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MAY, 2017

Out of the social need for a trained citizenry emerged education such a need or aspiration is a

universal concept and since education has been identified as the central component to all

development format educational institution has been established for the training of people

different life aspirations. However, challenges are still experienced in the educational sector

ranging from poor infrastructure, facilities, brain drawn and especially the alarming rate of

student examination misconduct in tertiary institution (Coluyeba and Daramola, 1992).

Even though the issue of examination misconduct is not huge to Nigerians from the America

perspective, statistics has shown that somewhere between 50% to 70% of college students have

been involved in examination misconduct in the year 1964 (William, 1964). National Defense,

United States (1964), report that twenty-four midshipmen were expelled from the US Naval

Academy on April 28 in the worst examination misconduct scandal in the history of the

institution. In 2005, South Korea faced the biggest examination misconduct scandal in its history

whereby about 70% of students who sat for the national college entrance examination were

involved in cheating (Vencat, 2006). Frederick (2009) from China reported that more than 1000

hopeful candidates were caught cheating in the annual civil service examination, he said even

resorted to inserting micro receivers in their ears to receive remote coaching while sitting for the


In Nigeria, public examination was introduced with the coming of western education though

traditional and Islamic education had their forms of assessment before the advent of western

education. Thus, with the coming of western education and different way to assess students there

came about the emergence of different form of examination misconduct.

The first publicly reported case of examination malpractice in Nigeria occurred in 1914 when

there was a leakage of question papers in the senior Cambridge Local examination (Samuel,

2003). Ever since, there have been cases of irregularities reported on a yearly basis. But the

outstanding years were 1963, 1967, 1973, 1979, 1985, 1987, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998,

1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 (West African Examination Council, 2004). The major form of

examination misconduct report are: impersonation, bringing in foreign materials (books,

calculators, etc), substituting work scripts, stealing, conversion, misappropriating scripts,

collusion in the examination hall copying, mass or organized cheating involving assistance from

teachers and outsiders and insult or assault on invigilators/supervisors (Coluyeba and Daramola,

1992). This trend in examination misconduct is inimical to academic development and

advancement and needs to be drastically addressed. Since 1991 to date in Nigeria, examination

cheating can be said to have taken incredible and sophisticated dimension in both secondary and

tertiary educational institutions.

Alutu and Alutu (2003) noted that examination misconduct is a societal and socially undesirable

behaviour exhibited by students and should be strongly discouraged. It render the objectives of

examination invalid and affect the psycho and integrity of students who are hardworking and

have resolved not to indulge in any form of cheating.

Statement of the Problem

Nigerias education system like any other country has its problems, lapses, controversies and

issues many problems confronts Nigeria educational system and institution. Prominent among

them is the issue of examination malpractice. Public campaigns and enlightenment programmes

embarked on by government and nongovernmental organization on the need for elimination of

examination malpractices has not yield the desired result, not even the introduction of jail terms

for culprits. Whereas, in the past, students tended to hide the acts, now, they advertise them with

reckless abandon student anxiety level has being associated with the high level of examination
misconduct experienced the country today as student who are more anxious to pass examination

tend to do whatever it takes to pass exams which includes examination malpractice or cheating.

Examination misconduct is an epidemic among primary, secondary and university, polytechnic

system in Nigeria. In 2012 the result released by JAMB revealed that 27,266 candidates results

for 53 centres were withheld due to examination misconduct as against that of 2011 were 15,160

candidates result were withheld due to examination misconducts. This shows that the level of

examination misconduct is on the increase level (Vanguard, 2012). Similarly, the West African

Examination Council (WAEC) in 2012 withheld the results of 51,878 candidates which represent

16% of registered candidates due to examination misconduct. This trend is also prevalent in

higher institutions for instance; the authorities of the federal university of Jos on August 9, 2012,

expelled 9 of her students for involvement in examination misconduct and so also same issue in

the state polytechnic student were expelled till date just because of examination misconduct.

Examination misconduct has become an order of the day of Nigerians educational system. It is

like a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabric of not just educational sectors, but the

society as a whole. This is evident in all levels of education from primary, secondary and tertiary

institutions respectively form of examination malpractice include collaborating with others to

write exams for a candidate and copying of answer booklet of another candidate in an

examination hall.

Against these backdrops, the need therefore to examine factor that encourage examination

misconduct with a view to eliminating it. This study therefore examines personality and anxiety

as factors that determine examination misconduct among undergraduate students.

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to examine the effect of personality and anxiety on

examination misconduct among undergraduate. However, the study has the following specific

i) To determine if personality affect examination misconduct among undergraduate

ii) To examine if personality affect examination misconduct among undergraduate

iii) To investigate the interactive effect of personality and anxiety on examination


Research Hypotheses

The following questions have been drawn for this study.

i) What is the role of personality on examination misconduct?

ii) Does anxiety have an effect on examination misconduct?
iii) Is there a significant interaction effect s of personality and anxiety on examination

misconduct among undergraduate students?

Significance of the Study

There is knowledge information that would be obtained from the findings of this research work

after the final page has been completed and they include the following:

i) It will increase the literature in academic research on factors that determine examine

ii) The finding of the study will act as a significant contributor in the general knowledge

of examination misconduct and the personality of the actor.

iii) The findings of the study will act as a significant contributor in the general

knowledge of examination misconduct and anxiety level of the actor.

Scope of the Study

The study will investigate the impact of personality and anxiety as a determinant of student

involvement in examination malpractice or misconduct among Diploma students in Plateau State

Polytechnic, Jos.


The study seeks to examine the effect of personality and anxiety as determining factors in

students involvement in examination misconduct. This will go a long way is revealing some of
the reasons why students indulge in examination malpractices. It will also provide information

about personality and examination malpractices; and the need to nurture personality and

strengthen institutions to avoid examination malpractices.