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WUCT121: Discrete Mathematics

Wollongong College Australia


Assignment 1, Autumn 2011 Solutions

Question 1.

For each of the following collections of words, determine if it is a statement.


If it is a statement, determine if it is true or false.
(i) For some real number x, x < 0.
It is a statement. It is true. For example: 4 = 2
(ii) For every real number x there exists a real number y such that xy=1.
It is a statement. It is false. Take x=0.
(iii) x is large.
It is not a statement.
(iv) Would you please come here?
It is not a statement.

Question 2.

If P, Q and R are statements, construct truth tables for each compound statement in the following
pairs of statements. What do you conclude in each case?
(i) P Q ~(~P ~Q) and P Q.
P Q P Q ~ (~P ~Q) P Q They have the same truth table, and hence
T T T T T F F F T are logically equivalent statements.
T F F F F F T T F
F T F F F T T F F
F F F F F T T T F
Order 4 5* 3 1 2 1 1*

(ii) P Q R and P ~Q R.
P Q R P Q R P ~Q R They have the same truth table, and hence are
T T T T T F F T logically equivalent statements.
T T F T T F F T
T F T T T T T T
T F F F F T T F
F T T T T F F T
F T F T T F F T
F F T T T F T T
F F F T F F T T
Order 2* 1 2 1 3*

(iii) P (Q R) and (P Q) (P R).


P Q R P (Q R) (P Q) (P R) They doe not have the same truth
T T T T T T T T values, and hence are not
T T F T F T T T equivalent. However, the first
T F T T F T T T statement implies the second
T F F T F T T T statement.
F T T T T T T T
F T F F F T F F
F F T F F F F T
F F F F F F T F
Order 2* 1 1 2* 1
Question 3.

Complete the sentence:


To show that ~Q P is false, we must show that P is FALSE and Q is FALSE.
Illustrate the idea by giving an example of P and Q for which ~Q P is false.
Suppose Q=``-1 is a natural number and P=``0 is a natural numbers.
Alternately Q=``It is not Tuesday and P=``There is a Discrete Maths lecture today.

Question 4.

Using the quick method, determine if the statement


(P (P Q )) Q
is a tautology.
(P (P Q)) Q
2 1 3*
F Assume main connective is false.
T F Conjunction is T, Q is F.
T T Then P is T and Condition 1 is T
But now P is True and Q is False, contracting PQ is True. Hence the statement is a tautology.

Question 5.

Consider a binary operation on defined as x y = x + y + xy


a) Is a closed operation?
As addition and multiplication on N are closed, x y:=x+y+xy is a closed operation.
b) Does the associative property hold for ?
(x y) z = (x+y+xy) z=x+y+xy+xz+yz+xyz.
x (y z) =x (y+z+yz)=x+y+z+yz+xy+xz+xyz.
Additive is commutative on N, so (x y) z = x (y z) and the operation is associative.
c) Does the commutative property hold for ?
x y = x+y+xy and y x = y+x+yx
Addition and multiplication on N are commutative, so x y =y x and the operation is
commutative.
d) Does an identity element exist for ?
Solve x i =x+i+xi=x.
(Cancellation): i+xi=0.
(Distributivity): i(1+x)=0.
Hence either 1+x=0, implying x=-1, which is not natural, or i=0, which is not natural.
Hence there does not exists an identity for the operation.
e) Do inverse elements exist for ? If so, calculate the inverse of y in terms of x.
As there does not exist an identity for the operation, there cannot exist inverses.

Question 6.

a) State the definition of a well-ordered set.


A set S is well-ordered if every non-empty subset of S has a least element.
b) Are the following sets well-ordered? Justify your answers
A = {x : 1 x 3}
Yes, A is well-ordered, as every bounded subset of Z is well-ordered. Alternately: subset of
A={{1},{2},{3},{1,2},{1,3},{2,3},A}, all of which have a least element.
B = {x R : 0 x 2}
B is not well-ordered; consider (0,1), which has no least element.
c) It is known that the set of natural numbers N is a subset of the set of integers Z. N is a well-
ordered set. Is Z also a well-ordered set? Briefly justify your answer.
Z is not well-ordered; consider the even integers E={...,-4,-2,0,2,4,...}, a non-empty subset of Z
without a least element.

Question 7.

Is Q, the set of rational number, closed with respect to the operations of subtraction and division?
Briefly justify your answer.
a
Q={ : a, b Z b 0 }. Take m,n,p,q in Z and n,q non-zero.
b
m p m p mq np
Then , Q and = Q , since subtraction is closed on Z (mq-np is in Z),
n q n q nq
multiplication is closed on Z (nq is in Z), and (n 0 q 0) nq 0 .
Division: 0 Q , but x 0 is undefined.