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FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS
(SKAA2112)

ASSIGNMENT 2

NAME : SOBNAVALLE A/P KESAVAN
MATRIX NO : B16KA0036
SECTION :3
LECTURER’S NAME: MOHD AZREEN MOHD ARIFFIN, Dr.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO. CONTENTS PAGES

1 Introduction 3 2 Manufactured process and basic concepts 4 3 All process description 5 4 Applications 8 5 Conclusion 12 6 Reference 13 FIBRE-REINFORCED POLYMER AS AN ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIAL IN CONSTRUCTION 2 .

such as boron. polymerization or polyaddition. rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety. MANUFACTURED PROCESS AND BASIC CONCEPTS The synthetic polymers are generally manufactured by polycondensation.1. The combination of high-strength. high-stiffness structural fibres with low-cost. Through such gains. and construction industries. and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace. 2. carbon. also Fibre-reinforced plastic. Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP). marine. although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. or aramid. economy. vinyl ester or polyester thermosetting plastic. Fibre materials with higher strength. and aramid. is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. At first. and lower density. The polymers combined with various agents to enhance or in any way alter the 3 . the health and standard of living of individuals are improved. automotive. INTRODUCTION In the last 200 years. The polymer is usually an epoxy. were commercialized to meet the higher performance challenges of space exploration and air travel in the 1960s and 1970s. higher stiffness. The fibres are usually glass. and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. lightweight. carbon. The earliest FRP materials used glass fibres embedded in polymeric resins that were made available by the burgeoning petrochemical industry following World War II. environmentally resistant polymers resulted in composite materials with mechanical properties and durability better than either of the constituents alone. advanced composites made with these higher performing fibres were too expensive to make much impact beyond niche applications in the aerospace and defence industries.

because of their macromolecular nature. via the weight averaged molecular weight. their process ability. generally melt-formability. deep draw-. determines the mechanical strength. Mn. Composite plastics refer to those types of plastics that result from bonding two or more homogeneous materials with different material properties to derive a final product with certain desired material and mechanical properties. The extent that strength and elasticity are enhanced in a fibre reinforced plastic depends on the mechanical properties of the fibre and matrix. impact resistance.material properties of polymers the result is referred to as a plastic. like spin-. etc. The number averaged molecular weight. Thus. ALL PROCESS DESCRIPTION 4 . Polymers are different from other construction materials like ceramics and metals. blow-. their volume relative to one another. The covalently bonded. The Fibre reinforced plastics (or fibre reinforced polymers) are a category of composite plastics that specifically use fibre materials (not mix with polymer) to mechanically enhance the strength and elasticity of plastics. long chain structure makes them macromolecules and determines. 3. The original plastic material without fibre reinforcement is known as the matrix. Mw. Reinforcement of the matrix occurs by definition when the FRP material exhibits increased strength or elasticity relative to the strength and elasticity of the matrix alone. since too high molecular weights yield too high shear and elongation viscosities that make polymers impressable. wear. The Composite plastics can be of homogeneous or heterogeneous mix. The matrix is a tough but relatively weak plastic that is reinforced by stronger stiffer reinforcing filaments or fibres. and the fibre length and orientation within the matrix. and high molecular weights are beneficial for properties like strain-to-break. natural limits are met.

1 THE MANUFACTURE OF FIBRE FABRIC Reinforcing Fibre is manufactured in both two dimensional and three dimensional orientations 1.1. and the second is the process whereby fibrous materials are bonded with the matrix during the moulding process. 2. the first is the process whereby the fibrous material is manufactured and formed.1. all were problems associated with two dimensional fibre reinforced polymers. autoclave and resin transfer moulding.1. 3. 3. Two Dimensional Fibre Reinforced Polymer are characterized by a laminated structure in which the fibres are only aligned along the plane in x-direction and y- direction of the material. this lack of alignment in the through thickness can create a disadvantage in cost and processing. require a high amount of skilled labour to cut. such as wet hand lay-up. This means that no fibres are aligned in the through thickness or the z-direction. Three-dimensional Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites are materials with three dimensional fibre structures that incorporate fibres in the x-direction. The development of three-dimensional orientations arose from industry's need to reduce fabrication costs. stack and consolidate into a preformed component. FIBRE PROCESS 3. to increase through-thickness mechanical properties.2 THE MANUFACTURE OF FIBRE PREFORMS 5 . and to improve impact damage tolerance. y-direction and z- direction.FRP involves two distinct processes. Costs and labour increase because conventional processing techniques used to fabricate composites.

the precise location and quantity of which depends upon the exact preform shape and structure required. Braiding is suited to the manufacture of narrow width flat or tubular fabric and is not as capable as weaving in the production of large volumes of wide fabrics. namely the time to set up all the warp yarns on the loom. 2. two-step or Multilayer Interlock Braiding. which act to interlock the yarns and produce the braided preform. The four major ways to manufacture the fibre preform is though the textile processing techniques of Weaving. multilayer weaving is required to have multiple layers of warp yarns to create fibres in the z. continuous mats. Additional carriers are added to the outside of the array. braiding can produce fabric that contains fibres at 45 degrees angles to one another. braiding and stitching.direction creating a few disadvantages in manufacturing. Another Fibre-reinforced plastic 3D one of the main problems facing the use of multilayer woven fabrics is the difficulty in producing a fabric that contains fibres oriented with angles other than 0º and 90º to each other respectively. Braiding three-dimensional fibres can be done using four steps.Fibre preforms are how the fibres are manufactured before being bonded to the matrix. The yarns are mechanically forced into the structure between each step to consolidate the structure in a similar process to the use of a reed in weaving. or as continuous filaments for spray applications. Weaving can be done in a conventional manner to produce two-dimensional fibres as well in a multilayer weaving that can create three-dimensional fibres. Four step or row and column braiding utilizes a flatbed containing rows and columns of yarn carriers that form the shape of the desired preform. There are four separate sequences of row and column motion. Braiding is done over top of mandrels that vary in cross-sectional shape or dimension along their length. Therefore most multilayer weaving is currently used to produce relatively narrow width products or high value products where the cost of the preform production is acceptable. The 6 . The second major way of manufacturing fibre preforms is braiding. However. Braiding is limited to objects about a brick in size. Fibre preforms are often manufactured in sheets. knitting. Two-step braiding is unlike the four step process because the two-step includes a large number of yarns fixed in the axial direction and a fewer number of braiding yarns. Unlike the standard weaving process. 1.

this includes composite moulding and wet moulding. Unlike the four steps process the two steps process does not require mechanical compaction the motions involved in the process allows the braid to be pulled tight by yarn tension alone. 4.2 MOULDING PROCESS There are two distinct categories of moulding processes using FRP plastics. including circular and hollow shapes. The different forms of composite and wet moulding are listed below. Composite moulding uses Prepreg FRP. 3. meaning the plastics are fibre reinforced before being put through further moulding processes. This relatively simple sequence of motions is capable of forming performs of essentially any shape. This frame has a number of parallel braiding tracks around the circumference of the cylinder but the mechanism allows the transfer of yarn carriers between adjacent tracks forming a multilayer braided fabric with yarns interlocking to adjacent layers.1. APPLICATIONS 7 . process consists of two steps in which the braiding carriers move completely through the structure between the axial carriers. The last type of braiding is multi-layer interlocking braiding that consists of a number of standard circular braiders being joined together to form a cylindrical braiding frame. Sheets of Prepreg FRP are heated or compressed in different ways to create geometric shapes. Wet moulding combines fibre reinforcement and the matrix or resist during the moulding process.

This increases the strength of beam. Alternatively. This will result in better performance.1 STRUCTURAL APPLICATION OF FRP FRP can be applied to strengthen the beams. since the tensile resistance of slabs is supplemented by the tensile strength of FRP. Highway Bridge Decks 8 . two techniques are adopted. The technique works by restraining the lateral expansion of the column. deflection capacity of beam and stiffness (load required to make unit deflection). This is called wrapping of columns. For strengthening beams. i.4. First one is to paste FRP plates to the bottom (generally the tension face) of a beam. In the case of beams and slabs. It is possible to increase strength of these structural members even after these have been severely damaged due to loading conditions. FRP strips can be pasted in 'U' shape around the sides and bottom of a beam. Slabs may be strengthened by pasting FRP strips at their bottom (tension face). Columns in building can be wrapped with FRP for achieving higher strength. the effectiveness of FRP strengthening depends on the performance of the resin chosen for bonding. resulting in higher shear resistance. columns and slabs in buildings.

9 . and or stringers that bear on abutments. Fibre. ii. bridge decks have received the greatest amount of attention in the past few years. Reinforced Polymer Decks A bridge deck in this discussion is defined as a structural element that transfers loads transversely to supports such as longitudinal running girders. General performance and cost issues for the two major types of FRP decks currently in use is sandwich construction and adhesively bonded pultruded shapes are outlined quantitatively. several new FRP structural systems have been proposed. These include bridge decks for rehabilitation and new construction. the focus of this discussion is on the efficacy of FRP bridge decks for rehabilitation and new construction. thus raising the live load rating of the structure. and experimentally implemented. b) proprietary (KSCI) corrugated core. Thus. Examples of two types of sandwich construction: a) generic foam core.Within the field of highway structures. concrete filled FRP shells and wood FRP composite girders. cross beams. The connection of the deck to these underlying supports is typically made through the application of shear studs or a bolted connection in a simply supported condition that does not necessarily provide for composite action. Reducing the weight of replacement decks in rehabilitation projects presents the opportunity for rapid replacement and reduction in dead load. designed. However. due to their inherent advantages in strength and stiffness per unit weight as compared to traditional steel reinforced concrete decks.

The fabrication and performance of these types of decks are described next. This means that the primary design consideration for using FRP is to ensure that the material is used economically and in a manner that takes advantage of its structural enhancements specifically. Although decks have been designed and implemented. These types are not the focus of this discussion.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATION FRP is used in designs that require a measure of strength or modulus of elasticity those non- reinforced plastics and other material choices are either ill-suited for mechanically or economically. 4. quality control of the product is enabled by standardized fabrication procedures within individual manufacturing facilities. Orienting the direction of fibres 10 . the bearing is needed to directly abutment without underlying supports. In both cases. FRP decks commercially available at the present time can be classified according to two types of construction which is sandwich and adhesively bonded pultruded shapes. the orientation of fibres also creates a material weakness perpendicular to the fibres. This is however not always the case.

Aramids. connections. These include such design consideration such as ensuring proper wall thickness and creating multifunctional geometric shapes that can be moulding as single pieces. FRP will similarly gain environmental sensitivity. flexibility and elasticity can also be magnified or diminished through the geometric shape and design of the final product.3 DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING CONCERNS As a subset of plastic FR plastics are liable to a number of the issues and concerns in plastic waste disposal and recycling.either. While the chemistry plays an important role in defining the scope of applications for which these materials are suited. Plastics pose a particular challenge in recycling processes because they are derived from polymers and monomers that often cannot be separated and returned to their virgin states. 4. These are all concerns for environmentally informed design today. Carbon FRP. and areas that require flexibility. but plastics often offer savings in energy and economic savings in comparison to other materials. The properties of strength. Fibre reinforced plastics and their matrices share these disposal and environmental concerns. or 3-dimensionally during production affects the degree of strength. it is equally important that the final parts are designed to maximize the 11 . and elasticity of the final product. flexibility. 2-dimensionally. creating shapes that have more material and structural integrity by reducing joints. such as natural hinges. Composites. and Glass-FRP). will use fibres in a perpendicular direction to forces. CONCLUSIONS This brief review of FRP has summarized the very broad range of unusual functionalities that these products bring (Polymers. and hardware. in fact some estimates claim only 20% to 30% of plastics can be material recycled at all. Fibres oriented in the direction of forces display greater resistance to distortion from these forces and vice versa. thus areas of a product that must withstand forces will be reinforced with fibres in the same direction. 5. for this reason not all plastics can be recycled for re-use. also with the advent of new more environmentally friendly matrices such as bioplastics and UV-degradable plastics. unidirectional.

. 1994. and adoption of the material by industry is widespread. the immediate cost and safety benefits are clear. ASM International. The ability of a polymer material to deform is determined by the mobility of its molecules.Z. The functionality that allows these materials to perform under extreme conditions has to be balanced against process ability that allows them to be economically shaped into useful forms. which are accelerated by temperature and stress. field applications still maintain a research flavour while long-term experience with the material accumulates. 6. Materials Park. Since these relaxation mechanisms are material specific and depend on the molecular structure. In other cases where FRP materials are considered to be primary load-bearing components of structures. It can be said that the amount of experience with various forms of FRP construction materials varies in accordance with the perceived near-term economic and safety benefits of the materials. they are used here to establish the desired link with the intrinsic deformation behaviour. REFERENCE i.value of the inherent properties of these materials. OH. characterized by specific molecular motions and relaxation mechanisms. Clearly exemplify the constant trade-off between functionality and process ability that is an ongoing challenge with these advanced materials. for example. B. Jang. Advanced Polymer Composites: Principles and Applications. A number of careful monitoring programs of structures with primary FRP reinforcement have been set up around the world and should provide this experience base in the coming years. In the case of externally bonded reinforcements. 12 .

Kimg Hwee TAN. iii. Fibre Reinforced Polymer. 13 . Advanced Materials & Composites News.org. http://www.ii.matter. Proceedings of the Sixth I iv.html. Structures.uk/matscicdrom/manual/co. Reinforcement for Concrete Structures. No. 2. 1999.