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What is simulation?

A simulation is the operation of model, which is representation of that system. Simulation is

the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of
simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key
characteristics, behaviours and functions of the selected physical or abstract system or
process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the
operation of the system over time. In the broadest sense, simulation is a tool to evaluate the
performance of a system, existing or proposed under different configuration of interest and
over long periods of real time.

Simulation is used before an existing system is altered or anew system built, to reduce the
chances of failure to meet specifications, to eliminate unforeseen bottlenecks, to prevent
under or over utilization of resources, and to optimize system performance.


Simulation is a powerful tool for many purposes that using models. Simulation is used to
observe how the model behaves in a complex environment. Model is a representation of an
object, system or an idea in some form that can used to demonstrate or copy. It can be
expressed in mathematical, logical and symbolic relationships. Models consist of two types
which is physical such as scale models or prototype plants and mathematical such as
analytical queueing models or linear programs. Next, the aim of the simulation is to try
different decisions and options, to have idea about system and to declare the real life systems
with mathematics.
Applications of Simulation :

Analyzing financial or economic systems.

Designing and analyzing manufacturing systems.

Evaluating a new military weapons system or tactics.

Designing and operating transportation facilities such as freeways, airports, subways

or ports.

Evaluating designs for service organizations such as hospitals, post offices or fast

food restaurants.

Determining ordering policies for an inventory system.

Designing communications systems and message protocols for them.


The relationship of rat and owl became positive. The graph show about examined the
interactions of the relationship between palm oil resource, rat and owl. After the graph been
observed when the population of rat increase then the population of owl also follows the
same pattern as rat. A functional response of barn owls to prey abundance was evidenced by a
significant positive relationship between the relative abundance of rats captured. This
simulation shows that the rats killed per owl increase exponentially based upon the total rats.
There are reason regarding the rats death in this simulation because of being eaten by owl.
This simulation indicates that the rats death decreases and the values of the palm oil will

Figure 1 shows a graph population for these three entities involeved. Owl represent as
BH, palm oil resource represent by Sumber Sawit and rat represent by Tikus

Figure 1: Population Graph for Palm-oil Resource, Rat and Owl

Figure 2: Population Graph for Palm-oil Resource, Rat and Owl

Based on the graph, the number of rats was changes from 13000 to 26000.
Figure 3: Population Graph for Palm-oil Resource, Rat and Owl
Based on the graph, the number of palm oil resources was changes from 10 to 9.

How can be successful simulation models

Easy to control and operate

Nearly real system

Easy to understand


Effective report

Produce result fast

Target direction


How simulation increase student motivation

1. Depth and Breadth of Learning: Improvements in overall student learning. For much
of the literature has stressed the increased levels of cognitive learning this more active
style of teaching can stimulate.

2. The second broad group of benefits ascribed to simulations within the literature
relates to positive effect that the method produces in terms of student engagement. For
the more enjoyable and practical nature of roleplays have lead many to suggest that
role-plays and simulations generate greater student participation and satisfaction than
the lecture-seminar format.

3. Transferable Skills Development: The final broad area of support for simulation based
teaching relates to a specific skill set developed through this method that are not
generally well cultivated through more traditional methods. In addition to developing
more practical skills, it has also been suggested that simulations can more efficiently
redefine attitudes and perceptions of participants.

Effect of simulation
1. The use of simulations as a teaching tool increase students comprehension of complete
theoretical concepts in relation to modules that are taught solely with the traditional
lecture/seminar format.

2. Actively engaging in student-student or instructor-student conversations needed to

conduct a simulation. Instructional simulations by their very nature cannot be passive
learning. Students are active participants in selecting parameter values, anticipating
outcomes, and formulating new questions to ask.

3. Transferring knowledge to new problems and situations. A well done simulation is

constructed to include an extension to a new problem or new set of parameters that
requires students to extend what they have learned in an earlier context.

4. Understanding and refining their own thought processes. A well done simulation includes
a strong reflection summary that requires students to think about how and why they
behaved as they did during the simulation.

5. Seeing social processes and social interactions in action. This is one of the most
significant outcomes of simulation in social science disciplines such as sociology and
political science.

Advantages of Simulation
Useful for sensitivity analysis of complex systems. For example, when the mathematical

analysis methods are available but complex, simulation may provide the simpler solution.

New system designs can be tested without commiting resources for their acquisition. New

policies, operating procedures and information flows can be explored without disrupting

ongoing operation of the real system. Furthermore, time can be expanded or compressed to

allow for speed up or slow down of the phenomenon under the investigation. A simulation

study can help in understanding how the modeled system operates and the important

variables for good performances. Simulation also easy to learn because it is according to the

theory that straightforward and it shows the results of many possible developments.

Simulation is an effective training tools.

Disadvantages of Simulation

Time consuming and costly to develop useful model. The simulation modeling and analysis

can be time consuming and expensive. Next, the results may be difficult to intepret because it

depends on skills of the model maker and an invalid model will lead to wrong results. The

model building also requires the special training. The optimal solution cannot be guaranteed

and may not be transferable to others problems. Besides, simulation is the trial and error

approach that produces different solutions in multiple runs. Many simulation software have

output analysis which is if the inputs are bad, the output will become bad.

As a conclusion, simulation is important because it provides method and helps us to produce

a better results faster. Simulation can make everyone who use it to gain insight and creative

thinking. Furthermore, the important of simulation for student is allow them to explore and

create materials that they could not work directly with in real life. Next, the student can

become more interested, knowledgeable and practiced through simulation by physical, audio,

visual and online games simulations. So, simulation and modeling software are very useful

nowadays in many areas because it can gives an understanding of a system and predicts the

behaviour of the system in different situation.