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1.1 Background of the research

Language is one of the tools which is used by every people to communicate each
other. Without language man gets difficulties to interact which other and without
language man cannot express his ideas and feeling to others. According to W.N
Francis (1958: 13) defines language as an arbitrary system of articulated sound made
use by a group of humans as a meant of a carrying on the affairs of their society.
Every ethnic in the world has many different languages and needs translation to
translate one language to other language in order to people can understand and
without translation a interaction cannot synchronous. Translation is made possibly by
an equivalence of thought that lies behind its different verbal expression (Savory,
The different language not only we finding in an short conversation but we also
can find a language which different in bilingual document. The importance of
translation is when we found the different language so, automatic we will try to
translate that in order to gets meaning in that sentences. Translation consist of
reproducing In the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of the source
language message, fist in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style (Nida and
Taber, 1969:12)
Difficulties in translating can also find when we tried to translate one language
but it doesnt appropriate with grammatical structure and then the meaning of the
translation cant understood or even the structure of the sentence to be imperfect.
Every translation can divided in some category, usually these category is called
translation shift. In these translation shift divided into 5 shift such as level shift,
structure shift, class shift, unit shift and intra-system shift, according to Machali
(1998:152) also proposes the kinds of translation shift. She divided into two kinds:
obligatory shift and optional shift. Anobligatory shift refers to the kinds of shift that
occurs when no formal correspondence occurs in the translation. In addition, Machali
(1998:160) state that there two basics sources of translation shifts : source language
text- centered shift and target language text-centered shift.

Over all we can conclude that the language tight related with translation, because
without language we cant interaction to each others without translation we cant be
understood what is meaning of various language which we have just heard, so we can
knowing a shifts in translation that allows some shift occurs.
1.2 Identification of problem
Based on problem in translation shift, translation shift follow into 5 shift with
solution of problem :
1. Level shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science Article.
2. Structure shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science Article.
3. Class Shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science Article.
4. Unit shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science Article
5. Intra-system shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science Article.
1.3 Limitation of the problem
The limitation of the problem can find into 2 shift, such as :
1. Unit shift of translation shift in the Sociology As A Science Article.
2. Intra-system shift of translation shift in the Sociology As A Science Article.
1.4 Formulation of the problem
the formulation in the problem we can divided into two such like :
1. How are the use of unit shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science
2. How are the use of intra-system shift of translation in Sociology As A Science
1.5 Objective of the research
To find out the object of the research, we can search of the problem such as :
1. How the use of unit shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science Article.
2. How the use of intra-system shift of translation in the Sociology As A Science


2.1 Theory of Translation

There are so many definition about translation, especially about translation
shift and it is defined in many ways. If we analyze the translation, we will see that
there are two languages involved in translation. That is the reason of knowing what
translation is.
According to Wills and Noss (1982), Translation a transfer process which
aims at the transformation of a written SL text into an optimally equivalent TL text,
and which requires the syntactic, the systematic and the pragmatic understanding and

analytical processing of the SL. Translation into one of the bridges is used to translate
a new language, which is where the language is very difficult to translate.
This translation activity have phenomena where each translation had a shift
intranslation, this phenomenon arises because of the arrangement grammatical. In his
study, the translation has its own method of translating a language that system obliged
to analyze because each translation has a shift.
As it grows, a scientist J.C Catford finds a method in which these methods are
often used to analyze each translation. Analysis of this translation is performed in
order to find the shift of each sentence to be translated, either orally or in writing.
Translation shift phenomenon has a charm others to assess any contents, but
these studies have limitations in analyzing a translation that leads to the translation
process shift. In addition, translation is the general term referring to the transfer of
thoughts an ideas from one language (source) to another (target), whether the
languages are in written or oral form whether the languages have established
orthographies or do not have such standardization or whether one or both languages is
based on signs, as with sign languages of the deaf (Brislin, 1976).
The default each translation has its limitations every time translating,
discovered phenomenon usually does not match the content translation or messy and
not necessarily the direction and complicate a person understand the meaning
2.2 Types of Translation
As it grows, translation does not only find the saturation point in translating a
discussion. In a book "On Linguistic Aspects Translation" (Jacobson 1959/2000)
that the contents that translation that has significance among which intersiomatic
translation, Intralingual translation and Interlingual translation. Intersemiotic
translation is the translation process in which a verbal translation of non-verbal sign
by sign, the second meaning of intralingual translation is transferring a source text
into another text based on translator interpretation, both if the text is written in the
same language. And the last interlingual translation this translation called as a
proper translation. In this translation, translator rewrite the meaning or ideas of
source language into target language.
Besides intersiomatic, intralingual and interlingual translation, transltion also
have several methods to analyze a translation. Usually, these methods can be found

when a translation is found the shift in translation. This shift occurred when a
translation has the addition of a word or loss of wording in the sentence.

2.3 Method of translation

The method of translation is introduced by Newmark (1998:45). Newmark
states, The important of source language system and culture on the other polar is
focusing the importance of target language system and culture. The method of
translation divide into 8 :
2.3.1 Literal Translation
Literal translation is a form based translation, in literal translation, the form
of the source languages is transferred into the form of the target language. Although
this literal translation is useful for the purposes the related to the study of the source
language, it has little help to the speaker of the receptor language who are interested
in the meaning of the source language text. A literal translation has little
communication value. Here is an example of literal translation :
SL : Kaon daro (Chuava- Papua New Guinea)
TL : Your name call ( Larson, 1984: 17)
Larson stated that this literal translation makes little sense in English. The
appropriate translation would be what is your name ? what is your name ? (Larson,
1984 :17)
2.3.2 Idiomatic Translation
Idiomatic translation is the second types of translation. It can be found that the
definition of idiomatic translation in larsons meaning based translation which is
written, idiomatic translation is meaning based translations which make every effort
to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the
receptor language (Larson, 1984:17). Usually, some good translations are finished
using mixtures of a literal transfer of the grammatical units along with some
idiomatic translation. So, by doing it, the resulta of the translation will sound more
natural. Below for the example :
SL : Who has been living with ? (Margono, 1999 :4)
TL : dengan siapa dia tinggal ? ( Margono, 1999 :4)
In example above, we can see that there is a change of structure. The word
dengan is placed in front of the sentence and it makes the sentence better. The result
of the translation is easier to understand and to accept by the readers.

2.4 Translation Shift
Translation shift is a changing of form when it is translated from the source
language into target language. Catford (1965:73) defines translation shifts as the
derpartures formal correspondence in the process of going from SL to TL. Items
which can be shifted are grammar as Newmark (1988:55) states shift is translation
procedures involving in change in grammar from SL to TL, and word class as vinay
and darbelnet (1958:64) state transposition is the replacement of one-word class by
another without changing the meaning of the messages. Further, Catford stated
about the relationship between translation shift and formal correspondence. He also
divided translation shift into two major types. He stated that two major types of shift
occur, they are level shifts and category shift (Catford, 1965:73).
Newmark (1988:85) states at least four reasons behind the occurrence of
shifts. The first one is when SL and TL have different language systems so the shifts
occur automatically and translators have no options but to undergo those shifts as in
the translation of English plural words 'A pair of glasses' to Indonesian singular
words 'Sepasang kacamata' and the position of adjectives as in 'A beautiful woman'
translated into 'Wanita cantik' (Hartono, 2009:28). Another reason is when the
grammatical structures of SL do not exist in TL, for example the initial position of
verb in Indonesian sentences which is not familiar in English sentences except in
imperative sentences. Therefore, it uses common structures of sentence as in the
translation of 'Telah disahkan penggunaannya' to 'Its usage has been approved'
(Hartono, 2009:29). Further, shifts also occur where literal translation is
grammatically possible but may not accord with natural usage in the TL so it is the
matter of naturalness between SL and TL, for example the change of word-class
from noun to verb as in the translation of 'The pursuits of an intellectual life' to
'Mengejar kehidupan intelektual'. The last, shifts occur to replace virtual lexical gap
by a grammatical structure, for example the change from phrase to clause as in the
translation of 'The man with blue jacket is Mr. Green' to 'Lelaki yang memakai jaket
biru adalah Tuan Green' (Hartono, 2009:30).

2.5 Types of Translation Shift

There are five types of translation shift provided by Catford (1965:73) divided
into two major types namely level shift and category shift consisting of structure
shift, class shift, unit shift, intra-system shift.
2.5.1 Level shift
Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary (2000:196) defines category as a group
of people or things with particular features in common. Catford (1965:76) states
category shift refers to some shifts which share a particular feature - departures from
formal correspondence in translation.

2.5.2 Category Shift

Category shift refers to departures from formal correspondence in translation.
What is meant by formal correspondence is any grammatical category in the target
language can be said to occupy the same position in the system of the target
language as the given source language category in the source language system
(Machali, 1998:13). The category shift is divided again into structure shifts, class
shifts, unit shifts, and intra-system shifts. Structure Shift
Structure shifts grammatically occur at any ranks of language
where words, phrase, clauses, or sentences in SL has its translation
equivalent with the same rank in TL so only their structures are
different. Catford (1965:77) gives an example of structure shifts in
clause rank from English clause 'The man is in the boat.' to Gaelic
clause 'Tha an duine anns a' bhata.' where their subjects are
highlighted, their predicators are italicized and their adjuncts are
underlined. A shift of structure occurs since the subject and the
predicator of English clause exchange their position when the clause is
translated to Gaelic so the structure S-P-A in English is switched into
P-S-A in Gaelic. Another structure shift also occurs at phrase rank
from 'A beautiful woman' with adjective + noun in English to 'wanita
yang cantik' with noun + adjective in Indonesian. Class shift

Class shifts occur when the translation equivalent of a SL item
is a member of a different class from the original item. An example
given by Catford (1965:79) clearly shows a change of class from
English phrase 'A white house' to French phrase 'Une maison blanche'
where the English adjective 'white' as a modifier (M) has its
equivalence in French adjective 'blanche' as a qualifier (Q) although
both of them are adjectives, they possess different functions as a
modifier in English and as a qualifier in French. A change of class also
occurs when an English clause 'They insist on higher wages' is
translated into an Indonesian clause 'Mereka menuntut kenaikan gaji'.
The example shows that the English adjective of comparative 'higher'
changes to Indonesian noun 'kenaikan'. Unit shift
Unit shifts occur when the translation equivalent of a unit at
one rank in the SL is a unit at different rank in the TL. An example
comes from the translation of English clause 'My father is very nice' to
Indonesian clause 'Ayahku sangat baik' where a phrase in SL 'my
father' has a word 'ayahku' in TL as its equivalence. Intra-system shift
Intra-system shifts are departures from formal correspondence
where (a term operating in) one system in the SL has its translation
equivalent (a term operating in) a different non-corresponding system
in the TL, the shifts occur internally within a system. Vinay and
Darbelnet in Catford (1965:80) give examples of the system related to
the singular and plural form of words between English and French.


3.1 Research Design

Theoretically format different from the format of qualitative research
quantitative research. The difference lies in the difficulty in making a
qualitative research design, because in general, qualitative research is not
patterned. Format qualitative research design consists of three models, namely
descriptive format, format verification, and format grounded research. This
study used a qualitative descriptive design methods, the research to draw on a
carefully about specific individuals or groups on the circumstances and
symptoms that occur (Koentjaraningrat, 1993: 89).
as a reason for using qualitative research for a study that examined a
document, or the use of a language research order not to use calculations. This
study aimed to find a discovery of new findings. Data used in this study is a
Barrack Obama president's speech, which is where this data in the analysis of
the translation shifts ranging from the removal of the word, the addition of te
word until the changes become clauses and phrases of clauses into phrases.
In addition, Qualitative research examines the participants with
strategies that are interactive and flexible. The qualitative research aimed at
understanding social phenomena from the perspective of the participants.
Thus the meaning or understanding of qualitative research is research used to
examine the condition of natural objects where researchers is a key instrument
(Sugiyono, 2005).

3.2 Type of Data

A common classification is based upon who collected the data :
1. Primary Data
Data Collected by the investigator himself/herself for a specific
2. Secondary Data

Data collected by someone else for other purpose (but being utilized
by the investigator for another purposes

3.3 Method Data Collection

This type of research will try to address in this paper is a qualitative
descriptive. Qualitative descriptive study is one of the types of studies
included in qualitative research. The purpose of this study was to disclose
events or facts, circumstances, phenomena, variables and circumstances that
occur as the research proceeds by presenting what is actually happening. .
According to Nazir (1988), a descriptive method is a method in researching
the status of a group human, an object, a set of conditions, a system of thought
or a class of events in the present. The purpose of this descriptive study was to
create a description, picture, or painting in a systematic, factual and accurate
information on the facts, properties and relationships with phenomenon
Descriptive method in data collection also related with documentation
method and category method. Documentation data is qualitative data
collection by viewing or analyzing the documents created by the subject
himself or by others on the subject. In addition according Sugiyono (2008: 83)
a study document is complementary to the use of methods of observation and
interviews in qualitative research. In fact, the credibility of the results of this
qualitative research will be higher if it involves / use study this document in
research methods qualitative terms similar view was expressed Bogdan (as
quoted Sugiyono) "in most tradition of qualitative research, the phrase
personal document is used broadly lo refer to any first person narrative
produce an individual by the which describes his or her own actions,
experience, and beliefs ". there are several advantages of using documentation
study in qualitative research, as proposed Nasution (2003; 85); a) the
documentary material has been there, available, and ready to use; b) use of
this material does not ask the cost, just needs time to learn it; c) many of
which can be drawn from the material knowledge that when analyzed

carefully, which is useful for the research carried out; d) can provide a broader
background on the subject of research; e) can be used as triangulation for
checking the suitability of the data; and f) the main ingredient in historical
research. And the last is Category Study analysis, Categories of data is the
data which variables - variables can be grouped into several groups or
categories such as gender, religion, race, place of residence, education,
consumer response to the product, etc. Analysis of categorical data we can use
when we want to analyze whether there is a relationship between one factor /
variable category with factors / other variables. Suppose want to know
whether there are links between analysis social life in the unit shift and
analysis social life in the intra-system shift. Why use data analysis categories?
Because as already described above, when the data is the type of data
categories that can not be if we use regression analysis because the data is
then easier data categories we use Data Analysis category. Well, for data
analysis class itself is divided into several methods, will further explain the
method of analysis of all such.

3.4 Method of Analyzing Data

Shift represents some changes occurring in a translation process.
Translation shifts occur both at the lower level of language, i.e. the lexico
grammar, and at the higher thematic level of text. According to Catford
(1978:73) states that by shift we mean the departure from formal
correspondence in the process of going from the source language to the target
language. Shift can divided into 2 such as Level shift and Category Shift,
Category shift can divided into 4 shift such as structure shift, unit shift, class
shift, intra-system shift, as it is in the limitation of problem we will describe
about intra-system shift and unit shift :

3.4.1 Intra-system Shift

Intra-system shift is the shift occurs internally, within a system: that
is, for those cases where the source language (SL) and the target language
(TL) possess systems which approximately correspond formally as to their

constitution, but it does not occurs when translation involves the selection of a
non-corresponding term in the TL system (Catford, 1965: 80). In each
language is one of two term, they are singular and plural and these term are
also regarded as formally corresponding. Below are the some examples for
Intra-system shifts :
1. SL : The implanting of such values
TL : maka penanaman nilai-nilai
For the analysis values there are increasing -s in intra-system shift
-s as a plural. Every word find a -s that is a plural which are to indicate
totally more than one.
2. SL : Many children do not have enough freedom
TL : banyak anak-anak yang tidak merasakan kebebasan
For the analysis many and children , many in translation shift is a
plural or a determiner. many in this sentences to indicate that a children can
be count or more than one children, so the translation shift is happen in this
cases form intra-system shift, it should be by grammatical system from target
3. SL : parents, siblings, and close relatives
TL : orang tua, saudara-saudara, kerabat dekat
For the analysis parents, siblings, close relatives there are increasing
-s in intra-system shift -s as a plural. Every word find a -s that is a plural
which are to indicate totally more than one.
4. SL : a youngster to develop her/his social skills
TL : seorang remaja mengembangkan kemampuan dalam
keterampilan-keterampilan mereka.

For the analysis skills there are increasing -s in intra-system shift

-s as a plural. Every word find a -s that is a plural shich are to indicate
totally more than one.
5. SL : A clique stimulate its members to adapt themselves
TL : suatu klik mendorong anggota-anggotanya untuk menyerasikan
diri mereka.
In this analysis, members there are increasing -s in intra-system
shift -s as a plural. Every word find a -s that is a plural shich are to indicate
totally more than one.
3.4.2 Unit Shift

The next shift is Unit/Rank Shift, According Catford (1965: 79)
Catford defined unit shift as a change of rank, departures from formal
correspondence in which the translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the
SL is a unit at a different rank in the TL. Unit Shift as a change of rank may
happen from word to phrase, phrase to word or phrase to clause. In addition,
oxford dictionary defined word as a sound or group of sound that express a
meaning and forms an independent unit of language (Oxford Dictionary:
1. SL : The getting-to-know process
TL : pengenalan tersebut dilakukan melalui proses
For this analysis, from side of grammatical, two of expression same
have in rank sentences, such SL nevertheles is a complete sentence, whereas
TL meskipun demikian is a minor sentences. In a structure manner that SL
sentences is clause, whereas TL Sentences is a word
2. SL : the surrounding world and the pattern of socialization
TL : didunia sekitarnya serta pola pergaulan hidup
In this analysis, sociolization pergaulan hidup word in SL to
translate to be phrase in TL. Translation does a translation shift to be upward
rank shift not should a grammatical

3. SL : nevertheles
TL : meskipun demikian
In this analysis, word in SL to translate to be phrase in TL. Translation
does a translation shift to be upward rank shift not should a grammatical
4. SL : There is interference from other parties
TL : campur tangan pihak lain
In this analysis, word in SL to translate ti be phrase in TL. translation
does a translation shift to be upward rank shift, if in the English just one word
but in the Indonesia language the translate more than one word in the
5. SL : at adolescences
TL : pada tingkatan remaja
In two sentences in SL change to be clause in TL, so in this state also
happen in downward shift in does translation

Taupan, M. 2008. Pelajaran Sosiologi Bilingual : Socilogic study of
environmental condition of children and youngsters which supports motivation
and success. Cet. I. Bandung: Yarama Widya