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Methodology

The standard liquid was determined by comparing the solubility
of the solid in water and liquid sample and the standard liquid was
insoluble with the solid sample. Three devices were used to measure
the specific gravity of the liquid sample and these are the Baúme
Hydrometer, Mohr-Westphal Balance and the Leach Pycnometer. In
using the Baúme Hydrometer, sample was placed in a graduated
cylinder and the hydrometer was dropped on the cylinder. The
hydrometer was floating and when it was settled, the scale was read at
lower meniscus. In using the Mohr-Westphal Balance, the device was
calibrated by balancing the pointer of the arm to the pointer of the
device itself. The plummet was immersed in the graduated cylinder
filled with the sample liquid and using the U-shaped hooks with specific
measure, it was placed on a specific scale until the pointers were
balanced. The measurement was read by adding the values on the
scale. In using the leach pyctometer for the specific gravity of the
liquid, the empty pyctometer was weighed on the triple beam balance.
After measuring it, it was filled with water and liquid sample and
measured again on triple beam balance. For the mass of the water and
liquid sample, the mass of the pyctometer with the water and liquid
sample was subtracted to the mass of the empty pyctometer. For the
specific gravity of the solid, leach pyctometer was also used. The
empty pyctometer was weighed on the triple beam balance and first
filled with the standard liquid and weighed on the triple beam balance.
Second, the pyctometer was emptied then filled with the solid sample
and then weighed on the triple beam balance. Then it was filled with
the standard liquid and weighed on the triple beam balance. For the
mass of the solid, the mass of the pyctometer with the solid was
subtracted from the mass of the empty pyctometer. The measurement
of the displaced liquid was from the mass of the pyctometer, solid
sample and standard liquid subtracted from the mass of the standard
liquid. The relative density is equal to sample over the displaced liquid.

1. Define specific gravity and density.
Density is mass per unit of volume while specific gravity is the
ratio of an object’s density and density of water.