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ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ 2014 №3

UDC 622.24:622.276

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF VELOCITY PROFILE
IN ECCENTRIC ANNULUS

H.Zhang1,2, G.Li2, S.Tian2, Zh.Li2, M.Wang2
( SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering,
1
2
China University of Petroleum)

Annulus flow is a phenomenon which is frequently encountered in many industrial processes and
has been under investigation for many decades. It is relatively simple to study concentric annulus
flow. However, if the annulus is eccentric, calculations become complex due to the asymmetry of
the eccentric annulus flow. During drilling operation, the space between the drill stem and the well
wall is generally an eccentric annulus. Especially in highly deviated wells and horizontal wells, the
drill stem will be located at the low side of the wellbore because of gravitational effects, thus, a fully
eccentric annulus is formed. The velocity profile in the eccentric annulus will exert a great impact on
the transportation and distribution of the cuttings, which is very important to prevent the drill string
from being buried and avert sticking incidents. Based on a single-phase flow model and a solid-
liquid two phase mixture drift model, (using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software) we
analyze the influence of six factors in this paper. These factors are the
• flow rate,
• fluid viscosity,
• the type of fluid,
• eccentricity,
• annulus geometry size and
• cuttings concentration.
According to the results of numerical simulation, we can see that the velocity profile in the eccentric
annulus is asymmetrical. There will be a high-speed basin in the wide gap of the annulus while the
low-speed basin will lie in the narrow gap. With increasing flow rate, annulus geometry size and
a decrease of the eccentricity, the area of the high-speed basin in the annulus will be increased and
that of the low-speed basin will be decreased. This will improve the uniformity of the annulus flow.
With increasing fluid viscosity and cuttings concentration, the velocity in high-speed basin of the
annulus will be increased, at the same time, the velocity in low-speed basin will be decreased and
the change of the velocity is not evident. However, the pressure loss in annulus will increase rapidly.
Therefore, we have to ensure that the velocity at the low-speed basin is large enough to transport the
cuttings and to avoid the debris deposition in the drilling operation. At the same time, the borehole
pressure should be taken into consideration when we select the reasonable drilling fluid viscosity.
Keywords: eccentric annulus, velocity distribution, influencing factor, numerical simulation.
E-mail: ligs@cup.edu.cn
DOI: 10.5510/OGP20140300205

Introduction the narrow eccentric annulus. In addition, they also
Fluid flow in annulus space is frequently analyzed the influence of velocity on pressure loss,
encountered in many industrial processes and has and the influence of slight eccentricity on final results.
been under investigation for many decades. The flow In 1990, Luo and Peden [2] analyzed the eccentric
in concentric annular space can be analyzed without annular flow of non-Newtonian fluids with a new
much difficulty. However, if the annular space is method where an eccentric annulus represented by
eccentric, the flow becomes more complex due to the an infinite number of concentric annuli with variable
asymmetry of the eccentric annulus. Unfortunately, outer radius. By using this new method, they obtained
the annulus we can see most frequently in the practical more accurate approximations for various profiles
production is the eccentric annulus. The velocity and good predictions of the volumetric flow rate and
profile in the eccentric annulus will exert a great pressure gradient in eccentric annular flow. In 1994,
impact on the transportation and distribution of the Buckinghm [3] studied the velocity and turbulence
cuttings, thus affecting wellbore cleaning. intensity profiles for Newtonian annular flow and
Considerable researches have been conducted to the effect of mechanical aids on these profiles with
the distribution of velocity in the eccentric annulus, the method of numerical computation. In his paper,
and the main research methods are numerical he analyzed the influence which is exerted by the
computation and numerical simulation. In 1965, centering device. In 1995, Manglik and Fang [4]
Roberto and Vaughn [1] studied the axial laminar studied the effect of eccentricity on fully developed
flow of non-Newtonian fluids in narrow eccentric laminar flow in annular ducts. In order to get a more
annulus with the method of numerical calculation accurate result, different phase angles were taken
and analyzed the feature of the velocity profile in into consideration in his paper. In 2006, Ozbayoglu

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we can get single-phase flow control U sr + U sθ + U sz = ∂r r ∂θ ∂z equations: (10) 1. Escudier [8] studied the fully developed in the annulus is considered as one-dimensional flow. Single-phase flow control equations in ρ s r ∂θ C s ρ s Cs ρs annulus Assuming the flow in annulus is stationary and ∂U s z ∂U sz ∂U sz isothermal.1. the where = + ur + θ +u z (5) oscillations of drill bit change the well cross-section Dt ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z from an expected circular to an elliptic shape. In 2001. laminar flow of purely viscous non-Newtonian liquids and then we can get mass conservation equation for through annuli. N. s. 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ (6) ( ρ mumr r ) + ( ρ mumθ ) + ( ρ mum z ) = 0 In 2008. Mathematical model 1 ∂P 1 1 (9) Fsθ =− + Fsf θ + Faθ 1. At the same time. In spite of the numerical computation. including the effects of eccentricity mixed phase.densite. the researchers studied the characteristic u . With the help of the CFD software. type of the fluid. they came to the conclusion that the drill k =1 pipe rotation can slightly increase the pressure drop 2 only in the eccentric annulus. The result showed that the mixed phase. also study this problem with the method of the numerical simulation. By using the CFD where ρ m = ∑C k ρ k software. liquidity index exerted a great influence on the feature (1) Mass conservation equation for mixed phase of the velocity profile. annulus ∂U sθ ∂U sθ ∂U sθ U Sθ U Sr geometry size and cuttings concentration. They came to  Dt r  r  ∂ r ∂θ ∂z  the conclusion that when the eccentric increase. Equation of continuity 1 ∂P 1 1 = Fsz − + Fsfz + Faz ρ s ∂z C s ρ s Cs ρs 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ ( ρ ur r ) + ( ρ uθ ) + ( ρ u z ) = 0 (1) For the fluid phase r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂U f r ∂U fr ∂U fr U 2f θ 2. with the method of numerical there is partial equilibrium in the small cell. by using ∂U s r ∂U sr ∂U sr U 2 Sθ CFD software. Azouz [7] studied the flow of 1. they also proposed a new method to analyze the result. the Du z 1 ∂ ∂σ ∂  frictional pressure drop decrease. these cases. researchers g . and this observation ρ =ρ g z +  (rσ rz ) + θ z + (rσ zz )  (4) is verified both with simulation results as well as with Dt r  ∂r ∂θ ∂z  experimental data.component of the surface force. In 2012.velocity. relative velocity equation and so on. And they also studied the When we study the effect of cuttings for annulus characteristics of laminar flow of the Bingham fluid velocity profile. in this paper.gravite. fluid viscosity. In ρ . U sr + U sθ + U sz − = ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r 1. Momentum equation U fr +U fθ + U fz − = ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r (11)  Dur uθ2  1 ∂ ∂σ ∂  1 ∂P  U fr 2 ∂U f θ  1 ρ  −  = ρ g r +  (rσ rr ) + θ r − σ θθ + (rσ zr )  (2) = Ffr − +ν  ∇ 2U fr − 2 − 2 + Ffsr  Dt r  r  ∂r ∂θ ∂z  ρ f ∂r  r r ∂θ  C f ρf 14 . elliptical annular pipe. they phase ∂m 1 ∂  m 2 A  ∂p τγ tried to study how the eccentricity. Mokhtari [10] studied the mj ρm computational modeling of drilling fluids dynamics in (2) Momentum conservation equation for mixed casing drilling. 2014 №3 ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ and Omurlu [5] analyzed the effect of eccentricity on  Duθ ur uθ  1 ∂ ∂σ θθ ∂  flow characteristics of annular flow of non-Newtonian ρ  +  = ρ gθ +  (rσ rθ ) + + σ θ r + (rσ zθ ) (3) fluids by using finite element method. and this effect is caused ∑ C k ρ kukj by the changing of the velocity distribution in the u = k =1 eccentric annulus. m/s.time. kg/m3. t . ρ s ∂r C s ρ s Cs ρs eccentricity. m2/s. the power law index +  = − − ρm g − 0 (7) and the wellbore geometric size influenced the pressure ∂ t A ∂z ρ  m  ∂z A and velocity profile. Alegría and his fellows [6] D ∂ ∂ u ∂ ∂ point out that during the rotary drilling operation. Assuming that CFD software. Duan and his fellows [9] studied the effect of r ∂r r ∂r ∂z drill pipe rotation on pressure drop and fluid velocity 2 profile in foam drilling operation. based on single-phase flow model and For the solid phase solid-liquid two phase mixture drift model. In 1992. These factors include the flow rate. momentum conservation equation for and inner-cylinder rotation. (3) Relative velocity equation In this paper. we studied the six main factors which U sr + U sθ + U sz − = ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r influenced the velocity profile in eccentric annulus (8) and analyzed the influence rule and mechanism 1 ∂P 1 1 = Fsr − + Fsfr + Far of each factor. the cuttings and fluid mixture drift and the power law fluid in annulus by using the model is simplified to two-fluid model. In 2012. the flow simulation.2 Two-phase flow control equations in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in conduits annulus of arbitrary cross-section. of viscoplastic fluid when it flows through eccentric σrθ .

pipe circumference. we use the smooth pipe which the columns.5 24 30 fluid. N. m .6 9. Fsz.the volume fraction of each phase.mixed phase densite. ρm . turbulence intensity is set to 10% and the hydraulic equivalent diameter is 0.Visco- Inlet boundary condition: Annular inlet boundary Type of geometry Cuttings rate. Meanwhile. The results of numerical simulation and We employ the structured grid and the size of the analysis mesh is 100 (circumference) x 15 (radius) x 250 (axis). Physical model In this paper. Cs.solid mass force component along different directions. Fsr. tricity sity. A .total mass flux. L/s mpa·s tration in flow rate of the inlet. Due to the assumption that wellbore and in terms of the table.subscript.2 7 annulus entrance are appropriate settings.wall friction stress.time. kg. in order to improve calculation accuracy and convergence speed. fluid and solid. In this paper. By meaning is the full development of the border.8 36 fluid diameter. turbulent 6 Newtonian 0 kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate at the 12 10 fluid. in order to improve the convergence flow velocity distribution nephogram of the outlet as speed of the calculation. 3. and use the other one which the internal diameter is 7 in (177.8 mm) to simulate the wellbore. the high velocity area at the the wellbore and tubing string are no-slip smooth wide gap of eccentric annulus becomes bigger and low 15 . τ0 . kg/m3. we can find that the hydraulic equivalent diameter and turbulence flow velocity is higher at the wide gap of the annulus and intensity values. concen- condition is velocity inlet. U . Fsf.0873 m. N/m3.interaction between the two phases. Solid wall boundary conditions: Assuming With the increase of flow rate.molecular viscosity coefficient of the fluid. N/kg. Its physical which affects the flow velocity profile in annulus. s . we need to 0. Fig. Cf . we set up the appropriate shown in figure 2. m2. . 3. we can get the different Meanwhile. m. t . we applied the variable control The boundary condition of the entry is the velocity method. Ffθ. there is only one variable in a inlet. drill stem.liquid mass force component along different directions.added mass force. Since the 18 20 Power-law 0 0. N/m2. inner pipe are smooth string which without slipping. Flow Rate Outlet boundary condition: Annular outlet Flow rate is the most important influencing factor boundary condition is set to the outflow. Fsθ.5 30 40 Bingham set the values of turbulence intensity and hydraulic 0. kg/m3.the densite of each phase. Therefore.cross-sectional area of annulus. m/s. Parameters Boundary conditions are set as follows: Annulus Flow Eccen. um .velosity of mixture phase.4 8. ρk . ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ 2014 №3 ∂U f θ ∂U f θ ∂U f θ U frU f θ U fr +U fθ + U fz − = ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r 1 ∂P  U 2 ∂U  1 (12) = Ff θ − +ν  ∇ 2U f θ − f2θ + 2 fz + Ffsθ ρ f r ∂θ  r r ∂θ  C f ρ f ∂U f z ∂U fz ∂U fz U fr +U fθ + U fz = ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 1 ∂P 1 (13) = Ffz − +ν∇ 2U fz + Ffsz ρ f ∂z Cf ρf where f. the flow velocity is low at the narrow gap of the annulus. . ν . thus the simulation space was closed by the external diameter is 5 in (127 mm) to simulate the solid wall boundary conditions. 0.relative velocity of each phase. changing the flow rate of the inlet. so that we can change the fluid size. Ffr. Ffs . In this paper. s. Ffz. so we use the fixed wall boundary condition to close Table the computational domain. Fa . From the figure 2. The others are set condition. N/kg. γ . and the export use the natural outflow boundary particular simulation calculations. m/s. 5% turbulence calculation model is used.1.1 The meshing of the eccentric annulus 2.

2. the fluid tends to flow through the wide gap and 50 points from the symmetrical line of the velocity forms a high speed basin obviously. with the change of the azimuth angle maximum velocities at wide and narrow gap increase. we can use the numerical simulation software. 2014 №3 ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ Fig. the velocity 3 3 decreases with the increase of eccentricity. ψ. Velocity distribution nephogram Fig. 30. As flow rate increases. while the effective 2. Different viscosity means different fluid turbulence intensity which will affect the velocity profile distribution in the annulus. the pressure loss and energy loss in the wide gap is At each process of numerical simulation. This is mainly because that Fig.3. there will be a low speed basin. region of velocity decreasing. velocity increases with the eccentricity. When peak velocity at maximum gap the eccentricity increases. the velocity increases gradually.5 conditions of different fluid viscosity. The velocity magnitude at wide/narrow the Reynolds number will decrease which means the gap and the ratio of them vs. This is beneficial to overcome the eccentric and the velocity near the wall is relatively small. from low to high speed as shown in figure 3. We can see from the figure 4 that when the eccentricity the Reynolds number will increase. The main reason is that: when the fluid rheological feature and hydrodynamic 3. and the ratio of them vary with the change of the flow. however. Annulus velocity distribution nephogram of eccentric annulus (e = 0. at the same time. we extract small.4. As shown 0 0 in figure 6. with the increase of the velocity. the entire flow field is mainly because that with the increase of flow rate. This is with different eccentricity. 20. both of the zone areas. For annuluses but the ratio of them is reduced gradually. annulus flow resistance at the narrow gap and improve However. we can find that as the fluid viscosity increase. m/s flow resistance at the narrow gap increases.2. due to the influence of the fluid viscosity. As shown in figure 5. 1. 40. Fluid viscosity The viscosity of the fluid is another important 1 1 factor. Eccentricity radius is constant. thereby 2 2 the velocity at the narrow gap of the annulus reduces with the increase of eccentricity. And the change at wide gap is opposite. Under the 0. the Maximum velocity. a concentric annulus. the velocity distribution is the turbulence intensity of the annular flow increases symmetric.3. distribution nephogram. we can know how as the flow resistance at the narrow gap of eccentric the annulus maximum velocity at the wide/narrow gap annulus is big. due to the fact that the flow velocity in the annulus markedly. the thickness of fluid film peak velocity at minimum gap formed at the wall does not change.5 3.6) of eccentric annulus with different eccentricity velocity area becomes smaller. the divided into two regions by the dividing line at the turbulence intensity of the flow in annulus increases ψ=110~120o: the region of velocity increasing and the and makes the uniformity of annulus flow to increase. in the eccentric annulus. L/s annulus will decrease. the velocity at the wide gap of the annulus 0 10 20 30 40 will rise while the velocity at the narrow gap of the Flow rate. flow rate turbulence intensity will decrease as the viscosity 16 . In the high-speed basin (ψ=180 o). Correspondingly. At the same Velocity ratio of max & min gap time. 50 mPa·s. is 0. in the low-speed basin (ψ=0o).5 Velocity ratio of max & min gap flow area at the narrow gap is reduced. FLUENT. In this way. includeing 10. The annulus center velocity is the maximum gradually. to simulate.

6 e=0. The curves of the pressure loss vs. The curves of the velocity magnitude 120 ratio vs. the friction between the fluid and rough wall surface will increase which will lead to the increase of fluid flow energy loss. The velocity profile of fluid resistance is bigger.6 Velocity. the fluid viscosity ψ Fig. The energy loss can be expressed in the form of pressure loss.8 Viscosity of drilling mud.9 80 10 mPa·s 20 mPa·s 30 mPa·s 40 mPa·s 60 0. resulting in the decrease of the with different viscosity (e = 0.6. This leads to the increase of film thickness on the wall.6) velocity at the narrow gap. 17 . The energy loss is more obviously in the narrow gap and the flow Fig.5 0 0. As shown in figure 8. with the increase of the fluid viscosity. m/s 0.2 0 e=0. ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ 2014 №3 increases. the effective flow area of the narrow gap is reduced. At the same time.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 e=0.6 2. mPa·s 0 Fig.4 2 1.7. azimuth ψ Pressure loss in annulus space. the decrease of velocity at the narrow gap must result in the increase of velocity at the wide gap. The curves of the velocity 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 magnitude vs.5 1 The relative radial position the pressure loss is increasing sharply.5 peak velocity at maximum gap The velocity magnitude ratio peak velocity at minimum gap 0. with the increase of the fluid viscosity. kPa 100 0.5. the fluid viscosity -1 -0.2 e=0 1 e=0. Since the total flow rate does not change. the velocity of the narrow gap decreases. 1 0.8. m/s 40 20 0. mPa·s 0 Fig. As a result.8 Velocity.4 0.3 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Viscosity of drilling mud.5 0.

the velocity profile Fig. 8. In this paper. form a velocity penetration. The velocity distribution with magnitude vs. for the shear thinning effect.5 in.8 just as shown in the figure 9. Power-law fluid we can study how the type of the fluid effect the 1. Compared to the Newtonian fluid. the area of high-speed basin of the 0.6 Bingham fluid is bigger while the value of velocity at the narrow gap is relatively low. and the changing of the annulus geometry size will exert influence on the flow velocity profile. there is not a potential core. the the narrow gap of the annulus.4. position the different size of the annulus (e = 0. the Power-law fluid and the Bingham fluid. Accordingly. Type of fluid 1. as is shown in Relative radial position the figure 10. different depths means different wellbore geometry. Annulus Geometry Size In the practice of drilling operation. However. we can obtain -1 -0. m/s can get the velocity distribution nephogram and the 1 three-dimensional graph about the velocity gradient vs.6 When the other variables is constant. As a result. at wider than that of the Newtonian fluid. and these are more complex.4 Bngham plastic fluid fluid. At the same time.9. 0. The velocity profile of different fluids consists of two velocity gradient regions and a potential core due to its constitutive equations. the Bingham fluid and the Power-low fluid are relatively velocity of the Bingham fluid is bigger than the Power- low fluid. by changing the type of the fluid. for example the Newtonian 1.6) 18 . 0 By extracting the point from the 3-D curves of the velocity along the axis of symmetry.5 0 0. As shown in figure 12. the width of the velocity gradient regions is obviously at the wide gap of the annulus. 3. For Newtonian fluid. just as shown in the figure For the reason that the constitutive equations of the 10.2 Newtonian fluid. the velocity profile Fig. there will width of the narrow gap.11. based on the casing program design. The 3D curves of the velocity Fig. Therefore.4 fluid. as the sum of the width potential core is relatively narrower and the velocity of the two velocity gradient regions is bigger than the near the wall increases slowly.2 Newtonian fluid velocity distribution in the eccentric annulus.5.5 1 the velocity profile of different fluids. We Velocity. 2014 №3 ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ 3. but the velocity at the low-speed basin is relatively high.5 in and 9. We can obtain the velocity distribution nephogram as shown in figure 11. For the power-law 0. the velocity at the narrow gap is smaller than that of the power-low fluid under the same conditions. we can find that the high-speed basin is similar to the 0.10. from the velocity distribution nephogram. we use the FLUENT to simulate the flow when the out diameter of the wellbore is respectively 7 in. location when we change the type of the fluid.

There are little cuttings in the From the figure 12. as shown in figure 13. wellbore size.1 0 0.5 in 5% cuttings 1. Usually. m/s 2 1 1 0. In this case. there will be a stationary fluid and the inlet velocity is constant. As the safe upper limit of the cuttings concentration is 5% in drilling operations.5 0 0 -0. Therefore. Cuttings Concentration buried and avert sand sticking accidents. the at the top. and a heterogeneous suspension layer However. while the maximum value of the velocity is declining. and the potential core will become bigger L/S is not high enough to transport the cuttings. with the increase of the basin increases.13.2 -1 -0. The cuttings bed will diminish the effective maximum value of the velocity will increase with flow area at the narrow gap and fluid tends to pass the wellbore size. the maximum value of the high-speed basin at the wide gap will increase while the maximum value of the low-speed basin at the narrow gap will decrease.5 0 0.14. so especially the high-angle and horizontal well. The main reason is that when through the wide gap and the velocity at high-speed the eccentricity is constant. when the flow rate is 30 L/S. as along the axis of symmetry. with the upper part of the eccentric annulus but a lot at the increase of the wellbore size. This is likely due to the presence of the cuttings increases the energy loss when the two-phase fluid flows through the narrow gap of the eccentric annulus and diminishes the velocity value at the narrow gap.6) Fig. the annular flow is often solid/liquid two-phase flow. the narrow gap will become wider. bed of drilled cuttings at the bottom. at the high speed basin will become more and more This is likely due to the velocity with flow rate 30 unobvious. We can see that when the annular flow is solid/liquid two-phase flow. we can see that. At the same time. we can get the 19 . cuttings will gradually accumulate at the bottom of This is mainly because that the width of the velocity the eccentric annulus under the action of gravity and gradient regions is the same when the type of the form a cuttings bed. the cuttings can be transported at the narrow gap of the annulus to prevent the drill string from being 3. m/s Velocity. The velocity profile with the different size of the annulus (e = 0. in the drilling operations.6. shown in figure 14. the cuttings concentration is an important factor that influences the velocity profile. Fig. In drilling operations. layer above it.1 0. m The relative radial position Fig.12.5 1 Radial position. we have that the energy loss will decline and the flow velocity to make sure that the flow rate is big enough to ensure will increase obviously.5 in Velocity. we studied the velocity profile when the flow rate was 30 L/S and the cuttings concentration was 0% and 5% respectively by using the CFD software.5 Diameter 9. Distribution of cuttings volume concentration with the help of the CFD software. in this case. the velocity penetration bottom of the annulus which form a cuttings bed. Then the fluid tends to pass from the wide gap of the annulus and the velocity of high-speed basin increases.2 -0. a moving-bed bigger wellbore size means a bigger potential core. at the narrow gap of the annulus. ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ 2014 №3 3 2 Diameter 7 in 0% cuttings Diameter 8. The influence of the cuttings concentration can be get by extracting point from the nehogram distribution of cuttings volume concentration.

10. the fluid flow through the narrow gap more easily and the uniformity of the flow will be promoted. The effect of drillpipe rotation on pressure losses and fluid velocity profile in foam drilling //SPE 114185. -P. J. S.298. eccentricity. M. -№1.Oliveira. including the effects of eccentricity and inner-cylinder rotation //International journal of heat and fluid flow.Fang.P. In this case.T.Buckingham. 4. and the pressure loss increase rapidly with viscosity.J.Buckingham. P. There will be a high-speed basin at the wide gap of the annulus and a low-speed basin at the narrow gap. the viscosity has a great influence on the pressure loss. Fully developed laminar flow of purely viscous non- Newtonian liquids through annuli. The influences of annulus geometric characteristics on the velocity profile are outstandingly shown in two aspects: the eccentricity and the annulus geometry size. When the flow rate is increasing. The maximum speeds of both the high-speed basin and the low-speed basin are increasing.Peden. S. L.Miska. J.23. -Vol. Therefore. 2012. Axial laminar flow of non-newtonian fluids in narrow eccentric annuli //SPE Journal.C. -Vol.Shirazi. The increase of the eccentricity will decline the uniformity of the flow. the velocity increases at the narrow gap and the uniformity of the flow will be promoted.91. the area of high-speed basin of the Bingham fluid is bigger. -P. however. Analysis of the effect of eccentricity on the flow characteristics of annular flow of non-newtonian fluids using finite-element method //SPE 100147. the whole flow field can be divided into two parts: velocity increasing region and velocity decreasing region. With the increase of the eccentricity. viscosity and the type of the fluid. These factors consist of the flow rate. As different fluids have different constitutive equations.Azouz. In drilling operations. I. However. -№1. -1965. Effect of eccentricity and thermal boundary conditions on laminar fully developed flow in annular ducts //International journal of heat and fluid flow. but the maximum velocity of the low-speed basin is lower. This is mainly because that larger flow rate means greater turbulence intensity. the velocity will increase at the wide gap of the annulus while decline at the narrow gap.M.R. Conclusion The velocity profile in the eccentric annulus is not symmetrical. in this case. Velocity and turbulence intensity profiles for newtonian annular flows and the effect of mechanical aids on these profiles //SPE 28471.52. Therefore. 1992. and the change is not obvious.Tutuncu. -Vol.J.Alegria. -№4. especially the high-angle and horizontal wells. R. J. -P.Luo. E. 9.Manglik.Yu et al. 5.Ermila.Duan. the type of fluid. -№4. 1994. Friction factor correlation for viscoplastic fluid flows through eccentric elliptical annular pipe //SPE 151020. -2001. the cuttings concentration is an important factor that influences the velocity profile. we should take the pressure loss into account and chose a reasonable fluid viscosity. Computational modeling of drilling fluids dynamics in casing drilling //SPE 161301. M. 2006. even though high viscosity is good for cuttings suspension. annulus geometry size and cuttings concentration. 20 .Omurlu. 8. cuttings will gradually accumulate at the bottom of the eccentric annulus and form a cuttings bed.C.M.M. the flow velocity increase in velocity increasing region. References 1. in drilling operations. With the increase of the fluid viscosity. the annular flow is often solid/liquid two-phase flow. 2014 №3 ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ 4.Escudier. the velocity has been increased at the wide gap while reduced at the narrow gap. However. but there is an opposite tendency in velocity decreasing region. the velocity profiles will be different when they flow through the eccentric annulus.M.Franco et al. J.16. P. With the presence of cuttings. By the boundary that ψ =110~120o.R. Compared with the Newtonian fluid. A. Numerical simulation of laminar flow of Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids in conduits of arbitrary cross-section //SPE 24406. we have to make sure that the flow rate is big enough to ensure the cuttings can be transported at the narrow gap of the annulus to prevent the drill string from being buried and avert sand sticking accidents.P.Pinho. -1990.T. -P. D.5. 2012. fluid viscosity. C.5. the velocity penetration at the high-speed basin will become unobvious and the maximum velocity is smaller. 2. 7. 3. M. With the change of the flow rate. -1995. J.P.Mokhtari.Pilehvari. Flow of non-newtonian fluids through eccentric annuli //SPE Production Engineering.Grace. -Vol. 6. the ratio of them is gradually declining. the velocity profile in the annulus can be changed. the high-speed basin at the wide gap of the annulus will become bigger while the low-speed basin will become smaller. W. The high-speed basin of the Power-low fluid is similar to that of the Newtonian fluid. F.Azar. A. If the velocity in the low-speed basin is too low to transport the cuttings.Vaughn.277. but the maximum velocity of the low-speed basin is higher and the flow of Power-low fluid in eccentric annulus has a greater uniformity. There are six main factors which influence the velocity distribution in the eccentric annulus. M. 2008.Ozbayoglu.A. M. A. When the annulus geometry size increase.

həmin zaman aşağısürətlidə azalacaq. вязкость флюида. Konsentrik həlqəvi axını tədqiq etmək nisbətən asandır. bu da qazıma boruları kəmərlərinin tutulma hallarının qarşısının alınması üçün çox vacibdir.уменьшаться. aşağısürətli fəzada sürət qazıma işləri zamanı qazıma şlamlarının çıxarılması üçün kifayət qədər böyük olsun. таких как: расход потока. Результаты численного моделирования показали. что очень важно для предотвращения случаев прихвата колонны бурильных труб. При проведении буровых работ пространство между бурильной колон- ной и стенкой скважины в основном эксцентрическое кольцевое. J. Bununla yanaşı yüksəksürətli fəza həlqəvi fəzanın geniş hissəsində. если кольцевое пространство . В наклонно-направленных и горизонтальных скважинах бурильная колонна располагается в нижней части ствола скважины таким образом. Q. Поэтому. При этом высокоскоростное пространство располагается в широкой части кольцевого пространства.bir çox istehsal proseslərində tez-tez müşahidə edilən və onilliklər boyunca tədqiq edilən təzahürdür.Ли2.Жанг1. M.2. вычисления усложняются по причине асимметрии эксцентрического кольцевого потока. эксцен- триситет. концентрация бурового шлама. qazıma kəməri ilə quyu divarı arasındakı fəza əsasən ekssentrik həlqəvi fəzadır. Ж.2. С увеличением вязкости флюида и концентрации бурового шлама скорость в высокоскоростном пространстве кольцевого пространства будет увеличиваться.Tian2.Li2. və bu sürət dəyişikliyi aşkarcasına olmayacaq. S. həlqəvi fəzanın həndəsi ölçüləri. necə ki. Однако.Тиан2. Buna görə də nəzarət etmək vacibdir ki. что профиль скоростей в эксцентрическом кольцевом пространстве ассиметричен. Rəqəmsal modelləşdirmənin nəticələri göstərmişdir ki. ekssentrik həlqəvi axının asimmetriyası səbəbindən hesablamalar mürəkkəbləşir. aşağısürətli isə dar hissəsində yerləşir. Это улучшит однородность (равномерность) кольцевого потока. həlqəvi fəzanın həndəsi ölçülərinin artması və ekssentrisitetin azalması ilə həlqəvi fəzada yüksəksürətli fəza sahəsi artacaq. С.Ванг2 (1Китайский Нефтяной Университет. чтобы скорость в низкоскоростном пространстве была достаточно большой для выноса бурового шлама при проведении буровых работ. анализируется влияние шести факторов. qazıma şlamının qatılığı. 21 . необходимо учитывать скважинное давление при выборе приемлемой вязкости промывочной жидкости. flüidin növü. Qazıma işlərinin aparılması zaman.в узкой части. flüidin özlülüyü. снижение давления в кольцевом пространстве будет быстро увеличиваться. Lakin. в то время как в низкоскоростном . Профиль скоростей в эксцентрическом кольцевом пространстве оказывает большое влияние на вынос бурового шлама. Lakin həlqəvi fəzada təzyiqin aşağı düşməsi tez artacaq. необходимо следить за тем.Ли2. Г.Jang1. Eyni zamanda yuyucu məhlulun özlülüyünü seçmə zamanı quyu təzyiqini də nəzərə almaq vacibdir. С увеличением расхода потока геометриче- ских размеров кольцевого пространства и уменьшением эксцентриситета.эксцентрическое. qravitasiya effektlərinin təsiri nəticəsində tam surətdə ekssentrik həlqəvi fəza formalaşdırır. ELMİ ƏSƏRLƏR • PROCEEDINGS • НАУЧНЫЕ ТРУДЫ 2014 №3 Численное моделирование профиля скоростей в эксцентрическом кольцевом пространстве Х. В статье. Ekssentrik həlqəvi fəzada sürətlər profili qazıma şlamının çıxarılmasına böyük təsir göstərir ki. Maili-istiqamətli və horizontal quyularda qazıma kəməri quyu lüləsinin aşağı hissəsində elə şəkildə yerləşir ki. область высокоскоростного про- странства в кольцевом пространстве будет увеличиваться. Flüidin özlülüyünün və qazıma şlamının qatılığının artması ilə həlqəvi fəzanın yüksəksürətli fəzasında sürət artacaq. aşağısürətli fəza sahəsi isə azalacaq. Однако.Li2. что формирует в силу гравитационных эффектов полностью эксцентрическое кольцевое пространство. геометрические размеры кольцевого пространства. Bu həlqəvi axının həmcinsliliyini (bərabərliyini) yaxşılaşdıracaq. Məqalədə birfazalı axın və bərk-maye ikifazalı qarışıq yerdəyişmə modellərinin əsasında aşağıda göstərilən altı faktorun təsiri təhlil edilir: axın sərfi. на основе моделей однофазного потока и твердо-жидкостного двухфазного смешанного сдвига. ekssentrik həlqəvi fəzada sürətlər profili asimmetrikdir. Ekssentrik həlqəvi fəzada sürətlər profilinin rəqəmsal modelləşdirilməsi H.Vang2 (1«SINOPEC» Neft Texnologiyası üzrə Elmi-Tədqiqat İnstitutu. M. и это изменение скорости не будет явным. а низкоскоростное . тип флюида. 2 Çin Neft İnstitutu) Xülasə Həlqəvi axın . 2 Научно-исследовательский институт нефтяных технологий «SINOPEC») Реферат Кольцевой поток – это часто наблюдаемое во многих производственных процессах и исследуемое на про- тяжении многих десятилетий явление. həlqəvi fəza ekssentrikdirsə. а область низкоскоростного пространства сокра- щаться. В то же самое время. ekssentrisitet. Относительно просто изучать концентрический кольцевой поток. Axın sərfinin.