Infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species.
In an infection, the infecting organism seeks to utilize thehost's resources to multiply, usually at the expense of the host. The infecting organism, or pathogen, interferes with the normal functioning of the host and can lead to chronic wounds, gangrene, loss of an infected limb, and even death. The host's response to infection is inflammation. Colloquially, a pathogen is usually considered a microscopic organism though the definition is broader, including parasites, fungi, viruses,prions, bacteria, and viroids. A symbiosis between parasite and host, whereby the relationship is beneficial for the former but detrimental to the latter, is characterised as parasitism. The branch of medicine that focuses on infections and pathogens is infectious disease. "When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can help turn the tide of battle. Four types of anti-infective drugs exist: antibacterial, antiviral, antitubercular, and antifungal. Asepsis is the state of being free from disease-causing contaminants (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites). The term asepsis also often refers to those practices used to promote or induce asepsis in an operative field in surgery or medicine to prevent infection. Ideally, a field is "sterile" — free of all biological contaminants, not just those that can cause disease, putrefaction, or fermentation — but that is a situation that is difficult to attain. However, elimination of infection is the goal of asepsis, not sterility.
Medical asepsis is a clean technique used to reduce and
prevent the spread of microorganisms (Lee, 2004). Surgical asepsis is a sterile technique that requires nurses to use different precautions than they do for medical asepsis. It includes procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or area. Surgical asepsis procedures are followed when performing an invasive procedure into a body cavity normally free of microorganisms. Medical aspesis means clean; surgical asepsis means sterile.
Sepsis is a serious medical condition that is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS) and the presence of a known or suspected infection. The body may develop this inflammatory response by the immune systemto microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues.
surgical asepsis refers to destruction of organisms before they enter the body. It is used in caring for open wounds and in surgical procedures. Septicemia: Systemic (bodywide) illness with toxicity due to invasion of the bloodstream by virulent bacteria coming from a local seat of infection. The symptoms of chills, fever and exhaustion are caused by the bacteria and substances they produce. The disorder is treated with massive doses of antibiotics. Also known as blood poisoning. Carrier a person or thing that carries, as one who delivers mail or newspapers, or a train, bus,
a. a person or company in the business of transporting goods or passengers b. a company in the business of providing telephone service a messenger or porter
a container, support, or course in or on which something is carried or conducted, as a mechanical part or device or a water conduit
eservoir a place where something is kept in store: as a :an artificial lake where water is collected and kept in quantity for use
a. A coming together or touching, as of objects or surfaces. b. The state or condition of touching or of immediate proximity:
Healthy people live in harmony with most microorganisms that establish themselves on (colonize) the body. The microorganisms that usually occupy a particular body site are called the resident flora. Microorganisms that colonize people for hours to weeks but do not establish themselves permanently are called transient flora.
Transient flora Microorganisms that colonize the host for hours to weeks but do not establish themselves permanently are called transient flora
Sterilization (or sterilisation, see spelling differences) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.) from a surface, equipment, article of food or medication, or biological culture medium. Sterilization does not, however, remove prions. Disinfectants are substances that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially not resistantbacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilisation, which is an extreme physical and / or chemical process that kills all types of life.
Antiseptic is a substance which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms. For practical purposes, antiseptics are routinely thought of as topical agents, for application to skin, mucous membranes, and inanimate objects, although a formal definition includes agents which are used internally, such as the urinary tract antiseptics.
Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and reproduction of bacteria without killing them; killing is done by bactericidal agents. Bacteriostatic agents must work with the immune system to remove the microorganisms from the body.
Bactericidal Refers to a substance (or a condition) capable of killing bacteria.
Transmittable between persons or species; contagious: communicable diseases Infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable
diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin).
Pathogen: An agent of disease. A disease producer. The term pathogen most commonly is used to refer to infectious
organisms. These include bacteria (such as staph), viruses (such as HIV), and fungi (such as yeast). Less commonly, pathogen refers to a noninfectious agent of disease such as a chemical.
Virulence: The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. The virulence of a microorganism (such as a bacterium or virus) is a measure of the severity of the disease it is capable of causing.
Pathogenicity is the ability of a pathogen to produce an infectious disease in an organism.It is often used interchangeably with the term "virulence", although some authors prefer to reserve the latter term for descriptions of the relative degree of damage done by a pathogen. Virulence is the ability of an organism to invade the bloodstream. Specificity measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified (e.g. the percentage of healthy people who are identified as not having the condition Nosocomial infections are infections that are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge.
Isolation refers to the precautions that are taken in the hospital to prevent the spread of an infectious agent from an infected or colonized patient to susceptible persons. Etiology: The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder. The word "etiology" is mainly used in medicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the factors which produce or predispose toward a certain disease or disorder.
SAFER AND EASIER ASEPTIC FILLING
Aseptic Technologies develops, patents, manufactures and markets equipment that guarantee optimal sterility assurance level and complies with last regulatory requirements, while simplifying the validation and operation processes in the safest way. CHAIN OF INFECTION
MMDST(METRO MANILA DEVELOPMENT SCREENING TES)
This study aimed to establish Metro-Manila (Philippines) norms for the Denver Developmental Screening Test and to determine the characteristics of children whose scores are normal and those whose scores are abnormal or questionable on the test. The subjects were 6,006 children from 4,846 households of Metro-Manila. Probit analysis established the ages at which 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of the sample passed each of the 105 test items. Discriminant analysis showed four clusters of factors that were significantly associated with children's performance. These were a substitute-care-giver variable cluster, a mother variable cluster, a child-situational variable cluster, and an age variable cluster.