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Overhead Conductors

 It has maximum electrical conductivity
 It has high tensile strength so that it can withstand mechanical stresses
 It has least specific gravity i.e. weight / unit volume
Why Aluminium Conductor is unsed Instead of Copper
 It has lesser cost than copper.
 It offers larger diameter for same amount of current which reduces
corona.
Disadvantages of using aluminium
 It has lesser conductivity
 It has larger diameter which increase surface area to air pressure thus it
swings more in air than copper so larger cross arms required which
increases the cost.
 It has lesser tensile strength ultimately larger sag
 It has lesser specific gravity (2.71gm/cc) than copper (8.9 gm/cc) cc =
cubic centimeter
AAC (All Aluminium Conductor)
 It has lesser strength and more sag per span length than any other
category
 Therefore, it is used for lesser span i.e. it is applicable at distribution level
 It has slightly better conductivity at lower voltages than ACSR i.e. at
distribution level
 Cost of ACSR is equal to AAC.
ACAR (Aluminium Conductor, Aluminium Reinforce)
 It is cheaper than AAAC but pro to corrosion.
 It is most expansive.

AAAC (All Aluminium Alloy Conductor)

 It has same construction as AAC except the alloy.
 Its strength is equal to ACSR but due to absence of steel it is light in
weight.
 The presence of formation of alloy makes it expensive.
 Due to stronger tensile strength than AAC, it is used for longer spans.
 It can be used in distribution level i.e. river crossing.
 It has lesser sag than AAC.
 The difference between ACSR and AAAC is the weight. Being lighter in
weight, it is used in transmission and sub-transmission where lighter
support structure is required such as mountains, swamps etc.

ACSR (Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced)

 It is used for longer spans keeping sag minimum.
 It may consist of 7 or 19 strands of steel surrounding by aluminium strands
concentrically. The number of strands are shown by x/y/z, where ‘x’ is
number of aluminium strands, ‘y’ is number of steel strands and ‘z’ is
diameter of each strand.
 Strands provide flexibility, prevent breakage and minimize skin effect.
 The number of strands depends on the application, they may be 7, 19, 37,
61, 91 or more.
 If the Al and St strands are separated by a filler such as paper then this
kind of ACSR is used in EHV lines and called expanded ACSR.
 Expanded ACSR has larger diameter and hence lower corona losses.
IACS (International Annealed Copper Stand)
 It is 100 % pure conductor and it is standard for reference.

Tests …
The following tests are type test of electrical power cable.
1. Persulphate test (for copper )
2. Annealing test (for copper)
3. Tensile test (for Aluminium)

 It must also be free from any impurity and air bubble inside the material which may affect the insulator properties. Ageing in air bomb 4. It must possesses high Insulation Resistance to prevent leakage current to the earth. It should not be porous. Oil resistance 7. Ageing in oxygen bomb 5. 7. Measurement of overall diameter (where specified)(for all) Physical tests for for insulation and sheath 1. There must not be any entrance on the surface of electrical insulator so that the moisture or gases can enter in it.4. 6. 3. this material should have some specific properties as listed below- 1. 4. It must have very high dielectric strength to withstand the voltage stresses in High Voltage system. . Hot set 6. 5. The insulating material must be free from unwanted impurities. Types Of Insulator material Porcelin…  Porcelain also should be free from porosity since porosity is the main cause of deterioration of its dielectric property. For successful utilization. Ageing in air oven 3. Conductor resistance test (for all) 6. It must be mechanically strong enough to carry tension and weight of conductors. 2. Tear resistance Insulating Material Properties of Insulating Material The materials generally used for insulating purpose is called insulating material. Tensile strength and elongation at break 2. There physical as well as electrical properties must be less effected by changing temperature. Wrapping test (for Aluminium) 5. Test for thickness of insulation (for all) 7.

2. 8. 5. Rod shaped core is . The impurities and air bubble can be easily detected inside the glass insulator body because of its transparency. 3. one is glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin rod shaped core and other is silicone rubber or EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) made weather sheds. Glass has very long service life as because mechanical and electrical properties of glass do not be affected by ageing. It has higher tensile strength compared to porcelain insulator. 7. Disadvantages of Glass Insulator 1. Property Value(Approximate) Dielectric Straingth 140 KV / cm Compressive Strength 10. As it is transparent in nature the is not heated up in sunlight as porcelain. Its resistivity is also very high. It has low coefficient of thermal expansion.000 Kg / cm2 Tensile Strength 35. For higher voltage glass can not be cast in irregular shapes since due to irregular cooling internal cooling internal strains are caused. 6. It has very high dielectric strength compared to porcelain. After all.000 Kg / cm2 Polymer typer… In a polymer insulator has two parts. Property Value(Approximate) Dielectric Straingth 60 KV / cm Compressive Strength 70. glass is cheaper than porcelain. 2.000 Kg / cm2 Tensile Strength 500 Kg / cm2  Glass Insulator Advantages of Glass Insulator 1. Moisture can easily condensed on glass surface and hence air dust will be deposited on the wed glass surface which will provide path to the leakage current of the system. 4.

Due to lighter weight polymer insulator imposes less load to the supporting structure. 6. 4. It is very light weight compared to porcelain and glass insulator. Pin Insulator 2. 1) type insulators are used for transmission and distribution of electric power at voltages upto 33 kV. As it is made of two parts. This may cause electrical failure of the insulator. Types of Insulator There are mainly three types of insulator likewise 1. Not resilient to bushfire temperatures. 2. Suspension Insulator 3.covered by weather sheds. Not recommended for location near surf beaches due to salt spray. The rod shaped core is fixed with Hop dip galvanized cast steel made end fittings in both sides. Beyond operating voltage of 33 kV. 3. this insulator has lower installation cost. 2. Weather sheds protect the insulator core from outside environment. 5. the pin type insulators become too bulky and hence uneconomical . core and weather sheds. It has higher tensile strength compared to porcelain insulator. Less cleaning is required due to hydrophobic nature of the insulator. Disadvantages of Polymer Insulator 1. Stray Insulator In addition to that there are other two types of electrical insulator available mainly for low voltage application. 4. Advantages of Polymer Insulator 1. stay insulator and shackle insulator. Over crimping in end fittings may result to cracks in the core which leads to mechanical failure of polymer insulator 3.i. Its performance is better particularly in polluted areas. Subject to bird attack by Parrots. polymer insulator is also called composite insulator. As the composite insulator is flexible the chance of breakage becomes minimum. Because of lighter in weight and smaller in size. 5. 7. e. Moisture may enter in the core if there is any unwanted gap between core and weather sheds. Cockatoos and Galahs.

the desired number of discs can be connected in series. strain insulators are used. (ii) Each unit or disc of suspension type insulator is designed for low voltage. For instance. (vi) The suspension type insulators are generally used with steel towers. (iv) The suspension arrangement provides greater flexibility to the line. Depending upon the working voltage. Each unit or disc is designed for low voltage. (v) In case of increased demand on the transmission line. (iii) If any one disc is damaged. The conductor is suspended at the bottom end of this string while the other end of the string is secured to the cross-arm of the tower. As the conductors run below the earthed cross-arm of the tower.over voltage 2) For high voltages (>33 kV). The number of discs in series would obviously depend upon the working voltage. it is a usual practice to use suspension type insulators. The additional insulation required for the raised voltage can be easily obtained in the suspension arrangement by adding the desired number of discs. say 11 kV. They consist of a number of porcelain discs connected in series by metal links in the form of a string. 3. Safety factor of insulator =Puncture strength/Flash . they are frequently used for low voltage distribution lines. then six discs in series will be provided on the string Advantages (i) Suspension type insulators are cheaper than pin type insulators for voltages beyond 33 kV. the whole string does not become useless because the damaged disc can be replaced by the sound one. it is found more satisfactory to supply the greater demand by raising the line voltage than to provide another set of conductors. In early days. the shackle insulators were used as strain insulators. The connection at the cross arm is such that insulator string is free to swing in any direction and can take up the position where mechanical stresses are minimum. this arrangement provides partial protection from lightning.usually 11 kV. theline is subjected to greater tension.When there is a dead end of the line or there is corner or sharp curve. Such insulators can be used either in a horizontal position or in a vertical position . shackle insulators are used as strain insulators 4. therefore. if the working voltage is 66 kV. For low voltage lines (< 11 kV). In order to relieve the line of excessive tension. But now a days.

produces a conducting path. it may break from that weak portion when mechanical stress is applied on it by its conductor. The main porcelain body. Flash Over Across Insulator If flash over occurs. the insulator may be over heated which may ultimately results into shuttering of it. Mechanical Stresses on Insulator If an insulator has any weak portion due to manufacturing defect. Let's have a look on them one by one- Cracking of Insulator The porcelain insulator mainly consists of three different materials. As a result the flash over distance of the insulator is reduced. Improper Glazing on Insulator Surface If the surface of porcelain insulator is not properly glazed. moisture can stick over it. it will make it porous. Defective Insulation Material If the insulation material used for insulator is defective anywhere.Causes of Insulator Failure There are different causes due to which failure of insulation in electrical power system may occur. Now we will . These unequal expansion and contraction of porcelain. steel fitting arrangement and cement to fix the steel part with porcelain. steel and cement are the chief cause of cracking of insulator. Porosity in The Insulation Materials If the porcelain insulator is manufactured at low temperatures. These are the main causes of insulator failure. As the flash over distance is reduced. the chance of failure of insulator due to flash over becomes more. Due to changing climate conditions. the insulator may have a high chance of being puncher from that place. and due to this reason it will absorb moisture from air thus its insulation will decrease and leakage current will start to flow through the insulator which will lead to insulator failure. This moisture along with deposited dust on the insulator surface. these different materials in the insulator expand and contract in different rate.

2. Power Frequency Wet Flashover Test or Rain Test of Insulator 1. Then terminals of variable power frequency voltage source are connected to the both electrodes of the insulator. Then terminals of variable power frequency voltage source are connected to the both electrodes of the insulator. Performance tests 3. Insulator Testing According to the British Standard. 4. The insulator must be capable of sustaining the specified minimum voltage for one minute without flash over. 2. Routine tests Let's have a discussion one by one- Flashover Test There are mainly three types of flashover test performed on an insulator and these are- Power Frequency Dry Flashover Test of Insulator 1. After that the insulator is sprayed with water at an angle of 45o in such a manner that its precipitation should not be more 5. This voltage is maintained for one minute and observe that there should not be any flash-over or puncher occurred.08 mm per minute. In this way we create artificial raining condition. First the insulator to be tested is mounted in the manner in which it would be used practically. 4. the electrical insulator must undergo the following tests 1. 3. 3. The resistance of the water used for spraying must be between 9 kΩ 10 11 kΩ per cm3 at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. Now the power frequency voltage is applied and gradually increased up to the specified value. Now the power frequency voltage is applied and gradually increased up to the specified value. This specified value is below the minimum flashover voltage. . In this test also the insulator to be tested is mounted in the manner in which it would be used practically. Flashover tests of insulator 2.discuss the different insulator test procedures to ensure minimum chance of failure of insulation.

This ratio should be approximately 1. 2. The insulator is kept in similar manner of previous test. Power Frequency Flashover Voltage test of Insulator 1. Performance Test of Insulator Now we will discuss performance test of insulator one by one- Temperature Cycle Test of Insulator 1. But in that case the voltage when the surroundings air breaks down. 2. The insulator is first heated in water at 70oC for one hour.4 for pin type insulator and 1. 4. 3.3 for suspension type insulators. The insulator is kept in similar manner of previous test. 1. 3. . 2. In this test the applied voltage is gradually increased in similar to that of previous tests.5. So this must be tested against the high voltage surges. The insulator must be capable of sustaining the specified minimum power frequency voltage for specified period without flash over in the said wet condition. Impulse Frequency Flashover Voltage Test of Insulator The overhead outdoor insulator must be capable of sustaining high voltage surges caused by lightning etc. Then this insulator immediately cooled in water at 7oC for another one hour. The ratio of this noted voltage to the voltage reading collected from power frequency flash over voltage test is known as impulse ratio of insulator. Then several hundred thousands Hz very high impulse voltage generator is connected to the insulator. Such a voltage is applied to the insulator and the spark over voltage is noted. is noted. 3. This cycle is repeated for three times. This voltage is maintained for either one minute or 30 second as specified and observe that there should not be any flash-over or puncher occurred.

Mechanical Strength Test of Insulator The insulator is applied by 2½ times the maximum working strength for about one minute.5 % alcohol solution of fuchsine dye under pressure of about 140. After this test there should not be any damaged or deterioration in the glaze of the insulator surface. 4. the insulator is dried and the glazing of insulator is thoroughly observed.The process is repeated for four times. Corrosion Test of Insulator In corrosion test of insulator. Puncture Voltage Test of Insulator 1. A good insulator should not puncture under this condition. The insulator is first suspended in an insulating oil. is applied to the insulator. 3. The insulator with its galvanized or steel fittings is suspended into a copper sulfate solution for one minute. Then the insulator is removed from the solution and wiped. Then voltage of 1. The insulator is first broken into pieces. Proof Load Test of Insulator In proof load test of insulator. After that the sample are removed and examine. . 2.3 times of flash over voltage.4. 2. 3. a load of 20% in excess of specified maximum working load is applied for about one minute to each of the insulator. The insulator must be capable of sustaining this much mechanical stress for one minute without any damage in it. Porosity Test of Insulator 1. 2. 1. Then These broken pieces of insulator are immersed in a 0. After completion of these three temperature cycles. 4.7 kg ⁄ cm2 for 24 hours. Routine Test of Insulator Each of the insulator must undergo the following routine test before they are recommended for using at site. cleaned. The presence of a slight porosity in the material is indicated by a deep penetration of the dye into it. Again it is suspended into the copper sulfate solution for one minute.

then from exp. 8.e. shorter string has more efficiency than the larger one. we get. This necessitates to equalise the potential across the various units of the string i. The lesser thevalue of K. to improve the string efficiency. The maximum voltage appears across the insulator nearest to the line conductor and decreases progressively as the crossarm is approached. This clearly shows that disc nearest to the conductor has maximum voltage across it. the breakdown of other units will take place in succession.8 Methods of Improving String Efficiency It has been seen above that potential distribution in a string of suspension insulators is not uniform. nearest to conductor) breaks down or flash over takes place. The following points may be noted from the above mathematical analysis : (i) If K = 0·2 (Say). (iv).e.. If the insulation of the highest stressed insulator (i. the more non-uniform is the potential across the discs and lesser is the string efficiency. The ratio of voltage across the whole string to the product of number of discs and the voltage across the disc nearest to the conductor is known as string efficiency i. The value of .. ratio of shuntcapacitance to mutual capacitance. (iii) The inequality in voltage distribution increases with the increase of number of discs in the string. V2 = 1·2 V1 and V3 = 1·64 V1.e. Therefore. String efficiency =Voltage across the string/Voltage across n × disc nearest to conductor where n = number of discs in the string. The value of string efficiencydepends upon the value of K i.Then it should be examined and there should not be any disposition of metal on it. (ii) The greater the value of K (= C1/C). the greater is the string efficiency and moreuniform is the voltage distribution. the voltage across other discs decreasing progressively as the cross- arm in approached. The various methods for this purpose are : (i) By using longer cross-arms.e.

this method tends to equalise the potentialdistribution across the units in the string. (ii) By grading the insulators.e. nearest to conductor) is reached. line conductor). insulators of different dimensions are so chosenthat each has a different capacitance.13. Voltage across string = Voltage between line and earth = Phase Voltage . In practice..e.. (ii) The voltage across the string is equal to phase voltage i.. Since voltage is inversely proportional to capacitance. they areassembled in the string in such a way that the top unit has the minimum capacitance. Consequently. However. increasingprogressively as the bottom unit (i. The guard ring introduces capacitance beMechanical Design of Overhead Lines 171tween metal fittings and the line conductor. The potential across each unit in a string can be equalised by usinga guard ring which is a metal ring electrically connected to the conductor and surroundingthe bottom insulator as shown in the Fig. i2 etc.In order to reduce shunt capacitance. i′2 etc.Kcan be decreased by reducing the shunt capacitance. there will be uniform potential distribution across the units. (iii) By using a guard ring. are equal to metal fitting line capacitance currents i′1. However good results can be obtained by using standard insulators for most of the string and larger units for that near to the line conductor. In this method.e. This method has the disadvantage that a largenumber of different-sized insulators are required. longer cross-arms should be used. limitations ofcost and strength of tower do not allow the use of very long cross-arms. 8.. the distance ofconductor from tower must be increased i. the following points must be kept in mind: (i) The maximum voltage appears across the disc nearest to the conductror (i. The result is that same charging current I flows through each unit of string. 8. The insulators are capacitance graded i. K= 0·1is the limit that can be achieved by this method.e. The guard ring is contoured in such a way that shunt capacitance currents i1.e.9 Important Points While solving problems relating to string efficiency.

1. Under the influence of potential gradient.d.. ultravioletradiations and radioactivity.is applied between the conductors. When the potential gradient at the conductor surface reaches about 30 kV per cm (max. Maximum sag of the conductor (H2) 3. When p. the existing free electron acquire greater velocities. under normal conditions. potential gradient is set up in the air which will have maximumvalue at the conductor surfaces. the air around the conductorscontains some ionised particles (i.e. we have divided the total height of tower in four parts. The greater the applied voltage. . free electrons and +ve ions) and neutral molecules.(iii) Line Voltage = 3 × Voltage across string Tower To determine the actual transmission tower height by considering the above points. Minimum permissible ground clearance (H1) 2. Vertical clearance between ground wire and top conductor (H4) Theory of corona formation. value) the velocity acquired by the free electrons is sufficient to strike a neutral molecule with enough force to dislodge one or more electrons from it. Vertical spacing between top and bottom conductors (H3) 4. the greater the potential gradient and more is the velocity of free electrons. Therefore. Some ionisation is always present in air due to cosmic rays.

there is no change in the condition of air surrounding the conductors and hence no corona is formed. The line voltage greatly affects corona. it is affected by the physical state of atmosphere. (iii) Spacing between conductors. In the stormy weather. thus producing other ions. (iv) Line voltage. Thus. the process of ionisation is cummulative. thus avoiding corona formation. The following are the factors upon which corona depends : (i) Atmosphere. there may not be any corona effect. It is because larger distance between conductors reduces the electro- static stresses at the conductor surface. Advantages (i) Due to corona formation. The . The result of this ionisation is that either coron is formed or spark takes place between the conductors. the air surrounding the conductor becomes conducting and hence virtual diameter of the conductor is increased. If the spacing between the conductors is made very large as compared to their diameters. 8.This produces another ion and one or more free electrons. therefore. The corona effect depends upon the shape and conditions of the conductors. However. If it is low. the number of ions is more than normal and as such corona occurs at much less voltage as compared with fair weather. which is turn are accelerated until they collide with other neutral molecules. (ii) Conductor size. The rough and irregular surface will give rise to more corona because unevenness of the surface decreases the value of breakdown voltage. As corona is formed due to ionsiation of air surrounding the conductors. Thus a stranded conductor has irregular surface and hence gives rise to more corona that a solid conductor.11 Factors Affecting Corona The phenomenon of corona is affected by the physical state of the atmosphere as well as by theconditions of the line. if the line voltage has such a value that electrostatic stresses developed at the conductor surface make the air around the conductor conducting. then corona is formed Advantages and Disadvantages of Corona .

However. careful design should be made to avoid corona on the sub-stations or bus-bars rated for 33kV and higher voltages otherwise highly ionised air may cause flash-over in the insulators or betweenthe phases. By increasing the spacing between conductors. bigger cross arms and supports) may increase to a considerable extent. (ii) Ozone is produced by corona and may cause corrosion of the conductor due to chemical action. The corona effects can be reduced by the following methods : (i) By increasing conductor size.spacing cannot be increased too much otherwise the cost of supporting structure (e. the voltageat which corona occurs is raised and hence corona effects can be eliminated. This is one of the reasons that ACSR conductors which have a larger cross-sectional area are used in transmission lines.g. (ii) Corona reduces the effects of transients produced by surges.14 Methods of Reducing Corona Effect It has been seen that intense corona effects are observed at a working voltage of 33 kV or above. (ii) By increasing conductor spacing.. Disadvantages (i) Corona is accompanied by a loss of energy. 8. This affects the transmission efficiency of the line. the voltage at which corona occurs is raised and hence corona effects are considerably reduced. By increasing conductor size. causing considerable damage to the equipment. This may cause inductive interference with neighbouring communication lines. (iii) The current drawn by the line due to corona is non-sinusoidal and hence non-sinusoidal voltage drop occurs in the line. .increased diameterreduces the electrostatic stresses between the conductors. Therefore.

For electric power transmission and distribution of same amount of power. both the capacitance and inductor effect of transmission line are equally responsible for this particular phenomena to occur. Let us consider the power produced by single phase supply and 3-phase supply at unity power factor. so current flows from the source or the supply end to the load. Hence. the receiving end voltage often increases beyond the sending end voltage. From power wave forms shown in figure (C) and (D) above it is clear that in 3-phase system. Ferranti. leading to the phenomena called Ferranti effect in power system Advantages of Three Phase System over Single Phase System 1. and hence in case of a long transmission line it keeps increasing with length and even goes beyond the applied sending end voltage at times. and hence Ferranti effect is negligible in case of a short transmission lines as the inductor of such a line is practically considered to be nearing zero. transportation and installation of alternator become convenient and less space is required to accommodate the alternator in power houses. the 3-ø transmission and distribution system is economical as compare 1-ø system. 3. the requirement of conductor material is less in 3-ø system as compare to 1-ø system.Franti effect In all practical cases the sending end voltage is higher than the receiving end due to line losses. Wave form of power produce due 1-phase supply at unity power factor is shown in figure (C) and Wave form of power produced due to 3-phase supply is shown in figure (D) below.Z. That means for generation for same amount of Electric Power. 2. Moreover. Power to weight ratio of 3-ø alternator is high as compared to 1-ø alternator. due to reduction in weight. 4. But Sir S. in the year 1890. Hence. leading to a phenomena known as Ferranti effect in power system. rise in voltage at the receiving end is directly proportional to the square of the line length. came up with an astonishing theory about medium distance transmission line or long distance transmission lines suggesting that in case of light loading or no load operation of transmission system. the size of 3-ø alternator is small as compare to 1-ø Alternator. the instantaneous power is always constant over the . the overall cost of alternator is reduced for generation of same amount of power.

cycle results in smooth and vibration free operation of machine. Hence. the size of three phase induction motor is small as compare to single phase induction motor. whereas vice-versa is not possible. A 3-phase system can be used to feed a 1-ø load. 9. the rest of two winding can be used in open delta to serve the 3-phase load which is not possible in 1-ø transformer. 8. we have to make some arrangement to make the 1-ø induction motor self-started which further increases the cost of 1-ø induction motor. the overall cost of induction motor is reduced. Whereas in 1-ø system the instantaneous power is pulsating hence change over the cycle. Means for same amount of Electric Power. . transportation and installation of induction motor become convenient and less space is required to accommodate the induction motor. Hence. Which reduce the overall cost of converter. Moreover. 5. 3-phase induction motor is self-started as the magnetic flux produced by 3-phase supply is rotating in nature with constant magnitude. 6. Technical Reason for not Using Higher Frequencies  It increases series impedance in transmission system. Whereas 1- ø induction motor is not self-started as the magnetic flux produced by 1-ø supply is pulsating in nature. Moreover. 7. 11. DC rectified from 3-phase supply is having the ripple factor 4% and DC rectified from 1-ø supply is having the ripple factor 48. Means for same amount of Mechanical Power. This ability of 3-phase transformer further increases the reliability of 3-phase transformer. Hence. If fault occurs in any winding of 3-phase transformer. 3-phase motor is having better power factor and efficiency as compare to 1-ø motor. due to reduction in weight.2 %. the overall cost of transformer is reduced. due to reduction in weight. transportation and installation of transformer become convenient and less space is required to accommodate the transformer. which leads to vibrations in machines. the size of 3- phase transformer is small as compared to 1-ø transformer. This reduces power transfer capability so we cannot access full fruit of transmission system. Mean DC rectified from 3-ø supply contains less ripples as compare to DC rectified from 1-ø supply. 10. Hence the requirement of filter is reduced for DC rectified from 3-phase supply. Power to weight ratio of 3-phase transformer is high as compare to 1-ø transformer. Power to weight ratio of three phase induction motor is high as compare to single phase induction motor.

an alternating current flowing through the conductor does not distribute uniformly.c. Problems with Lower Frequencies Olden days they observed some issues with frequencies which are less than 40 Hz. The skin effect depends upon the following factors : (i) Nature of material (ii) Diameter of wire − increases with the diameter of wire. Constant losses are directly proportional to frequency and its square. The tendency of alternating current to concentrate near the surface of a conductor is known as skin effect.  Harmonics with higher frequency can carry more power it introduce excess heat losses. (iii) Frequency − increases with the increase in frequency. the effective area of cross-section of the conductor through which current flows is reduced. it is practically difficult to achieve Higher frequency.  As frequency directly proportional to speed of alternator some high speed on gigantic alternator. the resistance of the conductor is slightly increased when carrying an alternating current. so they may increases system losses.). However. Skin Effect When a conductor is carrying steady direct current (d. this current is uniformly distributed over the whole X-section of the conductor. . Consequently.  Frequency is directly proportional to power lower frequency devices sizes are very larger than higher frequency so material involved cost involved transmission everything great larger than higher frequency devices. This is known as skin effect. Due to skin effect.  Perceptible flickering in filament lamp. (iv) Shape of wire − less for stranded conductor than the solid conductor. rather it has the tendency to concentrate near the surface of the conductoras shown in Fig. starting problem in arc lamp and arcing devices so they need additional devices to start purpose and maintaining better operation.3. 9.

say upto 50 metres. These are made of seasoned wood (sal or chir) and are suitable for lines ofmoderate X-sectional area and of relatively shorter spans. In order to prevent this. Double pole structures of the ‘A’ or ‘H’ type are often used (See Fig. easily available. The steel poles are often used as a substitute for wooden poles. longer life and permit longer spans to be used.It may be noted that skin effect is negligible when the supply frequency is low (< 50 Hz) and conductor diameter is small (< 1cm). They possessgreater mechanical strength.2) to obtain a higher transverse strength than could be economically provided by means of single poles. provide insulating properties and. causing foundation failure. therefore. Poles Wooden poles. The wooden poles generally tend to rot below the ground level. the portion of the pole below the ground level is impregnated with preservative compounds like creosote oil. are widely used for distribution purposes in rural areas as an economical proposition. 8. The main objections to wooden supports are : (i) tendency to rot below the ground level (ii) comparatively smaller life (20-25 years) (iii) cannot be used for voltages higher than 20 kV (iv) less mechanical strength and (v) require periodical inspection. Maximum permissible span for wooden poles is (A) 10 meter (B) 20 meters (C) 60 meters (D) 200 meters Steel poles. Such poles are generallyused for distribution purposes in the . Such supports are cheap.

steel towers are invariably employed. three-wire. This minimises the lightning troubles as each tower acts as a lightning conductor Systems 1. (iii) D. such poles are often manufactured at the site in order to avoid heavy cost of transportation. Single-phase A.C. two-wire.The main difficulty with the use of these poles is the high cost of transport owing to their heavy weight. This type of supports need to be galvanised or painted inorder to prolong its life. say upto 11 kV. However. require little maintenance and have good insulating properties. D. for long distance transmission at higher voltage. longer life and permit longer spans than steel poles.C. The steel poles are of three types viz. Fig. system (i) Single-phase two-wire. The holes in the poles facilitate the climbing of poles and at the same time reduce the weight of line supports. Tower footings are usually grounded by driving rods into the earth. they give good outlook. Steel towers. The reinforced concrete poles have become very popular as line supports inrecent years.3 shows R. (ii) D. The risk ofinterrupted serivce due to broken or punctured insulation is considerably reduced owing to longerspans. RCC poles.C. can withstand most severe climatic conditions and permit the use of longer spans. In practice. longer life. wooden.C.C.cities.. two-wire with mid-point earthed. 8. poles for single and double circuit. Therefore.C. Steel towers have greater mechanical strength. 2. (i) rail poles (ii) tubular poles and (iii) rolled steel joints. . system (i) D. steel and reinforced concrete poles are used for distribution purposes at low voltages. Moreover.C. They have greater mechanical strength.

(ii) Two-phase three wire. (iii) Single-phase three-wire. (ii) Three-phase four-wire . Two-phase A. system (i) Two-phase four-wire. Three-phase A. system (i) Three-phase three-wire.C.C.(ii) Single-phase two-wire with mid-point earthed. 3. 4.