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WUCT121 2011Aut Assignment 1 Solutions

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Assignment 1, Autumn 2011 Solutions

Question 1.

If it is a statement, determine if it is true or false.

(i) For some real number x, x < 0.

It is a statement. It is true. For example: 4 = 2

(ii) For every real number x there exists a real number y such that xy=1.

It is a statement. It is false. Take x=0.

(iii) x is large.

It is not a statement.

(iv) Would you please come here?

It is not a statement.

Question 2.

If P, Q and R are statements, construct truth tables for each compound statement in the following

pairs of statements. What do you conclude in each case?

(i) P Q ~(~P ~Q) and P Q.

P Q P Q ~ (~P ~Q) P Q They have the same truth table, and hence

T T T T T F F F T are logically equivalent statements.

T F F F F F T T F

F T F F F T T F F

F F F F F T T T F

Order 4 5* 3 1 2 1 1*

(ii) P Q R and P ~Q R.

P Q R P Q R P ~Q R They have the same truth table, and hence are

T T T T T F F T logically equivalent statements.

T T F T T F F T

T F T T T T T T

T F F F F T T F

F T T T T F F T

F T F T T F F T

F F T T T F T T

F F F T F F T T

Order 2* 1 2 1 3*

P Q R P (Q R) (P Q) (P R) They doe not have the same truth

T T T T T T T T values, and hence are not

T T F T F T T T equivalent. However, the first

T F T T F T T T statement implies the second

T F F T F T T T statement.

F T T T T T T T

F T F F F T F F

F F T F F F F T

F F F F F F T F

Order 2* 1 1 2* 1

Question 3.

To show that ~Q P is false, we must show that P is FALSE and Q is FALSE.

Illustrate the idea by giving an example of P and Q for which ~Q P is false.

Suppose Q=``-1 is a natural number and P=``0 is a natural numbers.

Alternately Q=``It is not Tuesday and P=``There is a Discrete Maths lecture today.

Question 4.

(P (P Q )) Q

is a tautology.

(P (P Q)) Q

2 1 3*

F Assume main connective is false.

T F Conjunction is T, Q is F.

T T Then P is T and Condition 1 is T

But now P is True and Q is False, contracting PQ is True. Hence the statement is a tautology.

Question 5.

a) Is a closed operation?

As addition and multiplication on N are closed, x y:=x+y+xy is a closed operation.

b) Does the associative property hold for ?

(x y) z = (x+y+xy) z=x+y+xy+xz+yz+xyz.

x (y z) =x (y+z+yz)=x+y+z+yz+xy+xz+xyz.

Additive is commutative on N, so (x y) z = x (y z) and the operation is associative.

c) Does the commutative property hold for ?

x y = x+y+xy and y x = y+x+yx

Addition and multiplication on N are commutative, so x y =y x and the operation is

commutative.

d) Does an identity element exist for ?

Solve x i =x+i+xi=x.

(Cancellation): i+xi=0.

(Distributivity): i(1+x)=0.

Hence either 1+x=0, implying x=-1, which is not natural, or i=0, which is not natural.

Hence there does not exists an identity for the operation.

e) Do inverse elements exist for ? If so, calculate the inverse of y in terms of x.

As there does not exist an identity for the operation, there cannot exist inverses.

Question 6.

A set S is well-ordered if every non-empty subset of S has a least element.

b) Are the following sets well-ordered? Justify your answers

A = {x : 1 x 3}

Yes, A is well-ordered, as every bounded subset of Z is well-ordered. Alternately: subset of

A={{1},{2},{3},{1,2},{1,3},{2,3},A}, all of which have a least element.

B = {x R : 0 x 2}

B is not well-ordered; consider (0,1), which has no least element.

c) It is known that the set of natural numbers N is a subset of the set of integers Z. N is a well-

ordered set. Is Z also a well-ordered set? Briefly justify your answer.

Z is not well-ordered; consider the even integers E={...,-4,-2,0,2,4,...}, a non-empty subset of Z

without a least element.

Question 7.

Is Q, the set of rational number, closed with respect to the operations of subtraction and division?

Briefly justify your answer.

a

Q={ : a, b Z b 0 }. Take m,n,p,q in Z and n,q non-zero.

b

m p m p mq np

Then , Q and = Q , since subtraction is closed on Z (mq-np is in Z),

n q n q nq

multiplication is closed on Z (nq is in Z), and (n 0 q 0) nq 0 .

Division: 0 Q , but x 0 is undefined.

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