You are on page 1of 21

ASSIGNMENT

Subject Code
Subject Name
Programme/C
ourse
B.Tech/CSE
Department
Faculty

Name of the
Sachin Mahabaleshwar Hegde
Student
Reg. No 16ETCS002105
Semester/Year 1st Sem/2016
Subject Leader/s

M. S. Ramaiah University
Declaration Sheet of Applied
Student Name SciencesHegde
Sachin Mahabaleshwar
Reg. University
No 16ETCS002105
House, Gnanagangothri Campus, New BEL Road,
Programme/Co Semester/Y
B.Tech/CSE 1st Sem/2016
urse ear

1

Subject Code
Subject Title
Subject Date to
Subject Leader

Declaration

The assignment submitted herewith is a result of my own
investigations and that I have conformed to the guidelines against
plagiarism as laid out in the Student Handbook. All sections of the
text and results, which have been obtained from other sources, are
fully referenced. I understand that cheating and plagiarism
constitute a breach of University regulations and will be dealt with
accordingly.

Signature of the Dat
Student e
Submission date
stamp
(by Examination &
Assessment Section)
Signature of the Subject Leader Signature of the Reviewer and date
and date

<Subject Title> 2

..................... 2....................................4 Conclusions... iii List of Tables..................................................4 Conclusions................................ v List of Figures.................3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations...........1 Overview:........................................................................................................................................................... 9 2....... 8 1................................................................................................... Contents ____________________________________________________________________________ Declaration Sheet................... 12 <Subject Title> 3 ............3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations.............................8 1..........................1 Overview:. 10 Question No....................................................................2 Solution to the question:........................4 Conclusions....................................................................................... 11 4.................................................................................................12 5....................................................................................2 Solution to the question:.10 3....... 3........................9 2............................................................. 9 2........ 11 4...............3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations................................................................................................................................................................1 Overview:................................................. 10 3......... 4..... 5......................................................................... 11 Question No... vi List of Symbols................... 12 5.............................3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations...........................................................................2 Solution to the question:................................. 12 5.................................................................1 Overview:..........11 4................................................. 9 Question No.........................1 Overview:.................... vii Question No............... ii Contents........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 1..........................................3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations...........................4 Conclusions... 9 2.................................................................................................................................................................. 10 3.............................................................. 8 Question No..........................................................................................................................................................2 Solution to the question:.... 10 3...............2 Solution to the question:................................................ 8 1........................................... 1............................................................................................................. 11 4..........4 Conclusions..... 12 5.............................................................................................................

2 Title of the table 14 Table 2.1 Title of the table 12 Table 1. Table 1.1 Title of the table 18 < The table numbers have to be based on the chapter number> <Subject Title> 4 . List of Tables ____________________________________________________________________________ Table Title of the table Pg.N No. o.

List of Figures ____________________________________________________________________________ Figure Title of the figure Pg. Figure 1.1 Title of the figure 13 Figure 1.1 Title of the figure 19 < The Figure numbers have to be based on the chapter number> <Subject Title> 5 .N No.2 Title of the figure 15 Figure 2. o.

81 m/s2 V Voltage Volts w Width mm < Arrange in alphabetical order> <Subject Title> 6 . List of Symbols ____________________________________________________________________________ Symbol Description Units A Current Amp g Acceleration due to gravity .9.

Question No. 1 Solution to Question No. limitations. applications.2 Solution to the question: Students are expected to provide the solution to the question considering the points mentioned in the marking scheme of the assignment question 1.1 Overview: Overview to the question (students are expected to give a brief introduction to the context on which the question is set. 1: 1.3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations Students are expected to discuss the solutions obtained in section 1. new developments happening and students own views on the question and the paragraph should not exceed 200 words and references should be cited and it should be authored by the students means to say students should not be borrowing sentences as they are from any referred literature) 1.2 and present their views/suggestions/recommendations (not to exceed 150 words) .

1.4 Conclusions Students are expected to draw conclusions based on the discussions and suggestions (not to exceed 100 words) .

the transport system is not being able to keep pace with the growing population.Google images Some of the major Reasons of traffic congestion in Delhi :-  Increase in the growth of the population in Delhi. the cycle time ranges from 120 to 180 seconds. Sad.  At the intersections. which leads to long queues. leading to increased congestion on the roads. . New Delhi is among the top 10 cities in the world having the worst traffic jams. 2: 2. which includes the growing number of workforce. the worsening traffic congestion on Delhi roads presents a depressing profile of the Capital city. Delhi. Question No. The daily commuting on the roads of Delhi is becoming longer and more grueling day by day.1 Overview: One of the most common and irritating problems that one faces is getting caught in traffic jams. I am considering the national Capital of our country. one of the fastest growing and developed cities of the world. Delhi as Example. but true. as a result of which.  There has been inadequate public transport system in Delhi. especially in the peak hours. Really. According to a report made by IBM’s global Commuter Pain study in 2013. PC :. is another important cause. is also renowned for all the wrong reasons. In spite of metro and bus services. 2 Solution to Question No. depicting the failure of public transportation infrastructure to keep pace with the growing developing activities in the Capital. more and more people use their private vehicles.

which include.3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations Environmental issues due to vehicular traffic growth :- The issue of transportation and the environment is paradoxical in nature since transportation conveys substantial socioeconomic benefits. buses.  Inability to forecast travel time accurately.  It has resulted into high rate of road traffic fatalities. It is reported that the road density in Delhi is around 155 km per 100.  Substantial increase in the number of vehicles on Delhi roads in recent years.  Here.  Another major cause is that Delhi roads are characterised by mixed traffic.  The road length in Delhi has increased at the rate of 4.2 Solution to the question: Positive and negative impacts of vehicular traffic on human beings :- Negative Impacts of Traffic Jam :-  One of the Common and Known impact is. transport activities are associated with growing levels of environmental . including animal-driven carts and pedestrians.  Increased road rage. This creates problems for traffic management and leads to delays in movement of the traffic.  Wear and tear on vehicles. In fact. the irony is that everyone is in a hurry but nobody reaches on time. red lights. studies have shown more than a lakh vehicles are plying almost every day on most of the important corridors in Delhi. while on the other. 2.  Traffic jam resulted into a non-productive activity for most people as when people get stuck in traffic jams. In fact. they reach their workplace late or reach back home late. trucks. of course. According to survey.53% per year. Delhi has the highest accident rate in India and third-highest in the world. but at the same time transportation is impacting environmental systems. transportation activities support increasing mobility demands for passengers and freight.000 population and about 80 vehicles per km.  Fuel wastage. three-wheelers.  Traffic rules. From one side.  Increasing air and noise pollution. making travelling and driving very unsafe in Delhi. two-wheelers. which. lane driving are not followed which are both the causes and effects of traffic congestion in Delhi.  Blocked traffic also interferes with the passage of emergency vehicles 2.  Traffic jam or congestion has also led to an increase in the number of accidents on the roads. is not in pace with the growing population. traffic jam is resulting into unnecessary delays and reduction in speed. personal vehicles.

 Designing separate roads or lanes to control speeds and vehicles of different sizes. advertising and strict enforcement.  Last but not the least.externalities. 2. . The immediate consequence of transport activities on the environment where the cause and effect relationship is generally clear and well understood.  Strict enforcement of travel demand management and policies to be adopted to reduce the use of private vehicles. weights and velocities. For instance. noise and carbon monoxide emissions are known to have direct harmful effects. with a complex causes and consequences.  Introduction of cost-effective. For instance.  Designing a well-maintained and well-developed public transport system.4 Conclusions Possible ways to maintain a balance between vehicular traffic and environment :- Some immediate steps that need to be taken by the Government to allow traffic to move somewhat safely in Delhi and also in other cities are as follow.  Promoting traffic safety and traffic rules through education. encouraging peoples to walk and bicycling for a small distances. in which transportation plays a role. 15% of global CO 2 emissions are attributed to the transport sector. environment-friendly and efficient new modes of public transport for congested lanes. The secondary (or tertiary) effects of transport activities on environmental systems. is the cumulative impact of several natural and anthropogenic factors. And Climate change. streets and feeder system for major public transport.  Improvements in vehicle design. particulates are mostly the outcome of incomplete combustion in an internal combustion engine are indirectly linked with respiratory and cardiovascular problems since they contribute among other factors to such conditions.  Ensuring safety and convenience to commuters of public transport and pedestrians. They are often of higher consequence than direct impacts. The growth of personal and freight mobility in recent decades have expanded the role of transportation as a source of emission of pollutants and their multiple impacts on the environment. but the involved relationships are often misunderstood and more difficult to establish.

1 A Perfect Traffic System PC:. we can maintain a balance between vehicular traffic and environment. Automatically. flyovers and widening of existing road network  Ring Road bypass and elevated corridors in some areas of Delhi and other cities have been provided with signal-free flow of traffic.Google Image. This heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to an electric generator which produces electricity. 3 Solution to Question No. Environment become Clean. . if we apply these plans in Big and crowded cities like Delhi.  Construction of new roads.1 Overview: A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. 2. So. Fig. foot bridges. 3: 3. If we are Aware to Use Bicycle rather than using pollutant vehicles. Question No. Other than this.

plaster. Today. metal. Nuclear waste is usually a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology.  Intermediate-level waste . Fig. rags. It comprises paper. tools. clothing. But.2 Nuclear Waste PC:. 3. which contain small amounts of mostly short-lived radioactivity. While Producing it Nuclear wastes are produced.  Low-level waste Low-level waste (LLW) is generated from hospitals and industry. valves. It consists mainly of demolished material (such as concrete. piping etc) produced during rehabilitation or dismantling operations on nuclear industrial sites. as well as the nuclear fuel cycle. filters etc. such as research and medicine.Google Images Types of wastes generated from nuclear power plants :-  Exempt waste & very low level waste Exempt waste and very low level waste (VLLW) contains radioactive materials at a level which is not considered harmful to people or the surrounding environment. the world produces as much electricity from nuclear energy as it did from all sources combined in the early years of nuclear power. Nuclear waste is waste that contains radioactive material. bricks.

it can cause extensive groundwater and soil contamination. The elements that make up nuclear waste often have long half-lives. which means that it may take millions or billions of years before the waste is safe for humans to be around. The high-level waste produced by nuclear reactors is the longest lasting contamination risk of a nuclear power plant. Impact of nuclear waste on the environment :- Nuclear waste affects the environment primarily because it's extremely difficult to dispose of properly. . chemical sludges and metal fuel cladding. Waste disposal sites have the potential to contaminate the environment for hundreds of thousands of years. Depending on the longevity of the intermediate-level waste. Intermediate-level waste (ILW) contains higher amounts of radioactivity and some requires shielding. HLW contains the fission products and transuranic elements generated in the reactor core. chemical sludges or reactor components. Intermediate-level nuclear waste may require unique shielding and is normally comprised of resins. If the radionuclide dispersion barriers fail. High-level waste may refer to nuclear fuel or the waste created from processing it. It's normally buried in shallow landfill sites and may be compacted or incinerated. so any nuclear waste must be managed until it decays completely. transports of high-level waste or plutonium are at risk from accidents or deliberate attacks and reprocessing facilities have large routine emissions of radioactive substances.  High-level waste High-level waste (HLW) arises from the 'burning' of uranium fuel in a nuclear reactor. laboratories and industries and is typically not dangerous. so areas surrounding nuclear storage facilities have been found to suffer extensive environmental damage. Low-level nuclear waste comes from hospitals. The main issue with nuclear waste is that it's difficult to properly store. It is highly radioactive and hot due to decay heat. As of 2014. there's no proper way to dispose of the waste. as well as contaminated materials from reactor decommissioning. It typically comprises resins. All of the options for handling nuclear waste have potentially large environmental and health impacts. it may be buried or disposed of deep underground. If it isn't disposed of properly. High-level waste is sealed inside stainless steel canisters and disposed of underground. although it must be handled more carefully than ordinary garbage. Initial storage of nuclear waste during the Cold War wasn't properly done.

. which is a place that they can store fuel that has already been used for the process of generating power. as this material usually consists of clothing or other common items that have simply been contaminated. such as previously used fuel. it is economically good and cheaper.2 Solution to the question: Present disposal methods :- When it comes to properly disposing nuclear waste. although one is being created in Finland. depends on the amount of materials and the radioactivity level. while some approved companies have their own means of storage. The Best Disposal Way for Nuclear Waste is Either By Using Water or Recycling. called radioactive decay. or the amount of time it takes for the material’s radioactivity to be reduced by half. Because. Oftentimes.  Deep Burial: While shallow burials can be done with low-level waste. the most common way of disposing of high-level waste is in deep burial pits. from low-level to high level. underground laboratories are built to monitor usage and storage of the materials.3.  Storage: Over time. which consists of burying the material deep within the earth. a common way of storing material is in water. so they can be separated and recycled. there are certain standard types of making sure it is handled and irradiated properly.  Incineration: Burning radioactive waste is largely done through commercially- operated incinerators developed for this purpose. Incineration is common with low-level waste. And Wastes also disposes. there is no government that has a facility for this type of disposal. This process. although certain large companies have the means to do this on their own. so storing this material until it is no longer radioactive is another way to deal with proper nuclear waste disposal. Many countries with natural resources follow this procedure of geological disposal.  In water: At nuclear sites.4 Conclusions According to me.3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations 3. as of now. However. 3. If we are using the water. Therefore. There are commercial storage facilities for this waste. certain radioactive elements can be processed or extracted for reuse. storage is typically only done with radioactive waste that has a shorter half-life. Uranium and plutonium elements have long lives. Nearly all of these sites have a special pond or have a special pool constructed. the radioactivity of nuclear material does decay.  Recycling: For some radioactive material.

The Fuels used in nuclear power plants are having Longer Lives.If we are recycling the Nuclear waste. we can reuse it. We can Recycles it and Make it more usefull. So. . As I mentioned earlier.

1 Overview: Overview to the question (students are expected to give a brief introduction on the context on which the question is set.2 and present their views/suggestions/recommendations (not to exceed 150 words) 4. new developments happening and students own views on the question and the paragraph should not exceed more than 200 words and references should be cited and it should be authored by the students means to say students should not be borrowing sentences as they are from any referred literature) 4. Question No. 4 Solution to Question No. limitations. 4: 4.2 Solution to the question: Students are expected to provide the solution to the question considering the points mentioned in the marking scheme of the assignment question 4. applications.3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations Students are expected to discuss the solutions obtained in section 1.4 Conclusions Students are expected to draw conclusions based on the discussions and suggestions (not to exceed 100 words) .

2 and present their views/suggestions/recommendations (not to exceed 150 words) 5. 5: 5. new developments happening and students own views on the question and the paragraph should not exceed more than 200 words and references should be cited and it should be authored by the students means to say students should not be borrowing sentences as they are from any referred literature) 5. 5 Solution to Question No. Question No.4 Conclusions Students are expected to draw conclusions based on the discussions and suggestions (not to exceed 100 words) . applications. limitations.3 Discussions /Suggestions/Views/Recommendations Students are expected to discuss the solutions obtained in section 1.1 Overview: Overview to the question (students are expected to give a brief introduction on the context on which the question is set.2 Solution to the question: Students are expected to provide the solution to the question considering the points mentioned in the marking scheme of the assignment question 5.

3. J.msruas.pdf . Freeman R. Fraidoon Mazda. (2008) Management. Stoner. 2. 6th Edition. Kinicki and Williams Irwin. E and Daniel R Gilbert. (1996) Personnel and Human Reasons Management. All referencing.A.ac. (2004) Management. bibliography needs to be done as described in the following article: http://www. Pearson Education. McGraw Hill. Prentice Hall of India. (2000) Engineering Management. 4. Bibliography ________________________________________________________________________________ 1.F.in/pdf_files/VCBlogs/Academic%20Good%20Practices. Decenzo David and Robbin Stephen A. Addison Wesley.

Justified All mathematical equations be edited using Microsoft Equation Editor All figures.r. Inserting a figure. Figure Figure 2. Guidelines for writing the report Font and Font size of the text: Calibri. 11 Line Spacing: 1.5. .t the page width.] Title of the Figure should be at the bottom of the figure and be left justified.1 Properties of Air at Low Pressure [Ref.1 Machining Process [Ref.] T (K) h (J/kg) p (atm) u (J/kg)  (J/kg K) [Note: the table should be centered w.r. It should be centered w. The reference must be quoted. [Note: Please do not write as “As shown below” or “As shown above”] 2. tables. Inserting a table Title of the table should be at the top of the table and be left justified with ref to table Table 1. a photo or screen shot The figure should be sufficiently large and legible. Use suitable SI units] Referring to a table in the text: The data is tabulated as shown in Table 1.t the page width.1. equations taken from reference material be cited 1.

1 The Wonder Machine [2] [5]…. Referring to a figure in the text: The machine is shown in Figure 7. It describes natural processes in which changes in temperature play an important part. Such as the …………………………..” 4. “ the science of thermodynamics is a branch of physics.1 [Note: Please do not write as “As shown below” or “As shown above”] Figure 7.. . The Appendix if any should be the last section in the report. reference number. this should be quoted in the 3. According to Kestin[5]. Quoting the references in the text References.