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1.For almost 30 centuries—from its unification around 3100 B.C.

to its conquest by Alexander the
Great in 332 B.C.—ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean world.
From the great pyramids of the Old Kingdom through the military conquests of the New Kingdom,
Egypt’s majesty has long entranced archaeologists and historians and created a vibrant field of
study all its own: Egyptology. The main sources of information about ancient Egypt are the many
monuments, objects and artifacts that have been recovered from archaeological sites, covered
with hieroglyphs that have only recently been deciphered. The picture that emerges is of a
culture with few equals in the beauty of its art, the accomplishment of its architecture or the
richness of its religious traditions.
Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is among the oldest civilizations
on earth. The name 'Egypt' comes from the Greek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of
the Egyptian name 'Hwt-Ka-Ptah' (which means "House of the Spirit of Ptah", who was a very
early God of the Ancient Egyptians). In the early Old Kingdom, Egypt was simply known as
'Kemet' which means 'Black Land' so named for the rich, dark soil along the Nile River where the
first settlements began. Later, the country was known simply as Misr which means 'country', a
name still in use by Egyptians for their nation in the present day. Egypt thrived for thousands of
years (from c. 8,000 BCE to c. 525 BCE) as an independent nation whose culture was famous for
great cultural advances in every area of human knowledge, from the arts to science to technology
and religion. The great monuments which Egypt is still celebrated for reflect the depth and
grandeur of Egyptian culture which influenced so many ancient civilizations, among them Greece
and Rome.
Few written records or artifacts have been found from the Predynastic Period, which encompassed
at least 2,000 years of gradual development of the Egyptian civilization
Neolithic (late Stone Age) communities in northeastern Africa exchanged hunting for agriculture
and made early advances that paved the way for the later development of Egyptian arts and
crafts, technology, politics and religion (including a great reverence for the dead and possibly a
belief in life after death).

2. Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient NortheasternAfrica, concentrated along the lower
reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of six civilizations
globally to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced
around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) [1] with the political unification of
Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer (commonly referred to as Menes). The
history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative
instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle
Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age
Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power during the New Kingdom, in the Ramesside period where
it rivalled the Hittite Empire, Assyrian Empire and Mitanni Empire, after which it entered a period
of slow decline. Egypt was invaded or conquered by a succession of foreign powers, such as the
Canaanites/Hyksos, Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, Babylonians, the Achaemenid Persians,
and the Macedonians in the Third Intermediate Period and the Late Period of Egypt. In the
aftermath of Alexander the Great's death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself
as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under
Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions
of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the
fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social
development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral
exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an
independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects,
trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert
Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite
scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the
cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious
beliefs.
The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and
construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and

000 Minarets". Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law. Although Egypt was a majority Christian country before the 7th Century. Sudanese Arabic (0. Later translations from Greek to Arabic became the subject of study by Arab scholars. Of the Christian minority in Egypt over 90% belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. they constitute the world's oldest nation[citation needed].[citation needed] Languages The official language of the Republic is Modern Standard Arabic. Other native Egyptian Christians are adherents of the Coptic Catholic Church .obelisks. the Evangelical Church of Egypt and various other Protestant denominations. Ismailia. In Alexandria in the 19th century there was a large community of Italian Egyptians and Italian was the "lingua franca" of the city. Among the people of the ancient Near East. consist of ancient Egyptian and Coptic. Cairo is famous for its numerous mosque minarets and has been dubbed "The City of 1.3%). in the Delta and near the Suez Canal. The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt.1%). French. that reside in rural villages. There is also a Shi'a minority. Siwi and others. only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were[citation needed]. Nobiin (0. made with the Hittites. It is estimated that 15 million Egyptians follow Native Sufi orders.6%). Additionally. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. The Church of The Virgin Mary. An estimated 90% are identified as Muslim. and the earliest known peace treaty. Egypt's people are highly urbanised. It was used extensively in the philosophy and science of that culture.3%). the first known planked boats. The Ahmadiyya population is estimated at less than 50. Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic (1. Egypt has been a state. being concentrated along the Nile (notably Cairo and Alexandria). Non-native Christian communities are largely . and the third most populous on the African continent. by order of popularity. Historical Egyptian languages. Domari (0. 9% as Coptic Christians . Sa'idi Arabic (29%). In a sense. irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques.2 million and could measure as much as 3 million. 3. Its population grew rapidly from 1970 to 2010 due to medical advances and increases in agricultural productivity enabled by the Green Revolution. Its art and architecture were widely copied. Egypt left a lasting legacy. are English. Arabic was adopted by the Egyptians after the Arab invasion of Egypt.000. although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East.6%). was important in Hellenistic Alexandria. an Oriental Orthodox Christian Church. the country was slowly Islamified to become a majority Muslim country. and 1% as other Christian denominations Non-denominational Muslims form roughly 12% of the population. RELIGION Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion. also known as Copto-Egyptian. a system of mathematics. after Islam arrived. new forms of literature. Under Anwar Sadat . Egyptian faience and glass technology. The spoken languages are: Egyptian Arabic (68%). Greek. For most of their history. with about 88 million inhabitants as of 2015. The "Koiné" dialect of the Greek language. German and Italian. with the Sufi leadership asserting that the numbers are much greater as many Egyptian Sufis are not officially registered with a Sufi order. with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity. Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin. or farmers. The main foreign languages taught in schools. but only in recent years has it been truly a nation- state. The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs estimates the Shia population at 1 to 2. whereas the Salafi (ultra-conservative) population is estimated at five to six million. a practical and effective system of medicine. and form a separate branch among the family of Afroasiatic languages. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy. Beja (0.Egypt's population was estimated at 3 million when Napoleon invaded the country in 1798. and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. though not native to Egypt. Armenian and Italian are the main languages of immigrants. Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world .

who belong to Greek Catholic . as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with raqs baladi. and Al-Azhar University. Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community. The capstone was usually made of hard . Individuals. The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM). Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. and its spoken descendant. established in the middle of the 1st century CE by Saint Mark the Evangelist . to give them a shining appearance when viewed from a distance. The work of early 19th-century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles. A 2008 court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank. music. Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. temples and monumental tombs. Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the 1950s and 1960s. to Mahmoud Mokhtar's sculptures. Described as the largest archaeological museum in the world.found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place. Christianity and Judaism. such as Suyuti and Maqrizi. and the temple of Abu Simbel. and are put in the position of either not obtaining required identification or lying about their faith. who themselves studied the history. The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Arabic. the Egyptian National Military Museum and the 6th of October Panorama. the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria . language and antiquities of Egypt. from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef. 1959 Today. particularly Baha'is and atheists. 4. such as the small Bahá'í and Ahmadi community. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. The Egyptian Museum which has more than 120. Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. largely made up of Italians and Maltese. Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids. There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire. and Judaism. The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids — huge structures built of brick or stone. film and television. to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous. wishing to include their religion (or lack thereof) on their mandatory state issued identification cards are denied this ability (see Egyptian identification card controversy ). Egypt hosts two major religious institutions. The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles . Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities. Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. the museum is scheduled to open in 2015. also known as the Giza Museum. also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. The Egyptian Museum Tutankhamun's burial mask is The Egyptian Museum's major attraction The three main museums in Egypt are. Likewise. highly reflective white limestone surface. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature. Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam. Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam. Egyptian belly dance. The museum will be sited on 50 hectares (120 acres) of land approximately two kilometres from the Giza Necropolis and is part of a new master plan for the plateau.000 items. Christianity.raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. Most pyramids had a polished. Egyptian blue. giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world. are not recognised by the state and face persecution since they are labelled as far right groups that threaten Egypt's national security. They are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun. Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars. such as the Syro-Lebanese . founded in 970 CE by the Fatimids as the first Islamic School and University in the world. and a new language. Other faiths and minority Muslim sects practised by Egyptians. some of which are among the world's largest constructions. Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words. and Maronite Catholic denominations. is a planned museum of artefacts of ancient Egypt. Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep. Greek Orthodox. the Sphinx.

"The Egyptian sun god Ra. or electrum and would also be highly reflective. The largest Egyptian pyramids are the pyramids at Giza. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. with only one royal pyramid being located south of Cairo.and could be plated with gold.D. was said to have created himself from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating all other gods. After 2700 BC. Egypt were commissioned by Ahmose I who founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. at the Abydos temple complex. The age of the pyramids reached its zenith at Giza in 2575–2150 BC.. . considered the father of all pharaohs. Redford. The pyramid at Abydos. The ancient pyramids of Egypt Most pyramids are located near Cairo. The Ancient Egyptians covered the faces of pyramids with polished white limestone.granite or basalt . The first pyramid was built during the Third Dynasty by king Djoser and his architect Imhotep. It is the only one to survive into modern times. Penn State). as a step pyramid by stacking six mastabas.[10] Ancient Egyptian pyramids were in most cases placed west of the river Nile because the divine pharaoh’s soul was meant to join with the sun during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round. the Egyptians began building pyramids. until about 1700 BC. containing great quantities of fossilized seashells. silver.stone .Many of the facing stones have fallen or have been removed and used for construction in Cairo. Ph. The pyramid’s shape is thought to have symbolized the sun’s rays" (Donald B.