes to Existing factors of project

16
Expert Choice Solution

Choose Republic Polytechnic

Note: The overall inconsistency should preferably be


less than 0.1

17
Conclusion
Angie can use Factor Analysis Technique (FAT) or
Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help her select
suitable location for her restaurant.

Though FAT is relatively easier to use, AHP can capture


both subjective and objective evaluation measures.

In order to do her location analysis, she needs to


decides on her factors and alternatives. Data and
information are also needed to help her in her analysis.

For her problem, she found that Jakarta is the most


suitable location for her next theme restaurant.

18
Learning Objective

Analyze different locations and select a


suitable location for a facility based a set of
selection criteria
Assign weights to different decision criteria
based on their importance (according to
management guidelines and decision)
Select a suitable location for a facility based a
set of selection criteria
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

DIPLOMA IN
INDUSTRIAL & OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT

P03 SETTING THE LAYOUT

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

Setting the layout

It has always been Jasons dream to open a shop selling sandwich to the
masses. Recently, he managed to secure a shop space in an international school
to realize his dream.

He intends to sell sandwiches which allow customer to customize their


combination of meats upfront. Snacks and drinks will also be available at the
payout counter. They will then proceed to pay at the counter before bringing their
food back to the sitting area for consumption.

With the location confirmed, Jason has to decide on the appropriate equipment to
buy for his shop kitchen. As he intends to make the bread for his sandwiches, he
will need to arrange the oven and bread making equipment in a way most
suitable for his business. Salad and salad dressing will need to be prepared in
the kitchen as well.

Jason has never tried doing his own layout before so he thought that a good way
to start is to study how others do their layouts. He recalled two instances:

1. When he was studying in Republic Polytechnic, he always frequent


Subway fast food outlet. He noticed that it offers a lot of varieties of
sandwhich which the customer can choose from. Payment for the food
is at the respective stall counter. There are also seats around the store
where customers can sit down for their meal.

2. Jason remembered his recent trip to a fast food restaurant. He noticed


that the customers can queue via several queues. The customer will
order their food over the counter and the food are prepared in a kitchen
and assembled at the counter itself. After collecting their food, the
customers proceed to pay at the cashier on the particular counter.
Customer will bring their food to their table for consumption.

Page 2 of 3
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

He is not sure which layout is most suitable for his business and he is concerned
that there are other issues which he needs to consider when doing his layout.
Can you help him?

Page 3 of 3
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P03 Setting the layout

School of Engineering
Layout Decisions
The need for layout decisions:

Support new product or service introduction


Support change in the design of products or services
Remove inefficient operations, e.g. high-cost process
Remove safety hazards

A good layout design is able to:

Support changes in volume of output or mix of products


Support changes in equipment or work methods
Address environmental, legal and other statutory requirements

2
Layout Decisions
Inputs to the layout decision:
Specifications of system objectives ~ in terms of output and
flexibility
Estimation of product or service demand on the system
Processing requirements ~ in terms of number of operations and
amount of flow between departments and work centers
Space requirements for the elements in the layout
Space availability within the facility itself

Basic layout types: 1. Fixed-position


2. Product
3. Process
4. Cellular
5. Mixed

3
Layout Types
1. Fixed-Position Layout

Layout in which the product remains stationary and workers, materials


and equipment are moved as and when needed
Equipment and tooling costs are low compared to other layout types
Not geared for high-production quantities
Used when the product is bulky, heavy or fragile
High degree of product customization can be achieved
Minimizes the amount of product movement
Examples:Ship building
Aircraft assembly

4
Layout Types
An example of Fixed-position layout: Ship building

5
Layout Types
2. Product Layout

Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve


smooth, rapid, high-volume flow
Equipment and tooling costs are generally higher
High levels of labor and equipment utilization can be achieved
Requires balance of time between operations: i.e. line balancing
Provides opportunities for process automation
Can achieve low production cost per unit
Examples:Domestic appliance manufacture
Chemical plating

6
Layout Types
An example of Product layout: Product Assembly Line

7
Layout Types
3. Process Layout

For producing a fairly large number of similar products (in batches)


Consists of several well-defined operations
Equipment and tools are less costly than those in product-layouts
High degree of labor specialization by process
Equipment breakdown can be easily managed due to multiple
machines
Frequent set-up of machines to handle product (batch) changes
Examples:Components machining
Semiconductor chip assembly

8
Layout Types
An example of Process layout: Components machining

9
Layout Types
4. Cellular Layout
Layout in which machines are grouped into a cell that can handle
items with similar processing requirements
Grouping into part families of items with similar design or
manufacturing characteristics is called group technology
Group technology helps in achieving process standardization when
processing large quantities of different components
Examples:Domestic appliance manufacture
Machine component manufacture

5. Mixed Layout
A combination of product, process and/or cellular layouts across the
entire product manufacturing flow

10
Layout Types
An example of Cellular layout: Machine components manufacture

11
Layout Types

12
Different Approaches to Layout
Planning
Systematic Layout Planning (SLP Procedure)
Apples Plant Layout Procedure
Reeds Plant Layout Procedure

13
Systematic Layout Planning (Muthers)
Input Data and Activities

Analysis
1. Flow of Materials 2. Activity Relationships

3. Relationship Diagram

4. Space Requirements 5. Space Available

6. Space Relationship Diagram

Search
7. Modifying Considerations 8. Practical Limitations

9. Develop Layout Alternatives

Selection
10. Evaluation

14
P03 Sample Solution
Problem Objectives
Analyze a product and determine the process flow in
manufacturing of the product

Identify different types of layout and explain what is the


advantages and disadvantages of each layout

Select a suitable type of layout for the process

Know the process of layout design

16
Sample Solution
Some essential questions for Jason

1. How is the forecasted demand trend?


2. Are product customization required?
3. Can the kitchen area take up a big space?
4. How much fund is allocated for setting up the shop?
5. Is there any preference for manual handwork over machine
task?

17
Sample Solution
Assumptions when recommending layout type to use

1. Medium level of demand forecast for different types of food


2. Forecasted demand are steady and expected to sustain for the
school semester.
3. Minor product customization
4. Kitchen area should not be more than 30% of total area as
majority of the area should be for customers to consume food
5. Budget constraint on equipment purchase
6. There is no preference for manual handwork over machine
task

18
Sample Solution
A suitable kitchen layout for Jason

A process-layout as some cooking methods share the same


processes and equipment
Limited kitchen area to set up individual lines for each type of
food
Utilization of the kitchen equipment is better
Can cater to some level of customization
Repeat orders may not be processed consecutively as the
same equipment is being used to process other food

19
Developing the layout
In process layout, it is important to reduce the flow of materials in the facility
2 departments with high flow between them should be situated close
together
It is therefore necessary to know the material flow and activity relationship
between departments
The space required for each department have to be ascertained based on:
Equipment (Number of equipment required has to be worked out)
Aisle space
Maintenance/ servicing space
A space relationship diagram can then be developed and detailed layout of
equipment done upon considering practical limitations and other modifying
considerations
Various alternatives can be generated before the best one is chosen

20
Sample Solution
Process layout for the Kitchen Food
Collection

Dough Baking Food


Materials Picking Counter
Making
Storage
Fridge Oven Oven Snack
Shelf Miller
Counter

Drink
Washing Counter
& Cleaning Cutting and Preparation Toasting
Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Toaster
Sink Top Top Top
Assembly

Assembly bench

Mixing Grilling
Assembly bench
Small mixer Griller Griller

21
22
23
Learning Objective

Identify different types of layout and explain


the advantages and disadvantages of each
layout
Select a suitable type of layout based on the
type of process required in the facility
The process of layout design
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P04 KEEP THE SANDWICHES


COMING

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

KEEP THE SANDWICHES COMING

Jason has been looking into setting up his own sandwich joint at an international
school. In additional to selling soft drinks and salad boxes, he wants to offer set meals
consisting of: one sandwich, one soft drink and a salad box. There will be 3 types of
sandwiches to choose from: grilled turkey, ham and tuna; all marinated and prepared in
his kitchen.

After conducting some market research, he has finalized the ingredient list for his
different sales items. He formulated a product part list for these ingredients for
inventory tracking purpose. A rough demand forecast was also produced from his
market research.

Product Part List Rough Demand Forecast

Product Part List.xlsx Demand


Forecast.xlsx

After obtaining the forecast and process details, Jason proceeded to work out what
equipments to buy for his sandwiches joint. Requirement for his equipment were
obtained from expected output and cycle time as shown below.

Page 2 of 3
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

Equipment List
Equipment Equipment Footprint Time/Cycle
number description (m2) Output/Cycle (sec) Description
1 Bread Toaster 1.0 x 1.0 2 60 Machine station, single operator
2 Grilling station 2.0 x 1.0 4 200 Machine station, single operator
Condiments Cabinet/
3
Storage Shelf 3.0 x 1.0 - - Non-workstation, for materials
Sink and Assembly
4
Work desk 2.0 x 1.0 1 20 Manual station, single operator
5 Wrapping Work desk 1.0 x 1.0 1 12 Manual station, single operator
6 Mixing Station 1.0 x 1.0 8 220 Manual station, single operator
Sandwich Picking
7
Station 1.0 x 1.0 - - Non-workstation, for picking
8 Storage Area 1.0 x 1.0 - - Non-workstation, for materials
9 Drink Dispenser 1.0 x .1.0 2 15 Manual station, single operator
10 Cashier 3.0 x 1.0 - - Manual station, 1 to 3 persons

With these data, Jason decided that he has sufficient information to plan the most
appropriate layout type for his shops kitchen. Below is the floor layout of the shops
kitchen. Can you help Jason determine the appropriate layout and equipments
arrangement for his shops kitchen?

7000.00
2000.00

2000.00

2000.00 2000.00
2000.00

2000.00

Kitchen Layout
3000.00
Kitchen Layout (dimension in mm)

Page 3 of 3
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P04 Keep the


Sandwiches Coming
Flow Planning
Process of arranging activities in combinations of
basic flow patterns (based on flow analysis), both
quantitative (from-to chart) and qualitative (activity
relationship diagram).
Types of flow
Materials
People
Equipment
Documents
Flow can be within workstation, within a department
(intra-cell) or between departments (inter-cell)

2
Flow within a facility considering the
locations of entrance and exit
At the same location

On adjacent sides

3
Flow within a facility considering the
locations of entrance and exit (contd)
On the same side but
at opposite ends

On opposite sides

4
Vertical Flow Pattern

Flow between buildings exists and the Ground level ingress (entry) Ground level ingress (entry) and egress
connection between buildings is elevated and egress (exit) are required (exit) occur on the same side of the building

Travel between floors occurs on the Some bucket and belt conveyors and Backtracking occurs due to the
same side of the building escalators result in inclined flow return to the top floor

5
Flow Patterns (between departments)

6
Flow Patterns (within department)
The flow pattern within departments depends on the
type of department.
In a product and/or product family department, the
flow follows the product flow.
1 machine/operator 2 machines/operator
1 machine/operator

More than 2
machines /operator

1 machine/operator
Flow Pattern (within department) (contd)

In a process department, little flow should occur between


workstations within departments. Flow occurs between
workstations and isles.
Uncommon
Aisle
Aisle One way

Aisle Aisle Aisle One way

Dependent on: - interactions among workstations


- available space
- size of materials

8
Flow Patterns: Flow within Workstation

Many workstations make up a department. Workstation usually refer to


equipments

Motion studies and ergonomics considerations are important. Flow


should be:

Simultaneous: coordinated use of hands, arms and feet.


Symmetrical: coordination of movements about the center of the body.
Natural: movements are continuous, curved, and make use of
momentum.
Rhythmical and Habitual: flow allows a methodological and automatic
sequence of activities. It should reduce mental, eye and muscle
fatigue, and strain.
9
Principles of Flow Planning
Maximize directed flow
Directed flow: uninterrupted flow, does not intersect others
No backtracking of material
Minimize frequencies of flow through work simplification
Deliver directly to the point of use - eliminate waste
Plan appropriate unit of load, use pallets to minimize trips
Combine flows and operations, e.g. Automobile assembly
Minimize cost of flow
Reduce travel distance
Mechanize or automate transfer

10
Uninterrupted Flow Path

Uninterrupted flow paths

Interrupted flow paths

11
Flow Analysis Information
A. Product Structured Parts List
- Provides a listing of all component/parts of a product, includes part
name, part number, drawing references, quantity of parts
- Product structure is a hierarchy referring to the level of product
assembly: such as final product, sub-assemblies.
- Product Structure information and Structured Parts List will make
up the Bill of Materials
B. Operation Process Chart
- Presents information on production method and assembly flow of
the product
- Differentiates between in-house produced part and purchased part
- Can also include information on raw material used, operation
times, inspection stations

12
Flow analysis information
C. From-To Chart
- A matrix that contains numbers representing a measure
(unts, unit loads, etc) of the material flow between machines,
departments, buildings, etc.

D. Others
- Assembly chart
- Flow process chart
- Multi product process chart
- Flow diagram

13
Flow Dominance Measure (FDM)
Notation:
M: number of activities.
Nij: number of different types of items moved between activities i and j.
fijk: flow volume between i and j for item k (in moves/time period).
hijk: equivalence factor for moving item k with respect to other items moved between i
and j (dimensionless)
[all hijk = 1 since assume equal ease of movement]
wij: equivalent flow volume specified in from-to chart (in moves/time period),

N ij
w ij = f ijk h ijk .
k 1

14
Flow Dominance Measure (contd)
fU f '
Flow dominance measure = f=
where
fU fL
1
M M 2 2 2 2
w
i 1 j1 ij M w

M 2
1
M M
w ij
i 1 j 1
f' , w=
w M2
1 1
M2 M 1 2 1 2
fU M , fL M
(M 1)(M 1)
2 2
(M 1)(M 1)

15
Flow Dominance Measure (contd)
Three cases:
f 0 (a few dominant flows exist) product layout
can use operations process chart as starting point for developing
layout and material handling system design
quantitative measures principal source of activity relationship.
f 1 (many nearly equal flows exist)
any layout equally good with respect to flows .
qualitative measures principal source of activity relationship.
0 << f << 1 (no dominant flows exist) difficult to develop layout
process or product family layout .
both quantitative and qualitative measures important source of
activity relationship.
16
Equipment Requirements Planning
Equipment Capacity Table

- Can have different formats

- Links product forecasted demand with available


equipment to generate equipment requirements

- Contains detailed information on machine/equipment


run-rates, allowances

17
P04 Sample Solution

18
Flow Analysis Information
Part Number Part Description Part Type
Structured Parts List RA00001
RA00002
Bread Loaf
Turkey slice
Raw material
Raw material
RA00003 Ham slice Raw material
RA00004 Tuna chuck Raw material
RA00005 Pickles Raw material
RA00006 Olive Raw material
RA00007 Tomato Raw material
RA00008 Lettuce Raw material
RA00009 Mayonnaise Raw material
RA00010 Honey Mustard Raw material
RB00001 Fruits Raw material
RB00002 Thousand Island Dressing
Raw material
RC00001 Lemon Tea in barrel Raw material
RC00002 Ice Raw material
PA00001 Sandwich wrapper Packing
PA00002 Salad box Packing
PA00003 Cups Packing
SA00001 Sandwich without wrapper
Sub assembly
FA00001 Wrapped sandwich Finished goods
FA00002 Salad Finished goods
FA00003 Cups of Lemon Tea Finished goods

19
Flow Analysis Information
Operations Process Chart
Turkey Slice Bread Loaf
Honey Mustard Mayonnaise Lettuce Tomato Olive Pickles
RA00002 RA00001
RA00010 RA00009 RA00008 RA00007 RA00006 RA00005

O-13 Chill O-12 Chill O-10 Wash O-08 Wash O-06 Peel O-03 Preserve O-02 Grill O-01 Toast

O-04 Bottle

O-11 Cut O-09 Cut O-07 Cut

O-05 Store

SA-01

Thousand Island Dressing


Fruit
RB00002
RB00001

Sandwich Wrapper
PA00001
SA-02

O-14 Mix
Salad Box
PA00002

SA-03 SA-04 A-01

Ice
RC00002 Lemon Tea in a Barrel
RC00001

O-15 Scoop O-16 Dispense

SA-05

Cup
PA00003

20
Flow Analysis Information
Part Number Part Description Machine Routing

Parts-Machine Routing RA00001


RA00002
Bread Loaf
Turkey slice
3-1-4
3-2-4
34
& Forecasted Demand RA00003
RA00004
Ham slice
Tuna chuck 36-4
RA00005 Pickles 34
RA00006 Olive 34
RA00007 Tomato 34
Item Hourly Peak Demand (forecast)
Grilled Turkey Sandwich set RA00008 Lettuce 34
(includes one box of salad and a drink) 32 meals RA00009 Mayonnaise 34
Ham Sandwich set RA00010 Honey Mustard 34
(includes one box of salad and a drink) 39 meals
Special Tuna Sandwich set RB00001 Fruits 36
(includes one box of salad and a drink) 62 meals RB00002 Thousand Island 36
Grilled Turkey Sandwich 6 sandwiches Dressing
Ham Sandwich 9 sandwiches RC00001 Lemon Tea in barrel 8-9
Special Tuna Sandwich 16 sandwiches
RC00002 Ice -
Salad box 57 boxes
Lemon-Tea 22 cups PA00001 Sandwich wrapper 85
PA00002 Salad box 86
PA00003 89
Cups
SA00001 Sandwich without 45
wrapper
FA00001 Wrapped Sandwich 5 - 7 - 10
FA00002 Salad 6 - 10
FA00003 Cups of Lemon Tea 9 - 10

21
From-To Chart (Shows the flow volume)
From 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
To Sample calculation
From storage (Bread) to toaster:
1 =164/3 133 set of meals and 31 sandwiches per
= 54.7 hour (3 bread loaves toast per batch)

2 7.6
3
4 54.7 7.6 94.9 9.8
5 41 6.6
6 24 7.6
7 82
8
9 4.5
10 95 82 78

22
From-To Chart (Shows the equivalent flow
volume) Taking into account of difficulty
of move
From 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
To
1 54.7
2 7.6
3
4 54.7 7.6 94.9 9.8
5 42 6.6
6 24 7.6
7 82
8
9 =2x3.87
Sample calculation 5 + 0.62
Assuming moving lemon tea barrel is
=8.4
twice as difficult, 1 trip with barrel = 2
trips of other items = 3.875 x 2
10 95 82 78
Moving cups is as per normal
23
Flow Dominance Measure (f)
1
M M 2 2 2
2
w
i 1 j1 ij M w

M 2
1 = 3.14658 w ij
M M

i 1 j 1
= 6.539
f
'
, w= 2
w M
1 1
M M1
2 2 1 2
fU M , fL M
(M 1)(M 1)
2 2
(M 1)(M 1)
= 3.1958 = 0.335

24
Flow Dominance Measure (f)

fU f '
= 0.01721
fU fL

0 << f << 1 (no dominant flows exist) difficult to develop


layout
process or product family layout .
both quantitative and qualitative measures important
source of activity relationship.

25
Minimum Equipment Requirement
Time/Cycle Gross Material Equipment Net Equipment
Equipment (sec) Output/Cycle Output/hr Scrap Efficiency Output/hr Required

Bread Toaster 60 2 120 3% 92% 107 2

Grilling Station 200 4 72 3% 92% 64 1


Sink and Assembly
Workdesk 20 1 180 0% 92% 165 2

Wrapping Workdesk 12 1 300 0% 92% 276 1

Mixing Station 220 8 131 3% 92% 116 3

Drink Dispenser 15 2 480 1% 92% 437 1


Condiments Cabinet /
Storage Shelf - - - - - - 1

Burger Picking - - - - - - 1

Storage Area - - - - - - 1

Cashier - - - - - - 1
26
Between Stations Flow
From 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
To
1 54.7 54.7
2 7.6 7.6
3 94.9 24
4 41 9.8
5 82 6.6
6 7.6 95
7 82
8 8.4
9 78
10

Very High Flow (> 100)


High Flow (41 - 99)
Medium Flow (16 - 40)
Low Flow (0 - 15)

27
Proposed Layout
A simple layout can be done
based on the from-to chart
Process with high flow are
placed together to minimize
the transportation work
Further modification can be
made to the layout on the left
to reduce the distance
between areas of high flow
Note that the layout will be
affected by actual floor plan

28
Learning Objective

Analyze and determine the process flow of a product from a


flow diagram
Calculate the total flow volume for a particular layout
Identify different areas of inefficiency in a facility and identify
areas of changes in order to reduce the flow volume
Layout different departments within a facility to ensure a
good flow of materials and finished goods
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P05 WHO WILL BE MY NEIGHBOUR?

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 3
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

Who will be my neighbour?

E & L Pte Ltd is a third party logistic firm that services multinational companies.
They are expanding rapidly and are shifting all their office operations to a vacant
facility in six months time.

You have been tasked to plan the layout of the new office. You conducted
interviews with the following key personnel of the various departments of E & L.
Based on what they have told you, how would you layout the various departments?

Interview Details

Sam, IT Specialist: We are the nerve centre, managing most of the software
systems in E & L. We are currently using SAP software to manage most of our
transactions in E & L. Accounts and Operations Department will often work with
me to resolve system issues. At times, I will also need to help resolve IT problems
from other departments.

Bee Leng, Account Executive: I work very closely with the planners in the
Operations Department. I will need to ensure that all shipments are billed correctly
to our customers. All incoming invoices will also be directed to our department for
processing. At the end of each month, I will need to balance the accounts and
report the balance sheet to management.

Daisy, Quality Assurance Officer: I work closely with customers on quality


requirements and issues. When there is a complaint received from Sales
Department, I will work with Operations to investigate the case log. We will then
follow up with a corrective action plan to close the complaint.

Janet, Human Resource Officer: I spend most of my time in office. Usually, I


look into payroll matters and coordinate interviews for departments that need
additional manpower.

Emily, Sales and Marketing Executive: When I receive new customers order, I
usually send it over to the planners in Operations Department for processing. At

Page 2 of 3
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

times, I may need to walk over to discuss customers delivery status with our
planners.

Betty, Receptionist: I know most of the people working in E & L as it is my job to


direct visitors to them. However, I work closely with Human Resources
Department to help arrange candidates for interview.

Yi Ling, Legal Advisor: I manage all legal and contractual matters in E & L. I
spend a lot time working with Sales and Marketing Department to review all new
contracts.

Jackson, Facility Manager: I am in charge of the security and cleanliness within


the company. One of the areas that I am particularly concerned about is the
server room in the IT department, where all our important data is stored and
backed up. For contractual matters, I usually consult Yi Ling when drafting up
new contracts for cleaning companies or security contractors.

Robert Ng, Operations Manager: I have a few groups of people working for me.
When a new customer order is received from our Sales and Marketing
Department, my planner will check with our warehouse for the availability of the
goods. The order will be keyed into our SAP system and Accounts Department
will be notified. Our planners also monitor incoming shipment. If we have orders
for storing finish goods in our warehouse, our SAP system will capture it and notify
our warehouse and Accounts Department. I will need to attend weekly
management meeting with the other department managers. At times, I would also
need to go down to our warehouse to observe what is happening over there.

Page 3 of 3
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P05 Who will be my


neighbour?
Assignment of Importance

A = absolutely necessary 5 %
E = especially important 10 %
I = important 15 %
O = ordinary closeness 20 %
U = unimportant 50 %
X = undesirable 5 %

Assign the relationship with the ratings shown.


The percentage is a guideline to how much of each
rating should be assigned with respect to the total
number of relationships.

2
Relationship (REL) Chart
A number of factors other than material handling flow (cost) might be of
primary concern in layout.
A Relationship (REL) Chart represents M(M-1)/2 symmetric qualitative
relationships, i.e.

rij {A, E, I, O, U, X}: Closeness Value


(CV) between activities i and j; rij is
an ordinal value

3
Example of REL Chart for a Hospital

4
Closeness Value
V(rij) = arbitrary cardinal value assigned to rij,
for example,

V(A) = 125
V(E) = 25
V(I) = 5
V(O) = 1
V(U) = 0
V(X) = -125

5
Total Closeness Rating
For each department, the Total Closeness Rating
(TCR) is the sum of the values of the relationships
with other departments
Department Summary
Department 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A E I O U X TCR Order
1. Reception U E O U U U A O 1 1 0 2 4 0 152 2
2. Emergency Unit U I U A I U U U 1 0 2 0 5 0 135 3
3. Outpatients Clinic E I U U O U U E 0 2 1 1 4 0 56 6
4. Wards O U U U I O U O 0 0 1 3 4 0 8 9
5. Intensive Care U A U U E I U O 1 1 1 1 4 0 156 1
6. Surgery U I O I E U U I 0 1 3 1 3 0 41 7
7. Laboratory U U U O I U U E 0 1 1 1 5 0 31 8
8. Administration A U U U U U U O 1 0 0 1 6 0 126 4
9. Pharmacy O U E O O I E O 0 2 1 4 1 0 59 5

6
Manual CORELAP Algorithm
The manual CORELAP algorithm is an initial
process layout method which makes use of the
REL chart
The departments to be placed are selected based
on a set of criteria
The departments are then placed one by one
based on the procedures to place departments
The departments are assumed to be squares of
uniform sizes, i.e. actual shape and size are not
taken into consideration when following the manual
CORELAP algorithm

7
Selection of Departments to Place
First department to be placed is the one with the greatest TCR value.
If a tie exists, choose the department with more As
If a department has an X relationship with the first one, it is placed
last in the layout
If a tie exists, choose the one with the smallest TCR value
Second department is the one with an A relationship with the first one
If a tie exists, choose the one with the greatest TCR value
If a department has an X relationship with the second one, it is placed
next-to-the-last or last in the layout
If a tie exists, choose the one with the smallest TCR value
The third department is the one with an A relationship with one of the
placed departments.
If a tie exists, choose the one with the greatest TCR value
The procedure continues until all departments have been placed.

8
Procedure to Place Departments
Consider the figure on the right.
Assume that a department is placed in the middle
(position 0).
Position 1, 3, 5 or 7 is fully adjacent with
that department
Position 2, 4, 6 or 8 is partially adjacent
with that department

The first department selected would be placed at location 0.


The weighted placement (WP), sum of the numerical values for all
pairs of adjacent departments, is then calculate for each square
around the placed department.
The next department is placed at the location with the highest WP.

9
Important Notes
Once the department is placed, it is called a permanent facility while the
department yet to be located is called a temporary facility.

In choosing an entering department, it is based on


A, E, I, O, U
If ties exist, the largest TCR value
If ties persist, the largest area (space requirement)

WP is also called PR (Placement Rating) and is defined by the sum of


the numerical values assigned to the closeness ratings between the
entering facility and adjacent permanent ones.

We try to maximize WP. If ties exist, consider


largest boundary length
arbitrary assignment

10
P05 Sample Solution

11
Relationship Chart for the New
Logistics Office

12
TCR Value Computation
CV Values
V (A) 125 Choose the department
V (E) 25 with highest TCR
V (I) 5
V (O) 1
(Department 9) to
V (U) 0 start the layout
V (X) -125
Partial Adjacency (a): 0.5
Department Summary
Department 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 A E I O U X TCR Order
1. Accounts U O E I O O
U A 1 1 1 3 2 0 158 2
2. Legal U U U E U U
O U 0 1 0 1 6 0 26 6
3. Human Resource U U U U I O
O O 0 0 1 3 4 0 8 8
4. Information Technology E U U O I O
U A 1 1 1 2 3 0 157 3
5. Sales and Marketing I E U O U I
U E 0 2 2 1 3 0 61 5
6. Reception O U I I U U
U O 0 0 2 2 4 0 12 7
7. Quality Assurance O U O O I U U A 1 0 1 3 3 0 133 4
8. Facility U O O U U U U U 0 0 0 2 6 0 2 9
9. Operations A U O A E O A U 3 1 0 2 2 0 402 1

13
Department 9 with the highest TCR value is placed first.
Department 1, 4 and 7 have A relationship with
department 9. Since department 1 has the highest TCR
value among the 3, the next department to be placed is
Department 1.
Since department 1has an A relationship
62.5 125 62.5 with department 9, the box which is directly
adjacent to department 9 has WP of 125.
125 9 125
Assuming a partial adjacency factor = 0.5
62.5 125 62.5 The WP of the boxes partially adjacent to
department 9 is 0.5 x 125 = 62.5

Department 1 would be placed at any of the locations with


highest WP

14
Department 4 has A & E relationship with Department 1
and 9. Department 7 have O & A relationship with
Department 1 and 9. Thus, the next department to be
placed is Department 4

Directly adjacent to 9 and partially adjacent to 1


12.5 87.5 137.5 62.5
Department 4 has A relationship with 9, add 125
to WP
25 1 9 125
Department 4 has E relationship with 1, add 0.5 x
12.5 87.5 137.5 62.5 25 to WP
WP = 125 + 12.5 = 137.5

Department 4 would be placed at any of the location with


highest WP

15
3) Placing Department 2
1) Placing Department 7 2) Placing Department 5
2.5 5 2.5 0 0 0
0.5 63.5 125.5 62.5
2.5 22.5 7 17.5 0 0 7 25 12.5
1 1 9 125.5
5 1 9 28 0 1 9 5 25
0.5 64.5 4 63.5
2.5 18.5 4 13.5 0 0 4 25 12.5
0.5 1 0.5
0.5 1 0.5 0 0 0

4) Placing Department 6 5) Placing Department 3 6) Placing Department 8

0 0 0 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0 0 0.5 1 0.5

0.5 1.5 7 2 0 0 1.5 7 2 0 0.5 1 0.5 7 2 1

1 1 9 5 0 3.5 1 9 5 0 1 3 1 9 5 0.5

5.5 6 4 0.5 0 0.5 1 6 4 0 2.5


0.5 6.5 4 5.5 0

2.5 5 2.5 0 0 0 0 0
2.5 5 2.5

16
Initial Layout

7. Quality 2. Legal
Assurance

3. Human 1. Accounts 9. Operations 5. Sale and


Resource Marketing

8.Facility 6. Reception 4.IT

17
Practical Considerations

Location of building core (Structural columns,


Staircase, AHU(Air Handling Unit))
Size of department
Shape of building
Location of loading/unloading bay (same place,
location of road leading to the office)

18
Ask yourself this:

Why is the department with the highest TCR value


placed first?
Why should the department with A relationship to the first
department be placed next ?
Is the solution always unique?
Is the layout generated the best solution?
What can you tell from the WP value?

19
Learning Objective

Qualitative analysis
Layout different departments within a facility based on
importance of relationships between departments
Construction of initial (process) layout base on relationships
between departments
Construction of REL chart
Manual CORELAP algorithm

20
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P06 SPACE LIMITATION

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 3
Space Limitation

Jason is a Facility Engineer for Microdrill Laboratory, which specializes in


research of nano-technology for the wafer fabrication industry. He has been
tasked to plan the equipment layout of the new expansion to the sputtering clean
room (with more equipment purchased). In order to understand the sputtering
process and users requirement, Jason spoke to the Research Manager. The
attached document states the Standard Operating Procedure to operating a
sputtering machine.

E212-P06- Space
Limitation-SOP.docx

The Research Manager also requested Jason to speak to Alex, the research
assistant, as Alex has had several concerns with current placement of the
sputtering machines. The attached document lists Alexs feedback.

E212-P06- Space
Limitation-User's Feedback.docx

The dimensions of the new clean room, which Alex will work in, are (L) 12000
mm x (W) 9000mm. It will house 4 sputtering machines, 4 workbenches [(L) 800
mm x (W) 500 mm each], 1 Surface Profiler [(L) 1200 mm x (W) 1200 mm], 1
Atomic Force Meter [(L) 1200 mm x (W) 1200 mm] and 3 metal storage racks [(L)
1500 mm x (W) 800 mm each] for equipment maintenance tools. There will also
be need for 18 magazine storage holders measuring 500 mm each to be
placed in the clean room. Each sputtering machine will need a workbench and 3
magazine storage holders. The remaining magazine storage holders are used as
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

departmental storage bins. The new clean room floor plan and machine
orthogonal projection are provided below.

Initial Clean room E212-P06- Space


Layout.dwg Limitation-Sputter Machine ortho projection.docx

Your task today is to help Jason draft a layout for the new clean room. You will
need to take into consideration all necessary space requirements.

Page 3 of 3
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P06: Space Limitation

School of Engineering 1
Space Requirement
Determining the amount of space required in a facility
is perhaps the most difficult determination in facilities
planning
Design lifespan for a facility: typically 5 10 years
Uncertainties:
Technologies
Product mix
Demand level
Organizational designs

School of Engineering 2
Parkinsons Law

Things will expand to fill all available capacity


sooner than you plan!
Systematic Approach to Space Planning

Manufacturing and Office environments


Determine space for individual workstations

Determine space for department, based on the

collection of workstations in department


Storage and Warehousing activities
Inventory levels, storage units, storage methods

and strategies, equipment requirements, building


constraints and personnel requirements need to be
considered

School of Engineering 4
Workstation Specification - Equipment
Obtain the following information from machinery data sheets or physical
inventory check:
Equipment actual dimensions
Machine travel
Maximum travel to left and right

Maximum travel towards operator and away from operator

Maximum vertical travel

Machine maintenance requirement and areas


Plant services requirement and areas
Floor area requirement
= Total width (static width plus maximum travel to the left and right)
x Total depth (static depth plus maximum travel towards and away from
operator)
Total machinery area = Floor area requirement + Maintenance and plant
service area
School of Engineering 5
Workstation Specification - Material
Receiving and storing materials
In-process materials
Storing and shipping materials
Requires information on dimension of unit loads, flow of material
through machine, whether inventory holding zone is within
workstation or department
If inventory holding zone not within workstation, minimum
requirement for space may be 1 unit load to be worked next, one
unit load being worked from, one unit load being worked to, one unit
load completed
Storing and shipping waste and scrap
Storage prior to removal from workstation
Tools, fixtures, jigs, dies and maintenance materials
Depends on whether storage is at department or individual
workstation level
School of Engineering 6
Workstation Specification - Personnel
Operator
Material handling
Requires knowledge of method of performing operation
Based on motion study and ergonomic study taking into account:
Pick up and discharge with walking or making long/awkward
reaches
Efficient and effective utilization of operator

Minimize time spent on material handling

Maximize operator safety comfort and productivity

Minimize hazards, fatigue and eye strain

Minimal 30-inch aisle to travel pass through 2 stationary objects


Minimal 36-inch aisle to travel pass stationary and moving objects
Minimal 42-inch aisle to travel pass through 2 moving objects
Operator ingress and egress

School of Engineering 7
Department Specification
Sum of total workstation requirements
Departmental equipment storage
Aisles space allowance between workstations
Aisle Allowance Estimates

Largest Load Aisle Allowance %a

Less than 6 ft2 5 - 10


Between 6 and 12 ft2 10- 20
Between 12 and 18 ft2 20- 30
More than 18 ft2 30- 40

a Expressed as a percentage of the net area required for equipment, material and personnel

School of Engineering 8
Aisle Arrangement
Departmental aisle and main aisle

Recommended Aisle Widths for Various Types of Flow

Aisle Width
Types of Flow (feet)
Tractors 12
3-ton Forklift 11
2-ton Forklift 10
1-ton Forklift 9
Narrow aisle truck 6
Manual platform truck 5
Personnel 3
Personnel with doors opening in the 6
aisle from one side
Personnel with doors opening in the 8
aisle from two sides

School of Engineering 9
P06 Sample Solution

School of Engineering 10
Workstation Specification
Equipment:
4 x Sputtering machine footprint: 2410 mm X 1520 mm

4 x Workbench for material preparation : 800 mm X 500 mm

1 Surface Profiler (assume at department level) :

1 Atomic Force Meter (assume at department level)

Machine travel: assume opening of covers and doors within

footprint area
Machine maintenance area: Area at the back of machine required

for maintenance, allow perimeter of 800 mm at the back and side


of the machine for maintenance, allow 1200 mm if next to wall
Plant service area: Clearance area near to power source for

maintenance

School of Engineering 11
Workstation Specification
Material:
Incoming, outgoing and storage materials:

Department storage area


Individual workstation storage area (3 holder)
Assume raw substrate to be held inside wafer magazine
holder
Assume completed item to be placed in a 500 mm
magazine holder
In-process materials: nil

Waste from scrap

Assume dump into 500 mm magazine storage holder


Housekeeping / maintenance materials

Assume at department level only

School of Engineering 12
Workstation Specification

Personnel:
Operator: area of 1500 mm x 1000 mm
Material handling: assume on magazine holder, no extra
space
Aisle space:
Minimal 762 mm (30) aisle to travel pass through 2 stationary
objects
Minimal 914 mm (36) to travel pass stationary and moving
objects
Minimal 1067 mm (42) aisle to travel pass through 2 moving
objects
Operator ingress and egress: nil

School of Engineering 13
Department Specification
Workstation area: 4 x Work areas (3400 mm x 2530 mm)
Department storage area: 6 x Magazine Storage holder ( 500
mm)
Common department test equipment: Surface Profiler (1200 mm
x 1200 mm), Atomic Force Meter (1200mm X 1200mm)
Maintenance Equipment Racks: 3 x Cabinets(1500 mm x 800
mm)
Aisle allowance estimates: 30-40% of total area
Largest Load Aisle Allowance % a

Less than 6 ft2 5 - 10


Between 6 and 12 ft2 10- 20
Between 12 and 18 ft2 20- 30
More than 18 ft2 30- 40

a Expressed as a percentage of the net area required for equipment, material and personnel

School of Engineering 14
Aisle Arrangement
Departmental aisle : By personnel = 914 mm (3 feet)
Main aisle: By Narrow Aisle Truck = 1829 mm (6 feet)

Aisle Width
Types of Flow (feet)
Tractors 12
3-ton Forklift 11
2-ton Forklift 10
1-ton Forklift 9
Narrow aisle truck 6
Manual platform truck 5
Personnel 3
Personnel with doors opening 6
in the aisle from one side
Personnel with doors opening 8
in the aisle from two sides

School of Engineering 15
Initial Layout

School of Engineering 16
Proposed Layout

School of Engineering 17
Learning Objective

Plan for sufficient aisle space for the materials handling


and human flow in a facility.
Determine the minimal space requirement of a
department based on the number of machine required,
machine footprint, minimal aisle space and maintenance
requirement
Define minimal space requirement for the facility based
on the department requirement and common aisle
requirement.

18
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P07 DESIGNING AN OFFICE

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Designing an office

James is the boss of Adilas, a web design company. Apart from web design, his
company also hosts clients website and handles many confidential information.

Recently, Adilas leased a new office space. James was looking at his companys
(Adilas) organization chart and the floor plan of the new leased office. He
recalled complaints by Annie few days ago that her office seat was very
distracting. This is because her desk was near the door where every few minutes
there will be people walking past her. In addition, she mentioned that the office is
not secured without CCTV.

James is also keen to look at open office concept for the new office as he heard
it is commonly practiced in design companies.

Adilass Organization Chart

Director
- James

Web Designers IT HR/ Finance Receptionist


- May - Henry - Annie - Kat
- John - Ben
Office Space
- Jane
15.00

9.60

11.00

2.50 Initial_Office_Layout
.dwg

James will need to submit his office layout plan this week to the estate management
office. Prepare a layout plan for James.
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P07: Designing an office


Office Facility Planning
Key Consideration of Office Layout Design

Size / Capacity
Adequate work space
Noise / Sound level
Kept to minimum
Proximity to amenities such as lift, door, printer, etc
Productivity
Minimize walking long distances, performing useless work etc
Nature of work activities
Ergonomics
Security / Privacy
Budgets Constraint
Scalability
support business expansion / restructuring

2
Office Facility Planning
Closed office space
Presence of floor-to-ceiling partition walls (permanent/ temporary) that
segment the office space into smaller rooms

Advantages
Contains noise level well
Conducive for work tasks requiring
concentration/ confidentiality
Assures privacy for staff
Visible status recognition for staff

Disadvantages
Higher maintenance cost due to more built-in structures
and fixtures
Less flexible

3
Office Facility Planning
Open office space
No floor-to-ceiling partition walls exist

Advantages
Promotes staff interaction and communication
Facilitates supervision of staff
Lower maintenance cost
Cooling, ventilation costs are reduced
Less space is required
Layout changes are quicker and less costly
Disadvantages
May present difficulty in controlling noise
Lesser visual and aural privacy
Lacks status recognition for staff
Confidentiality

4
Recent Office Layout Trends
Trends affecting Office Layout

Flexibility and mobility


Easy-to-assemble furniture
Can be configured in a number of ways to fit available space.

Collaborative working environments


70/30 cubicle-to-traditional office ratio
Promote Collaborative space

Hot Desking
Employees do not have their own desks
Sharing of workstation

5
Office Facility Planning
Steps

Determine office facility objective


Define work activities to be performed
Collect data to establish departmental interrelationships
Generate departmental area requirements
Conduct interviews to verify/ refine office requirements

6
Office Facility Planning
Typical Area Requirements
Designation Square feet (ft2) Square meter (m2)
Director/Presidents Office 250 to 400 23.2 to 47.2

Vice Presidents Office 150 to 250 13.9 to 23.2


Executive Office 100 to 150 9.3 to 13.9
Staff (open space) 80 to 110 7.4 to 10.2
Secretary/Administrator 60 to 110 5.6 to 10.2
(open space)
Conference/Meeting Room 15 to 30 per person 1.4 to 2.8 per person

Reception area 125 to 300 11.6 to 27.9

7
Office Facility Planning
Example of office space plan (2-D): Open & closed structure

8
Office Facility Planning
Example

3-D Plan

9
Office Facility Planning
Security System

Measures should be layered to provide diversity and redundancy


Concentric approach:
a) Outer circle: barriers and intrusion detection systems
b) Inner circle: access control systems
Application and integration of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) into
overall security system

10
Office Facility Planning
Examples of security measures / devices
Outer Circle: Gates / Doors
Locks

Alarms
Warning signs

Ample lighting
Motion detectors

Inner Circle: Smart Cards


Biometrics

Integrated: Closed-Circuit TV

11
Office Facility Planning

Solutions

12
Office Plan (Proposed)
Facility objective: Secured, low capacity office

Planned activities: Desktop work (can be confidential)


Meeting clients
Document storage (can be confidential)

Office structure: Closed or Mixed


Fully open structure is not recommended
due to confidential nature of work activities

Amenities: Meeting Room


Reception

13
Office Plan (Proposed)

Staffing capacity:

Area requirements (suggested):

a) Director (James): 250 ft2 or 23.2 m2 (1 room)


b) 6 Staffs 90* 6 = 540 ft2 or 50.2 m2 (include cabinets)
c) Reception: 200 ft2 or 18.6m2 (includes waiting area)
d) Meeting Room (Conference): 25*8 = 200 ft2 or 18.6m2 (for 8 persons)

14
Office Plan (Proposed)
Security System: Concentric approach with integration
a) Outer circle: Doors fitted with lock and alarm
b) Inner circle: Card Reader
c) Integration: Closed-Circuit TV (round-the-clock)

Proposed office layout can be a modification / adaptation from the


existing plan, incorporating ergonomic considerations, e.g. sound
level, color scheme, privacy, aesthetics, etc.

Data collection is required to determine staff work interrelationships


and verify requirements at this initial layout planning stage.

15
Proposed Layout
2-D Plan 15.00
4.00 2.70 2.75 2.70

2.7000

IT IT IT

6.00
Director Office

Web Designer

11.00 HR/Finance

5.00
Reception Area
3.00
2.50
Meeting
Room

16
Learning Objectives
Define the minimal space requirement for an office facility
based on the individual work requirement and departmental
requirement
Draft a office layout plan

17
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P08 AUTOMATION HOUSE

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Automation House
Spark Industry Pte Ltd has recently secured a contract to design and
manufacture automation equipment for their customers. They will need to design,
develop and manufacture a series of automation equipment for their customers
new manufacturing processes which is scheduled to be operational in one years
time. Spark Industry plans to transfer their Research & Development (R&D)
department to a bigger premise of 14.22m x 8.23m in a new building. The R&D
engineers, designers, project manager, procurement and administrative staff
involved in the project would be stationed there. A meeting room for up to 8
people is required for the engineers to hold daily meetings.

You are tasked to develop the layout. You know that every office staff performs a
variety of tasks and it is essential to minimize unnecessary movement flows
when they work. List all your considerations in your layout design.

Initial R&D
Layout.vsd

Staff Information

Name Job title Work tasks


Belinda Procurement Executive Sourcing and Purchasing
Fatimah Administrative Executive Billing/Payment; Administrative matter

Dominic R&D Engineer (Mechanical) Design and Project Work (hands-on)


Samuel R&D Engineer (Electrical) Design and Project Work (hands-on)
Jasper and Integration Engineers Assembly Work (hands-on)
Carol Testing and Inspection check
Mr Tan R&D Project Manager Project management (paperwork);
Approval for payments
Lewis and Draftsman/Draftswomen Drafting of Drawing and documentation
Fiona (paperwork)
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P8 : Automation House
Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map
Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work

Work Flows (Work & Information Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


Flows, Volume of work flows) work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram

Space Requirements Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram

Modifying Considerations Practical and Human Limitations

Selected Layout
Adapted from: Muther, Richard. Systematic Layout Planning, second edition
Relationship (REL) Chart
Any effective layout needs to start with an in-depth discussion of
work relationships.
Each of the major office tasks can be listed on the left side of the
relationship chart and related to every other task in the office.
In the relationship chart, these closeness values are placed
based on the following scale:

A = Absolutely Necessary
E = Especially Important
I = Important
O = Ordinary Relationship
U = Unimportant
X = Undesirable
Relationship Chart
Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map
Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work

Work Flows (Work & Information Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


Flows, Volume of work flows) work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram

Space Requirements Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram

Modifying Considerations Practical and Human Limitations

Selected Layout
Adaptedfrom:
Adapted from:Muther,
Muther,Richard.
Richard.Systematic
SystematicLayout
LayoutPlanning,
Planning,second
secondedition
edition
Activity Relationship Diagram

Bundle jobs based on the individual who performed the


tasks
E.g. Belinda performs task 1 and 2
Draw Activity Relationship Diagram
Connect the bundles based on the following:

Four lines between activities indicate that it is absolutely


necessary that these activities be close together.
Three lines show an especially important closeness relationship.
Two lines illustrate that it is important that they be in the same
building and floor.
One line shows an ordinary relationship.
In situations where it is undesirable to have activities close
together, we would see a line broken with two hash marks
Initial Relationship Diagram with Bundled
Tasks
Samuel Dominic (Mechanical)
(Electrical) Belinda

7 8 5 6
1 2

9 10

3
4
13 14 12
Jasper/Carol 11
Fatimah
Lewis/Fiona
Mr Tan
Initial Relationship Diagram with Tasks
Samuel
(Electrical) Dominic (Mechanical) Belinda

7 8 5 6 1 2

9 10

3
4
Jasper/Carol 13 14 12
11
Fatimah
Lewis/Fiona
Mr Tan
Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map
Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work

Work Flows (Work & Information Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


Flows, Volume of work flows) work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram

Space Requirements Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram

Modifying Considerations Practical and Human Limitations

Selected Layout
Adaptedfrom:
Adapted from:Muther,
Muther,Richard.
Richard.Systematic
SystematicLayout
LayoutPlanning,
Planning,second
secondedition
edition
Space Requirements for People and Tasks

Space needs for people and task are examined and discussed
during planning
A final output in terms of square feet (or meter) of space desired
for maximum productivity for each person/ task is generated
Physical Space Requirements
Personnel Area Equipment Area
(Sq meter) (Sq meter)
Administrative :Pay 4 Drawing Racks 2
ment
Procurement 4 Filing Cabinets 1
R&D engineers (2 2X4=8 Photocopy 0.5
person) Machine
R&D Project 5
Manager
Draftsman/ 2X3=6 Room Area
Draftswoman (Sq meter)
Integration 2X4=8 Meeting Room 13.5
Engineers (2 person)
Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map
Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work

Work Flows (Work & Information Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


Flows, Volume of work flows) work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram

Space Requirements Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram

Modifying Considerations Practical and Human Limitations

Selected Layout
Adaptedfrom:
Adapted from:Muther,
Muther,Richard.
Richard.Systematic
SystematicLayout
LayoutPlanning,
Planning,second
secondedition
edition
Draw Space Relationship Diagram

Using a blank diagram of the office building with walls, rest


rooms, and the like indicated, continue the process of moving
toward a more efficient office layout by placing the activity
relationship diagram over the existing office layout blueprint.
Overlay of Space Relationship
Diagram on Office Layout Blueprint

5 6 7 8 1 2
13 3 4
11

14 12

9 10
Systematic Layout Planning : Macro Map
Data Gathered on Work & Information Flows, Volume of work flows,
Sequencing of work, and Critical Timing Issues of work

Work Flows (Work & Information Activity Relationships (Sequencing of


Flows, Volume of work flows) work, and Critical Timing Issues of work)

Relationship
Diagram

Space Requirements Space Available

Space Relationship
Diagram

Modifying Considerations Practical and Human Limitations

Selected Layout
Adapted from: Muther, Richard. Systematic Layout Planning, second edition
Detailed Layout
Layout within work station exact list of
equipment required for individuals to be
efficient and effective in their various roles
and responsibilities
E.g. By Job Position, By Job Function

Practical Limitations
Security
Privacy
Confidentiality
Aesthetics
Emergency evacuation
Staff welfare
Final Layout (with Equipment)
Learning Objective
Know the process of layout design using systematic
layout planning
Define the minimal space requirement of a department
based on the number of equipment and personnel
Layout different departments within a facility based on
importance of relationships between departments
Draft a layout plan

20
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P09 SAFETY FIRST

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Safety First
Albert has been recently appointed as a safety consultant for Pretech Pte Ltd, a
precision engineering company. Pretech employs 400 workers per shift for the
manufacturing of precision components, with the expansion plan of adding another 100
workers within the next year.

The existing factory layout is as shown below.

Initial Factory
Layout.dwg

The company has no plans for expansion of floor space however the office and the store
are not fully utilized.

Albert is tasked to assess the adequacy of the companys first aid and welfare provisions
in view of the increase in workers hired. How can Albert ensure that adequate provisions
are provided?
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P09 Safety First

School of Engineering
Personnel Requirements
Objectives:
Provide an interface between work and private time
Improve safety and health at workplace
Improve personnel productivity by improving personnel
morale
Examples of provisions: first aid, food services, locker
rooms
Extent of provisions depends on government regulations
and managements policy
In Singapore, provisions pertaining to safety and health are
controlled by legislations
Workplace Safety and Health Act

2
Facilities Planning for Personnel
Requirements
Key aspects to consider when doing facilities planning:
Locker rooms proximity to staff entrances, allocation by
gender, ventilation, traffic flow
Restrooms near work area, minimum number required,
privacy, allocation by gender
Food services number of staff, kitchen and dining area
layout, ease of cleaning, aesthetic factors,
location, ventilation
Drinking fountains quantity, location, distribution
Health services first aid room and first aid kits, location,
evacuation routes
Car parks number of staff, space utilization, traffic flow

3
The Workplace Safety and Health Act
(Singapore)
Came in effect 1st March 2006 as an essential part of the
new framework to cultivate good safety habits in all
individuals so as to engender a strong safety culture in our
workplace.

The Workplace Safety and Health Act (Singapore) can be


found under from the Occupational Safety and Health
Department (OSHD) of the Ministry of Manpower (MOM).

The workplace safety and health (first aid) regulations is


issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Department
(OSHD) under the Ministry of Manpower (MOM).

Website address of MOM: http://www.mom.gov.sg

4
Guidelines To First Aid Provisions
a) Provide first aid boxes, number required according to
number of staff (1 First Aid Box A for 25 employees)
b) Provide a trained first-aider if staff number exceeds 25
c) Provide a first aid room if staff number exceeds 500,
d) Provide flushing point for chemical/toxic substances

According to the WSHA, a first aid room have to be


provided since the number of workers are at 500.

Note: 2 First Aid Box A = 1 First Aid Box B


2 First Aid Box B = 1 First Aid Box C

5
Guidelines To First Aid Provisions
MOM Workplace Safety and Health Act 2006 (Second Schedule)

6
Guidelines To Provision Of First
Aid Room
Design to include: A couch for waiting patients
Moving space for people and equipment
Emergency lighting
Signboard to identify room
First Aid equipment
Total floor space

Location factors: Near toilets


Near lifts and main passageways
Accessibility to work area
Accessibility to car park

7
Guidelines To Provision Of First
Aid Room
Items required: Sink with running potable water
Paper towels
Smooth-topped working surface
Supply of sterile dressings
Stretchers
Splints
Thermometer
Couch with pillow and blanket
Wheelchairs
Personal disinfectants
Garments for first-aider
Refuse bin
Chairs
Any other special requirements

8
P09 Sample Solution

9
Location Of First Aid Facilities
1) Location for
First Aid Room
(assuming
workforce at 500)
- near toilet
- near entrance
to factory floor

2) Provide
additional four
more First Aid
Kit. Change First
Aid Kit to Type C

10
Layout Of First Aid Room
1) Design factors
- adequate moving space
- quick access for wheelchair,
stretcher and medical supplies
- bedside screen for privacy
- area for medical equipment

2) Required items (not exhaustive)


- phone
- medicine cabinet
- dressing table
- washing sink
- refuse bin
- filing cabinet
- sofa and chairs
- bed for patient
- garments for first-aider
- thermometer
- other medical diagnostic tools

11
Other Welfare Provisions That Could
Be Considered

Convert the empty store into pantry (Break Area)


Provide more lockers for increased number of workers
Provide drinking fountains at closer proximity to workers
but not inside the area (Why?)
Schedule lunch hour to ease possible overcrowding at
canteen due to increased number of workers

12
Lesson Objectives
Plan for safety and welfare provision for workers
Recognize the benefits of maintaining safety and health in workplace
Identify personnel provisions in workplace that can help achieve
safety, health in workplace, as well as improve workers productivity
Know the key areas of personnel provision that are governed by
government guidelines and regulations, and the authorities
controlling them
Know where to find the Workplace Safety and Health Act
and how to interpret them
Evaluate a facility according to its functionality, human
friendliness and accordance to government regulation

13
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P10 HANDLING SYSTEMS

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2009 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Handling Systems

Peter works as a warehouse assistant manager for a pharmaceutical company.


Due to expansion, he has been tasked to implement an automated material
handling system, including the safety aspects, at another new distribution
warehouse.

He was provided with the following requirements by his manager:

a. The warehouse should be designed to handle high volume of


pharmaceutical products in small load and unit load such as packed
capsules and drugs with high inventory turnover to maximize the scarce
space of the new warehouse
b. The items should be sorted out properly according to customers during
storage and to be later retrieved easily at the pick deposit station via a
conveyor for packing before pushing them to the unitizing areas.
c. Footprint Area of Warehouse (L x W): 20 m x 20 m
d. Footprint Area of miniload AS/RS (L x W) = 6 m x 2.15 m
e. Footprint Area of Walkie Stacker (L x W) = 2.20 m x 1.18 m

Help Peter plan a layout for an appropriate automated material handling system
for storage and materials handling warehouse facility based on the above
requirements and the below material handling planning chart he has come up
with.

E212-P10-Handling E212-P10-Warehous
Procedures.xls e.vsd

Justify your layout design.


E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P10: Handling Systems


Material Handling
Is the art and science of moving, storing, protecting
and controlling material.
Means providing the:
Right amount of Material
For the right Condition
In the right Place
In the right Position
With the right Sequence
With the right Cost
Using the right Method

School of Engineering
Materials Handling Principles

Material handling plan defines the material, the


Planning Principle moves and together they define the method

Standardization Less variety and customization in methods and


equipment employed
Principle
The measure of work = Material flow (volume,
Work Principle weight, or count per unit time) x Distance moved

Ergonomic Human capabilities and limitations must be


considered
Principle

Unit Load A unit load is one that can be stored or moved as a single
entity at one time (pallet, container or tote) regardless of
Principle the number of individual items that make up the load

School of Engineering 3
Materials Handling Principles

Space Utilization Space in material handling is three dimensional and


Principle therefore is measured in cubic space

A system is a collection of interacting and/or


System Principle interdependent entities which form a unified whole

Automation Suggests the linking of multiple mechanical


operations to create a system that can be controlled
Principle by programming

Environmental Environmental impact and energy consumption must


Principle be addressed

Life Cycle Cost Consider all cash flows from first dollar spent on
planning, procurement, installation, training to
Principle implementation until operation

School of Engineering 4
Material Handling Equipment
Pallets, Skid & Skid
Containers Boxes, Tote Pans
Containers and
Unitizing Equipment
Unitizers Stretchwrap, Palletizers

Material Material Transport Conveyors, industrial vehicles, Automated


Handling Equipment Guided Vehicles(AGVs),
Equipment monorails, fork lifts, hoists and cranes

Operator-to-Stock
Storage
Stock-to-Operator
Storage and System
Retrieval Equipment
Pallet / Unit

Retrieval
Pallet / Unit
System

School of Engineering 5
Material Transport Equipment

Automated Guided
Conveyors
Vehicles (AGVs)
Quantity

Hand Trucks Power Trucks

Distance

School of Engineering 6
Material Transport Equipment
- Conveyors
A conveyor is a form of material transport equipment in the same
category as industrial vehicles, hoists and cranes
Conveyors are used when material is to be moved frequently between
specific points over a fixed path
Bases to classify conveyors:
The type of product being handled (bulk or unit) and
the location of the conveyor (overhead or floor)
Such classification systems are not mutually exclusive, that is, the
same conveyor can convey both bulk and unit materials, and can be
located overhead or on the floor
Bulk materials such as grain, dry chemicals, etc. might be conveyed
using flat-belt, chute or vibrating conveyors
Unit materials such as machined parts, materials in carton boxes, etc
might be conveyed using roller, trolley or flat-belt conveyors
Conveyors characterize the product line layout in a continuous
manufacturing environment
School of Engineering 7
Main Conveyor Types
1. Flat-belt conveyor
A wide belt pulled over a flat framework or rollers by a driving pulley, with the slack taken up
by a driven pulley
The belt can be made from rubber or fabric, or composed of slats or wire mesh, depending
on application requirements

2. Roller conveyor
Commonly used for packaged materials or materials on pallets
The minimum package size is 2 roller width
Gravity rollers (non-powered) can be applied for slight inclines
Conveyor can be powered by running a belt below the rollers

3. Trolley conveyor
Built on I-beam, acting as the track, like a monorail
The lower flange supports wheeled trolleys spaced at regular intervals via a chain
The chain is pulled at constant speed by a drive mechanism located along the conveyor route
Material is moved by placement on hooks, racks, hangers, etc attached to wheeled trolleys
Can act as in-process storage due to conveyor variable height characteristic
The conveyor forms a (variable height) loop within the plant, eventually returning to its
starting point

School of Engineering 8
Material Transport Equipment
- Main Conveyor Types
Flat-belt Roller Trolley

School of Engineering 9
Storage and Retrieval Equipment
Small Load Unit Load
Operator-to-Stock Stock-to-Operator Pallet/Unit Storage Pallet/Unit Retrieval
Storage Systems Storage Systems Systems Systems

Bin shelving Carousels Block stacking Walkie stackers


systems 1. Horizontal Pallet stacking Counterbalanced
Modular storage 2. Vertical frames lift trucks
drawers/cabinets Miniload Single-deep pallet Straddle trucks
Gravity flow rack Automated storage rack Straddle reach
Space saving and retrieval Double-deep pallet trucks
systems (AS/RS) rack Sideloader trucks
Mezzanines Drive-in rack Turret trucks
Mobile storage Drive-thru rack Hybrid trucks
systems Flow rack Automated storage
Push-back rack and retrieval (AS/RS)
Mobile pallet rack machines
Cantilever rack

School of Engineering 10
Operator-to-Stock Storage System
- Example: Space Saving System (Mezzanine)

School of Engineering
Operator-to-Stock Storage System
- Example: Space Saving System (Mezzanine)

Nearly twice as much material


can be stored in the original
square footage
Cost: $10-$20 / ft2
Key implementation issue: Slot
the products so that most of the
picking activity takes place at the
floor level

School of Engineering
Stock-to-Operator Storage System
- Example: Automated Storage/Retrieval System
Computer algorithms in the AS/RS control computer determine
storage locations such that total distance traveled is minimized.
When storing materials/parts, the system delivers the items to an
open random location appropriate for the characteristics (i.e.
size, weight, etc.) of the items and records the location for future
reference so that the items may be retrieved.
The items retrieved are accumulated at a staging area, where
they are transferred to various materials handling devices for
delivery to other work areas.
Use AS/RS to
Increase storage capacity
Improve productivity
Improve safety
Improve security
Better inventory control
Increase throughput
School of Engineering 13
Stock-to-Operator Storage System
- Example: Automated Storage/Retrieval System

Miniload AS/RS
Front
View of
AS/RS

Side View of AS/RS Miniload AS/RS

School of Engineering 14
Stock-to-Operator Storage System
- Example: Automated Storage/Retrieval System
(Miniload)

Pick Rate: 40-200 picks/person hr


Vary in length from 40 to 200 feet and height from
8 feet to 50 feet
Storage containers are transported to and from an
order picking station
Cost: $150,000-$300,000 /aisle
S/R machine: 500 feet/minute horizontal speed
and 120 feet/minute vertically

School of Engineering 15
Pallet Storage System
- Example: Flow Rack

School of Engineering
Pallet Storage System
- Example: Flow Rack
Based on a First-In-First-Out
(FIFO) concept
As the load is removed from the
front of a storage lane, the next
load advances to the pick face.
High-throughput unit storage and
retrieval and good space
utilization
Used for items with high
inventory turnover and with
several units on hand
School of Engineering
Pallet Retrieval System
- Example: Walkie Stacker
Operator steers from a walking
position behind the vehicle
Can stack loads 3 loads high
Offers both pallet retrieval/putaway
and truck loading/unloading
Advantage: Low cost
Disadvantage: Short distances
Used when low throughput, short
travel distances and low vertical
storage height and low cost
requirements
School of Engineering
Suggested Solution
P10: Handling Systems

19
Todays Problem (Handling Method)
1. Peter had applied the Planning Principle when selecting a material
handling method.
2. He planned in a conveyor as the material transport equipment for
small load product.
- The conveyor (floor) can be designed with an angle of elevation
by increasing the friction factor.
3. He had also planned in the following storage and retrieval systems:
Small Load Unit Load
Operator-to-Stock Stock-to- Pallet/Unit Pallet/Unit
Storage System Operator Storage Storage System Retrieval System
System
Shelf/ Rack Miniload Flow rack (FIFO Walkie stacker
Automated concept)
storage and
retrieval (AS/RS)

School of Engineering 20
Proposed Layout
Storage
Area

AS/RS AS/RS AS/RS

Manual
Pallet Pallet Jack

Operator A
Conveyor
Operator Operator Unitization
B D
Flow Rack Operator F

Packing
Area Walkie Stacker
Operator
C Operator
E
Operator G
Shelf / rack

Shipping
Fire extinguisher,
First aid box, Area
Safety boots &
helmets

21
Learning Objective
Know the objectives of selecting material
handling equipment
Know the different types of material handling
equipment and evaluate their suitability for
the function required
Incorporate the considerations on material
handling equipment for layout planning

22
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P11 OPTIMIZING SPACE

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Optimizing Space

Bookworld Pte Ltd is a book distributor that distributes different types of books for
local publishing houses in Singapore. Recently they secured business deals with
overseas publishers to distribute their books in the country.

Bookworld Pte Ltd has a small warehouse in an industrial estate which has just
enough storage capacity to support its existing customers. Currently, the space
standard for determining the effective use of space in the warehouse exceeds
300 cubic feet per unit load.

Bookworlds management has decided not to expand the existing warehouse


floor space. The Operations Manager is tasked to increase the existing
warehouse storage by achieving a space standard of 300 cubic feet per unit load.
The warehouse presently employs 1-ton forklifts for material handling.

Below is the existing layout:

Warehouse Layout
A.dwg

Rack type: Pallet Rack


Rack size: 12 feet (length) by 4 feet (width)
Max stack height: 17 feet
Unit load dimensions: 4 feet (width) by 4 feet (depth) by 3.3 feet
(height)
Storage quantity (Max): 5 unit loads per stack

Help the Operations Manager to propose an alternative material handling


equipment and re-layout the warehouse accordingly. Calculate the additional
storage capacity from your warehouse re-layout.
E212Facilities Planning and Design

P11 : Optimizing Space


Warehousing Storage
Storage and warehousing resources are space,
equipment and personnel.

In designing storage and warehousing systems, it is


desirable to maximize:

a. Space utilization
b. Equipment utilization
c. Labor utilization
d. Material accessibility
e. Material protection
Warehousing Storage
Example of a Storage Analysis Chart used in calculating space requirements
Warehousing Storage
There are 2 major material storage philosophies:

1. Fixed (assigned) location storage


- each individual stock-keeping unit (SKU) is stored in a specific
location
- no other SKU may be stored there, even though the location
may be empty

2. Random (floating) location storage


- any SKU may be assigned to any available storage location
- a SKU stored in location 1 might be stored in location 2 the
following month and a different SKU stored in location 1

The amount of space planned for a SKU is directly related to


the method of assigning space.
Warehousing Storage
A space standard is the volume requirement per unit load stored
to include allocated space for aisles and non-usable space.

Total warehouse volume = Storage space + Aisleway space +


Non-usable space

Space standard = Total warehouse volume /Total unit load quantity


Aisle Space Requirement
Dependent on the type of material handling equipment
Recommended aisle width for various types of flow
Type of Flow Aisle Width (feet)

Tractors 12
3-ton Forklift 11
2-ton Forklift 10
1-ton Forklift 9
Narrow aisle truck 6
Manual platform truck 5
Personnel 3
Personnel with doors opening in the aisle 6
from one side
Personnel with doors opening in the aisle 8
from two sides
Aisle Types (Lift Truck Classification)
Wide Aisle and Narrow Aisle trucks are designed to turn in the aisle
while Very Narrow Aisle trucks do not turn within the aisle
Wide Aisle
Standard forklifts fall into this category of trucks designed to work
in aisles greater than 11' wide.
Narrow Aisle (NA)
Narrow aisle trucks operate in aisles of 8' to 10' and are
generally stand up vehicles such as Reach Trucks.
Very Narrow Aisle (VNA)
Very narrow aisle trucks operate in aisles less than 6' and often
use guidance systems (wire, rail, or optical) to travel within the
aisles
Other Considerations (Material Handling
Selection)

Indoor vs Outdoor use


Lift Capacity and Lift Height
Manual vs Automated
System requirement e.g. guidance system
Cost
P09 Sample Solution
Present Warehouse Layout

The existing aisles


(9 feet) which is the
recommended aisle
width for 1-ton
Forklifts.

There is only 1 type


and size of storage
rack used.
Present Warehouse Layout
Storage quantity per 17 stack height = 5 unit loads
Number of stacks per 12 rack = (12 / 4) 1 = 2
Total number of racks = 24

Maximum number of unit loads that can be stored in warehouse


= 5 unit load/stack x 2 stack/rack x 24 racks
= 240 unit loads

Assumptions:
1.The office, toilet, receiving pallets area, outgoing pallet areas are
non-usable space
2.Forklift can be parked at any aisle in the warehouse.
3.Storage assignment is not location-specific
4.Total horizontal clearance allowance between stacks is 2 feet for
whole length of rack (12 feet)
Present Warehouse Layout
Total storage space (based on 17 feet stack height)
= Individual rack volume x Number of racks
= 12 x 4 x 17 x 24
= 19584 cubic ft

Total warehouse space (based on 17 feet stack height)


= Length x Breadth x Height
= 90 x 51 x 17
= 78030 cubic ft

Total space due to aisles = Warehouse space Storage volume


Non-usable space
= 78030 19584 (6 3x 5 6 + 20 x 8 2 + 2 x 10 7 x 11 11) x 17
= 78030 19584 (39.149 + 178.2101 + 2 x 127.76) X 17
= 78030 19584 8038.94
= 50407.06 cubic ft
Present Warehouse Layout
Space Standard = Total warehouse volume /Total unit load quantity
= 78030 / 240
= 325.16 cubic ft / unit load

The present space standard does not meet the corporate


requirements of < 300 cubic ft / unit load

Percentage loss in space utilization due to aisles


= [Total space due to aisles / Total warehouse space] x 100%
= [50407.06 / 78030] x 100%
= 64.6%
Proposed Warehouse Layout
Replace the 1-ton
forklift with narrow
aisle truck

The aisle width


between racks will be
based on the
recommended value
of 6

Main aisle width is


14.

10 additional racks
can be added.
Proposed Warehouse Layout
Storage quantity per 17 stack = 5 unit loads
Number of stacks per 12 rack = (12 / 4) - 1 = 2
Total number of racks = 34

Maximum number of unit loads that can be stored in warehouse


= 5 unit load/stack x 2 stack/rack x 34 racks
= 340 unit loads

Assumptions:
1.The office, toilet, receiving pallets area, outgoing pallet areas are
non-usable space
2.The narrow aisle truck is within the specifications
3. Storage assignment is not location-specific
4. Total horizontal clearance allowance between stacks is 2 feet for
whole length of rack (12 feet)
Proposed Warehouse Layout
Total storage space (based on 17 stack height)
= Individual rack volume x Number of racks
= 12 x 4 x 17 x 34
= 27744 cubic ft

Total warehouse space (based on 17 stack height)


= Length x Breadth x Height
= 90 x 51 x 17
= 78030 cubic ft

Total space due to aisles = Warehouse space Storage volume


Non-usable space
= 78030 27744 8038.94
= 42247.06 cubic ft
Proposed Warehouse Layout

Space Standard = Total warehouse volume /Total unit load quantity


= 78030 / 340
= 229.5 cubic ft / unit load

The space standard from the proposed layout will meet the
corporate requirements of < 300 cubic ft / unit load

Percentage loss in space utilization due to aisles


= [Total space due to aisles / Total warehouse space] x 100%
= [42247.06 / 78030] x 100%
= 54.14% (reduction of 10.46%)
Proposed Warehouse Layout
Layout factors that support fulfilling of space standard:

1. Increasing the number of storage racks within the same


space, leading to higher capacity
2. Use of narrow-aisle truck in place of forklift, resulting in lower
loss in space utilization
3. Minimal or no wasted spaces

Note that these factors are inter-related.


Lesson Objectives
Determine the storage area profiling based on storage
capacity required and types of unit load

Achieve additional warehouse storage capacity through


facilities re-layout.

19
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P12 DOCKING ARRANGEMENT

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 3
Docking Arrangement

Autosmax Pte Ltd is a Distribution Centre (DC) for automotive engineering


products. Due to business expansion, there has been an increase in the volume
of shipment in recent months. The existing receiving and shipping department is
facing difficulty in managing the incoming and outgoing goods of the Distribution
Centre. Recently, there have been incidents where goods are mixed up and
wrong parts are shipped to the customers. Below is the layout of the storage and
warehouse department in the Distribution Centre.

Security Office

OFFICE
81'-6 9/16"

46'-0"
10'-9"

STORES AREA
Incoming and
12'-0"

shipment

Storage Container

Storage Container
Staging Area
Control Station

WAREHOUSE

Storage Container

A
Storage Container
WAREHOUSE

Existing FacilityA.vsd

There is a central docking bay in the company that supports up to two 40 ft trucks
at any point of time. Currently, all the incoming and outgoing shipment will need
to go through this central docking bay.

At the present moment, your distribution centre is able to handle 10 container


trucks with arrival time following a Poisson distribution which arrived in a Poisson
fashion. The distribution centre operates on an 8 hours day. The loading and
unloading time for each truck is exponentially distributed with a mean of 30
minutes. The chance of a truck having to wait for it turns to berth is less than 5%.
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

Your company management wants to re-layout the existing receiving and


shipping areas to triple the handling capacity of trucks while maintaining the
service level.

The storage containers as well as the car park lots can be reduced to cater for
additional space. However, for security reasons, transportation access located on
one side of the facility will remain unchanged.

You are tasked to a work team for this re-layout project. A meeting with
management has been scheduled in a weeks time, to look into dock location and
the type of dock configurations to use.

Prepare the discussion materials for this meeting.

Page 3 of 3
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P12 : Docking Arrangement


Warehouse Functions
Space Requirement for Receiving
and Shipping
To find out total space requirement for warehouse receiving and
shipping areas:
1) What is to be received and shipped
- Can use an analysis chart comprising:
a) Unit Loads: Type, Capacity, Size, Weight
b) Shipment: Size, Frequency
c) Transportation: Mode, Specifications
d) Material Handling: Method, Time
2) Number and type of docks
- Number of docks: Waiting line analysis, Simulation
- Type of docks: Flow of carriers, Maneuvering space available
3) Internal shipping and receiving areas
- For office, receiving hold, disposal, pallets, equipment, staging, etc
Analysis Chart
Example of an Analysis Chart
Receiving and Shipping Docks
Central Dock (single dock for both receiving and shipping)

- Common equipment and personnel


- Better space utilization
- Higher incidence of space congestion
- Greater risk of material loss
- Error in material flow direction, e.g. shipping out a newly-received part by
mistake

Point-of-use Dock (multiple docks for receiving or shipping)

- Dedicated function, e.g. receiving frequent deliveries from light-duty


carriers or shipping specific category of goods
- Often used to support Just-in-Time (JIT) manufacturing set-ups
- Usually requires more space than central docking
Warehouse Dock Configurations
Docks are among the first requirements at a site and are vital for
smooth operations. Dock width that is commonly adopted is 12
feet.
For highly busy docks, width of 14 feet is employed.

90o Dock

- Requires greater apron depth but less bay width


- Larger outside turning area for carriers
- Commonly used when outside space is sufficient
Warehouse Dock Configurations
Finger Dock

- Requires lesser apron depth but more bay width


- Bigger inside maneuvering area for carriers
- Used when there is insufficient apron depth to support 90o dock
- The largest finger dock angle possible should be selected
Warehouse Dock Configurations
Space Requirements for Space Requirements for Finger Dock
90o Dock (12 feet width) (12 feet width, 40 feet carrier)

For finger dock, if tractors will be disconnected when the container is parked,
decrease the required apron space shown in the table by 7.3, 6.7, 5.6 and 4.2
meters for 15, 30, 45 and 60 degrees respectively.
Present Warehouse Layout
The Distribution Centre is a small-sized warehouse with storage
area taking up close to half the total land area. There is a small
back-end office at the back of the facility.

Transportation access is located on one side of the warehouse,


where receiving and shipping activities take place.

The Distribution Centre use a Centre Dock for both it incoming


goods and outgoing shipment. This lead to incident of mixed
shipment to customer. There are also congestion in the shipping and
receiving area.
Warehouse Dock Location
Constraint:

One-side access

R: Receiving
S: Shipping

Dock location Point-of-use Point-of-use Centralized


Space between
R and S Not Used Not used Used
Calculation on the Total Number of
Docks
Given 8 hr day = 480 min and 30 trucks per day
For 30 minutes of loading and unloading time,
No of Trucks in the Distribution centre at any given time = 30/480 *30 = 1.875

Let x be the total number of Docks,


Probability of waiting for a truck = 1 P(x)
= 1 POISSON(x,1.875,TRUE)
Trucks per 8 Mean Number of Total Probability of
hour day Trucks per Calls per Number of waiting
30mins interval Docks
30 1.875 2 0.2895

30 1.875 3 0.1211

30 1.875 4 0.0421

With four docks, the probability of a container truck having to wait its turn at the
Distribution centre is 4.21%.
(11)
Warehouse Dock Layout
Dock need to be change to point-of-use, to avoid mixing of goods for
shipment. The present area should be able to support a maximum of
4 point-of-use docks (2 receiving, 2 shipping) with sufficient internal
maneuvering space for trucks.

Looking at the existing warehouse diagram, the present receiving


and
o
shipping area does not have sufficient apron depth to support
90 dock configuration
o
if there are need for increasing docking
activities. 45 docking configuration is used.

Finger dock, using the 45o angle will be more appropriate. Dock
width of 12 feet should suffice as dock activity is unlikely to be
highly busy. An important assumption will be that external
maneuvering space for trucks (just outside the facility perimeter) is
available, e.g. using part of access road.

Warehouse space expansion planning should not interfere with dock


operations. The direction of space expansion should not cross with
dock operations flow.
Proposed Warehouse Layout
Taking into the consideration of the space requirement of the 45o
dock for 40 feet truck, four trucks can be docked (Point of use)
Existing warehouse layout need only be altered slightly for the
above configuration, from centralized dock to point of use docks.
Lesson Objectives
Identify different types of dock layout

Identify the physical constraints posed by a particular


building design/ layout

Identify the process flow from/to the receiving and shipping


activity

Determine suitable dock configuration based on operations


requirement(s)

14
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P13 MAINTAINING SOUND QUALITY

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Maintaining Sound Quality

You are the newly appointed Facilities Maintenance Manager for a theatre in the
city centre. Your duties include identifying and establishing strategies for
equipment replacement, outsourcing of services and budgeting.

One of the main equipment in the theatre is its Audio and Visual (AV) system.
The current AV system is reaching the end of it 10 years service life. There have
been several incidents of the AV system breakdown in the past year and the AV
vendor has to be activated for urgent repair as in-house technicians are unable to
resolve. The servicing and maintenance cost over the past year obtained from
records is $25,000 while running costs every year is $10,000.

You have been quoted $200,000 by the vendor for a replacement AV system of
equal capability. The estimated servicing and maintenance costs for the
replacement AV system will be at $10,000 per annum. The new AV system is
expected to incur 15% less running cost per year. You have also managed to
find a bank loan for the capital cost at 6% per annum over 5 years period for the
new AV system.

Alternatively, the AV vendor has proposed to lease an AV system to the theatre


at $50,000 per annum. The vendor will take care of all breakdown repairs and
maintenance cost.

What will be the most viable option for the theatres AV system based on
maintenance strategies? Justify your selection.
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P13: Maintaining Sound Quality


Facilities Maintenance
- Refers to all the work activities that need to be carried out to keep a
facilitys systems functioning well

- Objective is to ensure system capability at minimal cost

- Examples of maintenance works:

a) in-house maintenance
b) service contract
c) centralized or de-centralized management
d) scheduling of equipment service or inspection
e) preventive maintenance
f) individual or group replacement

2
Facilities Maintenance
- Key terms used in facilities maintenance:

a) Reliability (R)
- probability that an item will function for a given time
b) Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)
- average time between failures of a repairable item
c) Failure Rate (FR)
- reciprocal of MTBF

- Some tactics for good facilities maintenance:

a) constantly improve repair capabilities


b) implement preventive maintenance where feasible
c) improve equipment reliability
d) always cater redundancy for critical equipment

3
Facilities Maintenance
Breakdown Maintenance versus Preventive Maintenance
- Remedial, responsive - Pre-emptive, averts failure
- Non-routine servicing - Regular inspection and servicing
- Trigger: equipment failure - Basis: schedule, control charts

Reliability R for system with n series components:

R(system) = R(1) x R(2) x R(3) . . x R(n)

Reliability R for system with n parallel components:

1/R(system) = 1/R(1) x 1/R(2) x 1/R(3) . . x 1/R(n)

4
P13 Proposed Solution

5
Proposed Solution
Assumption for this calculation
Maintenance Cost, Service Cost and Running Cost remain constant
Tax Benefits and Depreciation is not taken into accord for this
calculation.

6
Proposed Solution
Capital Cost per annum over 5 year for new AV system

Given that the new AV system costs $200,000 at 6% interest.


The cost per annum over a period of 5 year will be
Method 1: Use relation A=P(i(1+i)n/[(1+i)n -1])

A = $200,000((0.06) *(1+0.06)5/[(1+0.06)5 -1]) = $47,479

Method 2: Use table

A = P[A/P , 6%, 5]=$200,000(0.2374) = $47,480

Method 3: Excel Financial Function

A = PMT (6/100, 5, 200000, 0, 0) = ~$47,479

7
Proposed Solution
Cost Analysis
Calculate cost per annum for each option.
Lease AV New AV Variance ($)
System ($) System ($)
Capital cost at 6% Nil 47,479 47,479
over 5 years p.a.
Servicing and Nil 10,000 10,000
Maintenance
Running Costs 10,000 8,500 -1,500
Leasing 50,000 0 -50,000
Agreement with
AV vendor
Total Costs 60,000 65,979 5,979

8
Proposed Solution
Conclusion
Base on cost analysis, it is cheaper to lease the AV system from the
vendor.
A new AV system will improve the efficiency of the sound quality.
Base on the facility objective, there should be minimum breakdown
as it will cause disruption to performance in the theatre.
Despite the higher annual cost, a new AV system will be the best
option based on the facility objective.

9
Life Cycle Costing
Life Cycle costing is all about preplanning to anticipate replacement,
applying it at the point that is most beneficial to the organization and
ensuring that there are no consequential risk.

As the facilities manager you will not get this correct all the time, but
with experience of your building activities, plus an increase base point
where it can be contained within a small contingency budget of, say
five to ten per cent.

Active budget monitoring through expenditure variance reports,


presented at least quarterly but preferably monthly, will allow you to
seek additional funding before an overspend occurs.

10
Life Cycle Costing

11
Lesson Objectives
Know the importance of break down maintenance and preventive
maintenance in facility planning

Selecting suitable Maintenance Approach

Calculate the facility maintenance cost and select an appropriate


maintenance plan based on facility objective(s)

12
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P14 Car Park

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Car Park

Geo medical, a pharmaceutical company based in Australia has decided to build a


flatted factory in Singapore to support their Asian market. The factory building occupied
350m x 50m. A team from the company is tasked to work on this new project.

Kenneth being part of the team was tasked to design the car park 50m x 35m layout for
the new factory. However he is not familiar with the Singapore car park guidelines and
the only information he knows was the factory was conveniently accessible by public
transport.

What advice and car park layout would you recommend him based on the given layout
plan.

Initial_Drawing.vsd
.
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P14: Car Park


Vehicle Parking Design
Procedures:
1) Determine the number of vehicles to be parked
2) Determine the space requirement for each vehicle
3) Determine the available space
4) Determine alternative parking layouts for different
parking configurations
5) Modifying alternatives based on any other
requirements
6) Select the most suitable layout

School of Engineering 2
Vehicle Parking Design in Singapore
The Land Transport Authority (LTA) provides the rules
and guidelines on the requirements for provision of
parking places and spaces
The Parking Places (Provision of Parking Places and
Parking Spaces) Rules stipulate the minimum number
of parking spaces to be provided for the various land
and building uses, the minimum dimensions of such
parking spaces, circulation aisle, access ramps and
other details on the arrangement of the parking place
and spaces. (From Handbook on vehicle parking provision
development proposals, LTA)

School of Engineering 3
Car Park Design considerations
Parking Provision Standards

Factory

(a) Factory includes office, up to 1 car space per 350 sq.m


25% of total floor area, canteen 1 lorry/loading & unloading space per
and ancillary storage 3,000 sq.m.
(i) Flatted Type

- Local zoning regulations

- Handicapped Parking

4
Parking Stall Dimensions
Standard Car

The minimum dimensions required of


a car parking stall are as
follows:

Stall width: 2400


Stall length: 4800
Stall length for parallel parking: 5400

All dimensions in mm

School of Engineering 5
Parking Stall Dimensions
Handicapped Parking Lot

Dimensions of 4800 mm by 3600 mm;

A firm, level surface without aeration


slabs; and

Wherever possible, be sheltered

Where vehicle parks are required to be


provided, the number of accessible
parking lots for vehicles driven by persons
with disabilities

All dimensions in mm

6
Parking Stall Dimensions
Motor-cycle Parking Lot

Minimum dimensions of motor-cycle parking stall: 800 x 2400


Preferred dimensions of motor-cycle parking stall: 1000 x 2500

Motor-cycle parking stalls can be provided at corners or any


available space within the parking place. They should not obstruct
movement of other vehicles and pedestrians.

All dimensions in mm

7
Parking Aisle
A parking aisle refers to an access lane or driveway with
adjacent parking stalls.
Parking angle is the angle measured between the longer
side of the parking stall and the line of traffic flow of the
aisle.
Traffic Flow refers to the direction of vehicle movement.
Parking Angle

Traffic Flow

Parking Aisle

School of Engineering 8
Parking Configurations

90o Parking Angled Parking Parallel Parking

School of Engineering 9
Typical Parking Aisle Dimensions

All dimensions in mm

10
Typical Parking Aisle Dimensions

30 0 -Angled Parking Aisle 90 0 -Angled Parking Aisle


All dimensions in mm

11
Other Considerations

Increasing the area provided for parking decreases


the amount of time required to park

Angular configurations allow quicker turnover

Perpendicular parking often yields greater space


utilization, although it also requires wider aisles

As the angle of a parking space increases, so does


the required space allocated to aisles

12
Proposed Solution
Based on parking provision standards,
Minimum car lots = (350 x 50)/350 = 50
Minimum Handicapped stalls =2

Recommended
Parking stalls allocation is as follows:
Motorcycles stalls 26
Standard car stalls 60
Handicapped stalls 2
Reserved stalls 2

The parking stall dimensions should adhere to a standard


car size
13
Proposed
Solution

14
Learning Objectives

- Know the dimensions requirements for different


vehicles in a parking facility
- Layout a parking facility based according to
government regulations and guidelines

15
SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING

P15 REVIEIWING THE FACILITY


PLAN

E212 : Facilities Planning and Design

Copyright 2010 School of Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the School of
Engineering, Republic Polytechnic, Singapore

Page 1 of 2
Reviewing the Facility Plan

The new Asia-Pacific Youth Games will be held in two years time and your
Polytechnic has been selected as one of the venues for the sports event.

You are tasked to review the existing facility plan of the Sport Complex in your
Polytechnic with regards to its location, layout type, sport facilities and
maintenance.

How will you present your evaluation report? What other considerations do you
need to look into?

How could the existing facility layout be improved to cater for the upcoming
games?

sports_complex_map
.pdf
E212 Facilities Planning and Design

P15 Reviewing the Facility Plan

School of Engineering
Recall: Facilities Planning Hierarchy

Facilities planning covers both facilities location and facilities


design.
Facilities
Location

Facility
System
Design
Facilities
Planning

Facilities Layout
Design Design

Handling
Systems
Design

School of Engineering 2
Recall: Factors Affecting Location Selection

Regional factors
Market location
Raw material and supplier proximity
Transportation facilities
Labour climate
Quality of life
Government

School of Engineering 3
Recall: Facilities Design
Facilities design consists of the facility systems, layout and
handling system:
o Facility systems structural, atmospheric, enclosure,
lighting, electrical, communications, safety and sanitation
systems
o Layout equipment, machinery, furnishings and fittings
within the facility envelope
o Handling system the mechanisms needed to satisfy the
required movements within the facility

School of Engineering 4
Recall: Facilities Planning for Personnel
Requirements
Key aspects to consider when doing facilities planning:
Locker rooms proximity to staff entrances, allocation by
gender, ventilation, traffic flow
Restrooms near work area, minimum number required,
privacy, allocation by gender
Food services number of staff, kitchen and dining area
layout, ease of cleaning, aesthetic factors,
location, ventilation
Drinking fountains quantity, location, distribution
Health services first aid room and first aid kits, location,
evacuation routes
Car parks number of staff, space utilization, traffic flow

School of Engineering 5
5
Recall: Layout Types
Basic layout types: 1. Fixed-position
2. Product
3. Process
4. Cellular
5. Mixed

Types of flow: Materials, People, Equipment, Documents

Flow can be within workstation, within a department (intra-cell) or


between departments (inter-cell)

Equipment requirements planning is important for layout planning.

School of Engineering 6
6
Recall: REL Chart and CORELAP
A relationship (REL) chart shows the relationship
between all the department

The manual CORELAP algorithm is an initial process


layout method which makes use of the REL chart.
CORELAP algorithm attempts to maximize the Weight
Placement (WP) values between the departments.

Example of REL Chart

7
Recall: Space Requirement
Determining the amount of space required in a facility
is perhaps the most difficult determination in facilities
planning
Determine the space requirement based on
workstation specifications for equipment, materials,
and personnel and departmental specifications.
Aisles has to be taken into account when doing space
planning. Typical aisle space for personnel: 3 feet

School of Engineering 8
8
Facility Systems
1) Structural System: Refers to the steel skeleton frame or reinforced concrete
skeleton frame used in most industrial facilities

2) Enclosure System: Refers to the floor, walls and room within a facility

3) Atmospheric System: Refers to systems for heating, ventilation and air-


conditioning that control the temperature, humidity and cleanliness of a facility

4) Electrical and Lighting System: Refers to electrical mains, switchgear,


transformers, feeders, panel boards and circuits

5) Life Safety System : Refers to systems that are designed to control


emergency situations created by fire, seismic events and power failure

6) Sanitation System : Refers to refuse handling system and plumbing


system

School of Engineering 9
9
Recall: Office Facility Planning
Examples of security measures / devices
Outer Circle: Gates / Doors
Locks
Alarms
Warning signs
Ample lighting
Motion detectors

Inner Circle: Smart Cards


Biometrics

Integrated: Closed-Circuit TV

School of Engineering 10
10
Recall: Facilities Maintenance
- Refers to all the work activities that need to be carried out to keep a
facilitys systems functioning well

- Objective is to ensure system capability at minimal cost

- Examples of maintenance works:

a) in-house maintenance
b) service contract
c) centralized or de-centralized management
d) scheduling of equipment service or inspection
e) preventive maintenance
f) individual or group replacement

School of Engineering 11
11
Recall: Materials Handling Equipment
Types of Material Handling Equipment
Industrial Trucks
Automated Guided Vehicles
Monorail
Conveyors
Cranes & Hoists
Fork Lifts
Automated Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS)
Hand Trucks

Material Handling Principles


1) Planning Principle 6)Space Utilization Principle
2) Standardization Principle 7) System Principle
3)Work Principle 8) Automation Principle
4) Ergonomic Principle 9) Environmental Principle
5) Unit Load Principle 10)Life Cycle Cost Principle

School of Engineering 12
Recall: Vehicle Parking Design

Procedures:
1) Determine the number of vehicles to be parked
2) Determine the space requirement for each vehicle
3) Determine the available space
4) Determine alternative parking layouts for different
parking configurations
5) Modifying alternatives based on any other
requirements
6) Select the most suitable layout

School of Engineering 13
Some Guidelines and Regulations for
Facility Plan

1) Workplace Health and Safety Act

2) Environmental Pollution Control Act

3) Singapore Fire Safety Act

4) Provision of Parking Places and Parking


Spaces Rules

School of Engineering 14
14
Example of an Evaluation Report

Extracted from Facilities Evaluation Handbook 2nd Edition


K.L Petrocelly and Albert Thumman,
The Fairmont Press, Inc

School of Engineering 15
Problem Statement: Evaluating the
Existing Facility Plan
When evaluating a facility layout plan, there are some
questions you may want to consider:
1) What is the facility objective(s)?
2) Is the facility suitably located?
3) What is the layout type used?
4) Is the layout type suitable?
5) What are the material handling equipment used?
6) How does the traffic flows within the facility?
7) Does the layout suits the facility objective(s)?
8) Are the sport amenities placed appropriately?
9) Are there sufficient facility system (Example: life safety equipment)
and are they suitably located?
10)Does the facility adhere to various guidelines and requirements?
(Example: aisle space, amenities space and etc.)
11) How will the facility systems be maintained?
12) How could the facility layout and plan be improved?

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Facility Plan of the Sport Complex
Strengths:
- There is a large variety of sport amenities in the sport complex.

Weakness:
- Small Parking lots for coach buses and cars.
- Not able to support Track and Field events due to lack of tracks.
- Need to relook into the flow of human traffic during big events.

Potential Area for Improvement:


- Car Park Lot Expansion
- Improve Track and Field facility to met International Standard

Other Area for consideration:


- Accessibility for the handicapped
- Human Traffic Flow during large sporting events

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Lesson Objectives
Identify the strengths and weakness of an existing layout

Prepare an evaluation report for an existing layout plan

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