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On resonance phenomena in nuclear reaction cross sections

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1982 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 8 955


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Phys. Numerical calculations on the basis of such a theory (the continuum shell model) have been performed for reactions induced by nucleons (Barz et a1 1977). Cr(p. but until now. in final form 12 February 1982 Abstract. The contradiction between the two different interpretations vanishes if the matrix elements of the residual interaction V between two discrete states (nuclear structure aspects) a s well as between two continuous states and between discrete and continuous states (nuclear reaction aspects) are calculated in a unified manner and the unitarity of the S matrix is taken into account before statistical approximations are introduced.72MeV. Introduction The resonant behaviour of nuclear reaction cross sections has recently been discussed with renewed interest. The conclusions obtained using the continuum shell model for resonance phenomena are compared with experimental data from the "Cr + p reaction obtained at energies with and without isobaric analogue resonances.00 0 1982 The Institute of Physics 955 . In various heavy-ion systems such as I2C + '*C or '*C +"Si fine structures are superimposed on gross structures. 1 4 4 . Phys. J. The fine structures have been explained using both statistical and non-statistical models. 8 (1982) 955-966. p ~ y ) . They need much effort in realistic cases with realistic nuclear wavefunctions if the number of excited states 0305-4616/82/070955 + 12$02. yo). 2 0 MeV. Conferences on the special topic of resonances in heavy-ion reactions have been organised. 6'). measured U ( € . despite many attempts. 805 1 Dresden. The interest in this problem arises from the fact that resonances have been observed experimentally in heavy-ion reactions for twenty years. Some conclusions are drawn on resonances in heavy-ion reactions. calculated U(€) with the continuum shell model. . Printed in Great Britain On resonance phenomena in nuclear reaction cross sections P Kleinwachter and I Rotter Zentralinstitut fur Kernforschung. no). The statistical models are based on Ericson's fluctuation theory while in the non- statistical models the structure arises from a double resonance mechanism wherein one or both of the fragments are excited and the system decays back into the elastic channel. "N(n. The influence of channel coupling on the result of an autocorrelation analysis is investigated for the "N + n nuclear reaction cross section calculated theoretically. measured I . Rossendorf. correlation analysis. deduced resonance structures of the cross section. Since both models are believed to have completely different underlying physics the conclusion usually drawn is that the real origin of the observed structures remains an open problem (Barrette et a1 1979).59-4. (p. Recently it has been shown that the problems in interpreting the experimental heavy- ion resonance data in general arise mainly from the approximations used (Rotter 1981). it has been impossible to clarify their origin. 1. PO). E=4. G D R Received 13 May 1981.E = 4 . G : Nucl. NUCLEAR REACTIONS "Cr(p. E= 14-18 MeV.

Conclusions on the identification of single resonance states in reactions with a high level density and doorway states a s well as a high number of open reaction channels are drawn in the last section. The cross section is calculated by taking a different number of reaction channels into account. the concept of an isolated resonance state R defined in the continuum shell model corresponds to the concept formulated in the R-matrix theory (Robson and Lane 1967). The influence of channel coupling can also be investigated. The origin of intermediate-type structures observed experimentally in the 52Cr(p. surely. The S matrix in the framework of the model was derived by Rotter ( 1 98 1). In the neighbourhood of this state the density of resonance states with complicated nuclear structure is generally high.po) reaction is discussed in Q 4. The difference between both types of state . there are some differences from the expression usually used. but differs from that given by the Feshbach theory. The analysis leads to a partly non-statistical behaviour of the reaction cross section which is caused by channel coupling. It also diiFers from that of the Mahaux-Weidenmuller theory in which the resonance states are obtained from the BSEC (bound states embedded in the continuum) but not from the QBSEC (quasi- bound states embedded in the continuum). Thus it seems to be meaningful to investigate nucleon-induced reactions from the point of view of the problems discussed in the course of the study of the resonance phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. a large number of open reaction channels and. In 9 2. The heavy-ion reactions between light nuclei are characterised by a high density of resonance states. The external mixing (Rotter 1979) of the resonance states via the continuum a s well as the configurational mixing and the channel coupling. The continuum shell model The continuum shell model used in the present paper was formulated by Barz et al(1977). The energ5s ER and widths rR of the resonance states are determined by the functions E R ( E ) and T R ( E ) which depend smoothly on energy with the exception of threshold effects (Rotter et a1 1978). As a consequence. the doorway states are coupled strongly due t o their pronounced cluster structure. Calculations for heavy-ioninduced reactions have not been performed. a correlation analysis for the theoretical cross section of the "N + n reaction is performed. While the resonance states are weakly coupled to the entrance or exit channels. are given. 956 P Kleinwachter and I Rotter is not restricted by additional selection rules. which are all caused by the residual interaction V. The substructures are not always well correlated in energy in the different reaction channels. Section 3 is devoted to the problem of substructures which were investigated in the fragmentation of the g9. some results of the continuum shell model. which allows a unified description of nuclear reaction and nuclear structure aspects. 2. A comparable physical situation can be found in nucleon-induced reactions: the best known example of a doorway state is the isobaric analogue resonance state. Although it has the familiar form. by some doorway states. Some of these structures are not connected with an IAR.are taken into account. Therefore the resonances are more-or-less correlated and deviations from the statistical behaviour of the reaction cross section may appear. In 5 5. A n identification of the single resonance states is not always possible: sometimes only the properties of substructures as a whole are physically meaningful and can be determined. These differences are connected with the fact that the continuum shell model is a dynamical model while in the traditional theories the S matrix is derived in a parametrised form.2 isobaric analogue resonance (IAR) observed in 53Mn(Fodor er a1 1979).

On resonance phenomena in nuclear reaction cross sections 95 7 comes from a consideration of the shape resonances in the QBSEC but not in the BSEC. In particular. It is larger than a time determined by the sum of the partial widths due to the external mixing between the resonance states. The coupling effects are caused. in contrast to the usual assumptions. Further. . Substructures under a gross structure One of the problems occurring in heavy-ion reactions is the observation of energy shifts of the cross-section maxima in different exit channels. (1) This means the lifetime is. rR and contain the effects of channel coupling. (2) (ii) in the form of configurational (or internal) mixing in the functions pR of the subspace Q of discrete states due to (HQQ.E ) P R= 0 (3) (iii) and additionally in the form of external mixing in the eigenfunctions of the operator which appears effectively in the subspace Q of discrete states. FR and TRc. by the residual interaction V.It is contained (i) in the form of channel coupling in the functions of the subspace P of scattering states due to (HPP-E)<. Furthermore.$ = 0. in every case. the properties of these differ from those of isolated resonance states. substructures formed by groups of overlapping resonance states (with the same spin and parity) may appear (Rotter 1979). The mere important the role played by coupling effects via the continuum in the functions E R . the more deviations from a statistical behaviour of the cross section are t o be expected. In particular the so called resonance parameters E R . although they characterise in the main the nuclear structure properties (Rotter 1979). Cole et a1 (1977) showed in a schematic model calculation that a shift occurs in cases where one entrance doorway state is coupled to at least two reaction or exit doorway states which in turn couple to different reaction continua. not determined by the sum of the partial widths for overlapping resonance states. they need not be at the same energy in all reaction channels because the different partial widths of the single resonance states may shift the centre of the substructure in energy. it is contained in all matrix elements calculated with these functions. partial widths Isc and the 'width' Tst of the structure observed is (Rotter 198 1) rrt < 1 r R < Rc1 I d c 1. Due to fluctuations in the level density. 3. the relation between total widths r R . A statistical analysis of nuclear reaction cross sections therefore allows immediate conclusions to be drawn on the importance of the coupling effects via the continuum. Calculations performed within the continuum shell model (Rotter 1979) have shown that shifts may also appear without coupling t o other doorway states (see 5 2).

In order to illustrate the assertion of the continuum shell model we reinterpret the experimental results for the g9/2 I A R in 53Mnobtained earlier (Fodor et al 1979).33 MeV (Gales et a1 1976) of the 53Cr-54Mn nuclei. =3715 keV in the nucleus 53Cr(Kocher and Haeberli 1972) and the average Coulomb displacement energy hEc = 8. Firstly. respectively.rp. y o ) and 52Cr(p. Taking into account the position of the well isolated g9/2 parent analogue state at E .(U + l)r. the g9/2 IAR is expected near an incident proton energy of 4. .18 MeV. The measured angular distributions of the peaks numbered 2 and 6.p‘y) reactions in the energy region around 4. It was shown (Fodor et al 1979) that the other peaks in the corresponding channels possess similar angular distributions and that other spin-parity combinations can be excluded. 2 and 4 of the (p. Figure 1 shows the excitation functions of the ”Cr(p. The total widths rtot of the structures observed (cf table 1) were estimated from the y- ray yields y = . 958 P Kleinwachter and I Rotter Figure 1. p’y) channel.18 MeV. A n example of the verification of the resonance spin and parity in the two channels is seen in figure 2. p’y)’*Cr reactions in the range of the expected E p (k e V 1 g9/2 isobaric analogue resonance in 53Mn. p’y) reaction from a thick-target measurement. the results of the investigation of the g9/2 IAR should be briefly summarised./rtot of the (p. a r e in good agreement with the theoretical ones assuming a resonance spin and parity of Sr=$’. yo)’’Mn (ground-state transition) and (b) the Cr(p. Excitation functions for (a) the 4140 4160 4180 4200 ::Cr(p. One can see that the peaks numbered 1. although they all are found to be due to the ggiZ IAR. y o ) channel have no counterparts in the numbered peaks of the (p.

6 4 4.y o ) and "Cr(p. 4' AJ-.186 0. Widths and positions of the substructures in the channels investigated for the gsp isobaric analogue resonance in "Mn (cf figure 1). EP=4176keV. On resonance phenomena in nuclear reaction cross sections 959 Figure 2.8 2. (b) 52Cr(p.5 8 4.159 0. no 6.165 5.9 5 4. p'y) channels (cf figure 1): (a) 52Cr(p. The full curves correspond to theoretical COS= e predictions of the resonance spin and parity J n = ? ' . The experimental data showed an unambiguous correlation of the excitation functions Table 1.5 7 4.182 3.3 . no 2. 6(M2/E1)=0. 1 4.p'y). no 6.1 3 4.3 6 4. rp and rplare the partial widths for elastic and inelastic proton scattering. Ep=4176 keV. 1. Thus the widths are of order of magnitude 1-2 keV.p').4 keV (Gadioli and Zetta 1968). 4' L2+. 5'%2+LO'.191 0.176 0. (c) "Cr(p. Ep=4165 keV. Typical angular distributions of the peaks investigated in the 52Cr(p. The calculated average distance D of the 4' compound levels is in the same range and yields 1.yo). The average ratio rp/rtofof the gross structure was taken from the data of Gales et aI(1976).5 1.8 2.157 1.6 1.1 2 4. %---ti?----.176 3.

688 MeV seem to be the d5/2 IAR'S according to the parent levels at E . Substructures in a n I A R have been observed experimentally and discussed previously by Temmer et a1 (1971).. PO) reaction taken at two angles between 4. Note that some of the strength of the two IAR'S may also be distributed in the other nearby j + resonances. they should be a general phenomenon in nuclear reactions in which the average width I' and the average distance D of the fine-structure resonances are of comparable magnitude. In table 2 the parameters obtained from the fit are given. 960 P Kleinwachter and I Rotter at different angles and. a spin-parity identification was possible. 4. In the fine-structure resonances the T. Every structure observed results either from a group of a few weakly overlapping ultimate fine-structure resonances or from a fine- structure resonance itself where the T. equation (1). respectively. components with their different partial widths in relation to the different channels cannot be neglected. Similar results were obtained for the neutron partial widths of 239Uby using the shadow effect (Vorotnikov e t a 1 1973. According to the conclusions from the continuum shell model ( 5 2).136 and 4. Thus the observed resonance pattern of the g9/. more exactly.58 and 4. The experimental conditions were described by Kleinwachter (1980). further. (S(d. This means the generally expected strong correlation of the partial widths of the doorway fine-structure resonances as discussed by Lane (1971) and Halderson et al (1980) is no longer valid in the case considered. The two l = 2 resonances at E . I'. The remaining resonances in the region considered with widths of the same order of magnitude were also believed to be IAR'S (Ruh and Marmier . o n the ratio T/D. in the nucleus 53Cr(Kocher and Haeberli 1972). one can conclude from the above estimations that the uncorrelated cross-section behaviour in different exit channels is a consequence of the relation I ' z D and is determined by fluctuations of the level density. The lifetime of the group of states depends on the external mixing of the resonance states or. the introduction of different doorways by Cole et a1 (1977) t o explain the fragmentation of a gross structure and the uncorrelated behaviour of the cross sections seems to be unnecessary.72 MeV incident proton energy are plotted in figure 3.p) - The energetic distances (AE. They found that the mean compound-nucleus lifetimes were significantly longer at higher bombarding energies than expected on the basis of a purely statistical theory. According t o the results of the continuum shell model.597 and 4. Andersen et a1 1975. Structures without doorways Kanter et al(1978) investigated the properties of structures observed in proton scattering on nickel. =4. Therefore Ericson fluctuations typical of strongly overlapping resonances (I'B D ) must be ruled out. Since an IAR is the most transparent example of a doorway. =4. components dominate. Bugrov et a1 1977). In order to illustrate this result using other experimental data. IAR gives evidence for the existence of substructures under a gross structure caused by one doorway. the lifetimes of structures caused by a group of overlapping resonance states are longer than a time determined by the sum of the partial widths. components are n o longer the only important ones and the T.) of the daughter levels agree with the corresponding data on the parent analogue states.%AEX= 92 keV) and the ratio of the spectroscopic factors %.. the excitation functions of the "Cr(p.228 MeV. The full curves drawn show an eyeball fit to the elastic cross section data using a one-channel multi-level R-matrix code.Ss@. Although we d o not know exactly the widths and distances of the fine structure fragments of the g9/2 I A R observed.

0 t Kocher and Haeberli (1972).638 0 f 2. a * E I - c U D U 150 - 125 - Figure 3.# .65 4 70 positions of the resonances and the numbers E.0 6. The perpendicular lines mark the 4 60 4. 2 t 4.0 4.O 2.618 0 t 1 . Table 2.O 2. Excitation functions of the 100 .667 0 1 1.0 4. PO) cross section in the region of the expected d5/2 isobaric analogue resonances in 53Mn(cf figure 3).2') in the range of the expected d512 isobaric analogue resonances (IAR) 75 .656 2 j 2. in 53Mn.677 1 t 1 .0 4.0 3. Fitted resonance parameters of the '*Cr(p. p) = 0.0 4. .0 8.2'.05 } 4.o ) 5 2 ~reaction r at two angles ((a) = 152.688 (IAR) 2 1 2.5 Ex = 4 ' 1 2 8 S(d. (b) 6'cM =92.o 3.0 8. The experimental errors are equal to the diameters of the circles drawn. 5 2 ~ r ( pp. 96 1 125 - IAR I 100 - 75 - 50 - 25 - - L Ln .8 2.0 4.0 12.( MeV1 indicate the corresponding angular momentum.0 2 1 2.626 2 t 1.0 4. The full curves represent a fit with a multi-level one-channel R- matrix code.

Statistical analysis and channel coupling Recently. 0 0. non-statistical correlations between single resonances are also to be expected if the resonances are isolated and no I A R lies in t h e energy region considered. Kocher and Haeberli 1972) that other IAR’S with. The widths of the resonances observed are larger (cf table 2): they are of the same order of magnitude as the widths of the two d5. Such a result can be understood qualitatively by means of overlapping effects resulting in a n ‘intermediate structure’ which can exist without any IAR. Thus.047 3 0.p’y) (Chou ef a1 1980). Average ( r / D ) . It is a more general phenomenon appearing in nuclear reaction cross sections if the single resonances overlap and external mixing prevents them from being isolated. =4.06 1 1 0. obtained from interference effects in multichannel processes. non-statistical effects were observed in the relative signs of width amplitudes in the analogue-free region of the reactions 54Fe(p. for example. The channel coupling is Table 3.962 P Kleinwachter and I Rotter 1970). proved the random-phase approximation to be incorrect in the cases considered. However.p’y) (Watson et al 1980) and 48Ti(p. Some shift in the energies of the structures with and without IAR in the different reaction channels can be stated as in 3 (Kleinwachter 1980). There is no convincing experimental evidence from the (d. The structures with and without IAR have comparable widths in the case considered since the underlying fine- structure resonances retain a good deal of their individuality (cf § 3) in spite of the existence of the doorway state. (61 Taking into account a mean level distance of the order of magnitude of 1 keV (extrapolated from E .014).688 MeV. 1=0 should be positioned between the two indicated.6 MeV for various angular momenta 1. this cannot be true a s shown by an estimation on the basis of the Coulomb displacement energy. These results. the formation of structures in nuclear reaction cross sections from some fine-structure components with the same spin and parity is not necessarily connected with the existence of an IAR. 5.g.1 keV depending on the I value of the resonances (cf table 3). ratio for the excited levels in the nucleus ”Mn corresponding to an incident proton energy of4.037 2 0. p) reaction (e. In the following.006 4 0.. the widths of the fine-structure resonances are of the order of 0. According to the continuum shell model.2 IAR’S at 4. the influence of the channel coupling on the statistical behaviour of a calculated nuclear reaction cross section will be investigated. The widths of the fine-structure compound resonances in 53Mn c a n be estimated from the transmission factor derived for a particle with angular momentum 1 using an optical-model calculation (with the parameters of Perey 1963): TI= 1 -exp[--2i~(r/D)~].71 MeV-see 3).008 . These correlations caused by the residual interaction V are contained in the channel coupling. the level densities and spectroscopic information on the parent nucleus.597 and 4.

One can see that the widths of the resonance states are larger and the cross sections become smoother when more channels are taken into account.055 0. In the continuum shell model. n)"Nos 0.40 ISN(n. More quantitative results can be obtained by a formal statistical analysis with the help of the autocorrelation function where Y O = d$:/(oc& ) (8) is the ratio of the average direct component of the reaction cross section to the average of the 'measured' (calculated) cross section. One should note here that the resonance states analysed have r 0D as in the cases of 05 3 and 4. n')lSN3/2. the lower the C(0) value. i. the ratio udir/arresof the direct to the resonance reaction part can be obtained in the framework of the model. nr)LSNs/2t 0.48 0.10 I5N(n. On resonance phenomena in nuclear reaction cross sections 963 determined directly by the residual interaction V and can therefore be used generally as a measure for the correlations induced by V.029 .017 15N(n.083 0. more slowly than the corresponding ratio obtained from the autocorrelation analysis. The widths of the fine-structure resonances increase with increasing number of channels. ~ ' ) ' ' N I .14 0. N& is the effective number of independent channels contributing to the cross section and is equal to or less than the number of different positive spin projections (Ericson and Mayer-Kuckuck 1966). Using these values. The one-channel calculation shows five separated resonances. Z + 0.027 0. the direct reaction part odir can be calculated separately (figure 4). four-channel and seven-channel calculations is more difficult. in contrast to the results obtained above from the autocorrelation analysis. the number of resonances and their distances D are unchanged. N . calculated with different numbers of channels. Table 4 shows the results of the autocorrelation analysis. Autocorrelation value C(0) for coupled-channels cross-section calculations.e. However. 0. Calculations on the basis of the continuum shell model with and without channel coupling for the I5N+ n reaction have shown (Rotter et al 1975) that channel coupling Table 4.075 0. for the ''N(n. Number of channels in the calculation Reaction (with five 0' resonances) N= I N= 2 N=4 N=l I5N(n.49 0. In figure 4 the cross sections. On the basis of the statistical models. For all reactions calculated the following result holds: the more channels that are taken into account. It changes by about 10% with dependence on the number of channels. the fluctuations are therefore not expected t o decrease. while an identification of the resonances in the two-channel. The averaging interval is the whole region of the calculated cross section. Consequently the 'direct reaction part' increases relative to the resonance reaction part: &(A') > &(N') with N > N'. no) reaction with five 0 ' resonances of 2 p 2 h nuclear structure at their calculated energies are shown.

does not influence the decay widths much. Experimental results are compared with theoretical results obtained on the basis of the continuum shell model. These resonances have the usual properties described by the Breit-Wigner formula. Conclusions The problem of resonances and structures observed in nuclear reaction cross sections with a high density of resonance states. into account. 9 64 P Kleinwachter and I Rotter lo+-y-q 5 0 1L 15 direct 16 EA1'''[ M e V I 17 18 Figure 4. (i) Every isolated resonance is caused by one QBSEC. The conclusions are as follows. N . some doorway states and several open reaction channels is discussed for nucleon-induced reactions. Consequently. but smooths both the elastic and inelastic nuclear reaction cross section. 6. . Cross sections of the elastic scattering of neutrons on I5N with five ' resonance states calculated by 0 taking a different number of channels. taking the residual interaction Vinto account in a straightforward manner between the reaction channels creates a non-statistical behaviour of the nuclear reaction cross section.

39 3 Ericson T and Mayer-Kuckuck T 1966 Ann. The shape resonances in nucleon-induced reactions should not be considered a s doorway states because of their strong internal mixing with the other compound-nucleus states and consequently large energy spreading (see Rotter 198 1). Schobbert H and Herrmann F 1979 J . G: Nucl.Komaki K.. 6 59 Kanter E P. Rev. 131 745 Robson D and Lane A M 1967 Phys. Since the properties of the doorway states of the heavy-ion reactions are almost unknown. Phys. Phys. 685. On resonance phenomena in nuclear reaction cross sections 965 (ii) Strong intermediate structures are connected with doorway states. conclusions on the nature of the resonance structures in these reactions can only be obtained together with conclusions on the properties of the doorway states. They may be connected with doorway states and fine-structure resonance states which still retain a good deal of their individuality. Nielsen K 0. But they can also arise due to fluctuations in the level density without an increasing effect from a doorway state. Lpz 38 221 Rotter I. Phys. they may appear a s substructures under a gross structure. their influence on the correlation of the parameters of the fine-structure resonances should be seen over comparably large energy regions. Phys. Oganesyan Yu Ts and Titirichi M 1977 Yud. Nevertheless.. Lett. Phys. Rev. Rev. Here. Fortier S. G: Nucl. Rotter I and Hohn J 1977 Nucl. Mitchell G E. A 241 31 7 Barrette J et ul 1979 Phys. A 299 230 Kleinwachter P 1980 Thesis Technische Universitat Dresden Kocher D C and Haeberli W 1972 Nucl. 1575 . N Y 63 173 Perey G F 1963 Phys. 45 1235 Cole B. Structures of such a type are not always correlated in energy in the different reaction channels due to their different partial widths. 16 183 Fodor I. A 297 237 . References Andersen J U. Hellborg R and Prasad K G 1975 Nucl. Karamyan S A . Fir. Their lifetimes are longer than that determined by the sum of the partial widths. Nucl. Phys. 167 1016 Gales S. 5 1267 Gadioli E and Zetta L 1968 Phys. Lett. 161 982 Rotter I 1979 J. Rev. Leuca I and Temmer G M 1978 Nucl. Phys. A 275 11 1 Bugrov B N. Kleinwachter P. An identification of the single fine-structure resonances is impossible due to their strong overlapping and the external mixing between them. Further. the widths of which are much larger than the widths of the underlying fine-structure resonances. Sziklai J. Rev. C 14 842 Halderson D. Toepffer C and Dietrich K 1977 Phys. C 20 1759 Barz H W. The conclusions drawn here from an investigation of proton-induced reactions with and without IAR should also be useful for an interpretation of the heavy-ion resonance reaction data. Castel B and Aizer G 1980 J. Kamanin V V. (iii) Weak intermediate structures are caused by interference effects between some fine- structure resonance states. the results obtained from the very well investigated IAR may be helpful. They produce some non-statistical behaviour of the nuclear reaction cross section. Rev. G: Nucl. Sri. Rev. The third type of structure is surely the most interesting one since the properties of the two other types have been very well known for a long time. Phys. Although they are generated by single fine-structure resonances. Phys. 1981 Ann. These structures appear when T g D on average. a statistical analysis of their properties does not give unambiguous results. Examples are the IAR in heavier nuclei. Rev. Kollewe D. A 196 225 Lane A M 1971 Ann. Maison J M and Schapira J P 1976 Phys. Phys. Skak-Nielsen J. Laurent H. Barz H W and Hohn J 1978 NUCLPhys. Phys. 25 713 Chou B H. 5 251. Phys. Correlations exist between the single resonances which are caused by the residual interaction. Bilpuch E G and Westerfeldt C R 1980 Phys.

Fiz. Maruyama M. Bilpuch E G and Mitchell G E 1980 Z . Wiinsch R and H o h n J 1975 Physics of Elementary Particles and Atomic Nuclei (Moscow) 6 435 Ruh A and Marmier P 1970 Nucl. Barz H W. 26 1341 Vorotnikov P E. A 294 153 . Leu. Mingay D W. Petrascu M and van Bree R 1971 Phys.966 P Kleinwachter and I Rotter Rotter I . Melikov Y u V. Reo. Otstavnov Yu D. Tulinov A F and Chechenin N G 1973 Yud. Phys. Phys. A 151 479 Temmer G M. 17 901 Watson W A.