You are on page 1of 9

BRIDGING THE LNG KNOWLEDGE GAP IN THE BALTIC SEA

REGION: THE Go LNG INITIATIVE AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A
COMPETENCE CENTRE
Dimitrios Dalaklis, Aykut I. Ölçer, Josefin A. Madjidian, Fabio Ballini, Momoko
Kitada
Maritime Energy Management Research Group (MarEner) World Maritime University
(SWEDEN)

Abstract
The pressing problem of increasing air pollution levels in port cities, as well as the introduction of strict
environmental regulations by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) through the relevant
changes in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) -and
especially those in Annex VI- made it very crucial for the maritime industry to explore different
avenues of improving its environmental impact and even consider the use of alternative fuel sources.
This trend is not restricted solely in the maritime domain: other means of transport, such as cars/trucks
and the rail industry, are also under continuous scrutiny for their level of gasses emissions; many high
level initiatives and regulations are pushing towards a framework of restricting these dangerous
emissions and a tighter control on pollution in relation to internal combustion engines. For the time
being, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) looks as one of the most promising solutions for this challenge.
The "Go LNG" initiative is focused on the development of demand and accessibility of LNG in the
Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Activities associated with this strategic-in-nature project aim to promote the
implementation of EU’s Clean Fuel Strategy and boost LNG usage through the whole transport chain.
Among other important tasks, the establishment of a BSR LNG Competence Centre is included. The
World Maritime University (WMU), along with its capacity building focus, is playing a pivotal role
towards the creation of a dedicated training centre, which will be the epicentre of the analysis in hand.
Previous and very relevant experiences from other similar in nature projects, such as the “On The
Motorways of the Sea Network (OTMW-N)” one, provide a solid background towards success. During
those already concluded research activities, LNG training modules were designed and tested by
delivery both in classroom and distance learning modalities; video-streaming of the associated
lectures and online tests were integrated in the delivery methods. Furthermore, a potential framework
to bring together interested in LNG educational and training institutes with a maritime focus in the
wider region, under the notion to materialise this important centre will be discussed. Themes and
learning objectives are included, along with a brief explanation of the possible target audience.
Keywords: Maritime Education and Training (MET), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Baltic Sea Region
(BSR).

1 INTRODUCTION
Various international - national policies and/or strategies call for a faster transition towards sustainable
1
energy production and use . Coordinated action is urgently needed, with various regulatory efforts
being already underway. For example, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has recently
updated the International Convention on Prevention of Pollution by Ships (MARPOL), which governs
2
pollution from the maritime industry ; the new/updated regulations in turn exercise significant influence

1
For example, on the 25th of September 2015, under the auspices of the United Nations (UN), countries adopted a set of goals
to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. The
specific initiative is also more widely known under the following title: “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development”. There are 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); of particular interest are Goal 7, which
aims to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all and Goal 12, which focuses on
sustainable consumption and production patterns. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the next 15 years, with
the complete details being available at: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/, accessed
January 2017.
2
Today, sea-going vessels are the most important means of transport; associated statistics indicate that about 90% of the total
volume of global trade is borne (exclusively – or, at least partially) by sea. For a thorough analysis see: United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), “Review of Maritime Transport 2016”, available at:
http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/rmt2016_en.pdf, accessed January 2017. Safe and secure shipping is a prerequisite

Proceedings of INTED2017 Conference ISBN: 978-84-617-8491-2
6th-8th March 2017, Valencia, Spain 1417

.com/node/21558456. such as a scrubber b) opting for a more environmental friendly energy resource such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) c) using low sulphur fuel such as MGO (marine gas oil) or MDO (marine diesel oil). without any additional costs. In summary. the North American area (SOx.78 million 6 barrels per day . these areas are called SECAs for SOx and NECAs for NOx emissions respectively. It is becoming increasing available. As already briefly mentioned. In November 2016.1 The LNG upward trend Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). 1418 . available at: http://www. 3. available at: http://www. However. global LNG trade was extremely low.cfm. as well as the issue of “permitted emissions”. It prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances and sets progressive reductions (tiers) in emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx).greenhouse gases 4 into the atmosphere .eu. coming into effect on 1 3 January 2021 . IMO further designated the North Sea and the Baltic Sea as NECAs. In any case.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Pages/Emission-Control-Areas-(ECAs)- designated-under-regulation-13-of-MARPOL-Annex-VI-(NOx-emission-control). nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PMs). But a Lot More Needs to Be Done”. More specifically. 1. it is very difficult to predict the future of energy consumption. many times termed as “the “backbone of globalization”. 5 LNG Master Plan project. by 2011. accessed May 2016. p. NOx and PMs).imo. NOx and PMs).aspx. and (2) the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships. If this trend is maintained until the end of the this decade. As a reference. typical emissions savings associated with natural gas are: greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of between 11% and 20%. in order to ensure compliance with these new regulatory demands changes in their current business models are needed. the IMO’s restrictions on emissions have established the necessary framework that creates a unique opportunity for increased LNG demand within the whole maritime transport sector.on the type of energy and fuel used during shipping operations. It is also important to consider that the global trade in LNG is already growing rather rapidly: from an almost negligible in 1970 up to a certain number that is expected to be a globally meaningful amount around the year 2020. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) are all fossil derived fuels and therefore their use can release -one way or another. To elaborate more on statistics. For ship-owners. These regulations have and will continue to change the shipping industry’s demand for different fuels. “Somali Piracy: Some Good News. 3 http://www. it was increased up to the level of 331 7 bcm . Dalaklis D. 4 These fuels are suitable for use in the two dominant internal combustion engine technologies: spark ignition and compression ignition. for new ships.lngmasterplan. three main options standing out: a) integrating an emission abatement technology. For example. accessed February 2016. Annex VI represents the regulatory framework tackling exhaust gas emissions from ships. especially when taking into consideration the recent financial crisis. Maritime Security Review. the LNG market could then be roughly 10% the size of the global crude oil market and that does not count the vast majority of natural gas which is delivered via pipelines directly from the well to the consumer. despite being of fossil origin. the North Sea (SOx only). The main reason for this notion is the fact that there are better exhaust properties. during the year 1970. (9). When it comes to Greenhouse Gasses (GHG) emissions from ships. accessed January 2017. at the moment LNG is considered as a more suitable option. Today these areas are the Baltic Sea (SOx only). for the normal conduct of global trade. LNG’s physical properties also allow to easily meet the most stringent NECA requirements. in comparison to diesel. LNG is considered to be a viable alternative and a contributor towards cleaner shipping. Broadly speaking.eia. which in turn affect the fuel prices and the cost effective available technology and infrastructure. NOx emissions reduced by 80% and 5 particulate matters and SOx emissions are removed by 99% .gov/forecasts/steo/report/global_oil. there are practical factors which limit their applications to one rather than the other. LPG is compatible with petrol (gasoline) engines. the 2015 total “petroleum and other liquids fuel” global consumption was 93.economist. accessed June 2014. available at: http://www. amendments of MARPOL Annex VI in 2011 added Chapter 4 which introduces two mandatory mechanisms (entered into force in January 2013). However. such as those of cars and trucks. since bunkering facilities/infrastructure are created with a very satisfactory pace. when compared with the other available (conventional) marine fuels. Waddesdon-UK. (2012). intended to ensure an energy efficiency standard for ships: (1) the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). around 3 billion cubic meters (bcm). LNG and CNG are a better match for heavy diesel vehicles and certainly for large size seagoing vessels. 7 Economist Magazine. Although capable of working in either type of engine. This Annex has also introduced designated emission control areas (ECAs) with more stringent standards for emissions. and the United States Caribbean Sea area (SOx. 6 Energy Information Agency (EIA).

for the specific market to become more financially viable. In all the aforementioned areas. Additionally. in the case pipelines do not exist.golng. 2 WORLD MARITIME UNIVERSITY’S EXPERIENCE IN LNG As the IMO’s centre of excellence for postgraduate maritime education.envocare. Although very new. with the Maritime University of Szczecin. it needs to be spread more widely. how to best introduce LNG as the preferred fuel. 1. This centre will revolve around the partnership of the Go LNG project and the stakeholders connected to it. it has already attracted 17 students from around the world. reflecting the urgent. and not just within the ECAs. For the maritime industry the question is no longer if LNG could be a solution to adhering to international regulations. while building global capacity and promoting sustainable development. and. the number of sectors interacting with it needs to increase further. but rather how much of the market will be replaced by LNG. Already in 2104. performance and efficiency. a strategy for a smoother and more efficient use of LNG as a fuel 9 for transport is to be put in place with the aim to enable blue transport corridors in the region . In the MEM specialisation. Poland.4 times greater than that of compressed natural gas (CNG) or 60% that of diesel fuel. The programme is 8 www.co. professional training and research. It will further discuss the possible role of the World Maritime University (WMU). accessed January 2017. 9 www. the volumetric energy density of LNG is 2. with its capacity building mandate. however.Nevertheless. a new specialisation came into effect September 2016. under the title: “Maritime Energy Management” (MEM). a prominent portion of lectures is devoted towards IMO’s regulations. To enable a joint service the centre will gather BSR-based LNG competence.htm. with a special emphasis on those aspects of LNG that should be included in the portfolio of a competence centre. accessed February 2016. being the responsible partner. as well as bunkering. The analysis in hand will elaborate on the educational needs in relation to LNG and the necessary capacity building in the maritime field. 8 allowing larger quantities of LNG to be transport in comparison with the other “competitors” .uk/lpg_lng_cng. One area of opportunity being already explored is the spread of LNG to remote regions: due to its properties. Specially designed cryogenic sea-going vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport.eu. not only regulations and respective responses from the industry must be on track. in order for the LNG market to increase more rapidly. a Postgraduate Diploma in Maritime Energy was introduced at WMU. containment and monitoring of LNG has given the maritime industry a real solution to traditional oil alternatives. Once the maritime industry has become prepared with a functioning distribution chain it is therefore quite probable that many other industries and more specifically entities that are located in more remote areas will switch to using LNG as principal source of energy. importantly. Within the Baltic Sea Region Interreg project “Go LNG”. The partnership consists of 20 main partners and 50 associated partners spread across the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). In this 12-month distance learning course. up-to-date analyses of current initiatives and future developments in energy efficient shipping are provided.2 Aim In order to facilitate a fast and safe deployment of LNG in the shipping sector. but also sufficient education and capacity building of people that in various and different ways will be operating LNG. The aim of the centre is to offer LNG expertise through specialized and competitive training courses to the maritime industry on a global level. in cooperation with the Lloyd’s registry. vessel design. The progress already made in engine design. At WMU. global need for higher education in this domain. By the end of the project a LNG competence centre will become operational. knowledge. Moreover. in creating a competence centre under discussion and putting forward ideas on transferring its existing experiences into the centre. The strategy under discussion will further provide LNG stakeholders with a knowledge base on policies and regulation as well as on technological standards. LNG plays a major role. LNG is cost efficient to transport over long distances. WMU’s mission is to be the world centre of excellence in postgraduate maritime and oceans education. 1419 . and describe well- functioning solutions and business models already present in the transport sector of the region. researching and putting forward ways to improve the wider transport chain by incorporating all available transport modalities as well as enlarging the number of entities/industries that can benefit from the use of LNG will also take place. energy efficient ship operations and energy management of ports. and specialised training facilities and research infrastructure in a well- functioning network that provides collaboration and management models. alternative fuels. This will be done by investigating transport flows and LNG infrastructure developments.

Furthermore. contingency planning. creating a common understanding. regional and international regulations. characteristics and behaviour differ significantly from conventional marine fuels making it potentially more hazardous. Also clustering activities that engaged a large number of stakeholders and other LNG projects were a major part of the project. Other activities included a number of dedicated visits on facilities related to LNG production/distribution. under the EU granted Marco Polo project: “On the Mos Way Network (OTMW-N)”. Sweden (but. aiming both to reduce transport costs and to meet the tight emission limits.1 On the MoS Way-Network Project WMU has also gathered a very valuable experience in relation to LNG. the project targeted spreading of an understanding of the pros and cons of LNG use as a marine fuel. Subsequent modules address energy efficiency in relation to ship design and operations. offering and conducting a test-training of Module 2: “Safety of LNG handling on plant. the University 10 developed and delivered a training module for maritime professionals in relation to LNG safety . it is essential that all stakeholders from regulators to ship owners and suppliers work together in order to provide a solid and commonly agreed framework.eu. special conditions and operations − Module 5: Propulsion and power generation training of LNG driven vessel 2. However. Following the specific objectives and its focus on the safety aspects of LNG. because of LNG’s cryogenic nature and volatility. The project revolved around a set of professional trainings and vocational education activities in four different EU countries. LNG bunkering operations require strict safety and operational regulations. where 28 hours were devoted for theoretical aspects and 7 practical (see also figure 1). a portal for disseminating news in relation to on-going developments in the LNG market was also included. 2. it followed standards of the latest IMarEST accreditation system. and the safe handling of liquefied gases under cryogenic conditions and gases under pressure. Bunkering Station and On-Board Vessels − Module 3: LNG cargo and ballast management training on LCHS simulator − Module 4: Manoeuvring of LNG driven vessel. While developing the structure several issues and aspects connected to learning outcomes (see also table 1) had to be considered. and practices based on local. the risks can be mitigated and avoided. its properties.1 Development of Module 2 of On The MoS Way WMU was in charge of developing.onthemosway. and to bridge the different perspective that the crew on-board and at the people of the port have. As an emerging energy source.1. developed in five distinct modules. particularly fire and cargo leakages. Specifically. Moreover. energy management on-board ship. procedures. the partners developed professional trainings which resulted in the below modules: − Module 1: LNG fuelled vessels design training − Module 2: Safety of LNG Handling on Plant. The course therefore covered all aspects of the necessary procedures to assure safe and efficient handling of LNG under a wide variety of circumstances and to allow an appropriate response in case of emergencies. which may also be arranged elsewhere on request). The course was a standard 35-hour course under IMO STCW regulation. Capacity building was also targeted. and alternative fuels and marine renewable energy. Participants are assessed by five assignments and the programme also includes a final examination which is held in Malmö. as well as various bunkering locations in order to identify the type of means available and best practices already in use. bunkering station and on board vessels”. 10 One important objective of the OTMW-N project was to promote the use of LNG fuel as a clean and cheap fuel for the shipping industry. Being a distance learning course the strengths and weaknesses of this method had to be considered. However. mainly for public relations reasons. developing a new culture in all actors to understand their role to the safe operation of LNG fuelled ships. The take on LNG deployment of OTMW-N was to focus on safety as. accessed March 2016. there is the critical need to assure the highest safety and security standards that prevent and if needed respond to emergency situations both on board vessels and on the terminal. Under this research initiative. More details are available at: www. and to understand the safety procedures.comprised of five modules where the first module is an introduction to energy management and the international response in shipping. the experience of the LNG marine transport industry shows that. when LNG is handled professionally. 1420 . through the conduct of relevant training in the proper way to interact with LNG as well as the necessary protective measures during this process. The objective of the modules was to enrich the knowledge of participants so that they understand and deal with emergencies while handling liquid gases.

Figure 1. LNG terminal staff and managers Understand in detail the appropriate safety procedures in the event of an LNG emergency. bunkering facilities and safety and security management . including barges. Delivery of the course Table 1. pre-docking operation procedures and related topics. transfer. and rapid-phase transition Understand the unique safety challenges associated with ships and terminals utilizing or handling LNG Potential LNG Incident Scenarios and strategies Be able to understand the basic procedure of Risk Assessment and Jettison of cargo in case of emergency The programme also covered LNG handling safety measures on-board and restrictions in and around LNG terminals. the correct type and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and fire fighting equipment. including fire. spill.for both crew working on-board and personnel working ashore on LNG facilities as well as students of different fields and levels.Moreover. and handling Develop and maintain on-going training of replacement crewmembers. 1421 . initial operations. LNG vessels and LNG fueling terminals Be able to differentiate between different Hydrocarbon gases and their carriage conditions Be familiar with the hazard of fire of gases and fire fighting procedures of pool and pressure fires Be familiar with operating commonly used instruments and monitoring equipment for LNG Assure students a smooth transition to manage and operate LNG fueling protocols starting with delivery of a LNG-fuel vessel. LEARNING OUTCOMES Understand the unique characteristics of LNG as a cryogenic fuel Develop a clear understanding of the background of LNG fueling operations and regulations to assure safe and efficient operations on board bunker vessel. it was prepared for professionals interested in enhancing their knowledge in the field of LNG operations with special focus on LNG port installations. familiarization of operations under routine and emergency situations Understand common hazards of LNG storage. Learning outcomes accomplished via Module 2.

it is envisioned that twelve (12) distinct courses will be offered at different places within the BSR (two in Germany. students. and other interested parties such as shipping agents.2. and an LLM in International Maritime Law. Latvia. The target groups can be anything from port personnel. contract management − LNG for road. as part of the OTMW-N project. Therefore. in many other locations (mainly around Europe). Being one of the first regions of the world having to enforce the IMO’s SECA-restrictions. maritime authority officers. port state control. Germany. 1422 . which was delivered in 2015. ship and tug crew. Although different. but together they create an extended pool of competence. those countries involved will need to look for on-going and functioning examples and solutions. but also can help those regions that are not well-developed in the field of LNG (by transferring to them the existing experience within the BSR). Maritime Safety & Security.2 Distance learning At WMU. Maritime Energy. innovative and forward-looking maritime technology solutions have had to be developed. Completing any identified gaps will be achieved during 2017-2018. Finland. A first and important step towards the operationalization of the competence centre was taken during 2016. In addition. rail and inland water transport. the audio-visual recording elements of the Centre support WMU’s growing portfolio of distance-learning programmes delivered online. to LNG suppliers. When these restrictions will start applying to other regions of the world. Sweden and Lithuania and one each in Estonia. For the time being. 3 DEVELOPMENT OF A LNG COMPETENCE CENTRE IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION The Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Creating a competence centre that offers know-how on all parts/subcomponents of the LNG value chain is therefore both cost-efficient for the whole BSR. The Go LNG project will catalogue and promote cooperation of institutions that are capable of providing LNG-related education and training activities. The courses will be developed for three distinct levels/target groups: LNG value chain training. maritime basic STCW / IGF and maritime advanced STCW / IGF. Lithuania. In addition. which covered the need for those participants without an option of presence in the classroom and attended on-line the lectures. LNG infrastructure owners and operators. emergency services. business modelling − LNG economy purchase. is a leading region of the world when it comes to maritime transport and clean technological solutions. Sweden and Russia. Poland. The E-learning Centre primarily addresses the educational needs of WMU students enrolled on the MSc programme. the distance learning section supports research and knowledge dissemination efforts. Norway. this course was delivered via two different modalities: physical attendance (for WMU’s resident students) and distance learning. International Maritime Law. distance learning programmes and activities are conducted through WMU’s “Peter and Jane Muirhead E-Learning Centre”. cooperation between the countries has prevailed for decades and networks and consortiums thrived. and industry − LNG standards and regulations. four additional PG-Dips (programmes) have been made available including the following: Executive Maritime Management. with the gathering of information that will lead to an inventory list of existing knowledge and training modules already available. Estonia. WMU distance learning offerings also include customised distance learning programmes. the programme of the new centre will focus on the below main categories: − LNG storage and bunkering − Cryogenic and pressure technologies − LNG as fuel for ships − LNG project management. Some of these countries might be small in size. in particular those studying in the Maritime Education and Training (MET) Specialization. E-learning has been offered by WMU since 2005 with the Postgraduate Diploma (PG-Dip) in Marine Insurance. with the previously discussed LNG course. the BSR can provide an excellent working example. comprising of Denmark. and local authorities. legal environment From these categories. Since the establishment of this Centre. Latvia and Norway). all these countries are all dependent on maritime transport for their economies to develop further. improvement of associated infrastructure and even create necessary models and scenarios to run optimisation exercises. Given the relative political and economic stability of the region.

In order to operate the sophisticated modern ships in an optimized manner and above all safely. Education and Development (IATED). ships of different size and capabilities carry huge quantities of cargo and a very large number of passengers cost effectively.Standards of Training Certification and Watch-keeping. many of these fuels have limited bunker availability and the purchase-installation of the related equipment/systems can be quite expensive. As already pointed out. London: IMO. cleanly and safely. WMU. For example. The purpose of the STCW Convention. 13 Visvikis I. 1978. the adoption of an efficient training and development process is important for building a robust and proactive safety culture. 1423 . 14 Bauldauf M. as amended. how to deal with cases of fire and flood. only this type of training can provide a positive outcome during a crisis situation and help the seafarers to suitably respond to the various safety threats (which are commonly associated with intensive psychological pressure) on-board their vessel. moreover. familiarization with this type of events in the right type of simulator environment and intensive tailor-made training can significantly improve the performance during emergency situations and especially the time needed for successful resolvement. including reactions during a crisis can be improved via MET activities. the competence of seafarers is one of the most critical factors. Only a strict regulatory framework and optimised training activities -under a proactive approach. is to ensure that all seafarers on seagoing vessels are properly qualified to perform their respective duties. & Kataria A.can enhance the level of safety at an acceptable level and mitigate all looming risks in relation to shipping operations. Valencia. The key to maintaining a safe shipping industry and preserving the marine environment lies in all seafarers across the world possessing high standards of competence and therefore fulfilling effectively their duties on-board. Needless to mention. STCW: Including 2010 Manila Amendments . (2014).4 CONCLUSION Each and every day. capacity building and strong motivation of the personnel supporting the creation and development of safety culture must be considered as an action of priority for a prosperous maritime industry. there is a plethora of options to consider: from Hydrogen to Methane. Spain... Education and Development Conference (International Academy of Technology..International Ship and Port Facility Security Code/ISM – International Safety Management Code). It is a rather self-explanatory fact that activities within the Maritime Education and Training (MET) domain hold a pivotal role in the preparation of seafarers in order to safely deliver the necessary daily operations at sea. 10th International Technology. the combination of theoretical training along with a 11 series of practical drills can pave the way towards the very fast resolution of the numerous emergency situations that can be developed on-board the various types of vessels at sea. Managers in Today’s Competitive Maritime Industry: Staying Ahead of the Curve. many of the aforementioned are providing better efficiency or a more environmental friendly performance. it is evident that 11 The complexity of operations on-board the various contemporary ships has expanded to such a large extent that practical training drills are clearly a compelling need. One way forward is the spread of LNG as fuel for maritime in shipping. In any case. continues to educate future global maritime leaders and by doing that contributes to maritime capacity building and the development of effective policies of equal opportunity for the global maritime community. (2011).. as well as ashore (for example during port operations. 12 Mariners and the need to improve the human element on-board ships have long been recognized by the IMO. More importantly. It is also true that several maritime Conventions and Regulations stipulate both the operational environment and the training requirements for mariners (with the importance and influence of 12 MARPOL . such as loading/unloading cargo and bunkering of fuel). See the complete details in: IMO. Unfortunately. The way of handling safety situations under stress (emergency response). Today. vol. secure and environmentally friendly shipping worldwide. & Dalaklis D. 7 March 2016 15 It is true that the advancement of marine engines. NAFS Magazine-World Shipping News. among others being well known within all members of the 13 maritime community and many outsiders . (2016). 100. Team Training in Safety and Security via Simulation: A Practical Dimension of Maritime Education and Training. that is Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). SOLAS and the respective Codes (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and ISPS . this is a time of unprecedented climate change and action is needed urgently 15 to ensure a sustainable future for the maritime industry . or even biofuel. or managing and responding to an LNG spill during bunkering (including all other actions in relation to the respective crisis management) are very crucial aspects of MET.International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. With this mandate. 1st of September 2014. has truly exploded in most of the major manufacturers. being the focal point for IMO’s goal of creating a culture of safe. as well as effectively respond during the various emergency situations. STCW . this process may be over and above the existing regulatory requirements in its scope and ambition. Training programmes should be designed and imparted to ensure operational safety on- board and sufficiently prepare personnel to adequately respond to emergency and hazardous 14 occurrences . However. there is one fuel in particular that is being considered “a viable alternative” to marine oil. capable of being powered by non-oil fuel sources.STCW Convention and STCW Code. Dalaklis D.

Arctic LNG: Exploring the Benefits of Alternative Fuels to Mitigate Environmental Impact Risks. 10th International Technology. 41: 20-23. Dalaklis. but also substantial economic savings. “Best Fire-fighting Practices for LNG Bunkering Operations”. ShipArc 2015: Safe and Sustainable Shipping in a Changing Arctic Environment (World Maritime University). A. Nyborg-Denmark. Retrieved from http://www. Maritime Security Review. Managers in Today’s Competitive Maritime Industry: Staying Ahead of the Curve. “STCW: Including 2010 Manila Amendments . 26 August 2015. the Go LNG BSR LNG Competence Centre will be developed with the aim to becoming commercial and will continue its operations for a very long time- framework. S. Nilsson. 18 September 2014. A. both during the development. Siousiouras. Valencia. the Go LNG project will promote further the same idea. Education and Development Conference (International Academy of Technology. Madjidian. One major difference between these two initiatives is the time scope: The OTMW-N was of a rather limited duration. September 2014. Björk. 25 August 2016. The technical innovation in the production of LNG has already helped to position the specific type of fuel as one of the least expensive transportable ones. But a Lot More Needs to Be Done”. LNG Competence Development in the Baltic Sea Region Conference. but further research activities are always welcomed. January 2017. “Review of Maritime Transport 2016”. Ballini. 50-1. it is necessary to conduct in-depth discussions and analysis on how to transfer the already existing knowledge. A public-private partnership opportunity?. F. the WMU’s cross-sectoral and global network of maritime universities.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/rmt2016_en. Human Sea – Marisk symposium “Economic challenges and new maritime risks management: what blue growth?”. Dalaklis. J. http://unctad. [7] International Maritime Organization. NGOs and stakeholders of the maritime industry will be an asset. 4 October 2016. [3] D. REFERENCES [1] M.orG [9] J. and its specialist competence in IMO regulations to the new BSR LNG Competence Centre. D. Spain. vol.Maniatis. but also future collaboration possibilities across the world. Halén. [5] D. Ballini. 7 March 2016 [2] D. Dalaklis. Education and Development (IATED). Olcer. L. In any case. London: IMO. A. Waddesdon-UK. Dalaklis. “CLEANSHIP: Clean Baltic Sea Shipping Report. T. [12] I. Pongolini. setting up courses for students vs. technology and infrastructure development into the international centre under discussion.com/. 2016. not only providing potential students to the centre. what type tools/technologies will be optimal for distance learning. DeWitz . Madjidian. For this to become possible the coming years. professionals at different levels. A. national maritime administrations. [11] United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). A. Sweden.pdf.WMU will be able to play a key role in keeping the upcoming BSR LNG Competence Centre.clean-baltic-sea-shipping. “Climate change: its impact on maritime transport. “Team Training in Safety and Security via Simulation: A Practical Dimension of Maritime Education and Training”.” Mariner’s Digest. “Protecting the Arctic Environment: Challenges and Opportunities for Liquefied Natural Gas. “STCW A GUIDE FOR SEAFARERS: Taking into account the 2010 Manila amendments”. June 2015. [4] D. Retrieved from http://www. (9). Kristiansand-Norway. The OTMW-N project was carried under had the aim to bring European local resources together in order to face global challenges. and how different courses and levels should be accredited/evaluated. promoting the use of LNG not only results into significant environmental benefits. pp. Nantes-France. Bauldauf. Olcer. Dalaklis. Sweden. A. 1424 . [6] J. accessed January 2017. 100. P. 2011 [8] International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF). Kataria. DeWitz. Moreover. [10] J. Dalaklis. Visvikis. Malmo. Dalaklis.STCW Convention and STCW Code”. “Somali Piracy: Some Good News. WMU will specifically bring its experience in distance learning education.itfglobal. D. 2012. A. establishment and during its normal operating activities. F. NAFS Magazine-World Shipping News. “EuroMed Academy of Business 2014 conference proceedings: Dealing with the Need of Greek Ports Expansion. D.

accessed May 2016. [17] www.com/node/21558456.economist.onthemosway.imo.cfm.gov/forecasts/steo/report/global_oil.[13] www. [15] www. [16] www.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Pages/Emission- Control-Areas-(ECAs)-designated-under-regulation-13-of-MARPOL-Annex-VI-(NOx-emission- control). accessed February 2016.eu.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals.aspx. accessed January 2017. [14] www. June 2014. 1425 .un.eia.lngmasterplan. accessed March 2016.eu . accessed January 2017 [18] www. accessed.