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The Etymology of Hispano-Romance Tomar 'To Take

Author(s): Thomas J. Walsh
Source: Hispanic Review, Vol. 68, No. 3 (Summer, 2000), pp. 243-265
Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press
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Accessed: 02-04-2017 04:42 UTC

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Georgetown University

Tra i vocaboli che ogni cultore prudente
della filologia neolatina deve rassegnarsi-
ponderato che abbia le proposte messe
avanti fin qui-a dichiarare di etimologia
oscura, I sicuramente da porre lo spag-
nuolo e portoghese tomar ...
Pio Rajna, 1919

F the forty most frequently
Oj* Spanish (Juilland and Chan
a* only one defies easy associati
and amply recorded Classica
the sources of the others are so transparent as
59 m~ never to have provoked a hint of scholarly con-
troversy. The resister is tomar 'to take,' a form
unknown outside the confines of Hispano-Romance, here narrowly
defined to exclude Catalan, which-like most other Romance
varieties--derives its verb 'to take' from Lat. PREHENDERE 'to seize,
grasp.' While distinguished Hispanists and Romanists, including
some of the giants of the field, have tried out a variety of solutions,
Joan Corominas, as recently as 1980, labeled tomar "de origen in-
cierto" (Diccionario2 s.v. tomar.) In the pages to follow, I shall argue
that tomar is cognate to Sp./Port. domar < Lat. DOMA-E 'to tame,' and
that its initial voiceless stop resulted from operation of an over-
looked "sound law." I shall suggest further that the semantic devel-
opment 'to tame' > 'to take' represents a generalization of semantic

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This content downloaded from 140.).' which would have evolved regularly into Late Spoken Latin *atomare. To explain nonattestation of *ato- 1 For a more detailed and elaborate historique du probleme.(e.jstor. reckon. tumbar(se) 'to knock (lie) down' and F Paris. [a]dormirse. "Les avatars.154. AUTUMA-E 'to say. following Schu- chardt. in Old and Modem Spanish. mostly by majo enigma of tomar. judge. [a]bajar. I believe briefly earlier attempts. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about.g. [a]bastar.' a solution editions of his Romance etymological dic Franz Settegast proposed derivation fro row. he invoked numerous instances. see Malkiel.' in Spanish. while also contributing several new arguments in favor. [a]coger. who ignored Settegas ing Diez for excessive reliance on German the same onomatopoeic or expressive base Sp. Wilhelm Meyer-Liibke (Romanisches. Portuguese. [a]catar. [a]cometer. while appealing on semant justify phonetically." The Florentine literary scholar Pio Rajna unearthed an apparently infrequent Latin verb. To explain loss of .206. French. Settegast's derivation from MUTUARE ranked as "ganz unwahr- scheinlich. s. affirm. Walsh HR 68 (2000) elements already present in DOMARE at the forth my own solution. Catalan.236 on Sun. 1 Friedrich Diez viewed tomar as a borrow Old Saxon t6mian 'to set free. Italian and Spanish. mostly exhibiting meanings reminiscent of 'to fall.' an idea that. and [a]quejarse). however. [a]guisar. whose reaction to Settegast's pro 133) was expressed only by a question ma suggestion.2 For him. posited an onomatopoeic [*]tum(b) 'fall. responding to potential criticisms raised by Rajna himself.v. Hugo Schuchardt. Jakob Jud espoused Rajna's idea wholeheartedly. though without a ringing en 1890). of verbs exhibiting variants both with and without a." 2 Meyer-Liibke repeated this solution in substantially similar form in the third edition of his Romance etymological dictionary. flop' to account for a range of words. 244 Thomas J..

adduced several other Latin lexemes same semantic sphere that had survived exclusively in Hispano- Romance. reckon. tomar).154. non alongside two additional analogous cases from La Romance.206. Corominas.jstor. defenders of Rajna and Jud. Etymology of Tomar 245 mar. they would have been at a loss to ass any known lexical base. all languages and dialects save those in which that cluster 3 Malkiel also found Corominas' arguments against the onomatopoeic solution "entierement convaincants. Finally. those signifying 'to fall. he observed that while speakers would sure as a prefix. and their Romance congeners. Meyer-Liibke. in both editions of his Spanish etymological dictio- nary (s. Fr. As a parallel. Vicente Garcia de Diego. affirm." was troubled by the absence of cogna outside the Iberian peninsula. who dismissed the solution based on AUTUMARE "tout a fait fantaisiste. collect' < RECUPER-E (cf. embraced Settegast's solution (Diccionario MUTUARE). 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. ju to concrete ('to take'). A substantial portion of Corominas' four-and-a-half-page dictionary entry for tomar is devoted to a withering-and.. believing that "la perfecta congruencia semaintica muy probable esta etimologia." This content downloaded from 140. be- longed to an entirely different lexical family from tomar.3 In his . charge. He was also skeptical of the appar semantic development from abstract ('to say." Though his enthusiasm had evide waned by the time of publication of the second edition of his e mological dictionary three decades later. vs. tumbar. in my judgment. reported that informed scholars were divided into two camps as regards the origin of tomar: followers of Schuchardt. Leo Spitzer. knock down') show -mb.critique of the onomatopoeic solution. tomber. Jud. Among his most convincing arguments were the following: 1) Words belonging to the former group (i. and Spitzer. he continued to list t under the lemma MUTUARE. he cited Pro 'to recover.236 on Sun. sided squarely with Schuchardt and Meyer-Liibke in preferrin onomatopoeic solution. though aware of Meyer-Liibke's and Rajna's proposals. conclusive. which ran counter to observable trends.v. who championed derivation from AUTUMARE. who favored the onomatopoeic solution. who believed that AUTUMA legal term.

'4 Corominas insisted that AUTUMARE was n edly in the writings of Plautus. This content downloaded from 140. lo palomo < Lat.' he suggested that "un retour a *tomjan (la base presque abandonn6e de Diez. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. LUMBU 'loin'/PALUMBU 'woo of the onomatopoeic solution has explaine jectory 'to fall.(cf.. Moreover.. when it was artificially resuscitated by certain erudite authors. Fathers. through a folk this lexeme). Malkiel had come to view Diez' solution as a "blind alley." preferring then to derive tomar from AESTUMARE. pieces of land.206. reckon. speakers could.) s'impose d'une maniere ineluctable. Corominas note in legal texts in early Old Spanish. picking u AUTITMARE as a legal term. In his view.5 While observing that it was not un in Archaic and Late Latin to endure in Hi theless conceded that conclusive proof for AUTUMARE Was wanting." By the time of his second piece ("Contacts" 115-7).org/terms . Port. Finally. one expects a verb meaning 'to take' to occur with some frequency. it is only natural that many instances of tomar should come from those documents. after positing a blend of AUTUMARE and AESTUMARE 'to appraise.6 That him that tomar continued AUTUMARE 'to affirm' in the sense of 'to proclaim one's right to an object. or sums of money to be taken by offended parties in compensation for some unjus- tifiable loss or regular phonetic change retain -mb.236 on Sun. On the first occasion ("Deux categories" 264f.jstor. and b) objects. Walsh HR 68 (2000) yielded -m. " I believe Corominas exaggerated this point by declaring use of tomar in legal texts "piedra angular del problema. who called it "one of the major issues of Romance etymology. 5According to the eminent Latinist Alfred Ernout. knock down' > 'to take. 4 Spitzer attempted such an explanation." twice in the mid-1970s. 246 Thomas J. asmar/osmar 'to estimate. but Corominas showed that the Catalan evidence constituting a crucial link in Spitzer's argument was faulty.154.' The problem of tomar occupied the attention of Yakov Malkiel. esti- mate' as source of OSp. lombo/pombo and Leon. since many such documents addressed a) punishments meted out for taking what rightly belonged to another. Terence." Since a high percentage of early Old Spanish texts are legal documents. whereas toma such varieties as Portuguese and Leonese -mb. AUTUMARE had fallen out of usage by Imperial times.).

Predictably enough.jstor. payment.' 'to lie down. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about.154. "would clearly have stimulated certain autonomy to *-TUMARE and to endow it w kiel did not rule out a subsequent blend with AUT meaning 'to believe' by certain late and Christian reconciling his hypothesis with the thinking of R Giovan Battista Pellegrini wondered about a possible link to isolated Friulan tomdt.' an ass cording to him. requires assumptio a highly unusual.2 s. Tumbar and its congeners invariably signify 'to fall. Diccionario.236 on Sun.' Both AESTUM RE and AUTUMARE denoted intellectual oper- ations or verbal actions.' and 'to somersault. . regula Absence of reflexes of AES from all Romance languages suggests that it had fal into desuetude before the emergence of Proto-Romance. *t6mjan. perhaps unprecedented. whose mea ing ('to borrow') is compatible with tomar's. which may have signified 'preselected spouse' or "officially announced fiance" (255). unfam with that word. if it existed.with the homophonous Latin w bronze.206. wages.8 Fully regular in the present system. The two attempts that have been made to establish a semantic link between AESTUMRE and AUTUMARE seem strained and farfetched (Corominas.. M kiel. forms more more compatible with the Classical L third than with the first conjugation. denoted 'to set free. reward. in my opinion. all the proposed etyma share. In short. Consequen the sequence of events hypothesized by Malkiel would have had to predate by a substantial margin the fragmentation of Proto-Romance into the various branches. 8 Contrary to appearances. money." Before setting out to prove that tomar ultimately echoes DOM let us review briefly the Classical Latin family of DOMME and it Romance progeny. tomar. With a single exception (MUTUARE). whose speakers. This content downloaded from 140. metathesis of initial final phonemes of a monosyllabic verbal stem.e. Etymology of Tomar 247 have linked AES. along with a rhizotonic past pa ciple DOMITU. Coromin was right to call tomar "de origen incierto. Finally. DOMARE was unrelated to the Latin family of DO 'house' (Benveniste). a chronology that raises the question why reflexes of *-TUMkRE fail to turn up in other Romance varieties. the opposite of tomar. could not have hit upon the suggested folk etymology. DOMARE hibited an archaic perfect DOMUI.' i.v. derivation from MUTUARE. an irremediable shortcoming: their meanings bear little if any similarity to the semantic profile of tomar. "Contacts" 117).

e.206. Descendants of DOMARE or DOMITARE characterize all Romance languages save Rumanian. Zanette. Levy. which. doma'. was both earlier and more frequent in the medieval tongue (Corominas. The deriva- tives share the meaning of DOMARE.are on record. each supported by a mere handful of examples. and Venetian all show appropriately evolved descendants.v. PRAE-. and the Iberian peninsula-to sup- port postulation of Proto-Romance *ADDOMA-E/*ADDOMITARE. while such northern dialects as Genoese. dated by Corominas to the eleventh century (Diccionariol. PERDOMARE 'to crunch or knead flour. Ponza. with domar in common use throughout the history of the language.v. DE-. alongside deverbal dama 'a taming' (Atzori.1' In Gallo-Romance.248 Thomas J. The base verb was flanked by DOMITARE. Brero.. Wagner).and SUB. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. Milanese. differed little if at all in meaning from DOMARE. as witness Fr. or dome. usually domar. Prefixal derivatives in CON-. domdar. Mistral. domar. RE. alongside Occ. This content downloaded from 140.v.236 on Sun. Diccionari s. 1 Alibert. agentive DOMITOR/-TRIX 'tamer' and nomen actionis DOMITURA 'a taming' are also attested. Piedmontese. was used by Berceo and Juan Ruiz and cited by Nebrija ( . with the expected phonetic adjustments (e. dompter < OFr. the Romance lan- guages provide more than enough evidence-drawn mainly from southern Italy.2 s.g. current to this day in Roussillon and the Plana de Vic. Whereas 9 Azzolini. DOMITARE prevailed. domai). 10 Moretti. Walsh HR 68 (2000) DOMAUI and DOMATU also turn up in pos widely reported and discussed by grammarians (Thesaurus s. occasionally with added nuances. Trentino. Piccitto. In Sardinian. DOMITARE. domar).9 Cognates of domare also turn up in Umbrian and Sicilian dialects. Casaccia. Campid. domdar. Cherubini. donter. E-. domare). Nazari. Mortillaro. dondar < OPr.154. DOMO).jstor.g. Romagnolo. domar). PER-. While none of the Latin prefixed variants of DOMARE cited above is known to have survived the fall of the Empire. domar). Mattioli.v.v. despite fre- quentative origin. Sp. southern France. Portuguese presents a similar picture.' Finally. domare occurs in docu- ments (condaghe) predating the period of Spanish domination. 11 While domar is the standard form in modern Catalan. Wartburg s. Standard Italian also preserves domare. a fact which rules out borrowing from Hispano-Romance (Atzori s. All major modern dialects show reflexes of DOMARE. to break up soil thoroughly.v.

This content downloaded from 140. Finally. D'Ascoli. Bar. D'Ambra.14 Turning to Luso- Romance. still current as a synonym of domar in Brazil (Bueno and Morais Silva). Gallo-. unavailability of atlases with maps listing words for 'to tame' in other L American countries makes this difficult to verify. Wartb (S. Etymology of Tomar 249 in Umbria adom6 alternates with dom6. Badia Margarit (220). Rohlfs. adomar). a pattern that lends further credence to the reconstruction. Empordh (northeast of Barcelona). Piccitto. DOMITATRE) reported one instance of adomter from fifteenth-century French addition to a similarly structured dialect variant from modern Walloon. 14 Andolz.v.v. in at least two Cantabrian varieties (Penny. adondar) . Sal. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about.206.") Griera (map #657) records adondar in north- western Catalonia. 15 Though adomar in lieu of domar may well exist in other Spanish Americ dialects. adomdar). A variety of authors confirm the existence of adomar in Aragonese. we find adomar. it is precisely the more archaic regions that perpetuate the prefixed forms. adomar is attested in Leonese dialects (Fernmndez Gonzalez 193.236 on Sun. in alternation with adomar.v. noting its occ lona. while a glance at Grie (map #657) shows adomar as especially vigorous and central Catalonia and in Valencia. Mistral (s. resign oneself' when used reflexively (Costa). 12 Barracano. Salzano.v. In each of those Romance domains. and the Balearic Islands. addum(m)d&. and also turns up sporadically in various points of central and northern Colombia (Atlas map #14). Levy (s. adounda). (Moretti southern Italy the prefixed form is by far the m witness Neap. documented in fifteenth-century Portu- guese (Cunha s. According to Alco used reflexively adondar-se signifies 'acomodar-s cosa que abans era molestosa o dificil. El habla 226). Aragii's. The Alcover also contains an entry for adondar. reflexes of *ADDOMARiE/*ADDOMITARE are widely documented in Italo-. 12 Old Provengal with domdar. they cite "adondar-se al treball. Vimbod gona). adondar.154. addummari.' (As an example. Estudio 127. 3IAlibert (s. addomad. like Cat. where it may also. a state of affairs perpetuated in Alcover/Moll include adomar as a near-synonym comprehensive dictionary. denote 'to accustom.15 To sum up. Rohlfs Dizionario and cabolario. domitari. and Hispano-Romance.jstor. and Sic. Miguelez Rodriguez 17). Giarrizzo.

that second round of spirantization.236 on Sun.' To understand how a Latin voiced geminate could have produced a simple voiceless stop. only voiceless and voiced geminates and voiced spirants. Hispano-Romance would have exhibited. I argued that this state of affairs effectively mandated speakers' reanalysis of the Latin geminates as simple stops since. speakers cannot analyze it as phonemically long unless it contrasts with a shorter counterpart. the erstwhile geminates could no longer be analyzed as such.206. without the original simple stops (now all spirants) to contrast with. I argued that a second round of spirantization. voicing or continuancy-is a relative feature.g. a presently-also affected other verbs in the transition from Late Spoken Latin to Old Spanish. Regardless of how measurably long a consonant may . Most specialists agree that the first step in that complex process was spirantization of intervocalic voiced stops ([bdg] > [0Py]). reflecting 1) devoicing of -DD-. In a paper published in 1991 ("The Demise").154.jstor. and 2) suppression of A-. compelled speakers to reanalyze the geminates as simple stops in Hispano-Romance. This content downloaded from 140. which transmuted the voiced stop allo- phones of the Latin voiceless series into voiced spirants (e. but prior to geminate reduction. UITA 'life' > [vida] > [vi8a]). After completion of the second round of spirantization. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. Whereas voicing or continuancy are either present or absent in any given segment. occurred at the beginning-rather than at the end.unlike. "The Demise"). Walsh HR 68 (2000) I contend that tomar is the Hispano-Rom DOMAE. say. soon followed by voicing of the originally voiceless series ([ptk] > [bdg] in the same context. quantity is purely relative. as reflexes of the Latin stops in intervocalic position. After address- ing those formal issues. The second round of spirantization elim- inated those short counterparts of the intervocalic geminate stops by making them spirants.of the Middle Ages (Walsh. In my judgment. we must review briefly the chronology of Romance lenition in the Iberian peninsula. leading to their merger with the voiced spirant allophones of the Latin voiced stops..250 Thomas J. This is true because phonological quantity. we shall proceed to discuss conditions that caused a verb denoting 'to tame' to acquire the far more general- and at first glance unrelated-meaning 'to take. a prefix that had become all but meaningless in Late Spoken Latin. which eliminated from the phonetic level all intervocalic simple voiced stops. In the paper just cited.

no doubt the majority.> -t. namely atormecer 'to fall asleep' < ADDORMISCERE (or OBDORMISCERE). leading to spirantization at the phonetic level. Speakers faced three choices.v. Mo- liner (s. Diccionariol. focused more on the voicing or the occlusion. addurare). make last. pronounced today as simple voiced spirants. and agravar 'to weigh down' < AGGRAUARE. in common use as early as Berceo and continuing through the seven- teenth century. In the former case. dormir) adduced several cases of-DD. This content downloaded from 140. first recorded in the mid-fourteenth century and cited by Nebrija (s. respectively. upon hearing a pho- netic voiced stop. namely identification and merger with the voiceless stop phonemes. all of whose Latin forerunners contained voiced gemi- nates.from Catalan. Diccionario2 s. reassignment to the voiced stop phoneme would ensue. persevere. by contra clear-cut. thereby creating a alongside the voiceless stops (from earlier voicele voiced spirants (from underlying voiced stops). endure' < OBDURARE or *ADDURARE (cf. Etymology of Tomar 251 Reinterpretation of the Latin voiceless gemina clusively in intervocalic position) as simple voice forth identified phonemically with the initial an simple voiceless stops) was predictable and straig ysis of the rare voiced geminates was. 16 Cejador.jstor. aturar. That this solu- tion was implemented in certain instances. Alonso Pedraz s. aturar 'to last.v.154. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about.v.206. It. They could phonetic simple voiced stops. T highly unlikely since it would have entailed the series of phonemes with an extremely low freque The other two options involved reassignment to t voiced stop phonemes. s.16 I have also argued in a recent paper (forthcoming) that Sp. is proved by such modern Spanish words as abad 'abbot' < ABBATE.v.) reports that aturar persists in Aragon and Salamanca. Nevertheless. dormir)./Port aterir(se) 'to be stiff or numb with cold' and atere- cer(se) 'to become stiff or numb with cold' can be shown to derive.v. while Corominas (Diccionario.236 on .v. atormecerse) (see Corominas. durar. aducir 'to adduce' < ADDUCERE. The evidence at issue involves two well documented Old Spanish verbs. Corominas. and Sp.2 s. strong evidence exists to suggest that speakers also experimented with the third option. The choice might well have turned on whether speakers. realized phonetically in in as voiceless stops and voiced spirants.

coger 'to seize. the vast majority of such pairs were mere synonyms and.' via operation of tha same phonological rule. turar. to a large extent. largely interchangeable. is The interchangeability of the forms with or without a.when the preceding This content downloaded from 140. a state of affairs that could have yielded the following analogy: [asomar] : [domar] = [atomar] : X X = [tomair]..could impart nuances reflecting the various meanings of the underlying preposition.jstor. who. aponer 'to impute.17 To understand why *atomar disappeared in favor of tomar be- fore the appearance of the earliest documents in Castilian vernacu- lar. respectivel in Proto-Hispano-Romance. A similar analogical proportion no doubt underlies OSp. [aturar]. By the time of the earliest Old Spanish. and still used in Judeo-Spanish. cometer 'to commit.corresponded to miscellaneous differences in meaning (e.when the preceding word ended in a consonant and the form without a. It is therefo likely that [atomar] and [a8om~r] coexisted in Proto-Hispano- Romance.v.' acometer 'to attack' vs. and [aterests'r]. if ADDORMISCERE. *ADDERIGERE and *AD ants of recorded DERIGERE 'to be stiff or numb with cold' and DERI- GESCERE 'to become stiff or numb with cold. turar) and Valdes (182f. aprender 'to learn'). In short.v. *ADDURRAE. a not infrequent variant of aturar mentioned by both Nebrija (s.236 on Sun.154. replied that he used the form with a.). 252 Thomas . a tendency perceptible as early as Plautus (Cooper 258. from Lat. In the cases of ADDORMIS- CERE and *ADDURAJE. durar). then it seems reasonable to suppose tha *ADDOMMAE could have evolved to [atomar].' and prender 'to take' vs. we must review briefly the history of the verbal prefix AD-. and *ADDERIGERE had come to be pronounced [atormests'r]. absence of a. While in a relatively small group of verbs. presence vs. the prefix was devoid of semantic value (Penny.became.' poner 'to put' vs. Whereas in Classical Latin AD. Grandgent 14). as evidenced by OSp. when pressed by Marcio on that point. acoger 'to welcome' vs. Walsh HR 68 (2000) respectively. blame. semantically indistinguishable from the primitives.206. as such. His- tory 238).is highlighted by Valdes. the variant showing the voiced spirant also survived. in the sermo ple- beius prefixed variants in AD. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about.18 17 Cuervo provides medieval examples of both aturar and turar (s. adormnecer and adurar.

(a)fermrosear. domar) to declare Sp. s.20 fifteen have survived in both the prefixe versions. (a)grandecer. Etymology of Tomar 253 Cursory inspection of entries under the letter "A dictionary of medieval Spanish reveals eighty su pairs. (a)cimentar. (a)cuitar. (a)pertenecer. (a)castrar. (a)contrastar. (a)apregonar (a) . and (a)tribular. the long-term trend is unquestiona tion of forms with meaningless a. (a)condesar. (a)donar. (a)cotar. the demise of *atoma seems predictable. (a)fornecer. (a)casarse.24 Derivation of tomar from *ADDOMARE presents a the phonetic level.2. (a)sondar. (a)baldonar. (a)rremeter. domar similarly failed to diph stress. if not inevitable.19 Tracing the growth of those forms into (Moliner and Real Academia). no such forms as *tuemo. (a)guisar. (a)palpar. 22 (A)crecentar. (a)mortiguar. we find that four use. 23 (A)bever.21 ten have survived in only the prefixe fifty-one instances only the unprefixed variant another way. (a)sumar. (a)dar. 21 (A)bajar. (a)doctrinar. (a)sosegar. and (a)vagar. This content downloaded from 140. (a)mortajar. (a)forzar. (a)colorar. (a)pegar. That anomalous development even led Cor rio. domar "sospe tismo. (a)menazar. (a)conjurar. (a)personarse. (a)combar. (a)solazar. (a)rrendar. Seen in this light. (a)bostezar. (a)cocear. and (a)premir. 24 This point was not lost on Rajna (see above). (a)pesar. Given the short stem-vowel of pects rhizotonic forms of tomar to feature a diphtho my knowledge. (a)fallecer. (a)ponzofiar. (a)levantar. favor of th terparts.154. (a)mostrar. a "norm" that even he fell short of 157n). (a)temer. (a)comediar. (a)consolar. (a)mandar. (a)granizar. (a)fartar. mostly nouns. (a)gradecer. (a)ferventar. (a)lanzar. *tuem *tueman are recorded at any stage in the history apparent irregularity in fact reinforces the link t stem-vowel of Sp. (a)con- seguir. (a)blasmar. (a)durar. (a)foradar. (a)pesgar. (a)posar. Michaelis de Vas- concellos (74-75) provides an assortment of Hispano-Romance words. (a)divinar. (a)codiciar. (a)dever. (a)someter. (a)templar. (a)pacer. (a)fortalecer. and (a) travesar.jstor. (a)fin- car. (a)falagar. (a)limpiar.). (a)muchiguar. that suffered aphaeresis of a-. (a)osar. rested on circula word ended in a vowel." His suspicion. (a)fietar. (a)colgar. 19 Analogous Portuguese pairs are supplied by Cornu (949f. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about.236 on Sun.206.v. 20 (A)conhortar. (a)culpar. (a)melecinar.

27 In short. Catalan. domare with close /o/. along with its vitality in Italo-. CONTRA 'against' > contra. and Williams 37. 26 Badia Margarit.2 s. rhizotonic forms of domar(e) and domdar exhibit a close rather than an open mid- vowel. evidence from other Romance languages strongly supports oral rather than learned transmission of domar. /6/ in stem-stressed forms of this lexeme had evolved to /o/. in rhizotonic forms of Lat. That was not the case. rather than /3/ at the Proto-Romance stage. whose Spanish con- tinuators have at all stages exhibited /o/. doma and toma as a rhyming pair (468). absence of diphthongization in the stem-stressed forms of tomar is no argument against derivation from DOMARE. domare) show rhizotonic forms of It. 254 Thomas J. Portuguese. COMPARAT 'he buys' > compra. My department colleague Alfonso Morales-Front. This content downloaded from 140. 79. however.L. and Provencal. domar also exhibit close /o/. COMEDERE. in all three. the sylla- ble occupied by /6/ was checked by the nasal. But even more importantly. has informed me that stem- stressed forms of Cat. namely Italian. especially when followed by a nasal consonant.25 thereby strongly suggesting that C. in most of those cases (e. tonic o in Latinisms. regardless of Classical quan- tity. Walsh HR 68 (2000) domar. is routinely rendered as /3/.and Hispano- Romance folk speech makes learned transmission highly improba- .v. 25 Casteldes cites Port. attested as early as the twelfth c twelfth or early thirteenth in Portuguese Machado). 27 Corominas. the verb's occurrence in early medieval Sardinian documents. I suggested above that-with the sole exception of MUTUARE. D'Ovidio and Meyer-Ltibke (82) and Gabrielli (s. in all Romance standard languages that preserve the seven-vowel system of Late Spoken Latin. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. RESPONDET 'she answers' > responde). who offered no explanation for the absence of diphthongs in stem-stressed forms of comer.236 on Sun. comer). as does Levy (1966) for Provengal domdar.v.g. did not raise the possibility of semilearnid transmis- sion of that verb (Diccionario1. True.154. D'Ovidio and Meyer-Liibke 72. MONTE 'mountain' > monte. a native speaker of Catalan. Indeed.26 Returning to Spanish.206. it is well known that Classical Latin stressed /6/ failed to produce a diphthong in certain words. Gallo. behaves in all other respects like a verb passed down through oral tradition.. Learned transmission can under no circum- stances be invoked to explain the close mid-vowel in those languages since. Moreover. Gramdtica hist6rica 147.

Boeotia. Etruria. ovejas. Rome. Cantabria. cierva. and 2) OSp.v.28 1. tomar. Di Cesare. wolves.154. I provide textual examples of nouns that actually occurred as direct objects of both Lat. Pannonia. unknown islands. to habituate (things) DOMRE: bears. merino. Babilonia. and Forcellini (s. I reproduce below all meanings of DOMARE listed by the Oxford Latin Dictionary. tigers. bulls. however. the works of Juan Manuel (Ayerbe-Chaux) and the Gran conquista de ultramar (Waltman and Cooper). Balearic Islands. meanings bore little if any relation to the act of mental sense of tomar. Old Spanish data come from the Libro de buen amor (Corominas. tomar: caballos. Troy. overcome. Thebes. Libro.jstor. one might that same criticism against *ADDOME as etymon 'taming' and 'taking' unquestionably belong to di ently unrelated semantic spheres. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. I have provided the Latin data in English translation. To subdue (animals) by taming. pardal. DOMO and derivatives). perdizes. Dalmatia. At first glance. Bretanna. Etymology of Tomar 255 which fails on phonetic grounds-all previously su tomar were unconvincing for semantic reasons. sheep. aiores. liebre. lions. The original Latin forms may be found in textual citations furnished by the Oxford Latin Dictionary. Latium. Asia. Closer inspectio evidence. all fourteenth-century works chosen for the ready availability of concordances providing context. subjugate. cows. Baeqa. the Rhine. Germania. reveals that 1) all the major sense were continued in . horses. counted among its meanings 'cazar. tomar curred in contexts analogous to those in which DO Latin.29 2. domesticate. cochino. Mignani. Astorga. Aquitania.206. to defeat in single combat. camellos. lay low DOMRE: Africa. rather than just line numbers. dragons. gallo. tomar: Alcala. Olympus. buscar o seguir a las aves. asses. fieras y otras muchas clases de animales para cogerlos o matarlos' (Alonso Pedraz). To illustrate these important points. for each citation. This content downloaded from 140. unlike its modem continuator. tomar. Sicily. aves. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. After each meaning. birds. partridges. Spain. tomar. Europe. break in. 29 OSp. Antiochia.236 on Sun. dogs. To subdue by war. rosinor. 28 For the convenience of non-Latinists. DOMARE and OSp. and Jones). Asian cities.

pain. rey. verguenqa. desires. un vellaco romano. Narbona. conditions. . cativo. imperador. violence.) This content downloaded from 140. Espanna. as in English. subdue. the Spanish Latin author on agricul tural matters. sub- due DOMARE: armies. guardians. Cuenca. usable. hope. fury. el Cayre. gain control over. and thereby subjugate it. is perhaps continued in the Alentejo dialect of Portuguese.) DOMKRE: anger. Leon. etc. duda. tomar: toda la tierra. solaz. passions. The Latin nuance of domesti- cation. Cassandra. the objects of DOMARE and tomar are toponyms. the main idea is gaining physical control over another. fields. asco. faculties.206. plazer. To reduce (persons) to subservience. the emphasis has shifted from controlling an emotion to merely experiencing it. Jerusalen. kings. where tomar may signify 'to yoke o harness animals to a cart or plow' (Gomes Fradinho 122). tomar: burgeses ricos. forests. 3. peligro.. tame (emotions. or coun- tries. ladr6n. 5.236 on Sun. master. to overcome by traversing. is tantamount to taking it from its previous rulers. christianos. lust. condition. women. Montfort. ciudad. girls. stubbornness.. esfuerqo. miedo. ira. fear. to bring land under cultivation DOMARE: Alps. aratro domandae). provinces. In #2. form. insolence. tomar: afan. libido. earth. often by taking that individual captive. villa.256 Thomas J.) (one's own feelings. 4. recelo. love. tristeza. To reduce (things) to a milder. Madrit. citizens. to subdue a city or country by war.154. In #1. the multitude. pesar. In #3. etc. murderers. Sevilla. im- pulses. evidently absent from tomar. who recommended breaking barren cows to the plow (taurae .. a usag reminiscent of Columella (456). where the direct objects denote human beings. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. pleasures. actions. vices. un ribaldo. in both Latin and Old Spanish the emphasis is on huma control over the behavior of animals. soberuia. In #4. enojo. want. Here the meanings of the Latin and Spanish verbs are nearly identical since. arrogance. pereza. fembra. amenable. (This use of tomar declined significantly in the transition from medieval to modern Spanish. etc. To bring under control. usually designating cities. Walsh HR 68 (2000) Calatrava.jstor.

Etymology of Tomar 257 Finally. and Port. taking land often meant bringing it this connection. domar and tomar. as in most other Romance languages. at the outset. and one cultu all unique to the Iberian Peninsula. devoicing of the Latin voiced geminates of the sort evidenced in OSp. One consequence of that phonetic proximity could well have been a certain control over the semantic trajectory of domar exercised by its Latin etymon. aturar.' eventually even marginalizing prender. tom tierra comuin que se cierra para sembrar.236 on Sun. wh other Romance languages. of DOMARE to PREHENDERE. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. neither they nor subsequent generations could reasonably have been expected to continue to bracket tomar with cognate domar or etymon DOMARE. one lexico-semantic. two verbs. atormecer. DOMARE has been transparent at all historical stages. at the Latin . semantic change might even have been favored by the lexical redundancy involved in the language possessing. The second circumstance favoring emergence of tomar 'to take' is semantic proximity. the semantic control exerted by DOMARE over domar would have been entirely absent in the case of tomar. with identical meanings. conspired to ment in Hispano-Romance. This content downloaded from 140.206. the meaning of Sp. it is noteworthy that Fray Martin S in the mid-eighteenth century. Consequently. domar has remained remarkably close to that of DOM RE.154. its operation produced sets of doublets one member of which exhibited /d/ and the other /t/. At least in certain instances. the relation to Lat. domar and adomar. Indeed. however. with almost all nuances of the Latin verb preserved in Modem Spanish and Portuguese. Indeed. in #5. Once speakers had reassigned the stem-initial consonant to the phoneme /t/. and aterir was a phonetic option limited to Hispano-Romance. obstacles to semantic change affecting domar simply did not exist for tomar./Port. To my knowledge.' a striki Latin usage illustrated in #5 ('to bring land unde The fact that tomar appears to continue specif DOMARE and occurs in analagous contexts does n how a Latin verb with the meanings reproduced evolved by the time of early Old Spanish into the ge take. is radically different. The case of tomar (and *atomar). The phonetic circumstance is the devoicing that gave rise to tomar. In the case of Sp.jstor. I submit that three set one phonetic. Put in another way. defined Gal.

represented perennial themes in the lives of generations of speakers of Proto- Hispano-Romance. a situation that could have favored semantic extension of tomar. (mil. In the light of that original semantic overlap with PREHENDERE. Excursus on . *ADDURARE > aturar. the main thrust of the eight hundred years following the Muslim con- quest of the early eighth century was one of intermittent war and regaining of territory. predict- ably have evolved to atondar.236 on Sun. Thus. to take into custody. Oxford Latin Dictionary definition cited above).) 'to take possession of. It is striking.' all meanings highly remi- niscent of DOMARE (cf. 'to take (bulls. by a so semantic analogy. while on the face of it a semantic relationship between 'to tame' and 'to take' may seem unlikely. that the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae includes CAPERE. destined to become the basic word for 'to take' in most other Romance lan- guages. Walsh HR 68 (2000) Among meanings listed for the latter ve Dictionary are 'to take hold of (persons) etc. one may easily envision a reflex of DOMARE. and *ADDERIGERE > aterir. A verb of precisely that form is This content downloaded from 140. it would. it is clear that the latter concept already constituted a significant com- ponent of the semantic makeup of DOMARE at the Latin stage. Had frequentative *ADDOMITARE survived into Hispano-Romance. horses) in hand (in order to tame them)'. atondar Romance etymologists have generally assumed that DOMITARE per- sisted only in Gallo-Romance. occupy (a position).' among synonyms of DOMARE. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. The third circumstance favoring semantic extension of tomar was the peculiar historical and cultural milieu that formed the back- drop to Proto-Hispano-Romance. arrest. to capture. 258 Thomas J. catch (animals)'. defeat and subjugation of the enemy.jstor.206.154. Gal. in this regard. for the purpose of carrying off. following the pattern of ADDORMISCERE > atormecer. Vocabulary associated with that multisecular trend might well have enjoyed greater vitality in the Iberian Penin- sula than in other Romance domains. extending into other corners of PREHENDERE'S ritory. From speakers' perspective. followed time and again by repopulation and cultivation of newly conquered land as a means of establishing firm control. War. where it prevailed at an early date over primitive DOMARE. and bringing newly reconquered land under control and cultivation. the most general Latin word for 'to take.

org/terms . Salamanca: U Pontificia. Finally. Diccionari catal4- valencid-balear. Louis.' a third-conjugation verb that appears to have left no other Romance progeny.v. Alonso Pedraz Martin. Dictionnaire occitan-frangais d'apres les parlers languedociens. a word that turns up repeatedly in medieval Portuguese legal documents written in Latin. sendo un mero usufrutuhrio e nao direito senhorio. 1986. namely *ATTONDITUM 'sheared' (cf. an etymon considerably more plausible than the one advanced in Viterbo (s.v.206.v. Diccionario aragonds. terrified' (Corominas. than from either ATTONITU 'struck by thunder. atuendo) or *ATTUNDERE (Real Academia s. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. agricultar algum terreno inculto e redu- zido a mato bravo. trocar ou vender. Palma de Mallorca: Moll. atondo.jstor. Andolz.154.' could well represent a continuation of past participle *ADDOMITU in the sense of Oxford Latin Dictionary meaning #5 above ('to bring land under cultivation'). Toulouse: Institut d'Etudes Occitans. where it is defined as ' acomodarse bien a algo' (Boull6n Agrelo s. Rafael. and semantic grounds-to descend from *ADDOMITA-RE.v. in the sense of Oxford Latin Dictionary meaning #1 above. Alibert. Diccionario. Etymology of Tomar 259 characteristic of Galician. ed. atondo). stunned. s. In my judgment. atond that recalls both Oxford Latin Dictionary meani also the meanings of Brazilian Portuguese adoma resign oneself) and Catalan adondar-se ('acomodar-se. 10 vols. defined by Viterbo as 'direito de rotear. romper. e utilizar-se das suas produ?6es. recorded ATTONSUM).' obviously in an attempt to control the animal's behav- ior.2. This content downloaded from 140. Spanish also possesses a verb atondar 'to goad a horse with the legs or spurs. Antoni. avesar-se a una cosa que abans era molestosa o dificil') alluded to above. All these words provide strong collateral evidence for derivation of tomar from *ADDOMA-E. Zaragoza: Librerifa General. 1968- 75. nao o podendo dar. morpho- logical. Diccionario medieval espafiol: desde las glo- sas emilianenses y silenses hasta el siglo XV. 2d. that verb is more likely--on phonetic. doar. 1977. WORKS CITED Alcover. 1965. atondar). and Francesc de Borja Moll. based on TUNDERE 'to strike. 2 vols.236 on Sun.

Cooper. Antonio. Torino: Piemonte in Bancarella. 1951. Cejador y Frauca. Trans. Ayerbe-Chaux. 6 vols. 1982. Gramdtica hist6rica catalana. mile. 02 Apr 2017 04:42:15 UTC All use subject to http://about. Columella. Azzolini. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Me- dieval Studies. Madrid: Hernando. ed. Franklin. Modena: Mucchi. Camillo. 1950. 1856.jstor. Boull6n Agrelo. 1. Alvaro de Castro Araujo Cardoso Pereira . by Gustav Gr(ber.154.260 Thomas J. L'arte dell'agricoltura e Libro sugli alberi. El habla de Bielsa. Walsh HR 68 (2000) Aragiies. Hildesheim/New York: Olms. Francesco. Torino: Einaudi. Badia Margarit. This content downloaded from 140. Lucius Giunius Moderatus. Glossario di sardo antico. 1977. 1975. 1978. Brero. Venezia: Grimaldi. Vol. Diciondrio de rimas. Vocabulario milanese-italiano [1839]. Barcelona: CSIC. 1989. y Cuervo. Cooper. Dizionario aragonds-c Fablans de l'Aragon6s. Vito. Bueno. Barcelona: Noguer. 1972. Strass- burg: Trtibner. Atzori. Benveniste. 1988. "Die portugiesische Sprache." Bul- letin de la Socidtd de Linguistique de Paris 51 (1955): 14-41. Vol." Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Vocabulario medieval castellano. Textos y concordancias de la Obra Completa de Juan Manuel. Vocabolario dialettale barese. 2 vols. Visconde de. 1929. 3 vols. Vocabolario vernacolo-italiano pei distretti roveretano e trentino. Frederic Taber. Giambattista. Dizionario genovese-italiano [1876]. Atlas lingiiistico de Colombia. Castel6es. Diciondrio da lingua portuguesa. Mila- no: Milani. 1975. ed. Louis. 1981. Casaccia. Bologna: Forni.236 on Sun. Jules. Barracano. Word Formation in the Sermo Plebeius.206. Sao Paulo: Fortaleza. Vocabolario piemontese-italiano. Reinaldo. -. 1986 [microfiches]. Julio. Diccionario normativo galego- casteldn. 2. "Homophonies radicales en indo-europ6en. Cherubini. 1984. Cornu. Dir. Chus6. Maria Teresa. Rosa Calzecchi Onesti. Reprint of 1895 New York edition. Bari: Sud. Ana Isabel et al. See Waltman. 1951. Giovanni. Francisco da Silveira. Vigo: Galaxia. 1904. 1982. Porto: Barreira.

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