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CROSS SECTION OF AN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL

ANIMAL CELL

Types of plant cell


Parenchyma Cells

Parenchyma cells are usually depicted as the typical plant cell because they are not very
specialized. These cells synthesize (by photosynthesis) and store organic products in the
plant. Most of the plant's metabolism takes place in these cells. Parenchyma cells compose
the middle layer of leaves as well as the outer and inner layers of stems and roots. The soft
tissue of fruits is also composed of parenchyma cells.

Collenchyma Cells

Collenchyma cells have a support function in plants, particularly in young plants. These cells
help to support plants while not restraining growth due to their lack of secondary cell walls
and the absence of a hardening agent in their primary cell walls.

Sclerenchyma Cells

Sclerenchyma cells also have a support function in plants, but unlike collenchyma cells, they
have a hardening agent and are much more rigid. These cells are thick and contain various
shapes. Sclerenchyma cells form the hard outer shell of nuts and seeds. They are found in
stems, roots, and leaf vascular bundles.

Types of animal cell


SKIN CELLS

The skin cells of animals mostly consist of keratinocytes and melanocytes cyte meaning
cell. Keratinocytes make up around 90% of all skin cells and produce a protein called
keratin. The keratin in skin cells helps to make skin an effective layer of protection for the
body. Keratin also makes hair and nails.

Melanocytes are the second main type of skin cell. They produce a compound called
melanin which gives skin its colour. Melanocytes s it underneath keratinocytes in a lower
layer of skin cells and the melanin they produce is transported up to the surface layers of
cells. The more melanocytes you have in your skin, the darker your skin is.

MUSCLE CELL

Myocytes, muscle fibers or muscle cells are long tubular cells responsible for moving an
organisms limbs and organs. Muscle cells can be either skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle
cells or smooth muscle cells

Skeletal muscle cells are the most common type of muscle cells and are responsible for
making general, conscious movements of the body. Cardiac muscle cells control contractions
of heart by generating electrical impulses and smooth muscle cells control subconscious
movements of tissues such as blood vessels, the uterus and the stomach.

BLOOD CELL
Blood cells can be split into red and white blood cells. Red blood cells make up around 99.9%
of all blood cells and are responsible for delivering oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the
body. Red blood cells are the only animal cells that do not have a nucleus. White blood cells
are a vital part of an animals immune system and help to battle infections by killing off
damaging bacteria and other compounds.

NERVE CELLS

Nerve cells, also called neurons, are the main cells of the nervous system. The human brain
alone has around 100 billion nerve cells. They are the message carriers of animal cells and
deliver and receive signals using dendrites and axons. Dendrites and axons are extensions
from the cell that receive and export signals to and from the cell, respectively.

FAT CELLS

Fat cells, also known as adipocytes or lipocytes, are used to store fats and other lipids as
energy reserves. There are two common types of fat cells in animals white fat cells and
brown fat cells. The main difference between the two cell types is the way they store lipids.
White fat cells have one large lipid drop whereas in brown fat cells there are multiple,
smaller lipid droplets spread through the cell.