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SBI 3013




1) Mimi Nurasyikin Binti Shamsudin
( D20162075565 )

2) Nur Fatini Izzati Binti Mohd

( D20162075567)

3) Nurhanisah Najwa Binti Ahmad Yani

( D20162075569)

Dates 21 March 2017

Lecturer En. Azmi Bin Ibrahim

Group B

A data logger or also known as data recorder is an electronic device that records
data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or
via external instruments and sensors. Increasingly, but not entirely, they are based on
a digital processor. They generally are small, battery powered, portable, and equipped
with a microprocessor, internal memory for data storage, and sensors. Some data
loggers interface with a personal computer, and use software to activate the data
logger and view and analyze the collected data, while others have a local interface
device such as keypads and can be used as a stand-alone device. Data logging systems
is typically monitor a process using sensors linked to a computer. Most data logging
can be done automatically under computer control.

Sensors have an important role in the data logging process. All physical
properties can be measured with sensors such as light, heat, sound, pressure, acidity
and humidity. The sensors send signals to an interface box, which is linked to a
computer. The interface box converts analogue signals to digital signals that the
computer can understand.

The computer controlling the process will take readings at regular intervals.
The time interval for data logging is the time between readings. The logging period is
the total length of time over which readings are taken. The readings are stored in
tables and can be displayed in graphs or passed to an application, such as a
spreadsheet, for later analysis. Sometimes it is necessary to record data 'out in the
field'. This is called remote data logging. Readings are stored and brought back to a
computer where they are downloaded and analysed. The equipment in these situations
needs to be very robust - equipment used to monitor water levels would have to be
waterproof; similarly equipment working in a satellite would have to be able to
withstand vibration during launch and recovery.

Sometimes a liquid can be sitting in one place (maybe a puddle) and its
molecules will become a gas. That is the process called evaporation. It can happen
when liquids are cold or when they are warm. It happens more often with warmer
liquids. You probably remember that when matter has a higher temperature, the
molecules have a higher energy. When the energy in specific molecules reaches a
certain level, they can have a phase change. Evaporation is all about the energy in
individual molecules, not about the average energy of a system. The average energy
can be low and the evaporation still continues. You might be wondering how that can
happen when the temperature is low. It turns out that all liquids can evaporate at room
temperature and normal air pressure. Evaporation happens when atoms or molecules
escape from the liquid and turn into a vapor. Not all of the molecules in a liquid have
the same energy. When you have a puddle of water (H2O) on a windy day, the wind
can cause an increased rate of evaporation even when it is cold out.

Then, in evaporation process also have energy transfer. The energy you can
measure with a thermometer is really the average energy of all the molecules in the
system. There are always a few molecules with a lot of energy and some with barely
any energy at all. There is a variety, because the molecules in a liquid can move
around. The molecules can bump into each other, and when they hit a little bit of
energy moves from one molecule to another. Since that energy is transferred, one
molecule will have a little bit more and the other will have a little bit less. With
trillions of molecules bouncing around, sometimes individual molecules gain enough
energy to break free. They build up enough power to become a gas once they reach a
specific energy level. In a word, when the molecule leaves, it has evaporated.

The rate of evaporation can also increase with a decrease in the gas pressure
around a liquid. Molecules like to move from areas of higher pressure to lower
pressure. The molecules are basically sucked into the surrounding area to even out the
pressure. Once the vapor pressure of the system reaches a specific level, the rate of
evaporation will slow down.

The Evaporation Of How To Make A Drink Cool


The evaporation process is usually we use in our daily life without notice it. For
example when we buy some water in the bottles then we just put at the certain site
then leave the bottle a few minutes. Of course the water not cold. It happens because
the temperature of around the bottles is different. To make the water cool back we can
use evaporation techniques. For example when we if you going out and traveling light,
the last thing you take is cool box, let alone in fridge. What you need is a wet towel
plus the wisdom of centuries of people who lived in hot climax. Then, with the wet
towel just wrapped the bottle then after 20 minutes we can take the bottles then drink
the water. Of course the water in the bottles will cool. So from this experiment we can
prove theory of evaporation. It also important to us to know this phenomena.


To apply the evaporation process during our daily life.

To investigate the best way to cooling whether in dry or wet state.


Before you need your drink, stick and clean towel over your drink bottle, wet it
will and leave it in the shade. If you are lucky a breeze will be blowing and after a
while, the wet towel will have dried out. What is more, the drink will be cooler even
than the shade. Does this really work? Heres how we set about testing this in the lab.
EMPOWER : Conducting The Experiment


2 round flasks, 2 clamp and stand, pipette, elastic bands, 2 pieces of towel, 2
temperature sensor, data logger, desk fan and warm water.


1. Clamp the flasks and wrap each flask with towel using elastic bands.

2. Place the temperature sensor in each flask.

3. Use the Setting up sheet to get the data logger ready.

4. Start recording.

5. Fill each flask with warm water by using pipette.

6. Point the desk fan towards the flasks.

7. Leave for at least 20 minutes or until the temperature are steady.

8.Load the results into the computer to print them.

Diagram 1

Arrangement of Apparatus

First, all of this apparatus we must match it. Where the flasks that wrapped with
wet towel and flasks that wrapped with dry towel. After that we use temperature
sensor that connect with computer to get the data logging. To access the data logging.
we must have enough data to process in data logger. Then we get the results from the
computer. So, make sure we know how to conduct this data logger. If we wrongly put
the incorrect data, then we also got the incorrect results. From the beginning
experiment we must alert to all of this. When using data logger, the results that we get
is accurate rather than calculate it manually. The data has already shown in graph, so
we just need to read the graph then we can know the condition of our experiment.
This data logger will totally make our lab section easy and not taking time.

______ ( Flask covered with dry towel )

.... ( Flask covered with wet towel )


Form the graph. The first part we can observe is the process of cooling by
evaporation of water. The different is condition on towel. Which is have wet towel
and dry towel. Based on the results it have different. All of this because concept of
evaporation under the flasks that wrapped with two types of different towel. Then, the
temperature sensor is set up with a small strip of cotton wool or tissue paper rolled
around its tip. After moistening the cotton wool with several drops of, the cooling
effect due to evaporation becomes evident on the temperature versus time graph,
during 20 minutes which develops while the experiment is in progress. The graph
below shows an example of the data. For molecules of a liquid to evaporate, they
must be located near the surface, be moving in the proper direction, and have
sufficient kinetic energy to overcome liquid-phase intermolecular forces. Only a small
proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, so the rate of evaporation is limited.
Since the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, evaporation
proceeds more quickly at higher temperatures. As the faster-moving molecules escape,
the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the temperature of
the liquid, thus, decreases.

1. How does the graph show that the drink cool?

Based on the graph the dot line refer to the flask covered with water soaked cloth.
Then, the straight line refer flask covered with dry cloth.

2. Which flask cool down more rapidly?

The flask cool down more rapidly is flask that wrapped with wet towel. It is
because when a liquid evaporates, the particles of the liquid absorb heat from the
surroundings and evaporates. So the surroundings become cold.

3. How long would you recommend leaving the drink before drinking?
Along 20 minutes and above.

4. Does the cooling depend upon the temperature of the air?

Yes. Its depend on temperature because increased temperatures accelerate the rate
of evaporation, while decreased temperatures slow down the process. First of all,
heating of the liquid energizes the molecules, allowing them to escape and move
into the air. Second, heat in the nearby atmosphere increases evaporation because
warmer air is able to hold more water vapor.

5. Name other evaporation example?

The other evaporation is sweating. We all sweat. There is nothing to be
embarrassed about. When we sweat, liquid water is produced on the surface of
our skin. Of course this water evaporates and reduces the skin temperature.
However, sweating doesnt always feel so great. In some cases (such as a hot and
humid day), the water on your skin doesnt evaporate faster than water from the
air condenses on your skin. The result is that you are left with all this water on
you. In dry climates, you dont even notice that you are sweating because the
water evaporates.

Why do we put the wet towel around our head when we having a fever ?

Answer :

To decreases the temperature of the towel and reduces the human temperature.
Wet Towel. In the image above, you can see a girl using a special cloth that can hold a
large amount of water. When you put it around your neck (or head), the water in the
towel starts to evaporate. This decreases the temperature of the towel and thus reduces
the human temperature. If you have tried one of these things, they can really make
you feel better in the hot summer. It almost seems magical that a wet towel can reduce
the temperature of something. In fact, you can use a hot wet towel and it will still
work. You can even try this yourself. One of the bottles has a warm wet cloth on it
and then the temperature is checked after a few hours or so. Guess which bottle is
cooler? Yup, the one with the warm towel on it. Awesome?