Definition of Alchemy
Defined: medieval chemical science and speculative philosophy with goals of transmutation of cheap metals into gold, a universal cure for disease, and a way of prolonging life.

a) Philosopher’s Stone (a stone that is no stone but contains within it the seeds to transform cheap metals into gold) b) Elixor of Life (cure disease) c) Fountain of Youth (extend life)

a) lab techniques b) medicines c) lab tools and supplies

Laboratory Techniques
a) distillation b) filtration c) crystallization d) coagulation e) evaporation f) extraction

Mineral Acids
H2SO4 (aq) Sulfuric Acid HCl (aq) Hydrochloric Acid HNO3 (aq) Nitric Acid Minerals to make these acids are present in large quantities, are easily transported, and properties do not change on shelf

Alchemist Subtypes:
Four types of alchemist: a) mystical or religious b) philosophical c) mercenary d) scientific

Greek Philosopher: Aristotle a) gold and circle as examples of nature's perfection b) 4 Primal Elements of Greeks: Earth, Air, Fire, Water

Influence of Aristotle
Rule of Aristotle for 2000 years: a) common sense b) comprehensive c) Church taught it d) 17th century brought scientific approach e) alchemy provided services

Alchemy to chemistry
Democritus: first idea of atom Geber: stereotypical alchemist Paracelsus: last alchemist/first chemist Robert Boyle: definition of atom Georg Stahl: phlogiston theory

Joseph Priestley
Oxygen experiments Phlogiston problem First to create carbonated beverages

Antoine Lavoisier
a) 101 day reflux experiment b) candle in water experiment c) tin box experiment

Accomplishments of Lavoisier
Known as Father of chemistry First chemistry textbook First to explain true nature of burning Named oxygen Naming system for chemicals Explained Law of Conservation of Mass

Henry Cavendish
Scientist that proved water to be a combination of elements Zn (s) + H2SO4 (aq) + CuSO4 (aq)  CuSO4 (aq) + H2 (g) + ZnSO4 (aq) 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) + energy  2H2O (l) Catalyst, exothermic chemical reaction, aqueous, zinc sulfate single displacement chemical reaction

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