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Infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species.

In an infection,
the infecting organism seeks to utilize thehost's resources to multiply, usually at the expense of
the host. The infecting organism, or pathogen, interferes with the normal functioning of the host
and can lead to chronic wounds, gangrene, loss of an infected limb, and even death. The host's
response to infection is inflammation. Colloquially, a pathogen is usually considered
a microscopic organism though the definition is broader,
including parasites, fungi, viruses,prions, bacteria, and viroids. A symbiosis between parasite and
host, whereby the relationship is beneficial for the former but detrimental to the latter, is
characterised as parasitism. The branch of medicine that focuses on infections and pathogens
is infectious disease. "When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can help turn the
tide of battle. Four types of anti-infective drugs exist: antibacterial, antiviral, antitubercular, and

Asepsis is the state of being free from disease-causing contaminants (such

as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites). The term asepsis also often refers to those practices
used to promote or induce asepsis in an operative field in surgery or medicine to
prevent infection. Ideally, a field is "sterile" — free of all biological contaminants, not just those
that can cause disease, putrefaction, or fermentation — but that is a situation that is difficult to
attain. However, elimination of infection is the goal of asepsis, not sterility.

Medical asepsis is a clean technique used to reduce and

prevent the spread of microorganisms (Lee, 2004). Surgical asepsis is a sterile technique
that requires nurses to use different precautions than they do for medical asepsis. It
includes procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and
spores, from an object or area. Surgical asepsis procedures are followed when performing
an invasive procedure into a body cavity normally free of microorganisms. Medical
aspesis means clean; surgical asepsis means sterile.

Sepsis is a serious medical condition that is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state

(called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS) and the presence of a known or
suspected infection.[1][2] The body may develop this inflammatory response by the immune
systemto microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues.

surgical asepsis
refers to destruction of organisms before they enter the body. It is used in caring for open
wounds and in surgical procedures.

Septicemia: Systemic (bodywide) illness with toxicity due to invasion of the

bloodstream by virulent bacteria coming from a local seat of infection. The symptoms of
chills, fever and exhaustion are caused by the bacteria and substances they produce. The
disorder is treated with massive doses of antibiotics. Also known as blood poisoning.

Carrier a person or thing that carries, as one who delivers mail or newspapers, or a train, bus,
airplane, etc.

a. a person or company in the business of transporting goods or

b. a company in the business of providing telephone service

a messenger or porter
a container, support, or course in or on which something is carried or conducted,
as a mechanical part or device or a water conduit

a place where something is kept in store: as a :an artificial lake where water is collected
and kept in quantity for use

a. A coming together or touching, as of objects or surfaces.
b. The state or condition of touching or of immediate proximity:

Resident Flora
Healthy people live in harmony with most microorganisms that establish themselves on (colonize)
the body. The microorganisms that usually occupy a particular body site are called the resident
flora. Microorganisms that colonize people for hours to weeks but do not establish themselves
permanently are called transient flora.

Transient flora
Microorganisms that colonize the host for hours to weeks but do not establish themselves
permanently are called transient flora

Sterilization (or sterilisation, see spelling differences) refers to any process that effectively kills
or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.) from a
surface, equipment, article of food or medication, or biological culture medium.[1][2] Sterilization
does not, however, remove prions.

Disinfectants are substances that are applied to non-living objects to

destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.[1] Disinfection does not necessarily kill all
microorganisms, especially not resistantbacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilisation,
which is an extreme physical and / or chemical process that kills all types of life.

Antiseptic is a substance which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms. For
practical purposes, antiseptics are routinely thought of as topical agents, for application to
skin, mucous membranes, and inanimate objects, although a formal definition includes agents
which are used internally, such as the urinary tract antiseptics.

Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and reproduction of bacteria without killing them; killing is
done by bactericidal agents. Bacteriostatic agents must work with the immune system to remove
the microorganisms from the body.

Bactericidal Refers to a substance (or a condition) capable of killing bacteria.

communicable Dz
Transmittable between persons or species; contagious: communicable diseases

Infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic
microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa,
multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to
cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable
diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or
species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin).
Pathogen: An agent of disease. A disease producer. The term pathogen most commonly is used to refer to infectious
organisms. These include bacteria (such as staph), viruses (such as HIV), and fungi (such as yeast). Less commonly,
pathogen refers to a noninfectious agent of disease such as a chemical.

Virulence: The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. The virulence of a microorganism (such as a
bacterium or virus) is a measure of the severity of the disease it is capable of causing.

Pathogenicity is the ability of a pathogen to produce an infectious disease in an organism.It is

often used interchangeably with the term "virulence", although some authors prefer to reserve the
latter term for descriptions of the relative degree of damage done by a pathogen. Virulence is the
ability of an organism to invade the bloodstream.

Specificity measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified (e.g. the
percentage of healthy people who are identified as not having the condition

Nosocomial infections are infections that are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare
service unit. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after
hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge.
Isolation refers to the precautions that are taken in the hospital to prevent the spread of an
infectious agent from an infected or colonized patient to susceptible persons.

Etiology: The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder. The word "etiology" is mainly used in
medicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the factors which produce
or predispose toward a certain disease or disorder.


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This study aimed to establish Metro-Manila (Philippines) norms for the Denver
Developmental Screening Test and to determine the characteristics of
children whose scores are normal and those whose scores are abnormal or
questionable on the test. The subjects were 6,006 children from 4,846
households of Metro-Manila. Probit analysis established the ages at which
25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of the sample passed each of the 105 test items.
Discriminant analysis showed four clusters of factors that were significantly
associated with children's performance. These were a substitute-care-giver
variable cluster, a mother variable cluster, a child-situational variable cluster,
and an age variable cluster.