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ISO/TS15066Explained

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ISO/TS15066Explained

TableofContents

TableofContents
Introduction
What'sNewinISO/TS15066?
PainOnsetLevelData
MaximumAllowableRobotSystemPower/Speed
DesignCriteria
CollaborationOperation
WhoNeedstoReadISO/TS15066?
ANoteonLanguage
PuttingISO/TS15066inContext
ISO/TS15066'sFamilyTree
BuildingonStandards
Standardsvs.TechnicalSpecifications
WidespreadImpactandBenefits
RoboticsIndustry
FactoriesUsingCollaborativeRobotApplications
Integrators
ProductionManagersandAutomationEngineers
FactoryFloorWorkers
RealWorldScenarios
Scenario1:ProductAssembly,PowerandForceLimited
Scenario2:Packaging,PowerandForceLimited
Scenario3:Manufacturing,SafetyRatedMonitoredStop
Tips&Insights
DoyourBackgroundResearch
TalkwithStakeholders
TakeanApplicationCenteredApproach
AvoidCommonPitfalls
AdjusttoScale
Conclusion
ANoteofGratitudetoourContributors
WhatsNext?
AboutRobotiq
LetsKeepinTouch

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ISO/TS15066Explained

Introduction
ISO/TS15066 ,theworld'sfirstspecificationsofsafety
requirementsforcollaborativerobotapplications,ishereatlast.

It'sbeenalongjourneyfortheISOcommitteecontaining
membersfrom24participatingcountries,including
representativesfromleadingcollaborativerobotmanufacturers,
whobeganworkonISO/TS15066backin2010.

Designedtosupplementtherequirementsandguidanceoncollaborativeindustrialrobotoperation
providedinISO102181andISO102182(SafetyRequirementsforIndustrialRobots),ISO/TS
15066specifiessafetyrequirementsforcollaborativeindustrialrobotsystemsandthework
environment.

Specifically,ISO/TS15066providescomprehensiveguidanceforthoseconductingriskassessmentof
collaborativerobotapplications.

CrucialnewinformationincludesachartdevelopedbytheUniversityofMainz,whichprovidesalistof
forceandpressurelevelstoguiderobotdesign.Additionally,forthefirsttime,ISO/TS15066outlines
maximumallowablepowerandspeedlimitsforcollaborativerobotsusedinpowerandforcelimiting
scenarios.

ISO/TS15066bringsunprecedentedclaritytocollaborativerobotsystemriskassessments.The
documentalsodeepensthelevelofobservationthat'srequiredforacollaborativerobotrisk
assessment,improvingsafetyandencouragingsafe,futureinnovationintheprocess.

Asweshallsee,thebenefitsofISO/TS15066willextendfromshopfloorworkersandproduction
managerstoapplicationengineersandintegrators.

TomarkthereleaseofISO/TS15066,RobotiqspokewithsomeoftheexpertsontheISOcommittee
responsiblefordevelopingthetechnicalspecification.Leadingfiguresintheworldofrobotsafety,our
sourceshavewelloveracenturyofrobotsafetyexpertisebetweenthem.

ThiseBookisintendedasacompanionguidetoHowtoconductariskassessment,whichprovides
detailedinformationonhowtoimplementtheguidelinescontainedinISO/TS15066.

WiththehelpofISO'sexperts,wehopetoputISO/TS15066incontext,explainthedifference
betweenastandardandtechnicalspecifications,providesomerealworldscenariosinwhichISO/TS
15066isrelevant,andtakealookatsomeofthebenefitsthatISO/TS15066isexpectedtobringto
variousstakeholders.

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What'sNewinISO/TS15066?

Incollaborativerobotics,humansandrobotscanoccupyanoverlappingworkspace.ISO/TS15066
providesguidelinesforthedesignandimplementationofacollaborativeworkspacethatcontrolsrisk.

OneofthekeyideasbehindISO/TS15066isthat:

ifcontactbetweenrobotsandhumansisallowed,
andincidentalcontactdoesoccur,
shallnot
thenthatcontact resultinpainorinjury.

Towardthatend,ISO/TS15066provides'PainOnsetLevel'data,
MaximumAllowableRobotPower/Speed,designcriteria,andadeeper
explanationofcollaborationtechniques.

Crucially,forthefirsttime,ISO/TS15066providesthoseperformingrisk
assessmentsforcollaborativerobotapplicationswithharddataand
formulaetoworkwith.

PainOnsetLevelData
ResearchersattheUniversityofMainz,inGermany,conductedapain
onsetstudyonbehalfoftheISOcommittee.Thestudyinvolved100
subjectsandwasdesignedtoestablishforceandpressurelimitson29
bodyareas.

AsaresultoftheMainzstudy,ISO/TS15066providesalistofmaximum
forceandpressurelevelsforeachpartofthehumanbody.

Thisdatacanbeusedtoestablishasetofforce/pressurethresholdsthat
therobotshouldnotexceed,andisintendedtoguiderobotdesignand
integration.

MaximumAllowableRobotSystemPower/Speed
ISO/TS15066outlinesrecommendedpowerandspeedlimitsforcollaborativerobotsystemsintended
forpowerandforcelimitedoperation.Thissectionofthedocumentprovidestheguidancerequiredto
determinethemaximumallowablespeedtosettherobotat,suchthattheEOATandpartdon't
exceedthemaximumfortherobotsystem.

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DesignCriteria
ISO/TS15066describesthedifferentdesigncriteriathatrobotsystemandrobottoolmanufacturers
shouldintroduceintotheirdesigns.Thissectionprovidesguidelinesformanufacturersthathad
difficultydistinguishingbetweenwhatwasandwhatwasn'tacollaborativerobotsystem.

CollaborationOperation
BuildingontheinformationinISO10218,ISO/TS15066describesfourmaintechniquesfor
collaborativeoperation:

a)safetyratedmonitoredstop
b)handguiding
c)speedandseparationmonitoring
d)powerandforcelimiting

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Speedandseparationmonitoringreceivesparticularfocus.Insuch
systems,aminimumprotectivedistancebetweentherobotsystemandthepersonismaintainedto
preventcontact.

Whenconsideringpossiblecontacteventsbetweenhumansandrobots,itsimportanttokeepinmind
thatthatthesecanonlytakeplaceinpowerandforcelimitedapplications.Theothertypesof
collaborativeoperationdonotallowphysicalcontactbetweenthemovingrobotandtheirhuman
coworkers.Consequently,sucheventsdonotneedtobeconsideredinriskassessments.

WhoNeedstoReadISO/TS15066?
ISO/TS15066isprimarilyaimedatrobotsuppliers,integrators,toolingmanufacturers,production
managersandapplicationengineers.Shopfloorworkerswillprobablyneverneedtoreadit.

ANoteonLanguage
Keywordstopayattentiontowhenreadingastandardortechnicalspecificationdocumentare:
Shall,Should,andCan.

Thewordshallisonlyusedwhenarequirementexistsandisbeingdefined.

Shouldindicatesarecommendation(alsoknownasinformativeguidance),whileCanisusedasa
statementoffact.

Whereasarequirementisnormativeandmandatory,arecommendation/informativeguidanceis
voluntary.

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PuttingISO/TS15066inContext
WheredoesISO/TS15066fitintotheworldofISOroboticsstandardsandtechnicalspecifications?

ISO/TS15066'sFamilyTree
ISO/TS15066buildsonISO102181andISO102182,whichwerepublishedin2011anddescribe
safetyrequirementsforindustrialrobots.

WritingthesectionsoncollaborativeroboticsforISO10218wasalmostlikewritingsciencefiction,
saysDaveSmith,aroboticssafetyexpertatHondaCanadaManufacturing,whoservedonthe
committeesresponsiblefordevelopingISO10218andISO/TS15066.

Wewerewritingrequirementsforthingsthatwerecoming,butwedidn'tknowexactlywhatthey
wouldbe.Therewerealotofnewproductsoutthere,particularlycollaborativerobotsandpowerand
forcelimitedrobotsandwedidn'tknowverymuchaboutthoserobotsatthattime,saysSmith.

Ofcourse,theuseofcollaborativeroboticshasbecomemuchmorewidespreadsinceISO10218was
releasedbackin2011.Thatgrowthissettocontinuewiththecollaborativeroboticssectorexpectedto
increaseroughlytenfoldbetween2015and2020,reachingoverUS$1billionfromapproximately
US$95Min2015,accordingtoa2015studypublishedbyABIResearch.

Since2011,aknowledgebasearoundcollaborativerobotsafetyhasbeenbuilt,makingitpossibleto
createasetoftechnicalspecificationsforcollaborativerobotapplications.

Ascollaborativerobotsbecamemoreprevalent,weneededtowritethesetechnicalspecifications.
WeneededtogivemoredetailonISO10218'srequirements,basedontheexperiencewehadall
gatheredsincethefirstversioncameout,explainsSmith.

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ISO/TS15066isexpectedtobeaddedtoISO10218Part1/2where
applicable,whenthestandardcomesupforreviewin2017.

WhentheRoboticsIndustryAssociation(RIA)firstcoinedthetermcollaborativerobotin2003,they
hadverydifferentrobotsinmind,saysJeffFryman,arobotsafetyconsultant,whoservedasDirector
ofStandardsDevelopmentattheRIAfor17years.

Wewereenvisioning'big,bad'sixaxisarticulatedrobots.Theconceptofcollaborativerobottodayis
fardifferentfromouroriginalvision.Wedidnotenvisionthe'Foxconn'solutionofa
humanrobothumanrobotworkingonthesameline,saysFryman.ISO102182talksaboutthe
designofcollaborativerobotcells,butitdoesn'thavethedetail.WehopetofillinthatgapwithISO/TS
15066.

BuildingonStandards
Inessence,ISO/TS15066isdesignedtobuildonandsupplementthelimitedrequirementslaidoutin
existingstandards.

ISO10218onlydescribestherequirementsinverygeneralterms,whereasIS0/TS15066provides
moreguidance,explainsLasseKieffer,GlobalComplianceOfficeratUniversalRobots,whopoints
outthatISO10218(PartsIandII)providesjustafewpagesofrequirementsforallfourtypesof
collaborativeoperationtowhichISO/TS15066addsawealthofnewinformation.

ISO/TS15066answersquestionsthatwereleftopenbyISO10218,particularlythosearoundcontact
betweenhumanandrobots,saysElenaDominguez,robotsafetyexpertatPilz.

ISO10218listedsomegeneralsafetyrequirementsforcollaborativerobots,butitwasdifficultto
knowwhetheryouweresatisfyingthoserequirements.

Forpowerandforcelimitedoperation,ISO10218requiresthatcontactbetweenhumanandrobotbe
suchthatitshouldnotcreateaninjury,"withoutdefininghowmuchforceistoomuchforce,how
thoseforcescanbemeasuredandwhatlimitsshouldbeset.

ISO10218saidthatyoucouldimplementacollaborativerobot,butitdidnotprovideenough
engineeringguidancetoknowwhenyouwerethere.ISO/TS15066allowsanengineertobemore
preciseintheirdesignandthentolegitimatelyclaimthattheyhaveachievedtheintentofISO10218.


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Standardsvs.TechnicalSpecifications
NotethatISO/TS15066isnotastandard,it'satechnicalspecification.

Thedifferenceisimportant.TheISOsometimesdevelopstechnicalspecificationspriortoreleasing
final,formalstandards.

Thisisarecognitionofthefactthatthestateoftheartisinfluxandwillbeevolvingovertime,
explainsBjrnMatthias,SeniorPrincipalScientistRoboticAutomation,atABB.

Thetechnicalspecificationsformatisintendedtorecordasnapshotofwhatthestateoftheartis
hererightnow,andtomakethatavailabletothecommunitytoworkwith,knowingfullwellthatthere
willbeadditionsandchangesinthefuture,saysMatthias.

TechnicalspecificationslikeISO/TS15066areintendedtomaturethematerial,saysFryman.

TechnicalspecificationsarereservedforinformationthatisultimatelyintendedtoappearinanISO
standard,butisconsiderednotfullydevelopedandneedstobetested.Atechnicalspecificationis
whatwereallythinkthefinalstandardwillbe,butyouneedtogiveusfeedback.

UniversalRobotsKiefferseestechnicalspecificationsasdocumentsthatprovideguidanceforthe
industrytotest.

It'sawayoftryingouttherequirements.Ifwewereextremelycertainaboutthecontent,thenwe
couldhavemadethisastandard.Butwechosenotto,saysKieffer.

Meanwhile,RobertaNelsonShea,ConvenoroftheISOIndustrialRobotSafetyWorkingGroup
(ISO/TC299/WG3)andglobalmarketingmanagerforRockwellAutomationviewsatechnical
specificationdocumentasonethatisnotquitereadytolayoutformalrequirements.

Atechnicalspecificationdocumenttellsyouthatthetechnologyneedsalittlemoregeltimeandthat
theindustryneedssomeexperiencewithitinordertobeabletomakeverydefinitivestatements.At
thispointintimeforcollaborativerobotapplications,wearestilllearning.

YoumaywellbeaskingyourselfIfISO/TS15066isn'tafullISOstandardyet,whydoIneedtopay
attentiontoit?

Firstly,it'snevertooearlytogetstartedonsafety.NotonlydoesISO/TS15066buildonthe
requirementsinISO102181and102182,itconstitutesbestpracticefortheindustrytoday.

Secondly,ifyouwanttobeabletolegitimatelyclaimthatyouhaveproperlysafeguardedyour
collaborativerobotsystemandprovidedasafeworkenvironmentforworkers,ISO/TS15066isthe
documenttoread.

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TS15066providesyouwithguidancesothatyoucansaythatyouhave
properlysafeguardedtherobotsystem,"explainsPilz'sDominguez.Youcansay'Ihaveasafe
system'ifyoufollowthetechnicalspecifications.Youcanalsoconfidentlysay'Iamimplementingthe
robotsystemaccordingtothebestpracticeasindustryseesittoday.'"

WidespreadImpactandBenefits

WeaskedISOexpertsabouttheimpactandbenefitsofISO/TS15066anditturnsoutthatthereare
impactsonandbenefitsfortheroboticsindustry,endusercompanies,integrators,production
managers/applicationengineers,andfactoryworkers.

Let'stakeaquicklookateachgroupinturn.

RoboticsIndustry
CollaborativeroboticsareagamechangersaysRockwell'sRobertaNelsonSheaandISO/TS15066
isanimportantpartofthisburgeoningsegmentoftheroboticsmarket.

Ithasopenedpeoples
eyestothenotionthattheydon'thavetocompletelystopandremovepower
fromequipmentinordertosayit'ssafeforpeopletohavesomedegreeofinteractionwithit.Forfull

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automation,thegamechangeristhatyoucankeeppoweron,butcan
safelycontrolthesituation,sothatapersonisnothurt.

Thebranchoftheroboticsindustrythatisusingcollaborativerobotics,willhavegreatuseforISO/TS
15066becauseitcontainsalotmoredescriptionofwhatitmeanstohaveacollaborativeapplication
thanpreviousdocuments,saysABB'sMatthias.Therearesomebasicpointersinthecommon
standardsforindustrialrobotsandindustrialrobotsystems,butit'snotsufficienttoputinplacea
viablecollaborativeapplication,sothisdocumentfillsthatgap.

FactoriesUsingCollaborativeRobotApplications
Factoryfloorspacehasahighervalueassignedtoitthananyequipmentyoucouldfillitwith,says
RobertaNelsonShea,andcollaborativeroboticssolutionstakeupconsiderablylessspacethan
traditionalindustrialrobots.

Thecostsofheating,plumbing,andmaintainingthatspace,arehigherthanthevalueofthe
equipmentyouputin.Soifwecandecreasethefloorspacethat'srequired,bysafelyimplementing
collaborativeroboticswehavethepossibilityofdecreasingthecosttoauser.

Nothavingtoturnoffthepowertoarobotinorderto,forexample,performloadingandunloading
tasks,decreasesthewearandtearonpartsandcomponents.

Componentssuchascontactorsareexpensiveandtheyonlyhaveacertainnumberofactuations
thattheycanwithstandbeforetheyhavetobereplaced,saysShea.

So,ifwecansafelycontrolhazards,risks,andthelike,withouthavingtoremovepower,weprolong
thelifeofthesecomponents.Thisalsodecreasestheexposureofmaintenancestaffwhichinturn
lowersexposuretohazards,whichmeanslesslikelihoodofanyinjuryoraccident.

Theconceptofhumanrobotsystemcollaborationisdesignedtoimproveproductivityandmaintain
workersafety,addsFryman.

Thisconcepthasbeenoutthereforseveralyearsnow,littleunderstoodandloudlyimitatedwith
maybeveryinappropriatesolutions.Finally,wehaveadocumentthatwecanpointtothatsays'These
arethelimitsthatyoucanapplytoyourdesign'.

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Integrators
ISO/TS15066eliminatesalotofguessworkbyprovidingtheinformationintegratorsneedwhen
performingariskassessmentoncollaborativerobotapplications.

Itprovidesalotofguidancethattheintegratorneedstothinkofwhenhe'sinstallingtherobot,says
UniversalRobotsKieffer.Ifyouareanintegratorthatisquitenewinthefieldandyoudon'thavethat
muchexperience,thenISO/TS15066isverygoodbecauseitprovidestheinputyouneedtodoa
goodriskassessment.

Thepurposeof15066istomakethejoboftheintegratoreasierandifthereisanythinginitthatthey
cannotuse,thenletusknowaboutthat,addsKieffer,whoexpectsISO/TS15066tobeabighelpto
UniversalRobotintegrators.

ISO/TS15066willhelpHondaCanada'sintegratorsbetterunderstandtheirrequirementsand
obligations,saysSmith.

Nowtherearesomegoodhardnumbersthatintegratorscangobytomakesurethatwedon'tinjure
somebody.Whenpeopleunderstandthespecificguidanceofthetechnicalspecifications,it'salso
goingtobeeasierforustoshowcompliancetotheISO10218standard.

UnderOntariolaw,thereisarequirementforaprestarthealthandsafetyreviewofroboticssystems.

Weneedanindependentengineertocomeinandtomakesurethatwe'vefollowedallthestandards.
ISO/TS15066isgoingtogivethemmoreinformationonhowtoapplythoserequirementsproperly,
addsSmith.

ProductionManagersandAutomationEngineers
Productionmanagersneedtoknowthattheirpeopleareworkingaccordingtothestateoftheart,says
ABB'sMatthias.

TheproductionmanagerneedstocareaboutISO/TS15066becauseitwillgivehimtheconfidence
thatheisusingthepresentstateoftheart,bestpossibleinformationavailabletoday.

Automationengineersunderstandtheapplicationanditsrequirements,saysMatthias.Theyalso
understandabitaboutroboticsanditscapabilitiesandabitaboutcollaboration.Buttheymaynot
havehugelevelsofexperienceinrealizingcollaborativeapplications.

Whentheautomationengineerbuildscollaborativeapplications,hewillhavetheobjectiveofusing
thebestpossibleinformation.ThisobjectiveisfulfilledbyISO/TS15066inthebestpossibleway.The

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benefitofISO/TS15066forautomationengineersisthespecificguidanceit
providesonwhattolookoutforwhenputtingtogethercollaborativeapplications.

Confidenceisathemerunningthroughourexpert'sresponsestothisquestion.Wellexecutedrisk
assessmentsinspireconfidence.Adoptionofbestpracticesinspireconfidence.Providingasafe
environmentforworkersinspiresconfidence.

ButthebenefitsofISO/TS15066gobeyondgeneratingfeelingsofconfidence.

Italsomitigatesriskifyoufollowthedocumentandyouaremorecertainthatyoudothingsright,
saysKieffer.Therecanalsobebenefitsfromstatingthatproductscomplywithasafetydocument.
Sometimesthishasacommercialvalueoravalueintermsofallowingyoutoshowthatyou
performedyourriskassessmentcorrectly.

ISO/TS15066providesproductionengineerswiththeinformationtheyneedtounderstandallthe
capabilitiesandpossibilitiesofcollaborativerobotics,saysSmith.

Ithinkthemoretheyunderstandaboutcollaborativerobots,thebetter.Theyunderstandautomation
andmanufacturing,sooncetheyunderstandthesenewtoolsandhowtoimplementthem,andallthe
differentrequirements,theycancomeupwithalotofdifferenttechnicalsolutions.

FactoryFloorWorkers
KnowingthatthespecificationslaidoutinISO/TS15066havebeenfollowedwillgenerateconfidence
amongfactoryworkers,saysABB'sMatthias.

Thefactoryworkercanbeconfidentthathiscolleaguesresponsibleforcreatingtheapplication(the
productionmanagerandtheapplicationengineer)haveworkedaccordingtothebestpresent
knowledgeofthestateoftheart.Thisshouldgivehimadegreeofconfidenceinhisworkplace.

Frymanagrees.

Asauser,toknowthatthereisasetoftechnicalspecificationsthattheintegratorisdesigningto
shouldgiveworkerssomecomfortintheknowledgethatsomeoneisnotjustwingingitandthatthe
systemhasbeendesignedwithinacceptableparameters ,
saysFryman.

Thisshouldmakefactoryworkersmorecomfortablewiththeconcept.Theworkercomestoworkin
themorninghealthy,he'sentitledtogohomeatnightsafely.

Factoryfloorworkerswillbenefitfromhavingcollaborativeapplicationsproperlydefinedwithproper
procedures,riskassessments,andwarnings,saysPilz'sDominguez.

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Nowthere'sguidanceonhowtopermittheinteractionwith
theperson.So,ifwehaveajobwhere
someonehastoworkconstantlywiththerobotandwilloccasionallybecontactedbecausehumans
areimpreciseandthey'llgetinthewaythestandardgivesguidanceonhowtoadjusttheparameters
sothatthatperiodiccontactisnotgoingtoleadtoinjuries.It'sgoingtoprovidethemwithasafer
environmenttoworkinnexttotheserobots.

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RealWorldScenarios

Scenario1:ProductAssembly,PowerandForceLimited

Pictureasequentialproductassemblyprocessthatincludesbothhumansandpowerandforcelimited
collaborativerobots,suggestsABB'sMatthias.

Robotsperformthesimplestepswhererepeatabilitygeneratesqualitywhilehumanworkersperform
morecomplicatedsteps,particularlythosethatrequirehighlydexterousmanipulation.

Whenperformingariskassessmentinascenariolikethis,it'simportanttoidentifytheinterfaces
betweenthehumanandrobotworkers.

Asitisbeingmanufactured,theproductpassesovertheseinterfaces.Youhavehandoverandyou
haveassemblymanipulationandthesethingsarehappeningrightnexttohumanworkers,explains
Matthias.

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Inthissamplescenario,possiblehazardsoccurattheinterfacesthearea
whereworkersreachintotherobot'sworkspaceforexample.Adifferentsetofhazardsarisewhen
humanworkersaccidentallybumpintotherobot.

Mitigationofthesehazardsandthewayyoucanmakethesystemharmlessisbydesigningthe
robot'scontrolsystemsothatitenforcesthemaximumlimitsonmechanicalloadingofcertainpartsof
thehumanbody.

IfyoufollowtheISO/TS15066guidelinesforpowerandforcelimitedapplicationswhichspecify
maximumpressuresandmaximumforces,youwillbeabletorealizethistypeofsequentialassembly
landscapeinasafewayandallwithouthavingtoseparatetherobotoffbehindfixedguarding.

ThatistheaspectwhichisverynewinISO/TS15066.addsMatthias.Thisisalsotheaspectwhich
addressestheneedforhigherflexibilityandlessuseoffloorspacethattoday'smanufacturersare
lookingfor.

Scenario2:Packaging,PowerandForceLimited

Pictureapackagingapplicationinwhicharobotpickspartsfromonebin,manipulatesthem,and
packagesthemintoanotherbin.Inthisscenario,thepointsofcontactwithhumanworkersarelimited
tooccasionallysupplyingonebinandoccasionallyremovingtheother.(Suchasystemmightbeset
upbyacompanythatwantstorunarobotwithoutafencetotestthetechnology,butthatdoesn'twant
ahighfrequencyofexposure.)

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Thisscenariomakestheoverlapintimeandspacerathermodest,says
Matthias.Nevertheless,thesamecriteriaapply,andifyouhaveincidentalcontact,whichcanhappen,
thenthepressureandforcelimitspecificationsprovidedinISO/TS15066canhelpyoutodimension
thissortofapplication.

Scenario3:Manufacturing,SafetyRatedMonitoredStop

Hondahasusedcollaborativerobotsforsafetyratedmonitoredstopapplicationsapplicationsthat
enablerobotstobeloadedbyhumanworkerswithouttheservoneedingtobeshutoff.(Note:Safety
ratedmonitoredstopapplicationscanalsobeperformedbyregular,noncollaborativeindustrial
robots.)

Whentheystartedimplementingthesystem,saysHonda'sSmith,thefirstthingtheyshowedtheir
associateswasthethendraftofISO/TS15066.

Weshowedtheminthestandardwhytheserobotsaredifferent,becausetheyareusedtotherobot
beinglockeddownduringloading.WeusedISO/TS15066toshowourassociatestherequirements
andallthedifferentfeaturesthatarekeepingthemsafe.Wewilldothesamewithpowerandforce
limitedapplications,saysSmith.

ImplementationofISO/TS15066allowsapplicationengineers,integrators,andproductionmanagers
todemonstratethesafetyofthesystemtoendusers,improvingfactoryfloorworker'sconfidencein
theprocess.

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Tips&Insights

Weaskedourexpertstosharetheirtipsandinsightsforcompaniesandindividualsthatarelookingto
performacollaborativerobotsystemsafetyassessmentforthefirsttime.

DoyourBackgroundResearch

Ifyouhavenevercarriedoutariskassessmentbefore,beginwithsomebasicbackgroundresearch,
saysUniversalRobot'sKieffer.

IwoulduseISO12100asabasedocument.Atleastlookthroughittogetsomebasicideasabout
howtoperformariskassessment.ThenIwouldusetheISO102182standardand,finally,Iwould
useISO/TS15066todoacomprehensiveandreasonableriskassessment,advisesKieffer.

Seekadvicefromtheexperts
Mypersonalrecommendationwouldbetoseekadvicefromsomeonethathassomedegreeof
experienceinthisarea,saysABB'SMatthias.

AnumberofcompanieshavebeeninvolvedindiscussioninbringingforthISO/TS15066.Andthese
arecompaniesthathavebeenfrontrunnersindevelopingtechnologiessuitableforsuchapplications.
IfIwereacustomerwantingtorealizeanapplicationinthisway,Iwouldseektheiradvice.

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Becausecollaborativeapplicationsarenotroutineevensystems
integratorsthatareexpertatcommissioningconventionalrobotsystemsmightnothavethenecessary
levelofexperiencejustyettoputincollaborativeapplications.

DoubtlessmanyofthemwillbeseekingtodosoandovertimeIthinkthenumberofpossiblepartners
thatyoucouldturntowillbeincreasing.

TalkwithStakeholders

Thefirststepineveryriskassessmentisgettingthestakeholderstogetherandtalkingaboutsafety,
saysHondaCanada'sSmith.Itturnsoutthatthisfirststepisalsooneofthebiggestbenefitsof
performingariskassessment.

Alotoftimespeoplethinkriskassessmentisabunchofdifferent,difficultstepsyouhavetogo
through,saysSmith.Butreally,it'sjustabunchofpeoplegettingtogethertoask'Whatdowewant
todo?Whatarethehazardsgoingtobewiththat?Whatcontrolsdoweneedtoputinplacetodo
that?'Theriskassessment,theformalsideofit,isaboutdocumentingthoseconversationsandhaving
amethodtogothroughit.

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Longbeforearobotsystemispurchased,theautomationengineer,the
workers,and(particularlyinthecaseofsmallcompanies)theownerneedtotalkwitheachotherto
understandwhatsomeoftherisksmightbe,advisesSmith.

It'sallaboutgettingthosestakeholderstogetherandtalkingaboutitattherighttimebeforeyoubuy
therobotandbeforeyoutrytoimplementtheapplication.Theriskassessmenthastobedoneatthe
designstageorattheconceptstagetobeeffective.

Pilz'srobotsafetyexpertDominguez,agrees.

Seeksupport.Talktothirdpartygroupsandintegrators.Visituserswhoareusingcollaborativerobot
systemsevenifthey'reinadifferentindustry.Seewhattheydid.Ask'Whatdidyoulearn?'and'What
mistakesdidyoumake?',saysDominguez,whorecommendstheRIA'sannualsafetyconferenceas
anexcellentplacetogolearnsomebasicsandtonetwork.

TakeanApplicationCenteredApproach

Oneofthemostcommonmisunderstandingsaroundpowerandforcelimitedcollaborativerobot
systemsisthatsomepeopleassumethattheycanteardownallthefencesandeverythingis
wonderful,saysRobertaNelsonShea.Thisisafalseassumption.

Thebigthingthatpeoplehavetoberemindedofisthatit'snotabouttherobot,it'sallaboutthe
application.Imighthaveapowerandforcelimitedrobotthatcanonlyexertxforceandwouldnothurt

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aperson,butifthatrobotsystemispackingknives,it'snotasuitable
candidateforacollaborativeapplication.

Honda'sSmithagreesabouttheimportanceoftakinganapplicationcenteredapproachwhen
performingariskassessment.

It'saboutfirstunderstandingwhatyourapplicationisgoingtobeandwhetheritissuitablebeforeyou
evenbuytherobot.It'sallgoingtocomedowntotheapplication.You'regoingtoneedanexperienced
integratororsomebodywhounderstandswhatyou'retryingtodoandallthehazardsassociatedwith
theapplication,saysSmith.

Youhavetorealizethatevenifit'sasmall,powerandforcelimitedrobotwithalowpayload,that
doesn'tmeanthatit'sriskfree.Youhavetounderstandwhattheapplicationsrisksaregoingtobe.

Don'tbeafraid,butalsobecareful.Andunderstandthattherearegoingtobemoreandmoreof
theserobotsystemsaround.MakesurethatyourpeopleunderstandwhattheyarethroughISO/TS
15066.

AvoidCommonPitfalls

Thetwomostcommonmistakesmadeduring
roboticsrelatedriskassessmentsare
oversimplifyingandovercomplicatingthe
process,saysDominguez.

I'veseenriskassessmentswheretheytryto
outlineindetaileverysinglepieceofthe
applicationwithoutsimplifyingandgrouping
andtheanalysisbecomessoburdensomethat
youcan'tpicturethebasicrequirements,says
Dominguez.

Bythesametoken,riskassessments
sometimeserronthesideofoversimplifying
theprocess.

I'veseencaseswhereaverysimpleapproachhasbeentaken,resultinginverybriefrisk
assessmentsthatdon'taddresscriticaltasksandexposures,saysDominguez.

Sometimesyouneedmorethanthat.Anoversimplifiedriskassessmentmightmissthosefindings,
mightmisssomehazardoussituationsthatmightoccur,suchassomebodyputtingthemselvesina
vulnerablepositionwhenunloadingarejectbinbasedonwherethebinislocated.

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ISO/TS15066Explained

AdjusttoScale

Companiesthinkingaboutimplementingcollaborativerobotsolutionsneedtodecidethedegreeto
whichtheybuildupinhouseexpertise,saysDominguez.

Companiesconsideringsmallcollaborativerobotsolutions(12robots)shouldgetanexperienced
integratortoperformtheriskassessment.

Meanwhile,bigfactoriesplanningmajorinstallationsof10or20collaborativerobotsystemsshould
empowerpeopletolearn.

Getsomehelpinthebeginning,buteducateyourpeopleenoughtodoitontheirown.Ifyoudothis,
you'llbeabletofinetuneyourapplicationsbetter,becauseyou'llhavebettercontrol.

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ISO/TS15066Explained

Conclusion

WhilenotnormativeinthewaythatISOstandardsare,ISO/TS15066describesthestateoftheartin
collaborativerobotsafety.

Whetheryouareanintegrator,aproductionmanager,oranapplicationengineer,thenewtechnical
specificationsprovideessential,datadriveninformationandguidanceneededtoevaluateandcontrol
risks,andsupportariskassessmentforcollaborativerobotsystemsandapplications.

So,ifyou'rewonderingWhenisagoodtimetogetstartedwithcollaborativerobotsafetyrisk
assessment?,theanswerisNow.TheharddataandformulasinISO/TS15066enablenewlevels
ofdetailincobotriskassessments.Italsoprovidesthedatadrivensafetyguidanceneededto
evaluateandcontrolrisks.

Forpowerandforcelimitedoperation,thedocumentprovidesspecific,objectivedatathatcanbeused
tocreateprecisecontactsituationdescriptionsforyourcollaborativerobotapplication.Forspeedand
separationmonitoringcollaborativeapplications,ISO/TS15066describestheeffectstoconsiderwhen
designingtherobotsystemmotionplanningalgorithm.

Italsoworksverywellasinspirationforriskassessmentsasitprovidesagoodwayforpeopleto
checkwhethertheyhaveforgottentoconsiderapotentialhazard.

Inabroadersense,ISO/TS15066islikelytoinspirefurtheradvancementsofprotectivedevice
technology,bettersensors,improvedmotioncontrolandotherinnovations.

Finally,rememberthatISO/TS15066isaworkinprogress.TheISOcommitteewouldlovetoreceive
feedbackfromthosethathaveusedthedocument.Pleasesendyourcommentsto:
15066@robotiq.com .

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ISO/TS15066Explained

ANoteofGratitudetoourContributors
Inthecourseofwritingthisebook,wehadalotofhelpfromexpertsonthesubjectmatter:members
fromtheISOCommitteewhowroteISO/TS15066.Wedliketothankthemforgivingtheirtimeand
expertisetoensurethisebookisaccurateandhelpful.

ElenaDominguez ,SafetyConsultant
PilzAutomationSafety

JeffFryman
FormerDirectorofStandardsDevelopmentfortheRIA

ShuichiHashimoto
,ProjectGeneralManager,Eng.PlanningDept.,ControllerBusinessUnit
DensoWaveIncorporated

LasseKiefer ,GlobalComplianceOfficer
UniversalRobotsA/S

BjrnMatthias ,SeniorPrincipalScientistRoboticAutomation
ABBAG

RobertaNelsonShea ,GlobalMarketingManager
RockwellAutomation

DaveSmith ,CRSPCHSO,Equipment/ConstructionSafetySpecialist,Safety/MedicalDept.
HondaofCanadaMfg.

JimVanKessel
JVKIndustrialAutomation,Inc.


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ISO/TS15066Explained

WhatsNext?
NowthatyouunderstandISO/TS15066alittlebetter,areyoureadytomoveforwardwith
collaborativerobotsafety?Herearesomedocumentsthatwillhelp.

RiskAssessment,An HowtoPerformaRisk RiskAssessmentTemplate


introduction AssessmentforCollaborative
Robots

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ISO/TS15066Explained

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