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To have an efficient communication system, the information carried by the light waves
should need a guiding medium through which it can be transmitted safely. This guiding medium
is optical fibre. The communication through optical fibre is known as light wave
communication (or) optical communication.

Currently in most part of the world, fibre optics is used to transmit voice, video and
digital data signals using light waves from one place to other place.


The optical fibre is a wave guide. It consists of an inner cylinder made of glass or plastic
called core. The core has high refractive index n1. This core is surrounded by a cylindrical shell
of glass or plastic called cladding.

The cladding has low refractive index n2.This cladding is covered by a jacket.It
protects the fibre from the moisture .The light is transmitted through this fibre by total internal
reflection.The fibre guides light waves to travel over long distance without much loss of energy.


A bundle of optical fibres consists of thousands of individual fibre wires as thin as

human hair, maesuring 0.004mm in diameter is called optical fibre cable.


The light which enters from one end of the fibre strikes on the interface of core and
cladding at greater angles of incidence. The light beam undergoes total internal reflection and it
passes along the length of the fibre. Most of the light propagate along the length of fibre and it
comes out at the other end of the fibre. Thus optical fibre acts as a waveguide.


A light ray travelling in a medium of refractive index n 1 incident on another medium of

lower refractive index n2 at the boundary. The light ray is reflected back into the first medium or
refracted through second medium. The reflection or refraction of the light at the interface
depends on the difference in the speed of light in two materials having different refractive indices
and angle of incidence.

Case 1:

The incident ray AO makes an angle 1 with normal in the medium of refractive index
n1(core).This incident ray is refracted into the medium of refractive index n 2(cladding).The
refracted ray bends away from the normal because the refractive index of first medium n 1 is
greater than the refractive index of second medium n2.


If the angle of incidence 1 is increased for a certain value equal to critical angle c, then 2

is 900.

1 = c then 2 = 900

In this case the incident ray along is refracted at the interface and it just emerges along the
boundary of separation.

Case 3:

If the angle of incidence 1 is greater than the critical angle of incidence c, then the incident
light ray is reflected back into the same medium by total internal reflection.


A relation between the angle of incidence 1 and angle of refraction 2 is given

by snells law,

n1sin 1 = n2 sin 2

For total internal reflection,

1 = c then 2 = 900

n1sin c = n2 sin900

sin c = sin900

sin c =

c = sin-1


1) The core material should have higher refractive index (n 1) than that of the cladding
material (n2).

2) The light should incident at an angle greater than the critical angle c.


Let us consider the propagation of light in an optical fibre. The incident ray AO enters
into the core at an angle 0 to the fibre axis. This incident ray is refracted along OB at an angle
1 in the core. The refracted ray falls on the interface of core and cladding at the critical angle
of incidence (90 - 1) and it moves along BC.

Any light ray that enters into core at an angle of incidence less than 0 have refraction
angle less than 1.Therefore the angle of incidence at the interface is more than the critical angle
of incidence. Thus the light ray is totally reflected back into the core.

The light ray that enters at an angle of incidence greater than 0 at O incident at B at an
angle less than the critical angle. Due to this, it is refracted into the cladding region and it is

Let n1 and n2 be the refractive index of the core and cladding and n 0 be the refractive
index of the surroundings.

Applying Snells law of refraction at the point of incidence of the ray AO into the core, we have

n0sin 0 = n1sin 1 ------------------------- (1)

sin 0 = sin 1

sin 0 = 1 cos 21 ---------------------- (2)

At the point B on the interface of core and cladding, angle of incidence c = 90 - 1

Applying Snells law of refraction again we have

n1sin (90- 1) = n2sin900

n1cos 1 = n2

cos 1 = ----------------------(3)

Substituting for cos 1 from equ. (3) in equ.(2),we get

n1 n2
sin 0 = 1 2
n0 n12

n1 n12 n2
sin 0 =
n0 n12

sin 0 = n 2 n22
n0n1 1

sin 0 = n12 n2

0 = sin n12 n2
2 ------------------(5)

The angle 0 is called acceptance angle. If the medium surrounding the fibre is air, then n0 = 1.

0 = sin-1 n12 n2


The maximum angle at which a ray of light can enter through one end of the fibre
and still be totally internally reflected is called acceptance angle of the fibre.


The sine of the acceptance angle of the fibre is known as numerical aperture. It denotes the light
gathering capability of the optical fibre.

NA = sin 0

Substituting for sin 0 from equ. (4) we have,

NA = n12 n2


Let i be the angle of incidence of an incident ray. Then the light ray will propagate only if

i< 0

sin i < sin 0

sin i < n12 n2


sin i < NA

This is the condition for propagation of light within the fibre.


The optical fibers are classified into three major types based on

i) Material

ii) Number of modes and

iii) Refractive index profile


Based on material it is classified into 1)Glass fibre and 2)Plastic fibre

Glass Fibre: If the optical fibre is made from fusing mixture of silica glasses and metal oxides it
is known as glass fibre.

Plastic Fibre: If the fibre is made up of plastics then it is called plastic fibre.


Depending on the number of modes of propagation the optical fibres are classified into

1)Single mode fibre and

2)Multimode fibre

Single mode fibre:

a)If only one mode is transmitted through an optical fibre, then the fibre is called single mode

b)Its core diameter is small.

c)They have small refractive index difference between the core and cladding.

Multimode fibre:

a)If more than one mode is transmitted through an optical fibre, then the fibre is called
multimode fibre.

b)Its core diameter is large.

c)The refractive index difference between the core and cladding is large.


In any optical fibre, the cladding has a uniform refractive index.The refractive index of
the core either remains constant or varies in a particular way. The curve which denotes the
variation of refractive index with respect to the radial distance from the axis of the fibre is called
refractive index profile.

Based on the variation of refractive index the optical fibres are classified into

1)Step index fibre and

2)Graded index fibre

Step index fibre:

In step index fibre the variation in refractive indices of air, cladding, and core vary step
by step.

Graded index fibre:

The refractive index of the core is maximum along the fibre axis and it gradually
decreases towards core cladding interface.

Classification based on number of modes and refractive index profile:

Based on the refractive index and the number of modes, further step index fibre is
classified into two types as,

1) Step index single mode fibre and

2) Step index multimode fibre

Step index single mode fibre:

It consists of thin core of uniform refractive index of a higher value. This core is
surrounded by a cladding of uniform refractive index lesser than that of the core. A step index
single mode fibre has a core diameter of 5 to 10m and an external diameter of cladding of 50 to
125 m.

The refractive index changes in step at the core cladding boundary, its refractive index
profile takes the shape of a step.


1)It has a very small core diameter.

2)Its numerical aperture is very small.

3)It supports only one mode to propagate.

4)Because of a single mode of propagation of light, the modal dispersion loss is completely

5)Light is passed into single mode fibre through laser diodes.


1)It has a very high capacity.

2)About 80% of optical fibres manufactured are of this type.


1)The manufacturing and handling of this type of fibre is very expensive.

Applications and uses:

1) This type of fibre is used as under - sea cable.

2) It is used in long distance telephone system.

3) It finds particular application in submarine cable system.

Step index multimode fibre:

Its core has a much larger diameter which makes it easier to support propagation of a large number
of modes.A typical step index multimode fibre has a core diameter of 50 to 200 and cladding diameter
of 125 to 300.

It has a core material with uniform refractive index and a cladding material of lesser
refractive index than that of the core. There is a sudden increase in the value of refractive index
from cladding to core.Thus its refractive index profile takes the shape of a step.


1)Light is passed into a multimode fibre using a light emitting diode.

2)It has large core diameter.

3)It has low bandwidth.

4)It has high numerical aperture.

5)It has high attenuation.


1)LEDs have longer life than laser diodes.

2)They are less expensive .


They suffer from intermodal dispersion loss.

Application And Uses:

They are widely used in data links which require low bandwidth.

Graded index multimode fibre:

A typical graded index multimode fibre has a core diameter of 50 to 200 and a
cladding diameter of 125 to 300.

T he refractive index of the core is maximum at the axis of the fibre and it gradually

decreases towards the cladding. If the diameter of the core is high, the intermodal dispersion

loss must be high. Because of the gradual decrease in the refractive index of the core, the

intermodal dispersion loss is minimized.


1) It has intermediate bandwidth.

2) It has low attenuation.

3) It has a small numerical aperture.

4) The source of light is either Laser or LED.


1) Intermodal dispersion loss can be minimized.

2) It is a high quality fibre.


1) It is most expensive of all types of fibers.

2) Its splicing is difficult.

Applications and Uses:

It is used in medium distance applications.


In this method, the fibre is drawn directly from the core and cladding glasses in a
continuous process. This process is known as double crucible method or direct melt technique.

Basic principle:

The raw materials for core and cladding are separately placed in the crucibles kept one
inside the other and are heated to a very high temperature using a furnace. The molten materials
are drawn out together to form the fibre.


The experimental set up consists of two crucibles i.e., inner and outer crucibles made by
platinum or silica. The inner crucible is kept inside the outer crucible as shown in figure.

The material for core is powdered and kept inside the inner crucible. Similarly the
material for cladding is kept inside the outer crucible. Both the crucibles are mounted inside a
vertical silica lined electric furnace, which is capable of heating up to 1200 0c.An inert gas
atmosphere has been maintained inside the furnace. The diameter of the fibre to be manufactured
can be controlled with the help of a diameter controller.


1) Highly purified glass powders of various refractive index are fed in to the inner crucible for
core and in the outer crucible for cladding.

2) The electric furnace is switched ON and the materials inside the crucibles are heated to a very
high temperature until the material goes to molten state.

3) At molten state the material starts squeezing out through the orifice of the crucibles.

4) Now the core material will start diffusing in to the cladding material to form an optical fiber.

5) The fibre is drawn out through the bottom surface of the outer crucible.

6) Dopant such as thallium with a high rate of diffusion in silica is used to maintain the refractive
index difference between the core and the cladding.

7)The thickness of the fiber is adjusted by the diameter controller.

8) Finally the fibre is coated by the polymer and protective layers.


1) Cost of fabrication of fibers is very low.

2) We can produce fibres continuously using this method.

3) Maintenance is very easy and maintenance cost is less.


1) Materials used for making core and cladding should be pure.

2) It is difficult to produce graded index fibers.


To carry the informations for a longer distance, then we have to connect one fibre with
the other so that the losses can be minimized. The process of joining two fibres is called splicing.

Before connecting one fibre with the other fibre one must decide whether the joint is a
permanent or temporary. Based on this ,we have two types of joints,

Splices for permanent joints

Connectors for temporary joints


Types of splices:

Fibre splices are classified in to two types Mechanical splices and Fusion splices.

Mechanical splices:

Elastomeric splice:

It consists of an elastomer ( Rubber like material).A hole is cut in to it, so has to insert the
fibres. The elastomeric is covered by a glass sleeve with ends in such a way that it aligns the
fibres in to the elastomeric splice. The aligned fibre can be connected well in to the splice with
an adhesive that may serve as an index matching gel. Thus the fibers are connected.

Four rod splice:

This setup consists of four glass rods, to hold the fibers firmly. These rods curve outward
slightly at the ends so that fibers can be easily inserted into it. These glass rods are holded by a
steel sleeve. While connecting the fibres say fiber 1 and fiber -2,the fibers are inserted into the
gap between the four rods and are pressed over the silicon pieces. Thus the fibers are connected.
An adhesive or matching gel provides more grip to hold the fibers into the splice.

Fusion splices:

The two ends of the fiber is fused together with the help of a special equipment, using a
high voltage electric arc .Hence these splices are called Fusion splices.


When light propagates through an optical fiber, a small percentage of light is lost. The
loss of optical power is measured in terms of decibels per kilometer for attenuation losses.


It is defined as the ratio of the optical power output from a fiber of length L to the power

Attenuation () = 10/L log(POUT /PIN) db/km

Since attenuation plays a major role in determining the transmission distance , the following
attenuation mechanisms are to be considered in designing an optical fiber.

1) Absorption 2)Scattering and 3) Radiative losses


Absorption of light occurs due to imperfections of the atomic structure such as missing
molecules, hydroxyl ions ,high density cluster of atoms etc., which absorbs light.

Absorption also depends on the wavelength of the light used. The three bands of
wavelength at which the absorption increases drastically is 950 nm ,1250 nm and 1380 nm.


Scattering is also a wavelength dependent loss, which occurs inside the fibers. The glass
is used in fabrication of fibers , the disordered structure of glass will make some variations in the
refractive index inside the fiber. As a result , if light is passed through the atoms in the fiber, a
portion of the light is scattered. This type of scattering is called Rayleigh Scattering.

Rayleigh scattering loss 1/4

Radiative losses:

Radiative loss occurs in fibers, due to bending of finite radius of curvature in optical
fibers. The types of bends are macroscopic bend and Microscopic bend.

Macroscopic bends:

If the radius of core is large compared to fiber diameter, it may cause large curvature at
the position where the fiber cable turns at the corner. At these corner the light will not satisfy the
condition for total internal reflection and hence it escapes out from the fiber. This is called as
macroscopic bending losses. This loss is negligible for small bends.

Microscopic bends:

Micro - bends losses are caused due to non-uniformities inside the fiber. This micro-
bends in fiber appears due to non uniform pressures created during the cabling of the fiber (or)
even during the manufacturing itself. This leads to loss of light by leakage through the fiber.

Distortion and Dispersion:

The optical signal becomes increasingly distorted as it travels along a fiber. This
distortion is due to dispersion effect.


When an optical signal is sent into the fiber the pulse spreads as it propagates through the
fiber. This phenomenon is called dispersion. The pulse received at the output is wider than the
input pulse. Hence the output pulse is said to be distorted, due to dispersion effect. The pulse
dispersion will occur in three ways,

1)Inter-modal dispersion

2)Material dispersion (or) chromatic dispersion and

3)Waveguide dispersion

Inter-modal dispersion:

When more than one mode is propagating through a fiber, then the intermodal dispersion
will occur. Since, many modes are propagating, they will have different wavelengths and will
take different time to propagate through the fiber, which leads to inter-modal dispersion.


When a ray of light is launched into the fiber , the pulse is dispersed in all possible paths
through the core, so called different modes. Each mode will be of different wavelength and has
different velocity . Hence , they reaches the end of the fiber at different time. This results in the
elongation of data in the pulse. Thus causes the distorted pulse. This is known as inter -modal

Material Dispersion:

In material dispersion, the dispersion occurs due to different wavelength of light

travelling at different speed inside the fiber.


The material dispersion can be minimised at certain wavelengths say 870 nm, 1300 nm
and 1550 nm, these wavelengths are termed as Zero dispersion wavelengths. When the light
wavelength is lesser than the zero dispersion wavelength , it travels slower and when it is higher
than zero dispersion wavelength it travels faster. Thus the speed is altered and adjusted in such a
way that all the waves passing through the fiber will move with constant speed and hence the
material dispersion is minimised.

Wave guide dispersion:

The wave guide dispersion arises due to the guiding property of fiber and due to their
different angles at which they incident at the core cladding interface of the fiber.


It is the P-N junction semi-conductor diode emits light when it is forward bias. It emits
light in both visible & IR region.


When current is passed through this P-N junction diode by applying forward bias,
electrons are injected into the active layer. Light is generated when these injected electrons
returns from their (higher) energy levels to their normal (lower) energy levels.

The energy difference is decreased as light, the wavelength of the light can be varied by
changing the material of active layer. The light is produced at right angles to the active layer.


(i) Its construction is very simple.

(ii) Its cost is low.

A solar cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. the another name
of the solar cell is photo voltanic cell.
There are two functions must be full filled by the solar cell.

i. Photo generation of electrons and holes in a light-absorbing material.

ii. The separation of the charge carriers (electronand hole) to a conductive contact that will
transmit the electricity.

This conversion is called the photo voltaic effect.


i. Photons in sunlight strike the sola panel and ar absorbed by semiconducting material such

ii. Electrons are knocked loose from their atoms, allows them to flow through the material
to produce electricity. And the holes are moved opposite of the electrons in a silicon solar

iii. This solar panel converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC)

iv. And this DC current enters into an inverter that turns DC current into 120 or 240- volt AC


i. Silicon , thin films , CdTe (cadmium telluride)

ii. CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Di-Selenide) multi-layer thin film components.

iii. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi junction.

iv. Light-absorbing dyes.


A solar cell is made up of Si P-N junction with one side is doped more heavily than other.
The heavily doped layer is made very thin and area and the area of cross section of junction is
made layer. The efficiency can be substantially increased by using an anti-reflection coating on
the thin heavily doped surface.

For effective collection of the charge carriers, the surface ( top of P+ and N+ layer) of the
solar cell has to be coated with good conductor. A complete coating of surface prevents the
incident light from reaching the junction, So, thin lines are drawn closely on the surface.

Solar cell is configured as a large area of PN junction made from silion. If a piece of P-
type silicon is laced in intimate contact a piece of N-type silicon then a diffusion of electron
occurs from the region of high electron concentration into the region of low electron
concentration. When the electrons diffuse across the PN junction, they recombine with holes on
the P-type material. The diffusion is occurred by an electric field which is produced by the
imbalance of charges immediately either side of the junction.

The electric field is established across the PN junction makes a diode that allows current
to flow in only one direction across the junction. Electrons may pass from the n-type side to p-
type side and holes may pass from the p-type side to the n-type side. This region where electrons
have diffused across the junction is called the depletion region because it no longer contains any
mobile charge carriers. It also known as the space charge region


Step 1

A slab (or wafer) of pure silicon is used to make a PV cell. The top of the slab is very
thinly diffused with an n dopant such as phosphorous. On the base of the slab a small amount
of a p dopant, typically boron, is diffused. The boron side of the slab is 1,000 times thicker
than the phosphorous side. Dopants are similar in atomic structure to the primary material. The
phosphorous has one more electron in its outer shell than silicon, and the boron has one less.
These dopants help create the electric field that motivates the energetic electrons out of the cell
created when light strikes the PV cell. The phosphorous gives the wafer of silicon an excess of
free electrons; it has a negative character. This is called the n-type silicon (n = negative). The
n-type silicon is not chargedit has an equal number of protons and electronsbut some of the
electrons are not held tightly to the atoms. They are free to move to different locations within the
layer. The boron gives the base of the silicon a positive character, because it has a tendency to
attract electrons. The base of the silicon is called p-type silicon (p = positive). The p-type silicon
has an equal number of protons and electrons; it has a positive character but not a positive

Step 2

Where the n-type silicon and p-type silicon meet, free electrons from the n-layer flow
into the player for a split second, then form a barrier to prevent more electrons from moving
between the two sides. This point of contact and barrier is called the p-n junction. When both
sides of the silicon slab are doped, there is a negative charge in the p-type section of the junction
and a positive charge in the n-type section of the junction due to movement of the electrons and
holes at the junction of the two types of materials. This imbalance in electrical charge at the p-
n junction produces an electric field between the p-type and n-type silicon.

Step 3

If the PV cell is placed in the sun, photons of light strike the electrons in the p-n junction
and energize them, knocking them free of their atoms. These electrons are attracted to the
positive charge in the n-type silicon and repelled by the negative charge in the p-type silicon.
Most photoelectron collisions actually occur in the silicon base.

Step 4

A conducting wire connects the p-type silicon to an electrical load, such as a light or
battery, and then back to the n-type silicon, forming a complete circuit. As the free electrons are
pushed into the n-type silicon they repel each other because they are of like charge. The wire
provides a path for the electrons to move away from each other. This flow of electrons is an
electric current that travels through the circuit from the n-type to the p-type silicon. In addition to
the semi-conducting materials, solar cells consist of a top metallic grid or other electrical contact
to collect electrons from the semi-conductor and transfer them to the external load, and a back
contact layer to complete the electrical circuit.


Its the percentage of power converted from absorbed light to electrical energy, when a
solar cell is connected to an electrical energy, when a solar is Connected to an electrical circuit.
This is calculated by using the ratio of Pm to the input light irradiance under standard test
condition (E, in W/M2) and the surface area of the solar cells(Ac in M2).

= Pm / E x Ac


i. There is no shortage of fuel in power generation using solar cell.

ii. Its not polluting the atmosphere

iii. Its free from health hazards unlike nuclear reactions.

iv. Its noise free.


i. So costly not suitable for large-scale power generation.

ii. Efficiency is very low.


i. Used in hills area for street light.

ii. Used in agriculture to operate motors.

iii. Used in pesticide sprayers.

iv. Used in road signals, calculators, solar cells.


For processing the light signal at receiving end of fiber, it requires a device to convert the
light signal that comes out from the fiber into electrical waveforms. That device is called
detectors / photo detectors.

There are three forms of detectors

1. PN junction photo detector

2. PIN photo diode

3. Avalanche photo diode (APD)


When reverse biased, the potential energy barrier between the P and N regions increases,
free electrons & free holes cannot climb the barrier and hence no current flows. Because there is
no free charge in the function, where barrier exists is called the depletion region.

An incident photon is absorbed in the junction after passing through the P-layer. The
absorbed energy raises a bound electron across the band gap.

The spectral response refers to the curve of detector responsively a function of

wavelength. Because of the rapid change in responsibility with wavelength, the different
detectors must be used in two windows of the optic spectrum where fiber losses are low.

Within either of the windows, the responsibility at the specific wavelength emitted by
source must be used when design the receiver.


The frequency response can be improved if the PN junction is separated by an intrinsic

This diode works in reverse bias. Under reverse bias when light is made to fall on the
material (or) intrinsic region i electron hole pair are generated. These electron & holes are
accelerated by external electric field which result in photo-current. Thus light is converted into
electrical signal.
The i region is neutral region and hence it can be adopted either by P or N. Since the
P-N region is separated by an intrinsic negative (P-i-P) photo diode.
The PIN diode acts as a linear device because the photo current is directly proportional to the
optical power incident on the PIN diode.The intrinsic region decreases the junction capacitance.
It is much more sensitive than PN (or) PIN

Creation of shower of electron, hole pair, by the collision process is used to increase the
gain, thus known as avalanche gain. Here N+ and P+ are heavily doped semiconductor and hence
have very low resistance. The region is very lightly doped and hence nearly intrinsic. Host of
the incident light is absorbed in this region electron & hole pairs are generated.
Fibre optical sensors are devices a physical quantity (temperature, pressure, strain, strain)
and give the magnitude as its output.
There are two types of sensors

i. Active sensor (or) direct sensor.

ii. Passive sensor (or) indirect sensor.

If the physical parameter that is to be measured acts directly over the optical fiber and
modulates the optical signal passing through the fiber is known as active sensor.
Ex: temperature sensor

If the physical parameter that is to be measured modulates the signal outsde the fiber,
then it is known as passive sensor
Ex; Displacement sensor
It is based on the principle of variation of intensity between two beams.


It consists of laser source to emit light, two fibers to transmit light, reflecting silicon
coating material (which is placed in an environment whose temperature is to be measured) and
shown in the figure



i. A monochromatic source of light is emitted from the laser source.

ii. The output of laser is passed through the fiber 1 and strikes the reflecting silicon Coating

iii. The reflected light from the reflecting silicon coating material (fig 1) is passed through
the fiber fiber2 and strikes the detector. Finally detector output is measured.


i. A monochromatic source of light is emitted from the laser source.

ii. The output of laser is passed through the fiber2 and strikes and strikes the reflecting
silicon coating material. Let the silicon coating material is now subjected in a room
whose temperature is to be measured.

iii. The reflected light from the reflecting silicon coating material(fig b) is passed through the
fiber2 and strikes the detector. Finally detector output is measured.


i. Absorption of light at the reflecting silicon coating material varies with temperature and
hence the intensity of light received at the detector varies.

ii. Thus the temperature can be measured from the intensity of light received at the detector.

Absorption of light temperature intensity of light

Light is sent through a transmitting fiber and is made of fall on a moving target . a
detector senses light from the target. With respect to intensity of light reflected fron the target,
the displacement of the target is measured.


It consist of a laser source to emit light, two fibers to transmit and receive light, a detector
and moving object whose displacement is to be measured, as shown in fig(1)


i. A monochromatic source of light is emitted from the laser source.

ii. The output of laser is passed through the fibre 1 and strikes the object at reference

iii. The reflected light from the object is passed through the fiber2 and strikes the detector
and hence the intensity can be measured.

iv. Now the object is moved to the distance L and once again the above procedure can be

v. The difference in the reflected intensities with respect to the reference position and the

new position gives the displacement (L) of the object.


Intensity of light of the reference position * intensity of light of the new position =
Displacement (L).

Endoscope is used to study the internal structure of the body.

It consist of two fibers 1 and 2.

i. Fiber-2 consist of many disordered fiber bundled together. Here fiber-2 is used to
illuminate the internal structure of the body when the light is passed through it.

ii. Fiber-1 consists of many ordered fibers bundled together. These fibers are used to collect
the reflected light rays from the internal structures of the body.

Lens assembly is attached to fiber-1, so that the reflected light is effectively focused. A
telescope is used to see the internal structure of the body as shown in the figure.


Light from the source is passed through the fiber-2, which illuminates the internal
structures, and the reflected lights are collected by the fiber-1 and focused into the telescope.

The purpose of using bundles of fibers is which picks up different structure of the body.

Hence the picture will be collected bit by bit and is transmitted in an order by the array of
fibers. As a result, the whole picture is viewed through the telescope.


A Fiber optics is a medium for carrying information from one point to another in the form
of light. Unlike the copper form of transmission, fiber optics is not electrical in nature. A basic
fiber optic system consists of a transmitting device that converts an electrical signal into a light
signal, an optical fiber cable that carries the light, and a receiver that accepts the light signal and
converts it back into an electrical signal. The complexity of a fiber optic system can range from
very simple (i.e., local area network) to extremely sophisticated and expensive (i.e., long
distance telephone or cable television trunking) .


It may be voice music, video signal etc which is in analog from to be transmitted is
converted from analog signal.


The transmitter consists of a device circuit and a light source. The device circuit transfers
the electric input signal into digital pulses and the light source converts that into optical pulses.
The light source is focused into the optical fiber .Optical fiber transmission uses wavelengths
that are in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum, just above the visible, and thus undetectable
to the unaided eye. Typical optical transmission wavelengths are 850 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550
nm. Both lasers and LEDs are used to transmit light through optical fiber. Lasers are usually used
for 1310- or 1550-nm single-mode applications. LEDs are used for 850- or 1300-nm multimode

There are ranges of wavelengths at which the fiber operates best.


It acts as a waveguide and transmits the optical pulse towards, the receiver by the
principal of total internal reflection.


The photo detector is a receiver which receives the optical pulses and converts into
electrical pulses. Further the signals are amplified by an amplifier. These electrical signals are
converted from digital to analog signals. Thus the original electrical signal is obtained in analog
form with the same information. In thus way information is transmitted from one end to another