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MPU3312 Pembangunan Belia

1.0 Introduction

Western culture is sometimes can be referred as Western civilization, Western lifestyle


or European civilization. Western culture can be conceptualized based on the classical
definition of the Western world. This concept says that Western culture is circulated by the set
of literary, scientific, political, artistic and philosophical principles that set it apart from other
civilizations.

The formation of western culture today goes through various states: Originated from
Ancient Greece, Spreads by Roman Empire, Influential by Christianity, Stagnated during
Dark Ages, Rebirth: Renaissance, New ideas: Scientific Revolution, Logic and Reason: Age
of Enlightenment, Independence: American Revolution, Industry Revolution and lastly,
Modern Civilization (Todays Western culture).

1) There are major elements of Western culture that first commerce more than 2000
years ago in ancient Greece. The ancient Romans spread Greek ideas throughout their
empire, which included much of Europe after conquering the Greeks. Soon, the
falling off of the Roman Empire has caused these ideas to lose their marked in the
European society during most of the Middle Ages (500-1500 C.E.). It was not until
the Renaissance (1350-1500 C.E.) that the ancient Greek and Roman origins of many
European institutions and practices were rediscovered. One raised element of Greek
thought was the concept that humans are the measure of all things. This caused
curiosity of the ancient Greeks has rise towards the knowledge of how the universe
works. To probe such questions, the Greeks turned to philosophy, mathematics, and
science.

2) Christianity has been historically intertwined with Western civilization. Through its
long history, the Church has been a major source of social services such as schooling
even serving the tertiary education. Even some historians of science, have actually
argued that the Church had a significant, positive influence on the development
of science. This contribution has included some of the Church's priests. In various
ways the Church has sought to affect Western attitudes to vice and virtue in diverse
fields. It has been over many centuries, the teachings of Jesus within the Western

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World has declared and remains a source of continuity linking modern Western
culture to classical Western culture.

3) Dark Ages is a term of historical periodization traditionally meaning the Middle Ages.
It emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that occurred in Western Europe
following the decline of the Roman Empire.

4) The term Renaissance simply means "rebirth". It is the period in European civilization
immediately following the Middle Ages, generally held to have been characterized by
a flow of interest in classical learning and values. The discovery and exploration of
new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of
astronomy, the decline of the feudal system and the growth of commerce, and the
invention or application of such potentially powerful innovations as paper, printing,
the mariner's compass, and gunpowder have been witnessed by the renaissance. It was
said as a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of
cultural decline and stagnation.

5) The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early
modern period.

Development in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human


anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. The scientific
revolution began in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued
through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known
as the Enlightenment.

6) The Age of Enlightenment, sometimes called the Age of Reason, refers to the time of
the guiding intellectual movement, called The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment
advocated reason as a means to establishing an authoritative system of aesthetics,
ethics, government, and even religion, which would allow human beings to obtain
objective truth about the whole of reality. Emboldened by the revolution in physics
commenced by Newtonian kinematics, Enlightenment thinkers argued that reason
could free humankind from superstition and religious authoritarianism that had
brought suffering and death to millions in religious wars.

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7) Between 1776 and 1789, the United States emerged as an independent country,
creating and ratifying its new constitution, and establishing its national government.
In order to assert their traditional rights, American Patriots seized control of the
colonies and launched a war for independence. The Americans declared independence
on July 1776, proclaiming "all men are created equal."

8) Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. The French
Revolution broke out in 1789, and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe
for many decades. World War I began in 1914. Its inception resulted from many
trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century.

9) After went through all the stages mentioned, forms the todays western culture.

Today, the influences of Western culture can be seen in almost every country in the world,
especially the youth. The influences of Western culture are strongly affects the youth in
almost every field such as art, cuisine, clothing, sports and so on.

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2.0 Research Problem

Nowadays, we realize that people who adopt in western culture is become more familiar
especially youth. In the past, India, Chinese, Malay wear their own culture traditional dresses,
but now it is totally change, now the young generation wear jeans, t-shirts, minis, micros and
other. So this is a strong proof that how western culture influence on the youth. The aim for
our research is want to find out the reason that youth favour in western culture.

2.1 Reasons that Youth Favor the Western Culture

According to our research, youth favourite to western culture is because they that it is
so advanced and innovative. The youthful preference for Western leisure pursuits extends to
holiday celebrations. Young people who is adoption to western culture, they are happy to
celebrate traditional and foreign festival as long as they are good for fun. In an additional,
more than a little alarmed at how readily their offspring accept western culture of marriage
and sex. According to the survey Beijingers 2000 in China, there are only 30% of respondents
disagreed with the statement it is fine for lover to have sex whether or not they intend to
marry. This prove that Chinese youth apparently unconditional acceptance of western
culture.

On the other hand, the reason of youth favour on western culture is because it is very
popular and familiar through electronic media and everyone want to be just like them.
Moreover, other nations may lost their individuality and become a copy cat because in their
perception they do not want to be the olden day traditional country, they feel embarrassed
so they want to have a modern culture, so they are look forward to the culture in developed
countries (Western Culture).

Furthermore, the reason of western culture favour by youth is because the support for
artists of these talents. Western culture has influenced the lifestyle and value for the young
generation. As an example NBA league tournament is very famous in Asian Country and
young Chinese fans are avid reader of NBA Magazine and Slam. Not only that the famous
basketball player, Michael I. Jordan and famous England footballer, David Beckham become
the most popular sport and entertainment personality. So this is an important reason and
factor cause Western culture shift to Asian youth.

Moreover, led by wealthy Western countries, the mass media, the fashion industry and
the education curriculum, the perception of beauty is increasingly being defined by Western

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parameters due to reasons such as globalization, free trade and high technology. The
inundation of Western culture is undeniable as it has effects that are both unconsciously
beneficial and detrimental in our daily lives. Not only that, by adapting western culture our
teenagers are becoming more independent, confident and self-dependent which is extremely
good for our society.

On the other hand, the reason of youth favour in western culture is because of
majority of education include works of western people. English is known as an international
language, many country use English as their country language such as Singapore.
Furthermore, in Malaysia, our education is focus on English at all level, as an example, in
secondary school, the subject of science and mathematics using English to educate. In
university and college level, we are totally use English to educate for all subject. So this
indirect influence youth to adapt in western culture.

In an additional, Western culture and policies have shaped the modern world,
especially the Middle East in many ways, this is why it is favour by the young generation.
Since the sixteenth century, the nations of Western civilization have been the driving wheels
of modernization. Globalization is simply the spread of modern institutions and ideas from
one high power to the wider world. Technological innovation and economic growth along
with such concepts as democracy, individualism, and the rule of law administered by an
impartial judiciary, set Western societies above and beyond any possible rival. As an example
country in Asian, Japan who incorporated Western technologies and institutional
arrangements into their own systems. They successful in their confrontation with Western
state. This shows that Western culture and polices can be used by any religion so this is why a
lot of country encourage the Western culture.

According to P.F. Chiok , C.C. Low and S.M. Ang that youth always think that
western culture as a culture accepted worldwide by all communities and all races in all
countries around the world. In Malaysia, people like to copy the style from western country
because they think that western country is more develop than our country. In the field of
fashion design, most of fashion designer in Malaysia design their clothes based on western
country because they are more fashionable than our country and teenagers of today are also
attracting to dress up like the famous actor and actress in western country. Not only that, in
the food industry, Malaysia youth also change the way they eat. For example, they eat using
spoon, fork and chopstick but not using their hand anymore. Moreover, they also eat the

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western food and not interest with local food. They just eat western food such as steak,
spaghetti, pizza, chicken chop and etc. It is showing that, Malaysia youth has already adopt in
Western culture.

Last but not least, one of the reason for youth favour in Western culture is because the
habit of cleanliness. Some of Asian country include Malaysia have the habit of throwing
garbage here and there instead of putting it in its proper place. But, if you have been to any
western country, then you might have observed a big difference in cleanliness. They keep
their surroundings absolutely clean and do not throw even a single bit of paper on the road, in
parks or at public places. Everything is well maintained. Not only that, different types of
garbage like plastic, kitchen waste are required to be put in separate garbage bags in order for
recycle. So, this become the reason we must learn a sense of cleanliness from Western
culture.

The other reason youth favour in Western culture is professionalism. Be professional


like people in the West who do not allow their personal feelings, problems and dealings to
interfere in their professional lives. Along with this we must be punctual and respect the other
persons time. This is the point must be learn by Chinese in Malaysia. Therefore, going ahead
by preserving our values and culture is not wrong. Also, we should change with time for good
as everything in this world is changing. We must adopt good values of western culture to our
value system for betterment, growth and development.

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3.0 Effects of Practicing Western Culture:

Nowadays, western culture is getting more and more popular and it start influence most of the
East Countries and continue wide spreading said by Richard D. Lewis. Western culture
influence teenager dress code, food, entertainment even education. However, teenager as well
as youngster are starting to follow the trend and accept the western culture.

However, there are disadvantage and advantage by accepting the western culture. Some
teenager follow western culture is because of their partner are form west countries. Some
teenager learn western culture is because of study in west countries.

Nowadays, more and more couples as well as lover are came from different nationality. Such
as a European boy fall in love with an Asian girl. Those thing are common nowadays,
however, there are people still unable to accept these type of relationship. These type of mix
culture relationship may lead to other people's criticism when out with their boyfriend or
girlfriend which is another Nationality.

However, most of the teenager will not care how about how people look or criticism their
boyfriend or girlfriend which their boyfriend or girlfriend is from another nationality when
dating. Although some religion or culture may decline their relationship, but due to the
influence of the western culture, nowadays the teenager relationship is much more freedom
then old modern time. There are also a few reason why teenager are accepting the fact which
dating with different nationality. Some of the teenager also respond that love have nothing to
do with nationality, so they wont took it serious when people criticism them. They also said
that, dating with different nationality can learn different culture, and also can enjoy their
culture. Celebrating holidays and traditions from both countries allows them to be more open-
minded and cultured. Understanding the stories behind a countrys special days is important
to understanding another culture as a whole. Teenager will also cook their traditional food to
capture their partner heart during these special day. Teenager also can learn different
languages from their partner. They believe, dating someone from a different country or
nationality allows them a opportunity to practice a particular language with a native and
motivation to become more fluent.

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Not every people will accept western culture. They might prefer to stay with their own
traditional culture. It is because there is some advantage and disadvantage about western
culture. Western culture gives freedom for most of the things, it's liberal and moreover it
promotes equality. Some of the teenager give their reason why should agree western culture,
it is because some countries like India are men-dominated. They never well treat the women.
They also believe western culture give out equal treatment no matter who u are. Last but not
least, they said that western culture also teaches how to live their life without intervening in
others.

There are also people who disagree about western culture. It is because countries which
located in the East are based on morals and values adapted from their different traditions.
Western culture has brought many changes to their countries. Such as dress code, food habit
and lost the traditional. The style of dressing is entirely changed in nowadays due to
influence of western culture. Many people no longer wear traditional dress. As an example,
Chinese ladies doesnt not wear Qi Pao anymore when Chinese New Year and start wear
skirt, dress as well as jeans. There is a big difference between modernization and
westernization. People wear Jeans, T-shirts, Girls wear short skirts, tops, jeans etc. worst they
even wear to the holy places such as temple and etc. to pray. Not only dress code, the food
habit changed as well. Chinese people did not eat steamboat more compare to last time
during Chinese New Year. Instead of eating steamboat, they will but 3 to 4 large size pizza to
eat and celebrate Chinese New Year. Eating steamboat is a old traditional for Chinese, it mean
reunion. The traditional value have lost.

There are also few teenager is adapting these western culture. Adapting western culture have
more negative effect compare to positive effect. The reason why teenager will adapts these
western culture is because they can have the equality as well as freedom. Freedom such as
free to speech, free to choose and etc. Nowadays teenager like to speak up their own idea. By
the influence of the western culture, these teenager start to speak up for themselves speak
what they really want to.

However, there are a lot of teenager unable to adapt these western culture. They believe, they
should keep their own culture and maintain they own culture. Asian teenager believe by
adapting western culture will lost their moral value such become lost of respect to their
parent, having bad attitude and behavior.

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Teenager might agree about the western culture, but the negative effect about western culture
is too many compare to positive effect. Some of the western people even take drug to make
them feel relax and enjoy during weekend. By adapting western culture and rules, also may
disrespect their own traditional rules. Example, western ladies might wearing mini short and
top to a temple. However it is not proper dress code to went into the temple with a mini short
and a top. Adapting western culture also will cause bad attitude as well as bad behavior. Bad
attitude such as scold parent fault language due to freedom of speech, destroy public
facilities due to stress or even draw street wall by using paint. Some of the western teenager
also do not like to share their secret or problem to their family, they will find their best friend
to share the secret. It is dangerous to share personal information or leak out important
message to other people which is not family member. It may cause kidnap case. Some
teenager in western will also listen the advice from friend rather than family. Worse come to
worse, suicides cases might happen as well. Example, a girl which is just broke with her
boyfriend and her friend told she to suicides. The girl feel like suicides can help to solve all
the problem end up she choose to believe her friend and go for the suicides-problem
solving path. Western culture may cause lack of communication with family as well. So
there are a lot negative effect, and lot of Asian teenager still hope to follow their own
tradition culture.

The influence of Western culture although bring a lot of negative effect to the east
countries. However, by adapting western culture, it make Asian people can communicate with
the western people easily. Due to the influence of western culture, the education also have
been changed as well. Asian people no longer learn their own language but also start learning
English and English is now an international language to help Asian to communicate with the
Western people. Although the influence of western culture have help on increasing the
education levels in East countries, but East countries would not includes sex education in
their school lectures. The reason might due to the religion rules as well as conservative
thought. For example, Islamic countries cannot learn about the sex education, they will feel
shy and feel dirty when talk about sex.

Sex Education is getting more and more popular in western countries. In western
countries, sex education have already apply on their school lesson when they are 12. It is
because to reduce the rate of LGBT, rape case and etc. Sex Education is also important, it can
help youth to learn more about themselves. However in East countries, the teacher as well as
parent doesnt have confident when talking about the sex to their child or student.

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Personality is influenced by both biological and environmental factors; culture is one


of the most important environmental factors that shapes personality. Considering cultural
influences on personality is important because Western ideas and theories are not necessarily
applicable to other cultures. Research shows that the strength of personality traits varies
greatly across cultures. People who live in individualist cultures tend to value independence,
competition, and personal achievement, while people from collectivist cultures tend to value
social harmony, respectfulness, and group needs. In much the same manner that cultural
norms can influence personality and behavior, gender norms also emphasize different traits
between different genders and thereby influence the development of personality. Aggression
and assertiveness are emphasized as positive traits for males, while submissiveness and
caretaking are emphasized for females. There are three approaches that can be used to study
personality in a cultural context: the cultural-comparative approach, the indigenous approach,
and the combined approach, which incorporates elements of the first two approaches.

Other than that, Asian and Western can be largely explained by the dichotomy of
Close and Open societies. Religious traditions and ancient history are not exactly the right
explanations for this difference. West and East looked alike for most of human history. The
fork in the road happened only a couple of hundred years ago. Roughly around the time of the
French revolution, when the war of ideas between liberals and conservatives began.

The liberals have largely won this culture war in the west and are rapidly claiming the
last few remaining fronts. The war is still intensely being fought in the east, with
conservatives retaining the upper hand for the most part.

I strong belief that liberal ideas will eventually win everywhere. Asia is no exception.
Japan and South Korea are already half won. China is next in line, followed by India. Middle
East might be the last remaining battle field.

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4.0 Conclusion:

Todays western culture is been practiced in almost all countries. It is holding a huge
influence in the youth growing process. To experience the desire of youth in every sense like
egoistic, feeling great in oneself and so on, the youth today will always prefer the western
culture over the local culture. Of course, there are also benefits provided in the western
culture but it seems that negative effects are more compare to the positive ones. To balance
the line, youth are advisable to practice the good ones and leave behind the bad ones so that
adaption and adjustment of the appropriate behavior role is occurs.

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5.0 Questionnaire answer from respondents:

Part A:

Will Western culture can change a person's personality?

Yes No

Based on the research, 20 people all agreed that western culture can change a persons
personality.

Will Western culture different compare to asian culture?

Yes No

Bases on the research, All of the 20 people agree that western culture is different compare to
Asian culture.

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Is western culture more open minded than Asian Culture?

Yes No

Based on research it show that 4 people is disagree about western culture is open minded than
Asian culture. However 16 people agreed with the statement.

Will western culture education influence youth?

Yes No

Based on the research, 3 people disagree that western culture education will influence youth,
but 17 people agreed.

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Part B:

Will youth care about other people's criticism when dating?

No Moderate Agree Very Agree

Base on the research, 9 persons will not care about other peoples criticism when dating, 8
person is moderate, 2 persons Agree and 1 person is very agree mean they are care about
other people criticism on them,.

Will Youth Agree with Western Culture?

No Moderate Agree Very Agree

Research showing that 3 person will not agree with western culture, 7 persons are moderate,
4 persons agree and 6 persons are very agree with western culture.

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Will Yout Adapt to western Culture?

No Moderate Agree Very Agree

Based on the research, it is showing that 5 persons are not agree with adapt to western
culture. 3 person are moderate, for both agree and very agree the answer are same which is 6
persons.

Will Youth Feel Challenging to communicate with people from western?

No Moderate Agree Very Agree

Based on the research, it show that 6 person feel no challenge, 8 persons is moderate, 4
persons are agree and 1 person is very agree with there is a challenge to communicate with
people from western.

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Will Youth agree with Sex education?

No Moderate Agree Very Agree

Pie Chart showing that 2 persons will not agree, 1 person is moderate, 9 persons agree and 8
persons very agree with the sex education.

Is Western Culture is easier to be accepted by parrents who are more open-minded?

No Moderate Agree Very Agree

In this pie chart showing that 1 person disagree, 4 persons are moderate, 4 persons are agree
and 11 persons are very agree with western culture is easier to be accepts by parent who are
more open-minded.

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6.0 Reference

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Saleheen, A. (2014). Impact of western culture in Pakistan. [online]


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Studyfreak.com, (2016). GD Topic : Western culture adopted by india fair or not?.


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