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CASING DESIGN

The importance of selecting proper depths for setting casing cannot be

overemphasized. Many wells have been engineering or economic failures

because the casing program specified setting depths too shallow or deep.

Applying a few basic drilling principles combined with a basic knowledge of the

geological conditions in an area can help determine where casing strings should

be set to ensure that drilling can proceed with minimum difficulty.

Casing Program at 7200 ft.:

String size, Weight, Grade and Coupling selection

In selecting the size of casing strings, there are three major factor that is

being controlled:

 Size of ID production tubing string
 Number of casing string to reach the final depth
 Drilling condition

A. Production tubing string

The large-size of production tubing strings is often preferable. Because it

provides economic rate, which conduit oil and gas to the surface. Furthermore,

small-size production tubing strings commonly restrict the flow rate due to high

frictional pressure losses.

B. Number of casing strings

The factor of selecting bit size is should provide enough space beyond the OD of the coupling allow the mud cake on the borehole wall and casing appliances. the number of casing strings required to reach the final depth have divide different size of casing string parts in different geological condition. the number of casing strings in hole increases and the size of hole narrows. C. the selection of casing string size is based on number of casing string to reach final depth (Rahman 1995). Drilling Condition To enable the casing to be placed in the well. Therefore. such as centralizers and scratchers (Adam 1985). the drill bit is required slightly larger than out diameter of casing connectors. Due to setting depth. So selection of bit size is one of factors to affect selection of casing string size. The table below provides commonly used drill bit size according to IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors) . As with increasing depth.

0 6 . COMMONLY USED BIT SIZES FOR RUNNING API CASING Casing Size (OD in.) Common Bit Sizes Used (in.625 10.785.625.625.625 12.5 6.5.5 5.75.5.625 7.0 21.25 9. 8.656 8.625 11.375 6 6.375.75 10. 26 (Source: IADC. 8.5 6.625.75 5. 6.) Coupling Size (OD in. 8. 12.750 15 13.75 11.0 17.375 14.050 7.75 7 7.25. 8. 8.5 16.875.25 5 5. 10.125.390 8. 8.6.625 9.375 17.625 8.625 7.) 4.0 24. 11 8.0 20 20. 1985) .563 6.5 7.500 9.875. 14. 6. 9.

Pore Pressure Gradient and Fracture Pressure Gradient Graph Then. by applying the Top-down method: .Casing Design and Setting Depth Geological conditions and fresh water aquifers are important factors for selecting number of strings and with respect to setting depth.

125 Burst 1. The loading conditions always considered are burst. Weight and Couplings After the length and OD of each casing string is established. we can visualize that we only have casing seat at 7220ft and 3000ft as a production casing and surface casing. grade and couplings in order to withstand severe loading conditions anticipated during casing landing. and tension.4ppg Calculation for Burst Pressure: PB = BHP x Design Factor . and considering the safety factor. (Adam. Each casing string is deivided in weight. Selection of Grade. 1985) For Production Casing: Assumptions: Maximum Bottom Hole Pressure: 21000 KPa or 3046 psi Mud Weight – 11. Based on the statistics of pore pressure and fracture gradient. drilling and production operation.8 Collapse 1. collapse.1 (Source: Adam.1985) API Design Factors Load Condition Design Factors Tension 1.

052(MW)(TVD) x Design Factor PC = 0. Calculation for Collapse Pressure: PC = 0.052 x 11. 1985 ) Burst Pressure = 3350.1 PB = 3350.6 psi The entire casing string must be able to withstand 3350.6 psi without failing in burst. PB = 3046 psi x 1.125 Pc = 5148.6 psi .4 x 7220 x 1.468 psi Preliminary Selections for Bottom Section of Casing Casing Data (Source: Adam.

7 73. Pc = 3220 psi/ 1.22)/ ( 0.19 psi .20 5860 3220 Fails Collapse L-80 60. 468 Grade Weight Area Burst Collapse Comments L-80 51 76.052 x 11.583 / 76. but still there may be another lower cost alternative.29 7100 5160 Meets Collapse and Burst Two weights of L-80 meets the burst requirements.20 σ = 1905.583 lbf Axial Stress ( σ )= W/ area σ = 145175.4) H1 = 4828. but only the 60.7 lb/ft pipe could probably run all the way to the surface.Collapse Pressure = 5148.7 lb/ft pipe can handle the collapse requirement at the bottom of the hole.31 ft W = (7220 – 4828.7 W = 145175.125 Pc = 2862.22 psi H1 = (2862. The 60. that setting depth of the casing can be computed by considering it safety factors.31) x 60. Using iterative process.

62 ft) x 60.16 ft W = (7220 -4651.Pcc = 2702.07 / 76.62 ft Second Iteration W = (7220 – 4559.7 W = 161485.7 .16) x 60.07 lbf Axial Stress ( σ )= W/ area σ = 161485.94 psi H2 = 4559.20 σ = 2119.23 psi Pcc = 2757.21 lbf H3= 4651.

75 x 51) = 413337.20 σ = 2046.1428 x 1000 lbs Body Yield .25 ft.31 psi Pcc = 2760.6866/ 76.7 lb/ft pipe between 4651.7) + (2568.25 x 60.125 413337.125 x 1.6866 Axial Stress ( σ ) = W/ area σ = 155928.82 lbf H4 = 4651. and 60.8 = 744006.25 ft We can run 51 lb/ft L-80 pipe to a depth 4651.25 and 7220 ft.825 .1398 x 1000lbs (4651. Tension Requirements Joint Strength .W = 155928.

75’’ (L-80 51 lb/ft) casing has a yield strength of 1389000lbf and joint strength BTC of 1428000lbf. Assumptions: Pressure at 3000ft : 1500 psi Mud Weight – 10. The casing mechanical property tables indicate that 10. or 50 feet below the base of the freshwater zone. and its formation depth is from 1500 – 2850ft therefore the surface casing must be approximately located at least 2950ft from the surface. Since the Kuffe Formation consist of water bearing zone. For Surface Casing: Depth Steel surface casing shall be set to a depth of at least 100 feet.5ppg Calculation for Burst Pressure: PB = BHP x Design Factor . whichever is deeper. We require a minimum of 744006.825 in order to be adequate to run 51 lb/ft to the surface. And base on the statistics of pore pressure and fracture gradient by using top-down method in selecting depth of casing seat the surface casing will be locate with a depth of 3000ft from the surface. unless an alternative surface casing procedure is used as outlined in subsection.

4 x 3000 x 1.052 x 10. PB = 1500 psi x 1.1 3450 1960 Meets Collapse And Burst W = (7220 – 3000) x 60.75 psi Grade Weight Area Burst Collapse Comments J-55 68 121.75 psi Casing Data (Source: Adam.6 psi without failing in burst.7 .125 Pc = 1842. 1985 ) Burst Pressure = 1650 psi Collapse Pressure = 1842.052(MW)(D) x Design Factor PC = 0. Calculation for Collapse Pressure: PC = 0.1 PB = 1650 psi The entire casing string must be able to withstand 3350.

The first string run or placed in the well is usually the drive pipe.3450 x 1000 lbs Body Yield .8 = 367200 lbs The casing mechanical property tables indicate that 13.1140 x 1000lbs (3000 x 68)= 204000 lbs 204000 x 1.23 psi We can run a surface casing of 68 lb/ft J-55 pipe to a depth 3000 ft.375’’ (J-55 68 lb/ft) casing has a yield strength of 1140 x 1000lbs and joint strength BTC of 3450 x 1000 lbs. For Conductor Casing: Drive Pipe or Conductor Casing. Tension Requirements Joint Strength .1 σ = 2115. The nominal depths range from 100- .W = 256154 lbf Axial Stress ( σ )= W/ area σ = 256154 / 121. We require a minimum of 367200 lbs in order to be adequate to run 68 lb/ft to the surface. or conductor casing.

Conductor casing can be as elaborate as heavy wall steel pipe or as simple as a few old oil drums tacked together. . most shallow formations exhibit some type of lost circulation problem that must be minimized. Calculation for Burst Pressure: PB = BHP x Design Factor PB = 1250 psi The entire casing string must be able to withstand 1050 psi without failing in burst. Gravel beds and unconsolidated rock will continue to fall into the well if not stabilized with casing. Very shallow formations tend to wash out severely and must be protected with pipe. Typically.350 ft. An additional function of the pipe is to minimize hole caving problems. Depth Base on the statistics of pore pressure and fracture gradient by using top- down method in selecting depth of casing seat the conductor casing will be locate with a depth of 350ft from the surface. A primary purpose of this string of pipe is to provide a fluid conduit from the bit to the surface. the operator is required to drill through these zones by pumping viscous muds at high rates. shallow hole be drilled before running and cementing the pipe. Hard-rock areas require that a large-diameter. the pipe is hammered into the ground with a large diesel hammer. In addition. In soft-rock areas.

Calculation for Collapse Pressure: PC = 0.052(MW)(D) x Design Factor Pc = 590 psi Casing Data (Source: Adam. 1985 ) Burst Pressure = 1250 psi Collapse Pressure = 590 psi Grade Weight Area Burst Collapse Comments H-40 65 121.1 1640 630 Meets Collapse And Burst W = (7220 – 350) x 65 W = 446550 lb Axial Stress ( σ ) = W/ area .

8 = 40950 lbs The casing mechanical properties tables indicate that 16’’ (H-40 65 lb/ft) can be consider because base on the calculations the required minimum tension force 40950 lbs in order to run adequately a 65 lb/ft to the surface. Tension Requirements Joint Strength .1140 x 1000lbs (350 x 65)= 22750 lbs 22750 x 1.45 psi We can run a surface casing of 65 lb/ft H-40 pipe to a depth 350 ft. .3450 x 1000 lbs Body Yield . σ = 3687.

75’’ 51 lbs LTC 2568 L-80 10. Casing Design Summary Casing Type Depth Grade Outer Weigh Coupling (ft) Diameter t s Conductor 350 H-40 16’’ 65 lbs BTC Casing Surface Casing 3000 J-55 13.75’’ 60.375’’ 68 lbs BTC Production 4652 L-80 10.7 LTC Casing Casing Design Diagram .