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# (a) Inference : depth affects wavelength

## (b) Hypothesis : If depth increases, wavelength increases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between depth and wavelength.
(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : depth
- responding variable : wavelength
- fixed variable : frequency
(iii) List of apparatus and materials : ripple tank and accessories, power supply, water,
stroboscope, meter rule
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus :

Light stroboscope

water Ripple
motor tank
Straight
vibrator

White paper
Power supply

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Put water inside ripple tank until depth = 5.0 cm measured using
meter rule.

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Switch on lamp and motor.
(ii) Observe wave image on white paper through stroboscope
(iii) Measure wavelength on white paper using meter rule

- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using depth = 10.0 cm, 15.0 cm, 20.0 cm
and 25.0 cm
(vi) Table of data :
Depth, d/ cm Wavelength, / cm
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of wavelength, against depth, d is

plotted.

Wavelength, / cm

Depth, d / cm
(a) Inference : frequency affects wavelength
(b) Hypothesis : If frequency increases, wavelength decreases.
(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between frequency and wavelength.
(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : frequency
- responding variable : wavelength
- fixed variable : depth
- definition of operational variable : current represent frequency
(iii) List of apparatus and materials : ripple tank and accessories, power
supply, water, stroboscope, meter rule, rheostat, ammeter
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus :

rheostat ammeter
A

Light stroboscope

motor
Straight
vibrator

White paper
Power supply

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Switch on light and motor.
(ii) adjust rheostat until current on ammeter reading = 0.1 A
-Method of measuring responding variable
(i) Observe wave image on white paper through stroboscope
(ii) Measure wavelength on white paper using meter rule
- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using current = 0.2A, 0.3A, 0.4A and 0.5 A
(vi) Table of data :

Current , I/ A Wavelength, / cm
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of wavelength, against current, I is

plotted.

Wavelength, / cm

Current, I/A
(a) Inference : current affects magnitude of force.
(b) Hypothesis : If current increases, magnitude of force increases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between current and magnitude of force.

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : current
- responding variable : magnitude of force
- fixed variable : weight of conductor

## (iii) List of apparatus and materials : 5 batteries, switch, rheostat, ammeter,

Protractor, uninsulated copper wire, uninsulated
Copper rod.

## (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus :

Wood block
ptotractor

batteries
Angle of deflection

Iron denning A
rheostat switch
uninsulated copper
magnadur magnet wire

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Turn on switch
(ii) Begin experiment by adjusting rheostat until ammeter gives
reading of current = 1.0 A

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Measure the angle of deflection of uninsulated copper rod
using protractor

- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using current = 2.0 A, 3.0A, 4.0A, 5.0A
(vi) Table of data :

Angle of deflection
Current ( A) ()

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of angle of deflection against

current is plotted.

angle of deflection ()

Current (A)
(a) Inference : distance of two coherent sources affects distance of two
consercutive antinodes (interference pattern)
(b) Hypothesis : If distance of two coherent sources increases, then distance of two
consercutive antinodes decreases
(c) (i) Aim : To find the relationship between distance of two coherent sources and
distance of two consercutive antinodes
(ii) variables :
- manipulated : distance of two coherent sources ,a
- responding : distance of two consercutive antinodes , x
- constant / fixed : Wave length,
distance of two coherent sources and observer, D
(iii) list of material and appparatus :
Audio generator, 2 speakers, power supply, metre rule,
(iv) arrangement of apparatus :

a x
D

Power supply
speakers
Loud sound

## Walk along this line

(v) Procedure:
- Method of controlling manipulated variable:
(i) adjust distance of two speakers, a = 2.0 meter measured
using metre rule.
(ii) Switch on audio generator
-Method of measuring responding variable:
(i) Walk parallel to the speakers at a distance of 5.0 meters from the
speakers.
(ii) Mark the position where loud sounds are heard.
(iii) Measure the distance of two consercutive loud sounds using metre
rule.
- Repetition.
- Repeat experiment using, distance of speakers, a = 10.0m,
15.0m, 20.0m dan 25.0m
(vi) tabulate data :

x/m
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0

## (vii) Analyse data :

Graph of distance of two consecutive loud sounds, x against
distance of two speakers, a is plotted.
Distance of two consecutive loud sounds, x /m

## Distance of two speakers, a / m

(a) Inference : distance of sources from observer affects distance of
two consercutive antinodes (interference pattern)

## (b) Hypothesis : If distance of sources from observer increases, then

distance of two consercutive antinodes increases

(c) (i) Aim : To find the relationship between distance of sources from observer
and distance of two consercutive antinodes

(ii) variables :
- manipulated : distance of sources from observer, D
- responding : distance of two consercutive antinodes , x
- constant / fixed :
Wave length,
distance of two speakers, a

## (iii) list of material and appparatus :

Audio generator, 2 speakers, power supply, metre rule,

a x
D

Power supply
speakers
Loud sound

## Walk along this line

(v) Procedure:
- Method of controlling manipulated variable:
(i) distance of two speakers, a = 2.0 meter is fixed measured
using metre rule.
(ii) Switch on audio generator
(iii) walk parallel to the speakers at a distance, D = 5.0 m from the
speakers.

## -Method of measuring responding variable:

(i) Mark the position where loud sounds are heard.
(ii) Measure the distance of two consercutive loud sounds using metre
rule.

- Repetition.
- Repeat experiment using, distance of speakers from observer,
D = 10.0m, 15.0m, 20.0m dan 25.0m

## Distance of speakers Distance of two

from observer, D / m consercutive loud sound ,
x/m
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0

## (vii) Analyse data :

Graph of distance of two consecutive loud sounds, x against
distance of two speakers, a is plotted.

## Distance of two speakers, a / m

(a) Inference : Frequency affects distance of two
consercutive antinodes (interference pattern)
(b) Hypothesis : If frequency increases, then distance of two
consercutive antinodes decreases
(c) (i) Aim : To find the relationship between frequency and
distance of two consercutive antinodes
(ii) variables :
- manipulated : frequency ,f
- responding : distance of two consercutive antinodes , x
- constant / fixed :
Distance of sources, a
distance of two coherent sources and line to measure x, D
velocity, v
(iii) list of material and appparatus :
Audio generator, 2 speakers, power supply, metre rule,
(iv) arrangement of apparatus :

a x
D

Power supply
speakers
Loud sound

## (v) Procedure: Walk along this line

- Method of controlling manipulated variable:
(i) adjust frequency of sound generator, f = 1 kHz
(ii) Switch on audio generator
-Method of measuring responding variable:
(i) Walk parallel to the speakers at a distance of 5.0 meters from the
speakers.
(ii) Mark the position where loud sounds are heard.
(iii) Measure the distance of two consercutive loud sounds using metre
rule.
- Ulangan.
- Repeat experiment using, frequency, f = 2 kHz,
3 kHz, 4 kHz dan 5 kHz
(vi) tabulate data :

x/m
1
2
3
4
5

## (vii) Analyse data :

Graph of distance of two consecutive loud sounds, x against
frequency, f is plotted.

## Distance of two consecutive loud sounds, x /m

frequency, f / k Hz
(a) Inference : distance between source and screen, D affects distance of two
consercutive bright fringes, x
(b) Hypothesis : If distance between source and screen increases, then distance of two
consercutive bright fringes increases
(c) (i) Aim : To find the relationship between distance between source and screen and
distance of two consercutive bright fringes
(ii) variables :
- manipulated : distance between source and screen, D
- responding : distance of two consercutive bright fringes , x
- constant / fixed : Wave length,
distance of two coherent sources (slits), a
(iii) list of material and appparatus :
Young double slits, white bulb, red color filter, screen, power supply, metre rule,
(iv) arrangement of apparatus :
x

screen

D
Red color filter

## Power supply Meter rule

White bulb

(v) Procedure:
- Method of controlling manipulated variable:
(i) Switch on bulb.
(ii) adjust distance between Youngs double slit and screen, D = 10.0 cm measured
using metre rule.
-Method of measuring responding variable:
(i) Measure the distance between two consercutive bright fringes, x using metre rule.
- Repetition.
- Repeat experiment using, distance D = 20.0cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm and 50.0 cm

## Distance between Youngs double Distance of two consercutive bright

slit and screen, D / cm fringes , x / cm
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0

## (vii) Analyse data :

Graph of distance of two consecutive bright fringes, x against
distance between Youngs double slit and screen, D is plotted.

## Distance of Youngs double slit and screen, D / cm

(a) Inference : wavelength, affects distance of two consercutive bright fringes, x
(b) Hypothesis : If wavelength increases, then distance of two consercutive bright fringes increases
(c) (i) Aim : To find the relationship between wavelength and distance of two consercutive bright fringes
(ii) variables :
- manipulated : wavelength,
- responding : distance of two consercutive bright fringes , x
- constant / fixed : distance from slits to screen, D
distance of two coherent sources (slits), a
(iii) list of material and appparatus :
Young double slits, white bulb, red, orange, yellow, green and blue colour filters, screen,
power supply, metre rule,
(iv) arrangement of apparatus :
x

screen

## Young double slit

D
Red colour filter

## Power supply Meter rule

White bulb

(v) Procedure:
- Method of controlling manipulated variable:
(i) Switch on bulb.
(ii) Begin experiment by using wavelength, for red colour filter.
-Method of measuring responding variable:
(i) Measure the distance between two consercutive bright fringes, x using metre rule.
- Repetition.
- Repeat experiment using, wavelength, for orange, yellow, green and blue colour filter.

fringes , x / cm
red
orange
yellow
green
blue

## (vii) Analyse data :

Graph of distance of two consecutive bright fringes, x against
wavelength, is plotted.

## Distance of two consecutive bright fringes, x /cm

wavelength, / m
(a) Inference : potential difference affects current
(b) Hypothesis : If potential difference increases, current increases.
(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between potential difference and current

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : potential difference
- responding variable : current
- fixed variable : length of wire

(iii) List of apparatus and materials : 50 cm constantant wire ( s.w.g 24), connecting wires, ammeter, voltmeter, battery
holder, three 1.5 v cells, rheostat, switch.

A
Constantan wire
rheostat

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

V
- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Set up circuit as in diagram
(ii) Turn on switch and adjust rheostat until potential difference as
shown in voltmeter, v = 0.2 v.

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Record the current shown in ammeter, I

- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using potential difference , v = 0.3 v, 0.4v, 0.5v, 0.6 v

v//v I/A
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6

plotted.

Current, I /A

## Potential difference, v/v

(a) Inference : current affects potential difference
(b) Hypothesis : If current increases, potential difference increases.
(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between current and potential difference.
(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : current
- responding variable : potential difference
- fixed variable : length of wire
(iii) List of apparatus and materials : 50 cm constantant wire ( s.w.g 24), connecting wires,
ammeter, voltmeter, battery holder, three 1.5 v cells, rheostat, switch.

## (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus :

batteries switch

A
Constantan wire
rheostat

V
(v) Procedure of the experiment:
- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Turn on switch and adjust rheostat until current reading shown
in ammeter, I = 0.2 A.
-Method of measuring responding variable.
(i) Record the potential difference reading shown in voltmeter, V
- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using current , I = 0.3 A, 0.4A, 0.5A, 0.6 A

I/A V/V
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6

plotted.

## potential difference, V/V

current, I/A
(a) Inference : length affects resistance
(b) Hypothesis : If length increases, resistance increases.
(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between length and resistance.
(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : length
- responding variable : resistance
- fixed variable : type of material ( constantant)
(iii) List of apparatus and materials : 100 cm constantant wire ( s.w.g 24),
connecting wires, ammeter, voltmeter, battery holder,
three 1.5 v cells, rheostat, switch.
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus :
batteries switch

A
Constantan wire
rheostat

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Set up circuit as in diagram
(ii) length of wire is adjusted, l = 20.0 cm measured by metre rule.
(ii) Turn on switch and adjust rheostat until current reading shown
in ammeter, I = 0.5 A.
-Method of measuring responding variable.
(i) Record the potential difference reading shown in voltmeter, V
(ii) Calculate resistance, R = V/I
- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using length , l = 40.0cm, 60.0 cm, 80.0 cm,
100.0 cm

## (vi) Table of data :

l / cm R/
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
(vii) Analyzing data : graph of resistance, R against length, l is
plotted.

resistance, R /

length, l / cm
(a) Inference : thickness affects resistance
(b) Hypothesis : If thickness increases, resistance decreases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between thickness and resistance.

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : thickness
- responding variable : resistance
- fixed variable : type of material ( constantant)

## (iii) List of apparatus and materials : 20 cm constantant wire of different

thickness (swg 24, 26, 28, 30, 32), connecting wires, ammeter, voltmeter, battery holder,
three 1.5 v cells, rheostat, switch.

batteries switch

A
Constantan wire
rheostat

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Set up circuit as in diagram
(ii) use constantant wire of thickness swg 32.
(ii) Turn on switch and adjust rheostat until current reading shown
in ammeter, I = 0.5 A.

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Record the potential difference reading shown in voltmeter, V
(ii) Calculate resistance, R = V/I
- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using using wire of thickness swg= 30,28,
26, 24

thickness/swg R/
32
30
28
26
24

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of resistance, R against is

plotted.

resistance, R /

length, l / cm
(a) Inference : current affects change in temperature
(b) Hypothesis : If current increases, change in temperature increases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between current and change in temperature.

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : current
- responding variable : change in temperature
- fixed variable : time ,
volume of water,

## (iii) List of apparatus and materials : immersion heater, connecting wires,

ammeter, voltmeter, battery holder, three 1.5 v cells, rheostat, switch, water,
beaker, stop watch, thermometer

## (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus :

batteries switch

V A
rheostat

stirrer thermometer

water
heater
Wool cloth

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Measure initial temperature of water, t0 using thermometer
(ii) Turn on switch and start the stop watch
(iii) adjust rheostat until current reading shown
in ammeter, I = 0.5 A.

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) After 5 minutes turn switch off.
(ii) Stir water and record max temperature, tmax of water as shown
by thermometer
(iii) Calculate change in temperature, = tmax
- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using current, I= 1.0 A, 1.5A, 2.0A,2.5A

I/A /C
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

## (vii) Analyzing data : change in temperature, against current is

plotted.

Change in temperature, / C

Current,I / A
(a) Inference : current affects strength of electromagnet.
(b) Hypothesis : If current increases, strength of electromagnet increases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between current and strength of
electromagnet.

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : current
- responding variable : strength of electromagnet
- fixed variable : number of turns

(iii) List of apparatus and materials : retort stand, insulated PVC copper wire ,
ammeter, connecting wire, soft iron rod, pins, 2 small pieces of wood, power supply

Retort stand

2 pieces of wood

## Soft iron rod

Insulated copper
Power supply wire

A pins
rheostat switch
(v) Procedure of the experiment:
- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Turn on switch.
(ii) Adjust rheostat until current, I = 1 A as shown by ammeter.

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Bring the pins close to the soft iron core.
(ii) Record the strength of electromagnet by counting the number of
pins attracted to the soft iron core.

- Repetition.
- Repeat the experiment using current, I = 2A, 3A, 4A and 5A
(vi) Table of data :

Strength of
Current, I/A electromagnet

1
2
3
4
5

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of strength of electromagnet against

current is plotted.

strength of electromagnet

current
(a) Inference : Number of turns affects strength of electromagnet.
(b) Hypothesis : If number of turns increases, strength of electromagnet increases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between number of turns and strength of
electromagnet.

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : number of turns
- responding variable : strength of electromagnet
- fixed variable : current

(iii) List of apparatus and materials : retort stand, insulated PVC copper wire ,
ammeter, connecting wire, soft iron rod, pins, 2 small pieces of wood, power supply

Retort stand

2 pieces of wood

## Soft iron rod

Insulated copper
Power supply wire

A pins
rheostat switch
(v) Procedure of the experiment:
- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Wind the insulated copper wire around the soft iron rod to make
number of turns =10

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Turn on switch.
(ii) Adjust rheostat to set current constant
(ii) Bring the pins close to the soft iron core.
(iii) Record the strength of electromagnet by counting the number of
pins attracted to the soft iron core.
- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using number of turns = 20,30,40 and 50

## (vi) Table of data :

Strength of
Number of turns electromagnet

10
20
30
40
50

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of strength of electromagnet against

number of turns is plotted.

strength of electromagnet

Number of turns
(a) Inference : Number of turns affects induced current
(b) Hypothesis : If number of turns increases, induced current increases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between induced current and number of
turns.

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : number of turns
- responding variable : induced current
- fixed variable : speed

(iii) List of apparatus and materials : retort stand, insulated copper wire ,
ammeter, connecting wire, magnet, meter rule

magnet

## Insulated copper wire

Retort Initial height of magnet, h
stand

galvanometer sponge
(v) Procedure of the experiment:
- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Wind insulated copper wire with number of turns = 10

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Release the magnet from constant initial height.
(ii) Record induced current from ammeter reading when magnet passes
through solenoid.

- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using number of turns = 20,30,40 and 50
(vi) Table of data :

Number of turns

10
20
30
40
50

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of induced current against number of turns is

plotted.

Induced current

Number of turns
(a) Inference : speed affects induced current
(b) Hypothesis : If speed increases, induced current increases.

(c) (i) Aim : to study the relationship between speed and induced current.

(ii) variables :
- manipulated variable : speed
- responding variable : induced current
- fixed variable : number of turns

## (iii) List of apparatus and materials : metre- rule, galvanometer / ammeter,

Insulated copper wire, magnet, connecting wires

magnet

## Insulated copper wire

Retort Initial height of magnet, h
stand

galvanometer sponge

## (v) Procedure of the experiment:

- Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
(i) Measure initial height of magnet, h=20.0 cm using meter rule

## -Method of measuring responding variable.

(i) Release the magnet.
(ii) Record reading of galvanometer / ammeter as magnet passes
through solenoid.

- Repeatition.
- Repeat the experiment using initial height = 40.0cm, 60.0cm,
80.0cm, and 100cm .
(vi) Table of data :
Initial Induced current / A
height /
cm
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0

## (vii) Analyzing data : graph of induced current, I against initial height, h is

plotted.
Induced current,I / A

Initial height, h / cm